1501 Personality

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					1501 Personality

   Definition
    – All those relatively permanent traits,
      dispositions, or characteristics within the
      individual that give some measure of
      consistency to that person’s behavior.
Psychodynamic theories

   Nature of psychodynamic theories
    – Common beliefs
      • Psychic energy: the sources of a person’s
        motivation to think, feel, and behave.
      • Internal conflict: the sources of psychic energy
        push the person in many directions.
      • Determinism: our behavior is rule by forces
        over which we have little control.
      • unconscious
Freud

 Motivation: 2 instincts: life (sex),
  death(aggression),/ reduce tension
 Construct:
    – id
       •   Primitive
       •   Instinctive
       •   Operates according to the pleasure principle
       •   Demand immediate gratification
       •   Primary process thinking which is irrational/illogical
Cont. Freud
 – Ego
   • Decision-making
   • Operates according to reality principle which
     delays gratification
   • Secondary process thinking
 – Superego
   • Moral component
   • Operates by the idealistic principle
   • Emerges later than the id or ego, largely
     through our identification with our parents.
Cont. Freud

   3 levels of awareness
    – Conscious
    – Preconscious
    – Unconscious
Cont. Freud

   Development: psychosexual
    – Oral
      • 0 to 1
      • Fixation leads to smoking, alcoholic
      • Oral eroticism: likely to be cheerful, expects to
        be taken care of.
      • Oral sadism: looking for times to “bite” your
        head off
Cont. Freud

 – Anal
    •   1 to 3
    •   Start of ego development
    •   Retentive = neatness, clean
    •   Expulsive = messy/disorganized
 – Phallic
    • 3 to 6
    • Oedipal complex
    • Castration anxiety/penis envy
Cont Freud

   Latency:
    – Spans 7 to adolescence
    – Sexuality subsides
    – focus on same gender
   Genital
    – spans adolescence to adult
    – sex energy focused on genitals
    – social focus on opposite gender
Cont Freud

   Abnormal behaviors stem from
    – conflict with id/ego that results in anxiety
    – fixations
    – use of defense mechanisms
   Research to support theory is very
    limited.
Neo-Freudians: Jung

   Motivation
    – psychic energy called libido
   Construct
    – Ego
       • personal unconscious
       • collective unconscious
          – collection of all ancestral memories that share with the
            human race
          – focused around specific ideas/images called archetypes
Cont. Jung

   Key archetypes
    – Persona
      • Public personality
    – Anima/Animus
      • feminine side of men/masculine side of women
        respectively
    – Shadow:
      • animal instinct
Cont. Jung

   Development is not stage oriented
    – Innate libido
    – At age 5, sexual values appear and reach
      their height in adolescence
    – During youth and early adult years, basic
      life instincts appear
    – In the late 30s and 40s, people experience
      a radical transvaluation.
Cont. Jung

   Abnormal behavior comes from
    – Neglecting a part of the personality
   Research is very limited
Cont. Neo-Freudians: Alfred
Adler
   Motivation
    – innate social urges
   Construct
    – Striving for superiority
    – Inferiority/compensation
    – Style of life (develops around 4 or 5y out of the
      inferiority, ie., intellect leads to reading, studying,
      thinking and yields all life activities)
    – Creative self
Cont. Adler

   Abnormal behavior stems from
    – organic infermity
    – pampering
    – rejection
   Research
    – very limited
Neo-Freudian: Karen Horney

 Cultural variables are the fundamental
  basis for the development of personality
 essential concept of her theory is basic
  anxiety (feeling of isolation in a hostile
  world)
 Women feel inferior, look at social
  status
Cont. Horney

 Men have “womb envy”;
 Try to glorify their genitals because they
  envy women’s ability to give birth and
  fear women’s sexual power over them.
Cont. Neo-Freudians: Object-
relations
   Key contributors:
    – Melanie Klein and Art Fairburn
       • Emphasized the child’s need for a powerful
         mother.
       • Basic human drive is the need to be in
         relationships as they are sources of
         attachment.
       • Basic tension between
         independence/connection to others.
Cont. Object-relations
      • Men have an insecure identity, rigid ego
        boundaries, problems permitting close
        attachments
      • Women’s identity is more secure, boundaries
        are permeable, problems in increasing
        autonomy and individuation.


   Evaluate Psychodynamic theory - see
    page 435
Humanism

 Carl Rogers
 Motivation
    – innate striving for actualization
   Construct
    – self-concept
       • collection of beliefs about one’s own nature,
         unique qualities
    – organism: locus of all experience
Cont. Rogers

   Development
    – Need for affection, love, acceptance
    – Depends on the parent/child relationship
   Abnormal behavior stems from
    – Incongruences
      • that are the result of inconsistent thoughts of
        self-concept and responses to other people.
   Research: poor        Evaluate: see 437
Self-actualizing has 5
characteristics
   They constantly grow and evolve
   They are open to experience, avoid
    defensiveness
   They trust themselves but can still seek
    guidance
   They have achieved unconditional
    acceptance from at least some others.
   They live fully in the present.
Cognitive-Behavioral

   Radical behaviorist considers
    personality an illusion while the
    cognitive/social-learning says we learn
    to deal with environment.
Cont. Cognitive-behavioral
   Motivation
   Skinner                                 Bandura
    – Reinforcement                  Reinforcement
   Construct
     –                               Self-efficacy
   Development
    – interaction with environment   modeling
   Abnormal
    – reinforce abnormal behavior    modeling abnormal beh
   Research - Strong
Cont. cognitive-behavioral

   Another theory to consider is by
    – Julian Rotter/ internal vs external locus of
      control.
   Critique see pg. 441
Trait Theories

 Traits are stable sources of individual
  differences
 Some theories believe traits are
  inherited ie., Thomas and Chess.
 Some theories believe there is a set of
  traits that all people possess but to
  varying degrees ie., Raymond Cattell’s
  factor analytic theory.
Cont. Trait

   Some theories believe that individuals
    have an individual set of traits, ie,
    Gordon Allport.
    – Cardinal
    – Central,
    – Secondary
Assessing Personality

 Projective tests, ie., Rorschach, TAT
 Objective tests, ie., MMPI-2, 16-
  Personality Factor (16-PF)

				
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posted:12/17/2012
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