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Audience Information ISRD


									  Cognition and Information

WebNet 98        Craig Hall, Ph.D
                 Part 1

• Basic web site designs

• The role of cognition and memory

• Summary
Information Organization

•Internal (Mental)

• External (Formalized)
Information          Time Line
                  Space Shuttle
T- 0:03        T 0:00
 Ignition      Liftoff

 T+2:00        T+8:00        T+8:30
 Booster        Main         External
 Separation     Engine       Tank
                Cutoff       Separation
Information            Semantic Network
Organization                    Car


  Lights Off                    Fantasy

Organization      Class Exercises

•Exercise : Semantic Net - Dog

•Get with three other people and draw a
semantic net of a dog.
Design For Your Audience

    • Novices

    • Expert

    • Mixed
Web Site Designs

• Linear

• Web

    Web Site Design              Linear

Audience              Information

• Novices ------>      Instruction

• Mixed     ------>    Timelines

Note: Best if there is NOT a lot of information
        Web Site Design            Hierarchy

Audience Information
Mixed      --> Catalogs
Mixed      --> Organization Charts
Mixed      --> Reference Material
Mixed      --> Instruction
Note: Good design for most sites
 Web Site Design              Web

Audience Information

 Expert   --> Shared mental model

 Note: Hard for most users.

• Information organization
   •Match audience and design
• Three web site designs
  • Hierarchy
  • Web
              Part 2

 Cognitive information processing

 Cognitive load - interface vs. learning.

 Information structuring.

 Summary
Memory Theory
 Information Processing Theory

  – Short term memory

  – Long term memory

  – Schemata
“…in this cultural institution, most of the
participants are short, weird, sometimes
apprehensive, but focused on gathering
organic materials that can contribute to
the acquisition of a crown.”
 Schema - organized
                     Semantic Network

        Hot Dog
                                    Filet Mignon
Memory Capacity

 Limit is 5 to 9 items at one time.

 Chunking can increase memory.

 Memory for number strings.

 Chunking uses prior knowledge.
ris   fec   lir   gez   yad   kov

jua   avu   mij   gwi   leb   zua
motor   seat window   brake mirror   road

wheel   car   axle    hood   drive   radio
Mike’s sister had     been      a     city

judge   before winning the   senate   race
 How many words from the 1st list did
 you remember?
 Which word list did you remember the

 most from?

 Meaningful structures are easier.
Web Page Design

 Mostly verbal information.

 Scanning vs. reading.

 Strategies for organizing text.

 Choose structures that can be readily

  applied to new information.
Which of these web site designs
impose the most cognitive load?
What is most memorable?

 What we already know.

 Higher order structures.
     • Cause-effect, if-then…

 Chunked information
      A problem of vital concern is the prevention of tricks perpetrated
by trick-or-treaters on Halloween. A typical trick-or-treater carries a
two-gallon bag for collecting treats and an ego the size of five football
fields. A cheated trick-or-treater hurls eggs, smashes pumpkins and
sprays graffitti on cars and mailboxes, causing untold homeowner
anguish each year. For example, when a band of trick-or-treaters
invaded a local gated community last year, more than seventy trees
and houses had been egged or toilet-papered in response to
inadequate treats from residents. Most damage occurs from anger
over treats such as pennies, boiled eggs or demands by residents for
an impromptu song or dance.
        The solution to the problem is not to immediately halt
Halloween, since about 80 percent of the candy sales in North
America occur during the latter half of October. Instead, the solution
lies in training both residents and trick-or-treaters in Halloween
ettiquette, better quality treats and neighborhood control stations with
attack dogs that can sniff out toilet paper, spray paint and eggs.
 Problem: How to avoid revenge on Halloween.

       • Cause: Unsatisfied trick-or-treaters.

       • Effect: Spray painted mailboxes, egg goo, lots of toilet paper.

 Restriction: Can’t stop Halloween.
       • Reason: Kids will come to your door anyway.

 Solutions:

       • Increase satisfaction: Give name-brand candy bars.

       • Increase service: Smile and don’t ask for any cute tricks like a

         song or a skit.

       • Increase security: Buy an attack dog to sniff out toilet paper,

         eggs and spray paint.
Cognition and Interactivity
 Is media better?

 Media study results

 AFRL findings

 Simulations - VR vs. CBT

  – cognitive load: interface vs. learning

 Cognitive information processing

 Cognitive load - interface vs. learning

 Information structuring

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