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Chapter 10 Personality - School of University Studies; Southeast

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					Chapter 10
Personality: Theory and Measurement


MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Reasonably stable patterns of actions, feelings, and motives are referred to as
     a. cognitions.                               c. labile.
     b. personality.                              d. emotions.
     ANS: B             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-210         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual      NOT:              BTC

  2. Priscilla is a psychologist. When she says that someone has a Òpersonality,Ó what is she
     referring to?
     a. The person’s lively and bubbly demeanor.
     b. The person tendency to act shyly in some situations and gregariously in other
         situations.
     c. The person’s stable pattern of emotions, motives and behavior.
     d. The person’s behavioral characteristics that make them similar to their family
         members.
     ANS: C            DIF: 1                  REF: 10-210         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

  3. Sigmund Freud was the first to develop a __________ theory of personality.
     a. behavioral                              c. psychoanalytic
     b. humanistic                              d. cognitive
     ANS: C             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-210         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

  4. According to the _______________ theories, the personality is characterized by a dynamic
     struggle or conflict.
     a. trait                                     c. psychoanalytic
     b. learning                                  d. humanistic
     ANS: C             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-210         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

  5. Which theory emphasizes unconscious motives and inner conflicts?
     a. humanistic                           c. psychoanalytic
     b. existential                          d. collectivism
     ANS: C             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-210         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                   317
 6. According to Freud, drives such as _______ and ________ come into conflict with laws,
    social rules and moral codes.
    a. the need for food, the need for shelter
    b. sex, aggression
    c. the need for intellectual stimulation, the need for superiority
    d. aggression, the need for self-actualization
    ANS: B             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-210          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

 7. Freud found that odd medical disorders, such as the loss of feeling in one’s hand, often
    disappeared when individuals __________________.
    a. were put under hypnosis
    b. were persuaded to repress anxiety-evoking experiences
    c. recalled and discussed stressful events
    d. satisfied the needs of the id
    ANS: C             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-210          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

 8. Freud concluded that the mind is like a(n) _______________.
    a. iceberg                                  c. lake
    b. mountain                                 d. stream
    ANS: A             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-210          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

 9. Freud said that the mind is composed of which three parts?
    a. metaconscious, semi-conscious, catatonic
    b. post-conscious, mid-conscious, lateral-conscious
    c. metabolism, anabolism, catabolism
    d. unconscious, preconscious, conscious
    ANS: D             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-210          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

10. According to Freud, the three levels of consciousness are
    a. conscious, subconscious, and unconscious.
    b. conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
    c. postconscious, conscious, and preconscious.
    d. conscious, preconscious, and subconscious.
    ANS: B             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual      NOT:              BTC

11. According to Freud, your telephone number is stored at the _________ level.
    a. conscious                             c. subconscious
    b. preconscious                          d. unconscious
    ANS: B            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied




                                                  318
12. Freud’s concept of the conscious is to _______________ as the unconscious is to
    _______________.
    a. mystery; instincts                       c. awareness; non-awareness
    b. instincts; awareness                     d. fears; awareness
    ANS: C           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

13. Based on Freud’s theory, a traumatic childhood event that was repressed is stored at the
    ___________ level.
    a. conscious                                c. subconscious
    b. preconscious                             d. unconscious
    ANS: D               DIF: 2             REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Factual

14. Sherry is thinking about her trip to the store yesterday. This memory is in her _______ mind.
    a. preconscious                                c. postconscious
    b. conscious                                   d. unconscious
    ANS: B            DIF: 3                 REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

15. Which best illustrates the concept of the “preconscious mind”?
    a. thoughts that are about the future
    b. images that cannot be translated into words
    c. thoughts that are out of awareness but can be made conscious
    d. the entire “human iceberg” as described by Freud
    ANS: C           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

16. Thoughts that are completely hidden from our awareness would, according to Freud, be
    contained in our __________ mind.
    a. active                                   c. post-conscious
    b. conscious                                d. unconscious
    ANS: D             DIF: 1                REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

17. Anna has been in a car accident in which her best friend died. Six months later, she cannot
    even remember that the accident occurred. This event is probably in her __________ mind.
    a. hyperconscious                          c. unconscious
    b. subterfuge                              d. conscious
    ANS: C            DIF: 1                 REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied




                                                  319
18. Which is an illustration of the defense mechanism ÒrepressionÓ?
    a. Mary witnessed the death of her child but cannot remember it.
    b. Mark wants to remember what he ate for lunch but is not sure whether it was tuna
       or
       hamburger.
    c. Michael tells people he did not cheat in high school but knows it is untrue.
    d. Rachel thought about going to a party, but her mother forced her to stay home.
    ANS: A           DIF: 3                   REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

19. The removal of anxiety-provoking ideas from awareness is called
    a. catalysis.                             c. repression.
    b. reaction formation.                    d. regression.
    ANS: C             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

20. The automatic ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from awareness is
    a. resistance.                             c. repression.
    b. psychoanalysis.                         d. preconscious.
    ANS: C             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

21. Karissa meets with her therapist on a regular basis. During the sessions, she is prodded to talk
    about anything that pops into her mind while she remains comfortable and relaxed. Karissa is
    most likely experiencing
    a. repression.                             c. psychoanalysis.
    b. resistance.                             d. pleasure.
    ANS: C            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

22. The psychic structure that incorporates the moral standards and values of parents and develops
    throughout early childhood is known as the
    a. id.                                     c. reality principle.
    b. superego.                               d. ego.
    ANS: B             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-212           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

23. Which psychic structure is motivating behavior when you are on a diet but eat a piece of
    chocolate cake anyway?
    a. id                                        c. superego
    b. ego                                       d. none of these
    ANS: A           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual




                                                   320
24. Freudian psychoanalysis consists of talking about
    a. whatever comes to mind when relaxed.
    b. traumatic events only.
    c. questions asked by the psychoanalyst.
    d. rewards and punishments from childhood.
    ANS: A             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

25. Which is an example of a “psychic structure?”
    a. ego                                     c. acculturation
    b. positive regard                         d. competencies
    ANS: A             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

26. When is the id first present?
    a. birth                                     c. 9-12 months
    b. 0-9 months                                d. 2 years
    ANS: A             DIF: 3                 REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

27. Frank tended to drive recklessly because he enjoyed it. He had received several traffic tickets
    and had even been in car accidents. Freud would likely say that Frank’s actions are based
    upon which psychic structure?
    a. superego                                c. ego
    b. martial ego                             d. id
    ANS: D            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

28. Which is consistent with the ego?
    a. admiring your own reflection in the mirror
    b. feeling guilty when you anger your father
    c. wanting your neighbor’s car because it looks better than your own
    d. filling out an application for a desired job
    ANS: D           DIF: 3                   REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

29. Which psychic structure is motivating the behavior when a hungry infant sucks his/her thumb
    while waiting for a bottle to be prepared?
    a. id                                        c. superego
    b. ego                                       d. none of these
    ANS: B           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-211           OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual




                                                  321
30. Some impulses and desires are kept from awareness primarily by the
    a. superego.                              c. ideation.
    b. ego.                                   d. id.
    ANS: B             DIF: 3                  REF: 10-212             OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

31. Parental values are internalized through
    a. identification.                            c. collaboration.
    b. mortification.                             d. saturation.
    ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-212             OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

32. Which psychic structure is motivating behavior when you decide to stay home and study for a
    test, rather than go to a party you would really like to attend?
    a. id                                         c. superego
    b. ego                                        d. none of these
    ANS: C            DIF: 2                   REF: 10-212             OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

33. Values of right and wrong are contained in your
    a. ego.                                    c. superid.
    b. superego.                               d. id.
    ANS: B             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-212             OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

34. Which is the best illustration of the superego?
    a. You borrow a car so that you can learn to drive.
    b. You feel guilty because you cheated on a test.
    c. You want to eat right now.
    d. You can’t go to the movies because you lost your money.
    ANS: B           DIF: 2                    REF: 10-212             OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

35. Casey says she feels bad because she broke her mother’s vase. This feeling is most consistent
    with the
    a. ego.                                       c. id.
    b. superego.                                  d. positive regard.
    ANS: B            DIF: 2                   REF: 10-212             OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

36. Eros is aimed at preserving
    a. the status quo.                            c. life.
    b. happiness.                                 d. justice.
    ANS: C             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-212             OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                   322
37. Which best demonstrates libido?
    a. You are driven to spend money in excess.
    b. You are driven to suicide.
    c. You are driven to the supermarket.
    d. You are driven to procreate.
    ANS: D           DIF: 2                    REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

38. Which of the following represents the correct developmental sequence of Sigmund Freud’s
    psychosexual stages of development?
    a. oral, phallic, anal, genital, latency     c. phallic, oral, genital, latency, anal
    b. anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital     d. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
    ANS: D             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

39. A fixation can occur during a psychosexual stage of development if there is
    a. either too little or too much           c. too much eros.
        gratification.
    b. a lack of libido energy.                  d. none of these.
    ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

40. Excessive verbal behavior may be an indication of an
    a. Oedipus complex.                       c. Electra complex.
    b. anal fixation.                         d. oral fixation.
    ANS: D           DIF: 3                    REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

41. Who theorized that development is the transfer of libidinal energy from one erogenous zone to
    another?
    a. Hermann Hess                              c. Sigmund Freud
    b. Charles Darwin                            d. Hermann Rorschach
    ANS: C             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

42. Marisa is three months old and always chews her rattle. She is in the __________ stage.
    a. anal                                   c. phallic
    b. oral                                   d. latency
    ANS: B            DIF: 1                   REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

43. Which of the following is the best illustration of an oral fixation?
    a. carelessness                               c. someone who smokes
    b. strong need for order                      d. Oedipus complex
    ANS: C           DIF: 2                    REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual



                                                  323
44. Fred is overweight and continually overeats. He abuses alcohol, smokes and bites his nails.
    Freud would theorize that these behaviors are likely the result of
    a. an anal fixation.                        c. an oral fixation.
    b. regression to the phallic stage.         d. a failure to resolve the Oedipus
                                                    conflict.
    ANS: C            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

45. Which best illustrates the concept of a defense mechanism?
    a. Stacey learns karate.
    b. Diane forgot to bring her textbook to class.
    c. Laurie cannot remember being raped.
    d. Michael always uses his car alarm.
    ANS: C           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

46. Which best characterizes the anal stage of development?
    a. deriving enjoyment from control of elimination of feces
    b. excessive breast feeding
    c. penis envy
    d. race car driving
    ANS: A           DIF: 3                   REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

47. Excessive hand washing may be an indication of an
    a. Oedipus complex.                       c. Electra complex.
    b. anal fixation.                         d. oral fixation.
    ANS: B               DIF: 3           REF: 10-213             OBJ: 1
    KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

48. Which person best illustrates the concept of conflict during the anal stage?
    a. Martin bites his nails.
    b. Karen becomes extremely dependent upon her boyfriends.
    c. Katie is sexually active.
    d. Sean is excessively neat and clean.
    ANS: D            DIF: 3                  REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

49. Which best illustrates anal-retentive traits?
    a. Elizabeth never cleans her room.
    b. Joey plans to abstain from sex until he gets married.
    c. Suzanne keeps neat records of her purchases.
    d. Richard wants to take philosophy classes.
    ANS: C            DIF: 3                  REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied




                                                  324
50. Carla has been called “sadistic.” This is a(n) __________ trait.
    a. oral                                       c. anal-retentive
    b. phallic                                    d. anal-expulsive
    ANS: D           DIF: 3                   REF: 10-213          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

51. During the third year of life, children enter the __________ stage.
    a. latency                                     c. anal
    b. oral                                        d. phallic
    ANS: D             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-213          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

52. Which best illustrates a child in the phallic stage of psychosexual development?
    a. Billy acts out to get his mother’s attention whenever she is alone with his father.
    b. Kelly seeks out strangers for sexual encounters.
    c. Alan always goes shopping with his father.
    d. Maria has not had conscious sexual desires for the past year.
    ANS: A           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-213          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

53. The Oedipus complex occurs during the __________ stage.
    a. phallic                               c. oral
    b. genital                               d. anal
    ANS: A             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-213          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

54. The Electra complex involves
    a. a girl wanting to kill her father and possess her mother.
    b. a boy wanting to kill his father and possess his mother.
    c. a girl longing for her father and resenting her mother.
    d. a boy longing for his father and resenting his mother.
    ANS: C             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-213          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

55. According to Freud, __________ causes boys who are about five years old to repress their
    sexual feelings.
    a. the pressure from teachers at school
    b. the fact that they are too young to have sexual feelings
    c. the pressure of desiring their mother and being jealous of their father
    d. breastfeeding
    ANS: C             DIF: 3                 REF: 10-213          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                  325
56. Identification with the same sex parent leads to _______, according to Freud.
    a. gender-typing                                 c. the Electra complex
    b. the latency stage                             d. the Oedipus complex
     ANS: A             DIF: 2                    REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

57. Repression of sexual urges and identification with the same sex parent are the means for
     resolving the _______ stage of psychosexual development.
     a. latency                                c. anal
     b. phallic                                d. genital
     ANS: B           DIF: 2                      REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

58. Elementary school children who separate and tend to play in groups of their own gender are
     demonstrating the _______ stage of psychosexual development.
     a. anal                                   c. latency
     b. phallic                                d. genital
     ANS: C           DIF: 2                      REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

59. The period from age five to six years through adolescence is called the __________ stage.
    a. phallic                                  c. genital
    b. oral                                     d. latency
     ANS: D               DIF: 1             REF: 10-213              OBJ: 1
     KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Factual

60. The final stage of psychosexual development is the __________ stage.
    a. phallic                                c. genital
    b. oral                                   d. latency
     ANS: C             DIF: 1                    REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

61. Adolescent girls might be attracted to boys who are similar to their fathers as a result of
    a. puberty.                                 c. the incest taboo.
    b. inexperience.                            d. wanting to seem older.
     ANS: C           DIF: 3                      REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

62. Carl Jung’s psychoanalytic theory is called
    a. analytical psychology.                       c. psychosexual theory.
    b. archetype psychology.                        d. none of these.
     ANS: A             DIF: 1                    REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual      NOT:                 BTC




                                                     326
63. According to Jung, primitive images contained in the collective unconscious are called
    a. archetypes.                             c. memory traces.
    b. cultural images.                        d. all of these.
    ANS: A              DIF: 1             REF: 10-213           OBJ: 1
    KEY: WWW            MSC: TYPE: Factual

64. Analytical psychology was developed by
    a. Hans Eysenck.                            c. Gordon Allport.
    b. Robert Boyle.                            d. Carl Jung.
    ANS: D             DIF: 2                REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

65. The difference between Jung’s theory and Freud’s theory is that Jung
    a. didn’t emphasize the sexual instincts. c. was not interested in the unconscious.
    b. was not a psychiatrist.                d. did not believe in archetypes.
    ANS: A           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

66. The collective unconscious of analytical psychology is made up of
    a. repressed memories.                      c. repressed impulses.
    b. primitive images.                        d. the future generations.
    ANS: B             DIF: 2                REF: 10-213         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

67. Unconscious images that influence our responses to cultural themes have been called
    a. the ego.                               c. reality testing.
    b. cadavers.                              d. archetypes.
    ANS: D             DIF: 2                REF: 10-214         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

68. Which of the following represents an archetype, according to Jung?
    a. the wise old man.                       c. a fairy godmother.
    b. the all-powerful God.                   d. all of these
    ANS: D             DIF: 1                REF: 10-214         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

69. Which of the following is the best example of a possible source of an inferiority complex?
    a. Becky wanted her father to respect her.
    b. Eric was much shorter than his peers.
    c. Pam received the highest grade in the class.
    d. David joined the army.
    ANS: B            DIF: 1                 REF: 10-214         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied




                                                 327
70. Mark was upset because he suffered from asthma, and he later decided to start lifting weights.
    This demonstrates which of the following?
    a. collective unconscious                 c. drive for superiority
    b. latency                                d. anal fixation
    ANS: C            DIF: 3                   REF: 10-214          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

71. Which of the following demonstrates the Òcreative selfÓ as described by Adler?
    a. Jim thinks about his past and falls into a deep depression.
    b. Lauren responds to her unconscious motivations.
    c. Greg fears he will never walk again after his car accident.
    d. Diane knows she is not athletic but works hard to develop her intellect.
    ANS: D            DIF: 3                   REF: 10-214          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

72. According to Alfred Adler, it is the ______________, the self-aware aspect of personality,
    that strives to overcome obstacles and develop the person’s potential.
    a. collective unconscious                   c. drive for superiority
    b. archetype                                d. creative self
    ANS: D           DIF: 1                    REF: 10-214          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

73. Individual psychology is the theory of
    a. Sigmund Freud.                             c. Alfred Adler.
    b. Raymond Catell.                            d. John Watson.
    ANS: C                DIF: 1             REF: 10-214            OBJ: 1
    KEY: WWW              MSC: TYPE: Factual

74. Carl Jung is to ______________ as Alfred Adler is to ______________.
    a. collective unconscious; inferiority complex
    b. creative self; archetypes
    c. individual psychology; collective unconscious
    d. archetypes; analytical psychology
    ANS: A           DIF: 2                    REF: 10-214          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

75. Karen Horney’s views differed from those of Sigmund Freud in that she believed
    a. sexual impulses are less important than social relationships in childhood.
    b. young girls experience penis envy when they discover that boys have a penis.
    c. there are only four stages of sexual development.
    d. women should remain at home and care for children.
    ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-214          OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                    328
76. Karen Horney believed that the view that girls feel inferior to boys was based on _________.
    a. Western cultural prejudice
    b. scientific evidence
    c. the theory of psychosocial development
    d. girls’ inferiority complex
     ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-214           OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

77. Erikson’s theory emphasizes
    a. social relationships.                       c. sexual development.
    b. rewards and punishment.                     d. self-actualization.
     ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-215           OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual      NOT:               BTC

78. Your psychology professor argues that the nature of the mother-infant relationship and social
     relationships are more crucial determinants of personality than sexual urges. She additionally
     argues that we are conscious architects of our own personality. Your professor’s views are
     closest to those of
     a. Karen Horney.                             c. Alfred Adler.
     b. Carl Jung.                                d. Erik Erikson.
     ANS: D            DIF: 2                   REF: 10-215           OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

79. Brad’s mother neglected him as an infant and did not show affection. As a result, he now has
     difficulty in his relationships with others. This most clearly supports
     a. the sociocultural perspective.              c. psychosexual theory.
     b. psychosocial development theory.            d. analytic psychology.
     ANS: B            DIF: 3                   REF: 10-215           OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

80. According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is attainment of
    a. surface traits.                         c. osculation.
    b. sexual maturity.                        d. ego identity.
     ANS: D             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-215           OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

81. A major contribution of the psychoanalytic theorists is
    a. psychodrama as a therapeutic tool.
    b. the concept of reward and punishment.
    c. recognition that childhood events affect future development.
    d. the idea that group dynamics help therapeutically.
     ANS: C           DIF: 3                    REF: 10-215           OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual




                                                     329
82. Freud’s work may be criticized because
    a. he failed to recognize the importance of repression.
    b. he never talked about toilet training.
    c. he collected data only from people seeking help.
    d. he ignored the sexual drives.
    ANS: C           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-215         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

83. Freud’s work may be criticized because
    a. the latency stage is not as sexually latent as Freud believed.
    b. id, ego and superego are difficult to measure.
    c. Freud’s subjects were individuals who sought therapy and could afford to pay for
        it.
    d. all of these
    ANS: D           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-215         OBJ: 1
    MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

84. _______ are reasonably stable elements of personality that are inferred from behavior.
    a. Factors                                 c. Traits
    b. Variables                               d. all of these
    ANS: C             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-216         OBJ: 2
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

85. Personality characteristics that can be inferred from observable behaviors are called
    a. traits.                                    c. self-analysis.
    b. categories.                                d. lacrimation.
    ANS: A             DIF: 1                 REF: 10-216         OBJ: 2
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

86. Aaron is intelligent, reliable, outgoing, and honest. This description of Aaron’s personality
    would most likely be given by
    a. a trait theorist.                         c. a psychodynamic theorist.
    b. a learning theorist.                      d. cognitive theorist.
    ANS: A            DIF: 1                  REF: 10-216         OBJ: 2
    MSC: TYPE: Applied

87. The earliest person associated with the trait approach was
    a. Sigmund Freud.                             c. Platon Euclid.
    b. Jean Piaget.                               d. Argos Hippocrates.
    ANS: D             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-216         OBJ: 2
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

88. Jessica is observed to be gloomy and pensive. She could be described as
    a. sanguine.                               c. phlegmatic.
    b. choleric.                               d. melancholic.
    ANS: D            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-216         OBJ: 2
    MSC: TYPE: Applied


                                                  330
89. According to Hippocrates, a quick-tempered disposition is associated with
    a. yellow bile.                               c. phlegm.
    b. blood.                                     d. black bile.
     ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

90. A process known as __________ is used to determine which traits are basic to human nature.
    a. psychoanalysis                        c. metacognition
    b. factor analysis                       d. endochondral ossification
     ANS: B             DIF: 3                  REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

91. A catalog of human traits made by __________ helped lay the foundation for future
     personality research.
     a. Albert Ellis                               c. Albert Bandura
     b. Gordon Allport                             d. Isaac Newton
     ANS: B             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

92. Eysenck’s model of personality is similar to that of
    a. Hippocrates.                             c. Galton.
    b. Allport.                                 d. Mead.
     ANS: A             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

93. Beth prefers to spend her time alone and very rarely does something spontaneous. She would
     be described by Eysenck as
     a. tough minded.                              c. introverted.
     b. venturesome.                               d. extraverted.
     ANS: C            DIF: 2                   REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

94. Regina always speaks her mind and has an easy time relating to others in social situations. She
     would be described as
     a. stubborn.                                  c. introverted.
     b. thrifty.                                   d. extraverted.
     ANS: D            DIF: 1                   REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

95. Eysenck referred to emotional instability as
    a. transaminase.                             c. introversion.
    b. neuroticism.                              d. extraversion.
     ANS: B             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                     331
 96. Eysenck would classify a melancholic personality type as
     a. introverted and unstable.              c. introverted and self-assured.
     b. extraverted and unstable.              d. extraverted and dominant.
     ANS: A             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

 97. The traits of the five-factor model of personality are thought to be
     a. based on an individual’s experience.      c. genetically based.
     b. related to people’s basic                 d. both b and c.
         temperaments.
     ANS: D           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-217          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

 98. The five-factor model includes which five basic personality factors?
     a. depression, obsessiveness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness
     b. narcissism, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness
     c. extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness
     d. extraversion, psychosis, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness
     ANS: C             DIF: 3                 REF: 10-217          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

 99. Based on the five-factor model, Michelle who exhibits carelessness, negligence and
     unreliability demonstrates a lack of
     a. extraversion.                             c. agreeableness.
     b. conscientiousness.                        d. neuroticism.
     ANS: B               DIF: 2            REF: 10-217             OBJ: 2
     KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Applied

100. Bob exhibits narrow mindedness, rigidity and shallowness. Based on the five-factor model,
     he shows a lack of
     a. neuroticism.                              c. openness to experience.
     b. conscientiousness.                        d. extraversion.
     ANS: C            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-217          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

101. Patty is outgoing, sociable and assertive. According to the five-factor model she demonstrates
     a. openness to experience.                  c. agreeableness.
     b. conscientiousness.                       d. extraversion.
     ANS: D            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-217          OBJ: 2
     MSC: TYPE: Applied                        NOT: BTC




                                                    332
102. A practical application of trait theories is
     a. predicting personality based upon childhood experiences.
     b. hiring employees most likely to succeed.
     c. helping people to develop more desirable traits.
     d. helping to recover lost memories.
      ANS: B           DIF: 3                   REF: 10-218          OBJ: 2
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

103. A limitation of the trait theory is that
     a. it is descriptive rather than               c. both a & b.
          explanatory.
      b. it is not scientifically based.            d. none of these.
      ANS: A             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-218          OBJ: 2
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

104. Trait theories are to _________ as behaviorist theories are to __________.
     a. experience; heritability                 c. external factors; internal factors
     b. heritability; biology                    d. heritability; environmental influences
      ANS: D           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-218          OBJ: 2
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

105. Which best demonstrates Watson’s and Skinner’s beliefs regarding behaviorism?
     a. A child acts selfishly due to his id.
     b. A man donates to charity because his parents rewarded this behavior.
     c. A child becomes an engineer due to her genes.
     d. A woman becomes a lawyer because she has a need for achievement.
      ANS: B           DIF: 1                   REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

106. In Walden Two, Skinner describes a Utopian society in which people are happy and content
      because

      a. their reinforcement histories have taught them to be this way.

      b. their genetic makeup has created a predisposition for this behavior.

      c. they have chosen this path for themselves.

      d. their unconscious desires are surfacing.


      ANS: A             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                     333
107. According to the _______________ perspective, our personality is largely the result of
     environmental influences and situational variables.
     a. trait                                    c. psychodynamic
     b. learning                                 d. sociocultural
     ANS: B             DIF: 2                REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

108. One criticism of the behaviorist approach is a downplaying of the importance of
     a. experience.                               c. consciousness and choice.
     b. situational factors.                      d. environment.
     ANS: C               DIF: 2             REF: 10-219           OBJ: 3
     KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Factual

109. How might a behaviorist explain why someone sacrifices their own life for that of another?
     a. The choice was forced on the individual.
     b. They were conforming to a social norm.
     c. They were responding to an unconscious impulse to do so.
     d. a and b only.
     ANS: D            DIF: 2                 REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

110. Kelley has devoted her weekends to working in a homeless shelter. Skinner would most likely
     explain this by saying
     a. she has been rewarded for altruistic behaviors.
     b. she did not receive enough nurturance from her mother.
     c. she has irrational beliefs about the value of such work.
     d. she is exhibiting reaction formation.
     ANS: A            DIF: 2                 REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

111. Social-cognitive theory differs from behaviorism in that social-cognitive theory argues that
     a. rewards shape behaviors.
     b. the ego follows the moral principle.
     c. wants and desires are the result of our environment.
     d. people influence their environments.
     ANS: D           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual                    NOT: BTC

112. Unlike behavioral theories, social cognitive theory recognizes the influence of _______ on
     behavior.
     a. consequences                             c. emotions
     b. stimuli                                  d. situations
     ANS: C             DIF: 1                REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                   334
113. Which of the following would not be considered a person variable according to social-
     cognitive theorists?
     a. competencies                              c. reinforcement histories
     b. encoding strategies                       d. self efficacy expectations
     ANS: C           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-219          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

114. Drew thought that if he asked Tracey to go the movies with him, she would refuse. This
     would be considered an example of __________ by social-cognitive theorists.
     a. modeling                             c. expectancies
     b. encoding                             d. latency
     ANS: C            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-220          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

115. Chris believes that he will do well at a very academically challenging university. His belief in
     his success is called ___________by social-cognitive theorists.
     a. Newton’s Law                            c. self-efficacy expectations
     b. encoding strategies                     d. quantum mechanics
     ANS: C            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-220          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

116. Lisa is studying musical theater. She is convinced that she will one day make it to Broadway.
     Lisa demonstrates
     a. self-efficacy expectations.               c. modeling.
     b. competencies.                             d. encoding strategies.
     ANS: A               DIF: 2            REF: 10-220             OBJ: 3
     KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Applied

117. Janet thinks that a stranger is probably jolly because he is overweight. This is an example of
     __________ according to social-cognitive theory.
     a. the collective unconscious             c. expectancies
     b. ego identity                           d. archetypes
     ANS: C            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-220          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

118. Lucy has trained for a marathon, and she thinks that she will be able to complete the race.
     This is an example of ___________ according to social-cognitive theory.
     a. self-defacing expectations            c. self-induced expectations
     b. perfectionism                         d. self-efficacy expectations
     ANS: D            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-220          OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Applied




                                                    335
119. Jack read a story in which a woman is extremely happy after receiving flowers from her
      husband. He therefore decides to buy flowers for his girlfriend. This is an example of learning
      through
      a. modeling.                               c. scaphoid process.
      b. punishment.                             d. shaping.
      ANS: A            DIF: 1                    REF: 10-220           OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

120. According to social cognitive theory, children’s views of what is masculine and feminine are
     a. related to those of their parents.
     b. dictated by what is seen on TV.
     c. completely biologically determined.
     d. determined by what psychosexual stage the child is in.
      ANS: A           DIF: 1                     REF: 10-220           OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

121. According to social cognitive theorists, children develop a sense of being male or female, and then
     seek to learn what is appropriate behavior for their sex by observing others. By what age do children
     develop a sense of being a boy or a girl?
     a. 1                                             c. 3
     b. 5                                             d. 7
      ANS: C           DIF: 1                     REF: 10-221           OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

122. Trait theories are to ________ variables as learning theories are to ________ variables.
     a. external; internal                        c. situational; dispositional
     b. internal; external                        d. unconscious; conscious
      ANS: B           DIF: 3                     REF: 10-221           OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

123. Behaviorism is to ____________ as social cognitive theory is to _______________.
     a. reinforcement histories; expectancies
     b. expectancies; reciprocal determinism
     c. reciprocal determinism; situational variables
     d. situational variables; reinforcements
      ANS: A           DIF: 3                     REF: 10-221           OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

124. A criticism of the behaviorist theory in regards to personality is that they have
     a. ignored psychological constructs like unconscious drives.
     b. limited their study to observable variables.
     c. assumed behavior is situationally determined.
     d. all of these.
      ANS: D           DIF: 2                     REF: 10-221           OBJ: 3
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual




                                                       336
125. A major criticism of the social cognitive theory is that they
     a. can’t account for observational learning.
     b. put too much emphasis on person variables.
     c. can’t explain trait development and self awareness.
     d. claim behavior can be acquired in the absence of reinforcement.
     ANS: C           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-221           OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

126. A major criticism of learning theories is that
     a. they focus on personality development.
     b. they ignore observable phenomena.
     c. they do not explain personality.
     d. they do not pay enough attention to cognitions.
     ANS: C           DIF: 3                  REF: 10-221           OBJ: 3
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual                    NOT: BTC

127. Psychodynamic is to ____________ as humanistic is to ___________.
     a. unconscious desires; self-awareness c. conscious desires; self-awareness
     b. self-awareness; unconscious desires d. repression; regression
     ANS: A           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-221           OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

128. Humanism endorses the concept(s) of
     a. self-fulfillment.                         c. free choice.
     b. self-awareness.                           d. all of these
     ANS: D             DIF: 1                REF: 10-221           OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

129. Carl Rogers belonged to which school of thought?
     a. humanism                               c. social-cognitive theory
     b. behaviorism                            d. psychodynamic theory
     ANS: A               DIF: 2             REF: 10-221            OBJ: 4
     KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Factual

130. Karen is open to new experience, not afraid to take risks and always strives to do her best on
     any project. According to Maslow, Karen demonstrates characteristics of a
     a. free spirit.                           c. depressed person.
     b. self-actualizer.                       d. self-assessor.
     ANS: B            DIF: 2                 REF: 10-221           OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

131. Self-actualization refers to the tendency to
     a. strive to fill one’s potential.           c. gratify biological needs.
     b. avoid risks in favor of the status quo. d. follow the dictates of the superego.
     ANS: A           DIF: 1                  REF: 10-221           OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual



                                                   337
132. You overhear a classmate tell a friend that we are free to do what we choose with our lives
     and that the meaning of our lives is the meaning we give to it. He further explains that we all
     have unique ways of looking at the world, known as our frame of reference. Your classmate is
     describing the views of
     a. Abraham Maslow.                          c. Carl Rogers.
     b. John Watson.                             d. Hans Eysenck.
     ANS: C            DIF: 1                 REF: 10-221          OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

133. The old advertisement for the U.S. Army that encouraged us to ÒBe all that you can beÓ by
     joining the armed forces illustrates which of the following psychological concepts?
     a. repression                                c. self-efficacy expectation
     b. regression                                d. self-actualization
     ANS: D           DIF: 1                  REF: 10-221          OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

134. Carl Rogers calls the sense of who and what you are
     a. the conscious.                          c. an illusion.
     b. the reinforcement history.              d. the self.
     ANS: D             DIF: 1                REF: 10-221          OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

135. Rogers expressed concern for clients’
     a. self-concept.                            c. self-esteem.
     b. self-actualization.                      d. both a and c
     ANS: D             DIF: 1                REF: 10-221          OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

136. According to Rogers “self” involves
     a. a sense of who and what you are.
     b. your values.
     c. how and why you react to the environment.
     d. all of these.
     ANS: D           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-221          OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

137. Carl Rogers believed that every person has his or her own unique
     a. frame of character.                     c. frame of reinforcement.
     b. grey eminence.                          d. frame of reference.
     ANS: D             DIF: 2                REF: 10-221          OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                   338
138. Individuals vary in their perceptions of themselves and the world around them. Rogers refers to this as
     varying
     a. subjective values.                            c. competencies.
     b. frames of reference.                          d. expectancies.
      ANS: B                DIF: 2            REF: 10-221               OBJ: 4
      KEY: WWW              MSC: TYPE: Applied

139. When Bobby spilled water on his father’s computer, his father told Bobby that he still loved
      him. This is an illustration of
      a. uncategorical aptitude.                     c. unconditional positive regard.
      b. uncategorical positive aptitude.            d. conditional positive regard.
      ANS: C            DIF: 2                    REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

140. You attend a parenting lecture in which the speaker argues that parents need to accept children
      as they are regardless of their behavior at the moment. The speaker is advocating Carl Rogers’
      notion of
      a. conditions of worth.                       c. unconditional positive regard.
      b. frames of reference.                       d. self.
      ANS: C            DIF: 2                    REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

141. According to Rogers, when Dana compares her perception of herself with her ÒidealÓ she is
      rating her
      a. self-concept.                               c. self-potential.
      b. self-confidence.                            d. self-efficacy.
      ANS: A           DIF: 2                     REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

142. When giving correction, a parent separates the behavior from the child so the child does not
      experience rejection for the inappropriate behavior. This demonstrates Rogers’
      a. conditions of worth.                      c. unconditional positive regard.
      b. conditional positive regard.              d. self-actualization.
      ANS: C            DIF: 3                    REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

143. If a parent rejects a child when they misbehave, but gives approval when they behave, they are
      demonstrating
      a. unconditional positive regard.              c. no regard.
      b. positive regard.                            d. conditional positive regard.
      ANS: D           DIF: 2                     REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual




                                                       339
144. When a parent’s approval is only received when rules and standards are achieved a child may
     develop
     a. self-worth.                               c. conditions of worth.
     b. self-confidence.                          d. self-esteem.
     ANS: C             DIF: 2                 REF: 10-222         OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

145. When Kate scored 100% on her spelling test, her father said, “Now that’s my favorite little
     girl.” This is an example of
     a. uncategorical aptitude.                   c. unconditional positive regard.
     b. uncategorical positive aptitude.          d. conditional positive regard.
     ANS: D            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-222         OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

146. Anita believes that she is worthless if she is not named “most likely to succeed” in her high-
     school yearbook like her mother expects of her. This most accurately reflects
     a. conditions of worth.                    c. instant gratification.
     b. an oral fixation.                       d. the sociocultural perspective.
     ANS: A            DIF: 2                  REF: 10-222         OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Applied

147. Carl Rogers would argue that anxiety is the result of
     a. our collective unconscious.
     b. conflictual psychosexual drives.
     c. feelings and desires inconsistent with a person’s self-concept.
     d. an Oedipus or Electra complex.
     ANS: C           DIF: 3                   REF: 10-222         OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

148. Conditions of worth and conditional positive regard can result in
     a. low self-esteem.
     b. negative self-concept.
     c. positive self ideal.
     d. low self-esteem and negative self-concept.
     ANS: D           DIF: 2                   REF: 10-222         OBJ: 4
     MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

149. Mental images of what we are capable of becoming are called
     a. self-ideals.                           c. frames of references.
     b. self-concepts.                         d. conditions of worth.
     ANS: A                DIF: 1             REF: 10-222          OBJ: 4
     KEY: WWW              MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                   340
150. Carl Rogers would claim that we are motivated to reduce the discrepancy between our self-
      concept and our
      a. self-aggrandizement.                        c. self-mirage.
      b. self-ideal.                                 d. self-confidence.
      ANS: B           DIF: 2                     REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

151. Getting in touch with our feelings, accepting them, and acting on them is the goal of Carl Rogers’
     method of psychotherapy called
     a. self-aggrandizement.                          c. client-centered therapy.
     b. self-ideal realization.                       d. self-actualization therapy.
      ANS: C           DIF: 2                     REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

152. Self-actualization lacks scientific credibility because it involves
     a. unobservable behaviors.                     c. unique individual perceptions.
     b. circular explanations of behavior.          d. b and c
      ANS: C           DIF: 3                     REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

153. The humanistic approach is similar to learning theories in that they both have little to say
      about
      a. the development of traits and personalities.
      b. circular explanations of behavior.
      c. conscious experience.
      d. circular explanations of behavior and conscious experience.
      ANS: A           DIF: 3                     REF: 10-222           OBJ: 4
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

154. Looking at the role of ethnicity, gender, culture and socioeconomic status is encompassed by
     a. the social-cognitive perspective.          c. the behavioral perspective.
     b. the psychosexual perspective.              d. the sociocultural perspective.
      ANS: D             DIF: 1                   REF: 10-223           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

155. Aaron describes himself as Catholic, Argentinean and a grandfather of three. This
      demonstrates the concept of
      a. collectivists.                              c. individualists.
      b. impressionists.                             d. neo-impressionists.
      ANS: A            DIF: 2                    REF: 10-223           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Applied




                                                       341
156. Nicole describes herself as smart, energetic and motivated. This demonstrates the concept of
     a. collectivists.                                c. individualists.
     b. impressionists.                               d. neo-impressionists.
      ANS: C            DIF: 2                     REF: 10-223           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

157. Individualists are to _________ as collectivists are to _________.
     a. other’s goals; self-goals                 c. group goals; private goals
     b. community goals; personal goals           d. personal goals; community goals
      ANS: D           DIF: 2                      REF: 10-223           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

158. Collectivism is to ________ as individualism is to ________.
     a. democracy; communism                    c. capitalism; communism
     b. socialism; capitalism                   d. socialism; communism
      ANS: B           DIF: 3                      REF: 10-223           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual                        NOT: BTC

159. The process by which immigrants become acclimated to the customs and behavior patterns of
      their new host culture is known as
      a. collectivists.                               c. acculturation.
      b. individualists.                              d. bilingualism.
      ANS: C             DIF: 1                    REF: 10-224           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

160. Individuals who do not surrender their culture in order to assimilate into the dominant culture
     a. experience greater discrimination.
     b. have lower levels of self-esteem.
     c. have relatively higher levels of self-esteem.
     d. have higher rates of depression.
      ANS: C           DIF: 2                      REF: 10-224           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

161. Which of the following represents acculturation among immigrants living in the United
      States?
      a. A person from Mexico feels isolated living in his new setting.
      b. A woman is angry that no one speaks her native language.
      c. A child from France is learning English at home.
      d. A man seeks out other immigrants who came from his native country.
      ANS: C           DIF: 1                      REF: 10-224           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

162. ________ has been shown to be connected with patterns of acculturation among immigrants.
     a. Self-actualization                   c. Self-esteem
     b. Self-efficacy                        d. none of these
      ANS: C           DIF: 1                      REF: 10-224           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual



                                                        342
163. The _____of a test is the extent to which it measures what it is supposed to measure.
     a. validity                                      c. standardization
     b. reliability                                   d. none of these
      ANS: A             DIF: 1                   REF: 10-225           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

164. The _____of a test is the stability of one’s test results from one testing to another.
     a. validity                                    c. standardization
     b. reliability                                 d. none of these
      ANS: B             DIF: 1                   REF: 10-225           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

165. Nicholas develops a new assessment tool to measure the personality factor “extraversion.” He finds
     that individuals who take the test repeatedly tend to score similarly each time. To what dimension of
     assessment does this refer?
     a. validity                                      c. standardization
     b. reliability                                   d. none of these
      ANS: B            DIF: 2                    REF: 10-225           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

166. Joshua developed an assessment tool to determine a person’s level of depression. However,
      upon repeated trials, he comes to find that the test is actually a better measure of self-esteem.
      Joshua’s depression measure is not very ________.
      a. valid                                      c. standardized
      b. reliable                                   d. none of these
      ANS: A            DIF: 2                    REF: 10-225           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

167. ____________ allows a person’s results on a personality inventory to be compared with others of
     his/her own age, sex, or other characteristics.
     a. Standardization                              c. Reliability
     b. Comparing to external criteria               d. Validity
      ANS: A             DIF: 1                   REF: 10-225           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

168. A technique used to assess behavior in situations like the classroom or hospital wards is called
      a
      a. personality test.                            c. intelligence test.
      b. behavioral rating scale.                     d. projective test.
      ANS: B                DIF: 1             REF: 10-225              OBJ: 5
      KEY: WWW              MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                       343
169. Every 10 minutes the teacher used a form to record whether Freddy (a student) stood up from
      his chair or spoke without permission. This is an attempt to measure personality through the
      use of a
      a. behavior-rating scale.                   c. projective instrument.
      b. condition of worth.                      d. Rorschach test.
      ANS: A            DIF: 2                    REF: 10-225           OBJ: 5
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

170. The term “aptitude” refers to
     a. parental desires.                             c. positive regard.
     b. personal interests.                           d. natural ability.
      ANS: D             DIF: 1                   REF: 10-225           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

171. On a math quiz, Jason had the option of choosing one of 4 different answers. This type of test format is
     called
     a. a measure of aptitude.                      c. a subjective test.
     b. an objective test.                          d. none of these.
      ANS: B            DIF: 1                    REF: 10-225           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

172. Celia is taking an interest inventory. One of the questions asks her to choose which she would prefer
     doing: traveling, reading books, or cooking. The question does not give her a Ònone of the aboveÓ
     option. What is this format called?
     a. forced choice                                  c. validity of scale
     b. behavior rating scale                          d. reliability of scale
      ANS: A            DIF: 1                    REF: 10-226           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

173. A test in the format of a questionnaire that has specific answers that are considered correct is
      an example of
      a. an acculturated test.                        c. an objective test.
      b. an innate test.                              d. a projective test.
      ANS: C             DIF: 2                   REF: 10-225           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

174. A test is given to a large number of people, and the responses are analyzed to determine
      typical responses. This process is referred to as
      a. perfection.                                c. validation.
      b. standardization.                           d. incrimination.
      ANS: B             DIF: 2                   REF: 10-225           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                       344
175. When test questions require that you select one from a set of answers (and you are not given
      the option to respond “none of the above”), the format is called
      a. forced-choice.                           c. egalitarian.
      b. authoritarian.                           d. natural selection.
      ANS: A             DIF: 1                REF: 10-226          OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

176. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is an example of
     a. a radical measure.                     c. a rarely used measure.
     b. a projective measure.                  d. an objective measure.
      ANS: D             DIF: 2                REF: 10-226          OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual      NOT:             BTC

177. The _________ was designed to diagnose psychological disorders.
     a. MMPI                                 c. aptitude test
     b. behavior rating scales               d. none of these
      ANS: A               DIF: 1             REF: 10-226           OBJ: 6
      KEY: WWW             MSC: TYPE: Factual

178. In order to assess the results of MMPI testing to see whether the subject answered the
      questions accurately, it would be best to look at the
      a. validity scales.                          c. projective portion.
      b. reality testing.                          d. clinical scales.
      ANS: A           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-226          OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

179. In order to assess the responses to the MMPI for signs of abnormal behavior patterns, the best
      choice is to look at the
      a. serotonin scales.                         c. mental illness scales.
      b. validity scales.                          d. clinical scales.
      ANS: D           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-226          OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

180. Zach answered the questions on the MMPI randomly, without even reading the questions.
      This would be known as
      a. a response set.                           c. normative data.
      b. a normal response.                        d. conclusive evidence.
      ANS: A            DIF: 3                 REF: 10-226          OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

181. On the MMPI, people with high “L” scores may be attempting to represent themselves as
     a. excessively moral and well-behaved.      c. someone who denies problems.
     b. bizarre.                                 d. schizophrenic.
      ANS: A           DIF: 2                  REF: 10-226          OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual




                                                    345
182. The MMPI clinical scale abbreviation of an individual who is described as “anxious, worried, and
     high-strung,” is
     a. Hs.                                         c. Pt.
     b. Hy.                                         d. Ma.
      ANS: C             DIF: 3                  REF: 10-226           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

183. The MMPI clinical scale abbreviation for a person who is introverted, timid and shy is
     a. Si.                                         c. D.
     b. Mf.                                         d. none of these.
      ANS: A                DIF: 3             REF: 10-226             OBJ: 6
      KEY: WWW              MSC: TYPE: Factual

184. An empirical scale is constructed using
     a. actual clinical data.
     b. theoretical models.
     c. answers from people with no previously identified symptoms.
     d. the emperor’s method.
      ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-226           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

185. What kind of test measures unconscious aspects of personality?
     a. aptitude                               c. objective
     b. projective                             d. none of these
      ANS: B           DIF: 2                    REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

186. The Rorschach is __________ test.
     a. a projective                                 c. an occluded
     b. an acculturated                              d. an objective
      ANS: A             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

187. A projective test includes
     a. ambiguous stimuli.                     c. correct responses.
     b. suggested answers given by the tester. d. forced-choice format.
      ANS: A           DIF: 2                    REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

188. The reason for using a projective test is that
     a. failure to give the correct answers will result in a failing grade.
     b. the forced-choice answers are easy to score.
     c. it shows how industriously a person can work on a ÒprojectÓ under extreme
          pressure.
      d. the meanings given by the subject reflect his or her personality.
      ANS: D           DIF: 3                    REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual



                                                      346
189. The ability to give a response that accurately reflects the shape of the inkblot on the stimulus
      card is a sign of intact
      a. malabsorption.                              c. acculturation.
      b. reality testing.                            d. collectivism.
      ANS: B           DIF: 2                    REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

190. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a(n) __________ measure.
     a. projective                            c. forced-choice
     b. objective                             d. mercurial
      ANS: A             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual

191. The __________ test consists of drawings about which the subject is asked to tell a story.
     a. MAPI                                   c. Rorschach
     b. TAT                                    d. MMPI
      ANS: B             DIF: 1                  REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual      NOT:               BTC

192. Steve has just completed taking a personality assessment in which he was shown a series of
      cards one at a time and asked to make up stories about them. Which of the following is he
      most likely to have taken?
      a. the Rorschach Inkblot Test               c. the Thematic Apperception Test
      b. the MMPI                                 d. an Objective Test
      ANS: C            DIF: 1                   REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Applied

193. The TAT is widely used in research on motivation and in clinical practice. The assumption is that we
     are likely to
     a. project our needs into our responses to ambiguous situations.
     b. try to choose an answer we feel is “correct.”
     c. try to deceive the test.
     d. none of these
      ANS: A             DIF: 2                  REF: 10-227           OBJ: 6
      MSC: TYPE: Factual


COMPLETION

  1. The characteristic ways in which we think, feel and behave are referred to as our _____.

      ANS: personality

      DIF: 2                REF: 10-210          OBJ: 1                MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                      347
2. The psychodynamic theories of personality owe their origin to _____.

   ANS: Sigmund Freud

   DIF: 1              REF: 10-210          OBJ: 1              MSC: TYPE: Factual

3. Freud emphasized _____ processes in the shaping of our personalities.

   ANS: unconscious

   DIF: 2              REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1              MSC: TYPE: Factual

4. Freud believed we have three psychic structures: id, ego and _________.

   ANS: superego

   DIF: 1              REF: 10-211          OBJ: 1              MSC: TYPE: Factual

5. Jung believed we inherit a(n) _____ unconscious.

   ANS: collective

   DIF: 1              REF: 10-213          OBJ: 1              MSC: TYPE: Factual

6. Karen Horney emphasized _____ in children’s development rather than unconscious sexual
   and aggressive impulses.

   ANS: social relationships

   DIF: 1              REF: 10-214          OBJ: 1              MSC: TYPE: Factual

7. Freud was one of the first to emphasize _____ events in the shaping of personality.

   ANS: childhood

   DIF: 1              REF: 10-215          OBJ: 1              MSC: TYPE: Factual

8. Freud was criticized because the psychic structures are _________.

   ANS: too vague to measure

   DIF: 2              REF: 10-215          OBJ: 1              MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. _____ are assumed to account for consistent behavior in diverse situations.

   ANS: Traits

   DIF: 1              REF: 10-216          OBJ: 2              MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                348
10. Eysenck differentiated two personality traits called introversion-extraversion and _____
    ________.

    ANS: emotional stability-instability

    DIF: 1              REF: 10-216            OBJ: 2            MSC: TYPE: Factual

11. Watson and Skinner believed personality was shaped by _____.

    ANS: reinforcement

    DIF: 2              REF: 10-219            OBJ: 3            MSC: TYPE: Factual

12. Bandura’s ____ _________ refer to a belief that one can accomplish certain things.

    ANS: self-efficacy expectations

    DIF: 1              REF: 10-220            OBJ: 3            MSC: TYPE: Factual

13. Observational learning is also termed ____________.

    ANS: modeling (cognitive learning)

    DIF: 1              REF: 10-220            OBJ: 3            MSC: TYPE: Factual

14. Learning theorists have emphasized observable variables for psychology to be accepted as
    a(n) __________.

    ANS: science

    DIF: 1              REF: 10-221            OBJ: 3            MSC: TYPE: Factual

15. Unlike psychodynamic theory, the humanistic perspective emphasizes _________.

    ANS: free choice

    DIF: 2              REF: 10-221            OBJ: 4            MSC: TYPE: Factual

16. Parents can help children develop self-esteem when they show them _____ ______ regard, or
    acceptance regardless of their behavior.

    ANS: unconditional positive

    DIF: 1              REF: 10-222            OBJ: 4            MSC: TYPE: Factual

17. Mental images of what we are capable of becoming are termed __________.

    ANS: self-ideals

    DIF: 1              REF: 10-222            OBJ: 4            MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                  349
 18. Humanistic theories do not explain the _________ of personality.

     ANS: development

     DIF: 1               REF: 10-222         OBJ: 4              MSC: TYPE: Factual

 19. The _________ perspective emphasizes gender, ethnicity, race and cultural influences.

     ANS: sociocultural

     DIF: 1               REF: 10-223         OBJ: 5              MSC: TYPE: Factual

 20. An example of an objective personality test used to diagnose psychological disorders is the
     __________.

     ANS: MMPI

     DIF: 1               REF: 10-226         OBJ: 6              MSC: TYPE: Factual

 21. Projective tests include the Thematic Apperception Test and the _____ _______ Test.

     ANS: Rorschach Inkblot

     DIF: 1               REF: 10-227         OBJ: 6              MSC: TYPE: Factual


TRUE/FALSE

  1. The unconscious mind contains primitive instincts such as sex and aggression.

     ANS: T             DIF: 1                REF: 10-211         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

  2. Children incorporate moral standards through a process called identification.

     ANS: T             DIF: 2                REF: 10-212         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

  3. Adler believed people are motivated by the collective unconscious.

     ANS: F             DIF: 2                REF: 10-214         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual

  4. Erikson is credited with developing psychosexual stages of development.


     ANS: F             DIF: 1                REF: 10-215         OBJ: 1
     MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                  350
 5. Eysenck called the sanguine type extraverted and stable


    ANS: T             DIF: 2                   REF: 10-217           OBJ: 2
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

 6. Learning theorists focus on enduring personality characteristics.

    ANS: F             DIF: 1                   REF: 218              OBJ: 3
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

 7. Maslow is credited with the idea that we each have unique frames of reference.

    ANS: F             DIF: 1                   REF: 10-221           OBJ: 4
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

 8. Self-esteem is not connected to patterns of acculturation.

    ANS: F             DIF: 2                   REF: 10-224           OBJ: 5
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

 9. The reliability of a test is the stability of scores from one test to another.

    ANS: T             DIF: 2                   REF: 10-225           OBJ: 6
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

10. Forced choice formats allow a “none of the above” answer choice.


    ANS: F             DIF: 1                   REF: 10-226           OBJ: 6
    MSC: TYPE: Factual

11. The MMPI is usually scored for 4 validity and 10 clinical scales.

    ANS: T             DIF: 2                   REF: 10-226           OBJ: 6
    MSC: TYPE: Factual




                                                     351
ESSAY

  1. Aside from Freud, who are the other psychoanalytic theorists described in the textbook? In
     what ways do they differ from Freud?

     ANS: Essay should include:

         Other psychoanalytic theorists are Jung, Adler, Horney and Erikson. Carl Jung thought
         that sex was an important instinct, but did not place as great an emphasis on it as did
         Freud. He added to Freud’s idea of a personal unconscious by suggesting that individuals
         also possess a collective unconscious. That is, a collection of primitive images, or
         archetypes, that all of us share. Some of these archetypes are the all-powerful God and the
         nurturing mother. These archetypes are said to affect our thoughts and feelings. Adler
         believed that people are motivated by an inferiority complex, not sex as Freud believed.
         Adler also spoke of a creative self, which strives to develop the person’s potential. Horney
         disagreed with Freud regarding the existence of penis envy in girls. She felt this concept
         was founded on Western cultural prejudice rather than objective science. She also felt that
         social relationships carried more weight in development. Erikson also believed in the
         importance of social relationships and downplayed the role of sex. In fact, he developed a
         series of psychosocial stages of development. Each stage is named for a certain trait that
         may be developed during that time period.

  2. How do Eysenck’s personality dimensions and Hippocrates personality types relate to each
     other?

     ANS: Essay should include:

         Hippocrates believed that traits were embedded in four fluids contained in people’s
         bodies. In this perspective, an individual’s personality depended upon the balance of these
         four fluids. He associated yellow bile with a quick-tempered personality, blood with a
         cheerful, warm personality, phlegm with a sluggish, calm cool disposition, and black bile
         with a melancholy personality. Hans Eysenck focused his theory on the relationships
         between the 2 dimensions of introversion-extraversion and emotional stability-instability.
         Each one of these dimensions could be viewed as a continuum and individuals could be
         categorized based on the relationship between these two continuums. For example,
         individuals could be classified as unstable-introverted, unstable–extraverted, introverted-
         stable or extraverted-stable. Eysenck acknowledged that Hippocrates’ personality types
         could be described or categorized according to his two continuums. For example, the
         sanguine type would be categorized as extraverted and stable; the melancholic type as
         introverted and unstable.




                                                   352
3. Describe the five-factor model. What is it used for?

   ANS: Essay should include:

       Many personality theorists, among them Paul Costa, Jr. and Robert McCrae, have
       suggested that there are not two, but rather five basic personality factors. Along with
       Eysenck’s dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism are conscientiousness,
       agreeableness, and openness to experience. Cross-cultural research has found these five
       factors, which are believed to be related to inborn temperamental characteristics. It
       appears from this research that people are born with basic personality characteristics,
       which mature over time. However, it still remains that expression of personality can be
       affected by cultural conditions. Results on the psychological test, the NEO Five-Factor
       Inventory, based on the Big Five model, have been correlated with a variety of behavior
       patterns, psychological disorders and types of personalities. For example, the NEO is
       being used to determine the relationships between the five factors and disorders such as
       depression and schizophrenia.

4. Discuss the differences between the learning theory perspective and the humanistic
   perspective of personality.

   ANS: Essay should include:

       The learning theory perspective includes behaviorists such as Skinner and Watson as well
       as social cognitive theorists such as Bandura. Behaviorists focus on observable behavior
       and the situational factors (such as consequences of actions) which determine behavior.
       Social cognitive theorists emphasize observational learning, that is, learning behaviors
       from modeling those of others, and personal variables, such as expectancies and emotions,
       as regulators of behavior. The Humanistic perspective reflects the work of Maslow and
       Rogers, among others. While behaviorism looks at observable behavior, humanistic theory
       looks to the internal inborn drive that motivates people to develop to their fullest potential.
       Maslow believed that people progress through levels of needs toward becoming self-
       actualized. Basic needs, such as the need for food and shelter, must be satisfied before the
       individual can progress towards satisfying higher needs such as the need for esteem and
       love. Unconditional positive regard from others helps people grow and realize their fullest
       potential. Whereas behaviorists do not focus on thoughts and feelings (a stated weakness
       of the theory), humanistic theorists focus greatly on personal experience (a strength and a
       weakness of the theory).




                                                  353
5. What are the differences between objective and projective measures of personality?

   ANS: Essay should include:

       Objective personality tests present subjects with questions and specific answer formats.
       Objective tests are usually standardized; i.e., the test is given to various populations. In
       this way, a test-taker can compare their scores with those who are similar to them on age,
       race, sex, etc. The MMPI is an objective test. Its scales have been constructed and
       validated empirically. In other words, it was devised on the basis of actual clinical data
       rather than psychological theory. Projective tests, on the other hand, have no clear-cut,
       definable answers. Subjects are presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to interpret
       the images. Their answers are then analyzed and are said to reflect their personalities.
       Projective tests include the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Thematic Apperception Test.




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