Fertility_ Proximate Determinants and Fertility Preferences

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					Methodology and Key Findings

    2008 Nigeria Demographic and
             Health Survey
• Methodology

• Key Findings
  The 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was
   implemented by the National Population Commission (NPC).

  Funding for the survey came from the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID) and the President’s Emergency
  Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Funding for the household listing
   and additional fieldwork support was provided by the United
                National Population Fund (UNFPA).

   ICF Macro, an ICF International company, provided technical
     assistance through every phase of the survey through the
              worldwide MEASURE DHS programme.
Provide up-to-date information on: fertility, marital
  status, sexual activity, family planning awareness and
  use, breastfeeding practices, nutrition of mothers
  and young children, early childhood mortality and
  maternal mortality, maternal and child health, and
  awareness and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and
  other sexually transmitted infections
                    The Survey
• The NDHS sample is a nationally representative
• It was designed to provide estimates for the whole
  country, for urban and rural areas, for the 6 zones,
  and for the 37 states (36 states plus the Federal
  Capital Territory, Abuja).
                   Sample Design
Sampling frame: 2006 Population Census
First stage: 888 clusters selected (286 urban, 602 rural);
   886 included in sample due to flooding and inter-
   communal disturbances in 2 clusters
Second stage: 41 households from each cluster selected;
  final sample of 36,800 households
Selected households were visited and interviewed; eligible
  women age 15-49 were interviewed, and eligible men
  age 15-59 were interviewed in half of the households
Minimum of 950 interviews were completed per state,
 distributed proportionately among urban and rural
  Questionnaires: Household Questionnaire
• Listed usual members and visitors to identify eligible
• Basic characteristics of each person in the household
  collected (age, sex, education, etc.)
• Housing characteristics (access to water, sanitation
  facilities, floor/roof/wall materials, etc.)
• Orphans and vulnerable children
• Anthropometric measurements for children under five
  and women 15-49
• Malaria
   Questionnaires: Women’s Questionnaire
• Background characteristics (age, education, literacy, employment, media
  exposure, etc.)
• Marriage and sexual activity
• Reproductive history and child mortality
• Knowledge and use of family planning methods and fertility preferences
• Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
• Breastfeeding and infant and child feeding practices
• Vaccinations and childhood illnesses
• Women’s and children’s nutritional status
• Adult mortality including maternal mortality
• Awareness and behavior about HIV & AIDS and STIs
• Domestic violence
• Women’s status and health outcomes
• Fistulae
• Female genital cutting
Questionnaires: Men’s Questionnaire

Covers many of the same issues as in the Women’s
  Questionnaire, except for reproductive history,
    maternal and child health, and nutrition.
                 Survey Timeline
• Pre-test training: March 2008; 32 interviewers
• Pre-test: March 2008; conducted in 6 states
• Training of field staff: May-June 2008
• 368 persons trained as field staff: zonal coordinators,
  supervisors, field editors, female and male
  interviewers, reserve interviewers, and quality
  control personnel
      Fieldwork and Data Processing
• Total of 37 teams (team supervisor, 1 field editor, 4
  female interviewers, 2 male interviewers, and 2

• Fieldwork conducted from June-October 2008

• Data Processing: July 2008-February 2009
   Results of the household
   and individual interviews
Households Selected        36,298
Households Occupied        34,644
Households Interviewed     34,070
      Response rate (%)        98%

Eligible Women             33,596
Women Interviewed          33,385
       Response rate (%)    97%

Eligible Men               16,722
Men Interviewed            15,486
       Response rate (%)    93%
• Methodology

• Key Findings
                     Drinking Water

81% of urban households use    46% of rural households use
   an improved source of         an improved source of
       drinking water                drinking water

73% of households
use a nonimproved
   toilet facility

                              Percent distribution of households by
                                  type of toilet/latrine facilities
                        Access to Electricity
Percent of households
with electricity
Educational Level of Respondents

            Incomplete    Incomplete
     No                                 More than
            or complete   or complete
  education                             secondary
              primary      secondary
                       Literacy of Respondents

Percent of women and
men age 15-49 who
are literate
                     Fertility by Zone

                North West
                                  North East

             North Central
South West                                             Nigeria
    4.5                                                  5.7
                                      TFR for women age 15-49 for the
                                       3-year period before the survey
                             Trends in Fertility
TFR for women age 15-49 for the
3-year period before the survey
                     Trends in Contraceptive Use
Percent of currently married women
                   Trends in Early Childhood
Deaths per 1,000       Mortality Rates
live births
          Maternal Mortality

Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the
  7-year period before the survey =
   545 (deaths per 100,000 births)
                          Antenatal Care

Percent distribution of
women with a live birth
in the past 5years

                           *Skilled provider includes doctor, nurse/midwife, or auxiliary nurse/midwife.
                             Place of Delivery
Percent distribution of
live births in the 5 years
before the survey
Assistance During Delivery

                                              39% of births were
                                                delivered by a
                                               skilled provider.

                                            Percent distribution of
                                           births in the past 5 years

       *Skilled provider includes doctor, nurse/midwife, or auxiliary nurse/midwife.
   Immunisation Coverage by Zone

                North West
                             North East

         North Central                         Nigeria
             26%                                23%
South West
              East                        Percent of children
              43%                         12-23 months fully
               Trends in Immunisation Coverage
Percent of children
12-23 months fully
                   Trends in Ownership of ITNs
Percent of households
                        Trends in Use of ITNs
Percent of households
        Knowledge of HIV Prevention Methods

Percent who know
HIV can be
prevented by:
                  Experience of Physical Violence
Percent of women age 15-49 who              51% of physical violence was committed
have experienced physical violence                  by a current or former
since age 15                                          husband/partner.

                                     In past 12 months
                         Female Circumcision
Percent of women 15-49

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