Chap 14 Lectures EarlyMedieval_APH.ppt

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					                                   •   Medieval Art''' is the art, including
Early Medieval Art in                  architecture, produced in Europe during
                                       the Middle Ages i.e. from the fall of the
       Europe                          western Roman Empire in
                                       approximately 501 CE to the start of the
                                       early modern period in approximately
                                       1500 CE.
                                   •   Although most medieval art and
                                       architecture is religious, the Church
                                       wasn’t the sole patron of art in the
                                       medieval period. In fact much of the
                                       religious art of the period was
                                       commissioned by secular powers, and
                                       some secular art survives throughout
                                       the period.
                                   •   Medieval artists depended, in varying
                                       degrees, upon artistic heritage of the
                                       Roman Empire and upon the legacy of
                                       the early Christian church. These
                                       sources mixed with the vigorous
                                       "Barbarian" artistic culture of Northern
                                       Europe produced a remarkable legacy.
                                       Indeed the history of medieval art can
                                       be seen as the history of the interplay
                                       between the elements of classical, early
                                       Christian art and "Barbarian" art.

  Irish manuscript illumination,
           Early 8th Century
       Celtic Germanic Art- The Migration Period-375-750 CE
As the Roman Empire disintegrated, Germanic tribes swept over
Western Europe bringing with them a metalwork art unlike that of the
Mediterranean cultures. In monasteries, particularly on the islands of
Iona and Lindisfarne off the coast of Britain, Celts embellished
manuscripts in an extraordinary intricate style.
The Goths of Scandinavia moved from the Baltic Sea southeast to the
Black Sea between 150-250 CE. In the 4th century, the Huns and the
Goths began to move westward. This set off a chain reaction along the
frontiers of the crumbling Roman Empire. Although the “barbarians”
were Christians , they did not share the cultural heritage of the
Christians of the Mediterranean and the Byzantine areas. The art of the
Migration Era is a combination of pagan and Christian elements.
During this period there was no wall painting done. Most of the painting
involved illuminating manuscripts which was created by monks living in
On the East coast of Scotland, Bishop Eadfirth created the Lindisfarne
Gospels (691-721CE) with interlaced patterns combined with strange
creatures and labyrinthine patterns.
The Book of Kells, from the island of Iona (Scotland) was completed in the
late 8th or early 9th centuries before the island was plundered by the Vikings
in 795 CE
Nothing monumental was created except for the rune stones and high
Superb metal work was done and an animal style evolved with imaginative
composite creatures, interlacing ribbons, patterns, stylized animals and
birds.The Sutton Hoo purse cover and the animal head from the Oseberg ship
are two examples.
Minor Arts
Metalwork was the most innovative art form such as “Nomad Gear’ jewelry.
Religious objects were made of metal and decorated with enamel and gems.
Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway & Sweden)
were not part of the Roman Empire. They worshipped Odin, chief of the
 Seafaring Scandinavians (Vikings) descended on Europe in the 8th
They Explored, plundered, traded, and colonized for nearly 300 years.
Their targets were isolated, but wealthy, Christian monasteries.
Danish King Harold Bluetooth brought Christianity to Scandinavia in the
middle of the 10th Century.
In Norway, Olaf Haraldsson, canonized Saint Olaf, converted his people
to Christianity in Rouen, France while on a Viking Expedition.
By the beginning of the 12th Century, Vikings would become the
Normans, one of the great peoples of Medieval Europe.
Viking art is associated with ships as well as with wood and the carving
of it.
                                    •   Archeological evidence provides the
                                        first suggestions of women playing
                                        an important role in Viking society.
Burial Ship from Oseberg, Norway.
             C.800 CE               •   Women were often buried with
                                        wool combs, needles, weaving
                                        tablets, and weaving battens.
                                    •   In Hopperstad, Norway, the
                                        majority of female graves from the
                                        9th and 10th centuries contained
                                        grave goods that were exclusively
                                        male such as blacksmith's tools and
                                        weapons. This evidence indicates
                                        that these women had high standing
                                        in the community and were perhaps
                                        the sole managers of the larger
                                        farms while their husbands were
                                        away on expeditions.
                       • The serpent's head post found in the
  Post, from the         Oseberg burial ship recalls the Viking
Oseberg burial ship.     poet's description of the Viking ship
    C.825 CE             as a "snake of the sea" referring no
                         doubt to its stealth, swiftness, and
                         deadliness. Due to deep under carving
                         that provides a contrasting
                         background to the linear designs, the
                         ornament covers the head of this post
                         like a lacy net.

                       • The artist divided the head into design
                         fields to receive specific styles of
                         decoration: a checkerboard grid of
                         squares ornamented with opposing
                         hatch marks covers the upper snout;
                         the Viking animal style, of which the
                         post pictured here is an excellent
                         example, is found in full flowering on
                         objects of the Oseberg ship burial.
Britain and Ireland
Roman armies ventured into Britain in 55-543 CE
Christianity flourished about 296 to about 370 and spread to Ireland, which was never under
Roman control - two changes to this area:
The Roman army abandoned Britain in 406 CE leaving a power vacuum.
Romanized British leaders took control of different areas, vying for dominance with the help of
Mercenary soldiers from the continent. (These mercenaries-Angles, Saxons, and Jutes- began to
operate independently)
By the seventh century, several large kingdoms emerged in Britain.
The arts made a brilliant recovery.
•Celtic, Roman, & Germanic cultures influenced metalworking.
•Monasteries began to appear in the late fifth century. Some in inaccessible
places, isolating the monks in them.
•Books were made by hand, one at a time.
•Medieval books were usually made by monks and nuns in a workshop called
a scriptorium, in monastery or convent.
•Work was divided between a scribe, and one or more artists.
Scribes and illustrators began to sign their work on a page called the colophon)
Books were scarce and most people were illiterate. They were guarded
treasures, mostly in libraries and scriptoria of monasteries or churches.

                            • Missing from the Sutton
  Purse cover, from
                              Hoo purse cover is the
the Sutton Hoo burial         fabric, perhaps leather,
  ship. Suffolk - England     linen, or woven which
       C.615-30 CE            would have served as a
                              backing for the
                              ornamental components
                              that are now displayed
                              attached to a white
                            • The base plate forms a
                              hem divided into cell
                              panels of alternating red
                              and blue enamel.
•The gold frame is set with garnets and blue checkered enamel forming
figures and rectilinear patterns. The upper ornaments consist of polygons
decorated with purely geometric patterns flanking four animals with
interlacing legs and jaws.
•Below, in the center Swedish hawks attack ducks. Flanking the birds are
images of men between two rampant beasts. The hawks are Swedish, the
interlacing animals Germanic, and the polychrome gem style Eastern
•Only the decorations on the purse are original, the white backing is
modern because the ivory or bone deteriorated long ago. The purse was
designed to hang at the waist and was found with 37 coins.

Both men and women of the Migration Age carried valuables in purses.
Tomb excavations reveal that purses were suspended from belts and
could be found worn over or under outerwear.
           Page with Lion,
                                     •   The Book of Durrow (Durrow is a town
Book of John, Gospel Book of Durrow,     in Ireland where the manuscript was
  probably made at Iona, Scotland.       kept during the late medieval period)
              C.675 CE
                                     •   This illuminated manuscript is of a
                                         religious nature, in which the text is
                                         supplemented by the addition of colorful
                                         ornamentation, such as decorated initials
                                         and borders. Motifs used in illumination
                                         are frequently taken from heraldry or
                                         religious symbolism.

                                     •   On this page the artist used an old
                                         convention and represented John as a lion.
                                         The drawing is very stylized and is based
                                         on Scottish stone carvings rather than a
                                         real lion.

                                     •   Illumination was a complex and costly
                                         process. It was usually reserved for
                                         important books such as Bibles. The
                                         wealthy commissioned the illuminated
                                         "book of hours”.
Page with Man, Gospel of Saint Matthew, Gospel Book of Durrow, 7th
             century. Ink and Tempera on Parchment.

                                  • A colorful checkered pattern is
                                    evident here and reminiscent of
                                    the enamel patterning on the
                                    Sutton Hoo purse cover.
                                  • The hairstyle known as tonsure
                                    was common in the early Celtic
                                  • The figure is floating with
                                    dangling feet against a neutral
                                    background, which is
                                    surrounded by a ribbon
                                    interlaced pattern.
• A Gospel Book is a codex or          • Gospels are a genre of ancient
  bound volume, containing one           literature concerning the life of
  or more of the four Gospels of         Jesus. The word derives from
  the Christian New Testament.           the Old English word for "Good
  In the Middle Ages the                 News", a translation of the
  production of copies of the            Greek word. This refers to the
  entire Bible was rare. Individual      'good news' being told— that
  books or collections of books          Jesus has redeemed a fallen
  were produced for specific             world. Each of the books
  purposes. Gospel Books were            reveals, by telling the story of
  produced for private study or          Jesus Christ's life, the "Good
  for ceremonial purposes. Many          News" about Christ's life and
  of these volumes were quite            presence. The word gospel can
  elaborate. Gospel books often          also have a narrower meaning,
  contained, in addition to the text     especially when used by
  of the Gospels themselves,             evangelical Christians, to mean
  supporting texts including             the specific actions of Christ
  Canon Tables, summaries,               that are necessary for salvation.
  glossaries, and other
  explanatory material.
Chi Rho Iota page, Book of Matthew, Book of
     Kells, Late 8th or early 9th Century.      •   The full page ornamented folios of Celtic
 Trinity College Library, Dublin-Tempera on         manuscripts received the name "carpet pages"
                    Vellum                          because the intricacy of their designs reminded
Probably made in a monastery on the island of       early scholars of the discipline of imported Persian
    Iona and brought to Ireland.                    rugs. Chi (X) and Rho (R) are the first two letters of
                                                    the Greek word for Christ (Christos). The
                                                    enlargement and subsequent ornamentation of
                                                    initials and/or the first letters of the first word of the
                                                    incipit (first line of text) is a common practice in
                                                    Early Medieval manuscript illumination.
                                                            This particular design uses the naked
                                                    (unpainted) color of the parchment as a background.
                                                    Elements of the composition follow a free-form
                                                    organization with emphasis on organic rather than
                                                    rigid, geometric order. The proliferation of small
                                                    circular sub-fields of the composition serves as
                                                    testimony to the popularity of the use of the
                                                    compass as a drawing aid in the Early Middle Ages.
                                                    Many of the designs found on this folio echo the
                                                    decorative vocabulary of Migration Age metalwork:
                                                    filling the circular sub-fields are pinwheel designs
                                                    formed by spirals, petals and trumpets in warm
                                                    colors against darker backgrounds; plaques filled
                                                    with millefiore designs (multi-colored glass rods
                                                    fused and then sliced to form floral patterns);
                                                    animal and ribbon interlaced plaques; and patterns
                                                    of dots reminiscent of metal puncture designs and
                                                    stamp work. The appearance within the patterns of
                                                    small, childlike heads and faces attests to the era's
South Cross-Aheny,County   .
                               North Cross
Ireland- 8th century
•   The high crosses of Ireland, erected between the eighth
    and tenth centuries, are exceptional by their mass and

•   Some of these monuments, are 17 feet or taller and
    preside over burial grounds adjoining the ruins of
    monasteries at sites throughout the Irish countryside.

•   The Celtic cross has become the very symbol of Christian
    Ireland in both religious and secular iconography.

•   These crosses imitate the earlier wooden crosses which
    were encased with a metal binding, the stone bosses
    imitate the studs which would have covered the rivets
    that held the metal and wooden crosses together.
•   Both crosses are skillfully carved with intricate
    geometrical Celtic designs. They are outlined with
    gadroooning (ropelike convex molding) and covered with
    interlacing spirals. The brooch like projections are called
    bosses. They resemble jewels that were often placed on
    metal crosses.

•   A circle (Celtic ring) encloses the arms of the cross and
    has been interpreted as a halo or a glory(ring of heavenly

•   The North Cross East pictured here stands at 3.13 metres
    high, and has a shaped cap-stone

•   The figure sculpture on both crosses appears only on the
    base. Both crosses are made out of sandstone
           Christian Spain                 •   The Germanic group, the Visigoths
Church of Santa Maria, Quintanilla de la       converted to Arian Christianity and
                ViÑas,                         migrated across Gaul (France) into
   Burgos, Spain. Late 7th Century.            Spain and established themselves as the
                                               aristocratic elite over the indigenous
                                               Spanish-roman population.
                                           •   This basilica plan church was built in
                                               the late 7th century 150 miles north of
                                               Toledo in Burgos, Spain. Originally the
                                               church had a nave, two aisles, and a
                                               choir which was reserved for the
                                           •   This view is a view from the choir into
                                               the apse.
                                           •   The horseshoe arch frames the entrance
                                               into the apse. The base of the arch juts
                                               inward slightly. There are free standing
                                               columns with impost blocks decorated
                                               with a scene of Christ triumphant
                                               between angels. The scrolling vine
                                               motif carved on the arch is reminiscent
                                               of designs featured on metalwork of the
                                           •   The Islamic conquest of Spain in 711
                                               CE ended the rule of the Visigoths.
  Emeterius and Ende, with the scribe        The Mozarabs(from the Arabic mustarib, meaning
Senior. Page with Battle of the Bird and     would-be Arab) were the Christians who followed
   the Serpent, Commentary on the            the Visigoths in Spain and who lived under Arab
Apocalypse by Beatus and Commentary          domination. Following a period of persecution, the
 on Daniel by Jerome, made for Abbot         Mozarabs settled territory around the region of León.
              Dominicus,                 •   Mozarabic manuscript illumination is represented
                                             primarily by texts on the Bible and commentary on
                                             the Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana (a Spanish
                                             monk of the eighth century).
                                         •    The commentary is an analysis of the visions set
                                             down in the Apocalypse or the Book of Revelation.
                                             Beatus’s works justified Orthodox Christrian beliefs
                                             and appealed to Christians who had struggled against
                                         •   A bird with a luxurious tail grabs a glittering snake-
                                             a symbol of Christ triumphant over Satan.
                                         •   This type of symbolic story or allegory
                                             was popular among artist, writers, and theologians in
                                             the Middle ages.
                                         •   Mozarabic Beatus manuscripts feature bold,
                                             predominantly primary colors and simple vignettes
                                             reduced often to only a few dramatic figures
                                             represented in an abstract, childlike style that focuses
                                             on the emotional terror and grotesqueness of the
                                             textual content. Here the triumph of Christ over
                                             Satan is allegorically represented.
The Carolingian Period (Carouls is Latin for Charles)
750 CE - 900 CE
A new empire emerged, Charlemagne, or Charles the Great ruled in central Europe. ( The
Franks,were a Germanic people)
In 800 CE Pope Leo III granted Charlemagne emperor, and rightful successor to Constantine and
head of the Holy Roman Empire.
This event strengthened the bonds between the papacy and secular government in the West
Charlemagne began the recovery of the true text of the Bible, which, through centuries of
miscopying had become hopelessly corrupt.
Carolingian rehabilitation produced a clear, precise system of letters; the alphabet renovated by the
scribes of Tours.
Charlemagne encouraged the revival of Roman building techniques in architecture and turned to
Saint Peter’s, basilica-plan church as a model.
The Abbey Church of Saint Riquier in northern France was an example of the Carolingian
reworking of the Roman basilica-plan church. No longer standing, it is known today from
archeological evidence and an engraved copy of a lost eleventh-century drawing of the abbey

Charlemagne’s churches
1.A multistory nathex or vestibule
2.Attached stair towers.
3.A triangular enclosure linking the church and two independent chapels. (a cloister (porticoed
courtyards)        for 300 monks)
4. Entrances faced west, this type of narthex is called a westwork.
Charlemagne, went north, built a palace complex and installed his court in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle in French)
in 794. making it his capital. it included administrative offices, royal books, luxury items, and the “Palatine
Chapel”. This structure functioned as:
1.Charlemagne’s private chapel
2.The church of his imperial court
3.A martyrium for certain precious relics of saints
4.The emperor’s imperial mausoleum.

This is a central - plan building similar to San Vitale in Ravenna. The Aachen chapel has flat walls and
geometric forms. The division of the structure into parts and the vertical emphasis are both hallmarks of the new
style that developed under Charlemagne.

Books helped promote learning, propagate Christianity, and standardize church law and practice. Charlemagne
standardized the bible - Much of the artistic energy found in the empire’s scriptoria.

The revision served as the standard text of the Bible for the rest of the Carolingian and subsequent Medieval
Charlemagne, imported whole libraries; the illustrations astonished northern painters. There were many styles
including a realism that survived from the Late Antique period.

Ebbo (northeastern French town) was another center of bookmaking. “Portrait of Matthew” shows the unique
style. The figure vibrates with intensity and the landscape runs off the page, contained by the border. The style
focuses attention less on the physical appearance of the evangelist than on his inner, spiritual excitement as he
quickly transcribes the Word of God coming to him (Angel- Matthew’s symbol).
Illustrated manuscripts were protected with magnificent covers-(See Lindau Gospel outer cover)
Abbey Church of Saint Riquer, Monastery   •   Early Medieval after Effmann, 1912
                                                       Abbey Church of St. Riquier -
   of Centula, France dedicated 799.
                                          •   Plan-consecrated c.799
                                          •   The visitor entered the church site of Centula's
                                              complex via a monumental gateway that provided
                                              access to a large atrium, similar to that at Old St.
                                              Peter's, Rome. The atrium was punctuated by
                                              groin-vaulted chapels supporting towers located at
                                              the midpoints of the three free sides of the atrium's
                                              covered walkway. The fourth side of the atrium
                                              attached directly to St. Riquier's extraordinary
                                              three-storied westwork.

                                          •   The crypt of St. Riquier occupied the entire west
                                              transept which was fully groin-vaulted to support
                                              the weight of the upper structure. Located in both
                                              the crypt and upper stories of the west transept
                                              were altars dedicated to local saints. Sandwiched
                                              in between the twin transepts was the nave which
                                              consisted of a two-story elevation — a simple low
                                              arcade, a long nave wall and tall clerestory
                                              windows extending the entire height of the third-
                                              story of the westwork. In the center of the nave
                                              sat an altar. The east transept or choir was divided
                                              spatially into three sections by tall diaphragm
                                              arches and each was elevated on a low platform.
                                              These consisted of the center choir located directly
                                              under the eastern crossing tower, and the side
                                              choirs located in the transept terminals and marked
                                              by altars located on the eastern walls of the
                                              transept. Elevated another step was the long
                                              sanctuary which housed two small altars. Several
                                              steps higher in the apse stood the high altar.
                                         •   Early Medieval-Artist Unknown-Palatine Chapel
                                             of Charlemagne - Restored Plan-c.792-805
 Reconstruction drawing of the Palace                 Aachen, Germany
                                                      Aachen was established as Charlemagne's
Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen (Aix-la-       capital in 794. Building of the palatine complex
    Chapelle), Germany. 792-805              progressed from 792 to about 805. Scholars
                                             believe that Aachen was the likely location of the
                                             emperor's circle of educators, scholars and
                                             intellectuals brought to aid in Charlemagne's
                                         •   Excavations of the site were carried out in the late
                                             1960s revealing the cappella palatina (palace
                                             chapel), the aula regia (royal or audience hall),
                                             and numerous administrative buildings and living
                                             The cappella palatina was a private chapel serving
                                             Charlemagne and his family, in concept a cousin
                                             of the Lateran palace in Rome. However, the
                                             building itself models Justinian's San Vitale in
                                             Ravenna from which it borrows numerous aspects
                                             of plan, elevation, and according to court
                                             biographer, Einhard, some columns and marble
                                             slabs as well. Construction of the building was
                                             commandeered by a Frankish native, architect
                                             Odo of Metz and Charlemagne's friend and
                                             biographer, Einhard. The chapel shares with San
                                             Vitale an octagonal plan, ambulatory vaults
                                             supported by walls on the exterior and eight piers
                                             on the interior, a mosaic-covered wedge or
                                             "pumpkin dome." Since two different liturgies
                                             were practiced in the two buildings, liturgical
                                             considerations affected the designs of the east
                     •   Early Medieval-Artist Unknown-Palatine Chapel of
                         Charlemagne - Interior-c.792-805-Palatine Chapel of
Palatine Chapel of       Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany

  Charlemagne        •   Although it has been compared to San Vitale, the interior of
                         the Palatine Chapel is different in the relationship of its
                         architectural features to space. The elevation of the interior
                         corresponds to two stories: the ground or first story is
                         organized as a monumental arcade of eight broad, high
                         horseshoe-shaped arches alternating with the large piers
                         supporting the dome. The first level is separated from the
                         second by bold molding. In the second story or gallery
                         level, each bay comprises arcades (arches ) with tall,
                         slender columns. Elegant wrought-iron grillwork made by
                         the emperor's metalsmiths forms a lacy skirt shrouding the
                         bases and lower portions of the columns. The second story
                         is busy with linear, horizontal details that include the floral
                         capitals and impost blocks of the capitals. Bold molding on
                         each bay's flanking pier represents the springing point of
                         the triune arcades and another heavy molding serves both
                         as architrave of the arcade and foundation for the next
                         level. Perched on top of the second gallery in vertical
                         alignment with the columns of the tribune arcade are two
                         simple columns under a high arch similar to the
                         monumental arch of the first level of the elevation. These
                         columns, placed "piggyback" style over the gallery present
                         the visual illusion of a third level where none exists.

                         While the architectural screen does appear at San Vitale, its
                         use at Aachen is best understood within a context of other
                         Carolingian monuments where an attempt to maximize the
                         entrance of light into the space beneath is paramount.
                         Lastly, the polychromed voussoir of the arches in the
                         uppermost and lowest arches was a hallmark of imperial
                         architecture that was to inspire later imitators during the
                         Ottonian period.
                     •   The clear division of the parts and the vertical emphasis are
                         both hallmarks of the new style that developed under
      Palace of the Abbey of St. Gall - Near Lake Constance in Switzerland (redrawn).
                                  C.817. Ink on parchment.

- Church is placed in the center. - Cloistered monks - Monastic community of 3000 people. - Carolingian church,
completely typical of the era. - There is 2 apses and an elaborate westwork. -Never came to light.
Page with Mark the Evangelist,   •   Early Medieval-Artist Unknown-Mark the Evangelist (from the
                                     Godescalc Evangelistary)-c.781-83-Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris,
  Book of Mark, Godescalc            France, Ink & Colors on Vellum        --
    Evangelistary. 781-83.       •   The manuscript begins with a dedication page indicating that it
                                     was made by the scribe Godelscalc at the request of Charlemagne
                                     and his wife Hildegard. The Godescalc Evangelistary is a Gospel
                                     Lectionary, not to be confused with a Gospel book. The Gospel
                                     Lectionary contains sections from the Gospels (also called the
                                     "Pericopes") that were read at Mass during corresponding times of
                                     the liturgical year. The text of the manuscript attests to the great
                                     expense involved in the book's production: gold and silver was
                                     used to write the text and in the execution of the miniatures; in
                                     addition, the parchment was dyed, a difficult and expensive
                                     process often reserved for manuscripts destined for imperial use.
                                     The decoration of the book consists of historiated letters (letters
                                     incorporating vignettes), text enclosed by ornamental frames, four
                                     Evangelist portraits, one of Christ, and an image of the Fountain of

                                     The image of Mark shows him active at his lectern, writing at the
                                     inspiration of the small lion (his symbol) who occupies the upper
                                     left corner of the page. Representing the duality of the artist's
                                     attitude to the modeling of form is the softly graduated flesh tones
                                     of the figure which contrast sharply with the bold linear
                                     articulation of facial features and the simplification of fabric
                                     overlaying projecting forms of the body into opaque color fields
                                     over which have been drawn "mapping lines" to indicate contours
                                     of the body, division of clothing into segments, and volumes. In
                                     addition to the modeling of the figure, Mark's bench and lectern
                                     jut awkwardly out of the flat page in an attempt at three-
                                     dimensional space. The style of the artist here certainly suggests
                                     that he was familiar with the classical (Roman), Germanic, and
                                     Byzantine influences that occurred in the cosmopolitan
                                     atmosphere of the court.
Page With Saint Matthew The Evangelist, Coronation Gospels
          Gospel of St.Matthew, Early 9th century

                                       •   This book gets its name from he fact
                                           that it was used from the 11th century
                                           onward at the coronation of the Holy
                                           Roman emperors. The text is written in
                                           gold and silver on parchment colored
                                           with purple dye reserved for imperial
                                           use in the east.
                                       •   St Matthew from the Coronation
                                           Gospel is shown seated in profile before
          QuickTime™ and a                 a tilted writing desk, done in a classical
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    are neede d to see this picture.       painting style, wearing flowing Roman
                                           dress. A large golden halo disk
                                           surrounds his head in what could also
                                           pass for the sun about to set in the
                                           distant landscape. The figure seems
                                           relaxed and to be drawing from within
                                           himself in recording holyword.
                                       •   The figure is very naturalistic and
                                           clearly demonstrates a classical
                                   •   Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France
Page with Mathew the Evangelist,   •   Ink & Colors on Vellum-26cm x 22.2cm
Book of Matthew, Ebbo Gospels.     •   After Charlemagne's death, the center of manuscript production
           C.816-40.                   moved from the court to Reims and the seat of Archbishop Ebbo
                                       who was a childhood companion of the son of Charlemagne,
                                       Louis the Pious. The manuscript begins with a dedication poem
                                       in gold rustic capitals written by Peter, Abbot of the monastery
                                       of Hautvilliers near Reims. He praises the achievements of
                                       Archbishop Ebbo of Reims who may have been the patron and
                                       donor of the book. The Gospel text was also written in gold, and
                                       gold was employed generously in the execution of the
                                       miniatures, all indications of the expense involved in the
                                       production of this book. The decoration includes four Gospel
                                       portraits and twelve ornate Canon Tables, featuring classicizing
                                       tabernacles and whimsical genre scenes enacted on their roofs.
                                       The Gospel pictures portray the authors seated on cushioned
                                       benches and bent over the lecterns to write in their books.
                                       Matthew holds his ink-filled horn in one hand and writes with
                                       the other. Inspiring each author is his apocalyptic image. That
                                       of Matthew peers out over the scene from the landscape.

                                   •   The hallmark of these miniatures is the haste employed in
                                       executing the drawings manifested in a highly energized, hectic,
                                       "sketch-like" style that, judging from its popularity among later
                                       imitators, was attractive to Medieval artists and patrons. Thin,
                                       overlapping washes of pastel color produce the transmutating
                                       and occasionally muddy or puddling effects of colors
                                       comprising the backgrounds of the miniatures. Over these
                                       washes the artist sketched landscape using hatching lines and the
                                       rapid, impressionistic technique found in the Coronation
                                       Gospels. The "busy" quality of the fabrics in the miniatures was
                                       produced by the same rapid sketch lines placed over a thinly
                                       washed color field. Efforts to animate the faces, to present the
                                       intensity of emotions and concentration of the authors at work
                                       has few parallels in Early Medieval Art.
                                 •   The Utrecht Psalter is probably the most
 The Utrecht Psalter. Second         unusual Psalter of the Middle Ages. It was
quarter of the 9th century Ink       written and painted between 820 and 840 in
                                     the Benedictine abbey of Hautvillers near
   on vellum or parchment            Rheims, on the initiative of Ebbo, archbishop
                                     of Rheims and foster brother to Emperor
                                     Louis the Pious, the successor of

                                 •   All 150 psalms are illustrated with
                                     magnificent pen drawings covering the whole
                                     width of a page and densely populated with
                                     tiny figures hurriedly sketched with a few
                                     strokes. These painted figures are frequently
                                     imbedded in faintly sketched landscapes. The
                                     whole is a product of the Carolingian
                                     Renaissance. Some believe that the Utrecht
                                     Psalter was a production of a much earlier
                                     period, perhaps fifth or sixth century in
                                     origin. This was chiefly due to the fact that
                                     many archaic conventions, which had by then
                                     fallen out of use in manuscript production,
                                     are preserved in the text. For example, the
                                     Utrecht Psalter is written in rustic capitals, a
                                     script no longer common to Carolingian
                                     schools. Given the large script and size of the
                                     manuscript it is conjectured that it was
                                     intended as a choir book, used by several
                                     monks chanting together from this common
                                       •   Early Medieval-Artist Unknown-Lindau Gospels Cover
                                           (Upper Cover of Binding)             c.870-880-Pierpont
Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning       Morgan Library, New York-Gold & Jewels-36.9cm x
         Figures, outer cover,             26.7cm
                                       •   Ordinarily, Early Medieval manuscript covers consisted
      Lindau Gospels. C.870-80.            of wooden boards hinged by cords made of leather. A
                                           manuscript destined for a more discerning consumer
                                           might have a stamped leather cover. The most
                                           sumptuous book covers of the Early Middle Ages were
                                           those sporting precious metals, gems, and enamels
                                           attached to the wooden boards often by means of simple
                                           clamps, bolts, pegs or rivets. The Lindau covers are
                                           representative of the more sumptuous decoration of a

                                           The upper cover features five gold repoussé (embossed)
                                           plaques hemmed by wide, cabochon-encrusted (stone
                                           attached to a base by means of a metal collar) borders.
                                           In four of these plaques, pairs of angels float above and
                                           below bouquets composed of pearls, gems and crystals,
                                           while the central panel contains an organically
                                           proportionate Christus triumphans (Christ as living, as
                                           triumphant over death) with softly modeled contours
                                           and volumes. The figure of Christ assumes the standard
                                           position beneath his titulus (inscription) and weeping
                                           angels. The back cover represents a completely different
                                           style, one more closely related to Frankish native trends
                                           found in Migration Art rather than Carolingian
                                           classicism: human form abstracted into pattern with
                                           intricate ribbon and zoomorphic interlace. The two
                                           differing styles on the cover indicate an appreciation for
                                           both at Charlemagne's court, a notion that accords well
                                           with the often international influences found elsewhere
                                           in Carolingian Art.
•   One of the most important and telling
    burials of a woman is the Oseburg ship
    burial from the early ninth century. This
    burial, located in southeastern Norway,
    shows the pinnacle of status that
    women could reach within the Viking
    society. It is one of the most elaborate
    burials ever recovered and could only
    be meant for a queen. The burial
    chamber is an elaborately carved oak
    ship that measures 21.6 meters long and
    5 meters wide. There were two women
    in the ship, one of whom was probably
    a slave sacrificed to accompany her
    mistress into the afterlife. The ship was
    outfitted with all the essentials for the
    trip to the afterlife: beds, chairs, lamps,
    cooking implements, food, looms, and
    weaving tools. One of the greatest
    indications of her rank was the sacrifice
    of twelve horses. Horses were
    sacrificed only for those of great status
    or for very important religious
    ceremonies. Therefore, the sacrifice of
    twelve horses at the burial of a woman
    indicates her high societal status.
Borgund stave Church, Sogn, Norway 1125-1150
                                      •   Built between 1125-1150 and
                                          dedicated to the Apostle Andrew, this
                                          church is exceptionally well
                                          preserved and is one of the most
                                          distinctive stave churches in Norway.
                                          Some of the finest features are the
                                          lavishly carved portals and the roof
                                          carvings of dragons's heads. The
                                          stave churches are Norway's most
                                          important contribution to world
                                          architecture and Norway's oldest
          QuickTime™ and a
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                                      •    Boat construction and home building
                                          in the Viking times had developed
                                          the technique and tradition of
                                          combining art with wood working.
                                          This culminated in the stave
                                          churches. There are several types of
                                          stave churches but the common
                                          element to all of them is that they
                                          have corner-posts (staves) and a
                                          skeleton or framework of timber with
                                          wall planks standing on sills. These
                                          walls are known as stave walls, hence
                                 •   Early Medieval-Artist Unknown-Urnes
Doorway panels, Parish Church,       Style Portal-.11th Stave Church, Urnes,
 Urnes, Norway. C.1050-70.           Norway

                                 •   Although missionary activity had been
                                     underway with great seriousness in the
                                     tenth century, church building was slower
                                     to develop. Many were built of wood
                                     rather than stone and the latter follow
                                     trends in Romanesque architecture rather
                                     than reflecting native stylistic preferences.
                                     The earliest remains of churches built for
                                     and decorated in Scandinavian style are
                                     these decorated wooden panels from an
                                     eleventh century farm church in Norway.

                                 •   The Urnes master decorated the church
                                     portal with undulating, interlaced animal
                                     motifs. An essential part of Urnes style is
                                     thin, rope-like, almost lacy interlaced
                                     designs composed of animal legs and
                                     ribbons. Three signature Urnes-style
                                     motifs appear on the portal: four
                                     greyhound-like animals; a serpent-like
                                     animal with a single foreleg; and, thin
                                     ribbon-like snakes with animal heads.
The Ottonian Period
936 CE - 1002 CE
The Carolingian Empire was divided among the heirs of Louis the Pious. In the tenth century, the
eastern portion (modern Germany and Austria), passed to a dynasty of Saxon rulersknown as
 Rulers - Otto I (Ruled 936- 973) Otto II (Ruled 973-983), and Otto III (Ruled 983-1002).
Otto I, took control of Italy in 951, was crowned emperor by the pope in 962, - he and his successors
dominated the papacy appointments to other high Church offices. The Church, which had become
corrupt and disorganized, recovered in the tenth century under the influence of a great monastic
reform encouraged and sanctioned by the Ottonians.

Ottonian architects followed their predecessors. St. Michael’s, church at Hildesheim built between
1001 and 103 1, retains the tower groupings and westwork of St.-Riquier, as well as its, blank walls.

The interior shows the rhythm of the alternating light and heavy wall supports.see page 465) Although
its proportions have changed (it has become taller in relation to its width than a Roman basilica), the
nave has the continuous and unbroken look of its Early Christian predecessors.
The eleventh century - Ottonian artists in northern Europe, drawing on Roman, Byzantine, and
Carolingian models, created a new tradition of large sculpture in wood and bronze that would have an
influence on later medieval art.
An important patron- Bishop Bernward of Hildesheim made bronze doors for (his Abbey Church)
Saint Michael.
They stand more than 16 feet and have Old Testament scenes on the left and New Testament scenes on
the right.
The doors’ rectangular panels recall the Miniatures in Carolingian books. Small, extremely active
figures populate nearly empty backgrounds.
Architectural elements and features of the landscape are depicted in very low relief, forming little
more than a shadowy stage for the actors in each scene.
The figures stand out prominently, sculpted in varying degrees of relief, with their
heads fully modeled in three dimensions, The result is lively and visually stimulating.

Variation in style and approach is characteristic in the Ottonian period.
Artists worked for different patrons in widely scattered centers.
In the Ottonian gospel books the draperies are rendered in a hard, firm line and the
planes partitioned in sharp heavily modeled shapes.These features were in Middle and
Late Byzantine art, and a connection existed between the Ottonian and Byzantine
Yet, the Ottonian artists went their own way; Ottonian painting was produced for -
The court - The great monasteries - Learned princes - Abbots and abbesses - Bishops
and appealed to an aristocratic audience that could appreciate independent and
sophisticated variations on inherited themes. This new manner would be passed on to
artists of the Romanesque period.

The Gospel Book of Otto III,shows the Emperor The emperor is represented
enthroned, which represents his universal authority- it is a work of imperial
propaganda much like the ancient Gemma Augusta from Rome.
                                      •   Early Medieval-Artist Unknown-Church of Saint
Church of Saint Cyriakus, Gernrode,       Cyriakus begun c.960; consecrated c.973-Gernrode,
     Germany. Begun 961 and               Germany
         consecrated 973.             •   St. Cyriakus was founded in 961 by a German noble
                                          named Gero who intended it as a convent. Originally,
                                          the church had a flat wall at the west end flanked by two
                                          towers with spiral staircases at the ends of the side
                                          aisles. The exterior decoration of St. Cyriakus is among
                                          the best surviving representations of the exterior
                                          articulation of the Ottonian church.

                                          Exterior ornamentation strives to interrupt the plain,
                                          mural like aspect of the stonework by creating
                                          geometric linear patterns that provide texture and
                                          momentum by focusing the viewer's attention on
                                          architectural sections. The towers accomplish their
                                          visual objective with bold molding separating the tower
                                          into increasingly smaller drum sections, and with low
                                          relief patterns of pilaster stripping with dog tooth rather
                                          than arcuated blind arcading. The lowest section of the
                                          towers sports limited pilasters perhaps conceived
                                          originally as buttresses. Their overall effect is to give
                                          the section the appearance of polygonal form. The upper
                                          clerestory windows of the towers, the west end and the
                                          east transept feature arcades with double openings
                                          supported by a slender central column, all recessed
                                          underneath a larger arch. Such articulated recesses also
                                          provided textural interest to the wall.
                                  •   Early Medieval-Artist Unknown-Church of
                                      Saint Cyriakus - Plan               begun
                                      c.960; consecrated c.973-Gernrode,
Nave, Church of Saint Cyriakus.   •   Extending from the nave at St. Cyriakus is
                                      the east transept, appearing out of alignment
                                      with the nave. The tall west end flanked by
                                      spiral staircase towers held an elevated choir
                                      on the interior supported by a groin-vaulted
                                      crypt. Entrance to the church was located on
                                      the south side, as at St. Michael's,
                                      Hildesheim, into a bay whose elevation
                                      differed from the rest of the nave. It featured
                                      a single, broad archway into the side aisle, a
                                      double arched opening in the gallery, and a
                                      small, high set of two clerestory windows.

                                      The nave elevation is two stories with three
                                      levels, a nave arcade and a gallery, and a
                                      clerestory. The nave consisted of a short
                                      arcade of two large bays alternating one pier
                                      with one column. The gallery opened from
                                      the nave via two sets of triple arcades
                                      divided by one pier aligned with the central
                                      pier of the nave arcade. A high clerestory
                                      reached its apex at the church's roofline
                                      meeting the tie beams of the wooden roof.
                                      The east end of the church comprises a choir
                                      composed of the transept divided into choirs
                                      each with its own crypt and apse on the east
                                      end. A crypt extended under the elevated
                                      sanctuary and apse as well. Diaphragm
                                      arches mark the intersection of the nave and
    Bishop Bernward Doors, Bronze Cathedral (Abbey
    Church of Saint Micheal), Hildesheim, Germany.
•   The technique of casting bronze doors was reintroduced as a major
    art form at Aachen during the Carolingian period, where
    monumental plain paneled doors with lion's head knockers were
    placed at the entrance to the Palatine Chapel. Large-scale bronzes
    such as the doors and column at Hildesheim were cast in special
•   The interest in bronze doors and the means and expertise to create
    them continued into the Ottonian period. Bernward's friend,
    Willigis, had executed bronze doors complete with lion's head
    knockers in imitation of Charlemagne's for the Cathedral at Mainz.
    The next step, adorning bronze doors with scenes in low relief, has
    an Ottonian precedent at Augsburg. The attempts of Bernward's
    craftsmen to employ low and high relief on bronze doors is
    unparalleled for the period. So fervent was their intent that some
    figures bend out of the relief wall from the waist, a bizarre
    situation for high relief but nevertheless one that demonstrates the
    intent of the artist to experiment with a different dimension of
    relief work. The doors feature Genesis scenes: Creation of
    Adam; the Presentation of Eve; Temptation and Fall of Adam;
    the Judgment of Adam and Eve; the Expulsion of Adam and
    Eve from Paradise; Life outside Eden; Offerings of Cain and
    Abel; and, Murder of Abel and the Judgment of Cain. The
    Atonement reliefs are the Annunciation; Nativity; Magi;
    Presentation; Christ before Pilate; Crucifixion; Women at the
    Tomb; and Ascension.
    (scenes of the Fall of Man and his redemption)
                                • Scenes from the old
                                  Testament prefigured the
   The Temptation, detail of      New and the scenes were
the Doors of Bishop Bernward.     paired to make the
                                  relationship clear.
                                • Depicted in this panel,
                                  (which is the third panel
                                  down on the left) is the
                                  temptation of Adam and
                                  Eve in the Garden of Eden.
                                • It is possible that the
                                  compositions for these
                                  panels were derived from
                                  illuminated manuscripts
                                  with the stylized vegetation
                                  and the twisting and turning
                                  movement in both the plant
                                  forms and the figures.
                                • To the right of the
                                  Temptation panel is this
   The Crucifixion, detail of     Crucifixion scene.
the Doors of Bishop Bernward.

                                • The death of Jesus on
                                  the cross is a reminder
                                  to mankind of his
                                  sacrifice to atone for the
                                  sins of mankind brought
                                  on by the original sin of
                                  Adam and Eve.
                                •   The large wooden crucifix is the earliest known surviving
Gero Crucifix, Wood - Cologne       piece of Ottonian monumental sculpture. Its execution in
                                    the strong (though easily destroyed) medium of wood is a
 Cathedral, Germany. C.970.         reminder of the medieval preference for this material for the
                                    production of altar statuary. The work was commissioned by
                                    Archbishop Gero of Cologne (969-71) for the spot it
                                    occupies. Ottonian artists had established certain traditions
                                    for the rendering of the body of Christ on the cross. A
                                    preference existed for the Christus mortus (dead Christ)
                                    rather than Christus triumphans (Christ alive and triumphant
                                    over death). The type indicates that Ottonians regarded the
                                    altar cross as a reminder of Christ's sacrifice and an
                                    empathic stimulus for meditation on grief, resignation,
                                    and sorrow rather than as a celebration.
                                •   For the artist, the type allows for more creative possibilities
                                    than the more upright triumphans corpus type: the dead
                                    corpus appears to swing downward and outward in the
                                    viewer's direction, a posture that contrasts boldly with the
                                    rigid linearity of the form of the cross itself. Ottonian artists
                                    show the dead body of Christ as reacting both to the effects
                                    of gravity and also suspended by the nails (heavy, hanging
                                    head; the stretched sinews of the muscles of the arms and
                                    pectoral region) and the forensic indications of death (limp
                                    fingers and hand hanging off the nails; the sagging flesh of
                                    the breasts; the bloated belly).
                                •   More expressive than naturalistic is the face of the corpus, a
                                    death mask created by exaggerated pulls downward of the
                                    flesh under the eyes, along the nose and jowls and the
                                    corners of the mouth.
                                •   The Gero artist chose to model the body of Christ with little
                                    attention to linearity: projecting regions are clearly carved
                                    and firm lines defining musculature and bony regions have
                                    been softened. Abstraction was relegated to the wig-like
                                    portrayal of the hair and the flatly folded and starchy fabric
                                    of the loincloth.
                                 • The scene of Christ washing the feet of St.
Page with Christ Washing the       Peter contains notable echoes of ancient
Feet of His Disciples, Gospels     painting, transmitted through Byzantine
     of Otto III. C.1000.          art: the soft pastel hues of the background
                                   recall the illusionism of Greco-Roman
                                   landscapes, and the architectural frame
                                   around Christ is a late descendant of the
                                   architectural perspectives from Boscoreale.
                                 • The Ottonian artist has put these classical
                                   ideas to new use, so that what was once an
                                   architectural vista, now becomes a
                                   heavenly city.
                                 • In ancient compositions this would have
                                   represented a doctor treating a patient.
                                   Now St.. Peter takes the place of the
                                   sufferer, and Christ that of the physician.
                                   (Note that Christ is depicted here as the
                                   beardless young philosopher type)
                                 • Christ and Peter the most active figures are
                                   larger than the rest. Christ’s active arm is
                                   longer than the arm at his side. The
                                   emphasis here is on spiritual action.

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