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					a'-                                                                                     v'àbà

                                          A       -    a

a'-                                               á dæ
        Class-marking prefix for a singular                not up till this point in time. hali.
        or plural noun in the A class.                      A de b[ tqv eman tan da.
        Nouns in the A class may be large                  This has not been your habit. Variant:
        inanimate objects, towns, ideas or                 zade.
        many other things. Plurals of A               à sàpsàpà ad phrase.
        class nouns often use the c'                       unprepared. ba shiri, na
        class-marker. The class-marker a'                  tanadi.  Qv lagkqm
        should not be confused with the                    a'sapsapa. You left me unprepared.
        pronoun a which is written without                 See: sàpà.
        an apostrophe and replaces a
        noun.                                         á'á excl.
                                                           cry of pity. assha.  A'a a ze
        When an entry has a class-marker                   azu dan ku ukuu! "Ah!" they said,
        it is written in italic writing. Class-            "it has at last died."
        markers may move to the end of a              áabò ad.
        word in a sentence. The class-                     no. a'a.  Laa tqv baal buk
        marker is not included in the way                  ni hwen? - Aabo, qm baal
        entries are ordered. For example,                  da. Are you going to travel out
        the word a'koma (hand, arm) is                     tomorrow during the day time? - No, I
        found between the words                            am not.
        kolkolo and v'koma, and the
        word a'mata (spin, weave) is                  áahù n.
        found between the words mata                       penny halfpenny. kwabo.  A na
        and k'matqqkqci.                                   ze aahu, ik k[b[ nqv dqri.
                                                           When we say aahu we mean 'penny
á1 con.                                                    halfpenny'.
        if, when. idan.  An la nu                    á'án excl.
        noka, qn [m[ m'hono. When you
        (pl) come, bring the calabashes.
                                                           cry to show concern. assha. 
                                                           A'an, yxmu emin vqv vost o?
á2 excl.                                                   Hey! What has he done to you that you
        fancy! cry of surprise. a'a.  A,                  are hitting him?
        hwec kaa kam kind qn dooro.
        Whoops! I forgot my money in the
                                                      ábá v.
                                                           reform or reshape. tanìwara. 
        mortar.
                                                           A tau k[nt[, el nan aba na
á3 prep.                                                   unqsq. If a bow is bent it can be
        at. a.                                             reshaped.
á4 prep.
        with. da.
à   5
        prep.
        to.
à6 pro.
        they. su.  A havk a nama
        d'na. They have gone to do some
        grinding.
à7 part.                                              v'àbà n. (plural s'aba)
        not. ba. Variant: á.
                                                                                                   1
d'àcîdàmºi                                                                   àgwàgwá
    1) tongs, two long pieces of metal            àgºu n. (plural agauno)
    hinged like scissors for taking hot               Abyssinian or Senegal Roller, a
    metal objects out of a fire.                      bright blue bird with brown back
    hantsaki.  Z[[g nan ta z[[                       which eats bees and other
    s'aba. Blacksmiths make tongs to                  insects. tsanwaka. Coracias
    use.                                              abyssinica.  Agau ci c'kxn
                                                      c'kasi. The bee-eater has nice-
                                                      looking feathers.
    2) splints used
    to bend bow
    into shape.
    3) tweezers
    used by Fulani
    people to pull
    out a thorn or
    splinter.
    matsefata.
    Variant: v'ava;
    àbó.
d'àcîdàmºi n.
    (plural c'àcîdàmºi)
    rice cake. ìosan shinkafa.
ádá v.
    be absent, not be, 'there is not'.
    babu.  Gumi zada, sai
    m'neve. There is no salt, only oil left.
    Variant: zada.




k'àddá n. (plural c'adda)
    machete (large knife used to cut
    plants). adda.  El nan gedqm
    c'ce qn k'adda. A machete is
    used to cut wood. From: Hausa.
k'àdùdù n. (plural c'adudu)
    large grass basket with lid.
    adudu.  El nan dxlk c'rihi
    hwedi qn k'adudu. Many things
    are usually put inside a basket with a lid.
    From: Hausa.
àgà v.
    drive or chase away. kora. 
    G[to gwxlnx, hav qv aga. See
    those goats? Go and drive them.




2
àgwàgwá                                                                    àlà
àgwàgwá n. (plural agwagwana)                 m'àlá n.
    duck. agwagwa. Variant: agwagú               circuitous, (following) a
    (M.Magaji, Dabai). From: Hausa.              roundabout route. gewaya.  Qm
                                                 gabka lxvk m'ala. I followed a
áhçnánæ pro.                                     roundabout way.
    others. wasu na da bam.  Qv
    nxx kaana ahenane v'halqm
    hxxmx. You gave it to others, but
    refused me.
ºi conj.
    1) that. cewa, wai.  U zeka
    ai yu t[[ ko. She said that she has
    gone.
    2) whether.
àkà v.
    open, spread apart. buþe.  Ak
    s'na qv salgt m'basa. Open
    your legs and ease yourself.
áksæ v. (past akske)
    behave rebelliously, be out of
    control. gagara.  Naamqn aksk
    wa s'voga. A herd of cattle was out
    of control.
àkú n. (plural akunu)
    parrot. aku.  Aku i nem h[d
    kwx. The parrot is like the kwx.
    From: Hausa.
álà1 con.
    1) even if, or, either. ko.  A caa
    tqm hau, ala tqv han? Shall I
    come later, or will you come?
    2) (or) rather, actually, in fact. ko.
     Buku, ala zanqmne tu han.
    Tomorrow, or rather the day after
    tomorrow, she will come.
álà2 v.
    bend, twist, wrap. lauya.  Qm
    lqqk alqm d'arma. I know how to
    make a roof frame by bending the grass.
d'àlá n.
    lewd conversation; showing too
    much interest in impure things or
    in matters of sex. batsa.  Ka
    d'al el tu nxx na c'nqmsq.
    A person who is very rude makes people
    laugh.




                                                                                  3
àlà                                                                        v'àmcçkæ
àlà v. (past alka, active noun s'àlà)             àlgädwæn = algqdwq.
    1) implicate. shafa wa kashin                 àlkskç vt. (active noun ù'álkó)
    kaji.  I al sa u emain me.                       1) entangle, get caught in.
    He has falsely accused me.                        cukwikwiye, harþe,
    2) wrestling tactic. dabaran                      sarìafe.  Jank alkske qn
    kokawa.  U kobkq d'hyaa qn                       hwen an s'naa. A donkey has got
    s'ala. He didn't fall because he was              its legs caught in the rope.
    able to avoid it.                                 2) coil round and round. naþa. 
álábé conj.                                           Obql el nu'alkqn k'taka. A
    if it were. idan da.  Alabx tqm                  snake is coiling round a spear.
    lqq s'bugu, tqm hxn d'kxmx.                   àllê = azlx.
    If I could fly I would have been happy.
    Variant: awabx.                               àmá1 n. (plural c'àmá)
                                                      pus. þiwa.  U m[dk[ c'ama an
àlãm c'kàtà n phrase.                                 noc kq d'hapa. He pressed out the
    mischief-making. fitina,                          pus from the boil in his armpit.
    ìiriniya.  Wa unl lqqk
    alqm c'kata. That child knows how             àmà2 v. (past amka)
    to cause mischief.                                clasp, take hold of. rungume,
                                                      kama.  Am depe cqn lqv
àlbá v. (past alqbka)                                 nokte. Grab those ears of corn and
    crouch. takura, duìa.  Qkqn                      take them.
    sootk a albqlk s'na. The
    children were sitting crouched.               ámáká pùdùdù pro. (plural amaka
                                                      pududunu)
k'àlbà n. (plural c'alba)                             the biggest, most important.
    wrestling trick. dabaran                          manya-manya.  I nwan reen
    kokawa.  U hetkqm qn                             amaka-pududunu. You people are
    k'alba. He felled me with a wrestling             the most important.
    trick.
                                                  ámàmànæ adv.
d'àlbîsà n. (plural c'albisa)                         in the near future, occasionally.
    onion. albasa.  El nan ris                       an jima.  Amamanqv nokt va
    s't[[ qn c'albisa. Soup can be                    mi gyuru. Bring me an axe later.
    cooked with onions. Variant:
   d'arbisq. From: Hausa.                         àmbáríi excl.
                                                      exclamation of surprise - 'oh my!'
àlêdé n. (plural alxdxnx)                             (lit. "My people"). o.  Ambarii!
   pig. alade.                                        yen deli nqm-nqm han? Oh my!
   From: Hausa.                                       why did I come?! Variant: ambqrii;
àlgá v.                                               ambqrinii.
    run away.                                     v'àmcçkæ n.
    sheìa.                                           tweezers - metal pincers used to
    Sip hivi                                          remove thorns from your skin.
    qv gagga,                                         matsefata.
    kada u alga. Catch the thief and tie
    him up so that he cannot run away.
àlgädwã n.
    kind of sweet made from boiling
    certain fruits. alawa.  El nan
    em algqdwq qn c'goga na
    s[[. You can make algqdwq with
    the fruit of certain trees; you drink it or
    lick it like honey. Variant:
    algqdwen.
4
d'ámdárkà                                                                d'àrbîsã
d'ámdárkà n. (plural c'amdarka)              v'ànînî n. (plural anini)
    hammer. hamma.  El nan em                   1) tenth of a penny. anini.  Tun
    c'dxklo qn d'amdarka. Tools                  wxx sqn A940 - na lak nan
    are sharpened with a hammer.                 wa c'rihin anini. In the years
àmgá v. (past amgska)                            around A940 - you could buy things for
    1) arrange, tidy, manage.                    a tenth of a penny.
    kintsa, tsara, shirya,                       2) button. anini. Variant: dàpà5
    gyara.  Hav qv amg gwin                     (Senchi). From: Hausa.
    kqnlo. Go and tidy that grass mat.       ànyé pro.
    2) sit up properly to clear space            nothing. ba kome.  I yxn sai
    for someone to pass. zauna. See:             taa han? - Anyx. What brings all
    kamgsa.                                      this? - Nothing. Variant: anyxla.
àmmá conj.                                   anyxla = anyx.
    but. amma.  Av noka la da,
    amma av t[n[ v'hau. Do not               ányòn adj.
    come, but if you wish you may come.          of the mother's side. na
    From: Hausa.                                 shiyyan uwa.  Sai na val
án úbù n.                                        an lxvqn yon can na sagte.
    people of the house, home.                   Let's wait until people from the mother's
    mutan gida.  Qv hxnx kxm                    side arrive before he is buried.
    anubu haka? Have people from             àpà v.
    home come?                                   pack away, clear away. kwashe.
ànà lãkúkú adv.                                   {m k'vav hav qv ap win
    northwards. arewa.  An hir                  cqn lo. Take a leaf and clear away
    sxx ka gabk lxvqn                            that faeces.
    ana-lqkuku. The hunters moved due        v'àpà n. (plural s'apa)
    north.                                       special forehead band.
ànàmá c'löbõ adv.                                maþaurin goshi.  El nan
    south. kudu.  Xm dukkq lxvan                gag v'apa rem c'walgo.
    anamc'l[b[. The wind blew from
    the south.                               àpàlá adv.
                                                 westwards. yamma.  Hwed giik
ándùrúkù n. (plural s'anduruku)                  a'pala. The sun has gone west.
    kind of tree. aduruku.
    Newbouldia laevis.  Anduruku i          k'ápcò n. (plural c'apco)
    ce nan caa gagne qn sqn. The                 clamp. maìagauciya.  El nan
    anduruku can be used to make                 kam rihi qn k'apco. Something
    fences. From: Hausa.                         can be gripped in a clamp.
àngà ángà  n.                 d'ápcò n. (plural c'apco)
    (plural anga angana)                         short stick inserted into the 'leash'
    bird like Abdim's white-bellied              to tighten a drum. koriyo.  El
    stork. adau.  Anga'anga i nem               nan h[dk d'hinq qn s'apco.
    h[d kxgx. This species of bird is like       Drums are adjusted with short sticks
    Abdim's white bellied stork.                 inserted into the 'leashes'.
àngàl  adv.                         àrà v. (past árkà, active noun v'ara)
    lamely, limping. þingishi.  Wa              ducking and diving while wrestling
    emk angal, qn nau nu mutis                   to avoid landing on knees.
    tii ni. A child limped because of his        taþiya, tiriji, dabaran
    sprained leg.                                kokawa.  Noc hyan ta lqqv
                                                 ar da. Another person does not know
                                                 the trick (of ducking and diving).

                                                                                        5
d'àrbîsã                                   d'àrmá
d'àrbîsã n. (plural c'arbisq) =
    d'albisa.
v'àræ n. (plural s'are)
    long beef; meat cut into long strips
    and allowed to dry raw.
    yanyana.  Qm waaka v'are
    dxxdx. I bought a strip of sun-dried
    meat yesterday.




6
d'àrmá                                                                          àzó
d'àrmá n. (plural c'arma)                    àtékátéké n.
    grass-roll on wall top as cushion            medium size. matsakaici.
    (purlin) for frame of roof to rest on.   àtróngà  n. (plural
    kalankuwa, jiniya.                          s'atronga)
    Txktxkqn yaak d'arma. Ants                   kind of creeper that usually grows
    have eaten the purlin.                       under the shade of big trees near
àró n. (plural s'aro)                            the river side. ragan tsohuwa.
    seam of genitals and anus.               v'ava = v'aba.
    þinkin Alla.
                                             àvà1 v. (past avka)
ás ás excl.                                      take (sth solid) out of liquid.
    motion to drive away chicken.                fitar da.
    as-as. From: Hausa.
                                             àvà n. (plural avna)
                                                 2

àsá v. (past aska)                               crab. ìaguwa.
    scatter. watsa, zubar da.
                                               àv-dwírí n. (plural av-dwirini)
àsç excl.                                        crab species. wata irin
    well! oh! noise expressing doubt.            ìaguwa.
    ashe.                                    àvgá v. (past avgka) = qvgq.
àshç part.                                   awabx = alabx.
    indeed, then. From: Hausa.
                                             áyá n. (plural ayana)
àsksç v.                                         larva of digger wasp. hurau.
    bathe by throwing water over
    one's body. yi wanka (a                  àyànyànà adj.
    shawa).                                     rich. (mai) arziki, (mai)
                                                dukiya, (mai) kuþi.
áswàaná adj.                                 àyàwádá = ayawadx.
    large. girma. Variant: aswanq.
                                             àyàwádê adv.
át vt.                                          often, in many cases. sau da
    not have. ba.                               yawa. Variant: ayawada.
d'àtá n. (plural c'ata)                      áyáwágàdæ n. (plural ayawagadne)
    bundle, coil (of dried hemp).               kind of snake. wani irin
    ìunshi, þauri.                              maciji.  Eps ayawagad a nan
ºtärsæ v. (past atqrske)                         p[t da. One will not survive the bite
    attack, move quickly to catch                of ayawagade. See: inqvwagade.
    something. faþa.                         àz con.
átç átç n.                                       in order to, that. wai.
    haste, hurry. (yi) sauri,                àzlê excl.
    (yi) hanzari, (yi) maza.                    what is it? what? wai me?
àtæsç v. (past ateske)                          Variant: allx.
    start early. yi sammako,                 àzó n. (plural azno)
    (tashi) da wuri. Variant:                   a kind of water-dwelling snake.
    gada2; gata; gadese; kàtæsç.                macijin ruwa.




                                                                                    7
ä                                                                                           äs

                                          Q     -    q

ä   excl.                                           k'äkù n. (plural c'qknu)
    yes. na'am.  A na p[g noc tu                        1) spider. gizogizo, tautau.
    sxs u ze q. If a person is called he                 gasteracantha.
    will answer and say 'yes'.                           2) evil spirit. ibilis, aljan,
ä'ã ad.                                                  iska. Variant: qkvqn-mxnkx.
   no, not, negative. babu, a'a.                    ãm pro.
   Variant: qqq.                                       I (sg.). na, ni. Variant: m.
ãbãsä v. (past qbqskq)                              ãmänkã  v.
   open, take off cover. buþe. See:                    be choked, full (of noise, smell,
   qpqsq.                                              etc.). sarìe, hananiya,
ãbú n.                                                 hargowa, gumre, gubre.
    abdomen, stomach. ciki,                         än1 pro.
    tumbi.  Noc a tu t[n az na                          them, which. su. Variant: nqn.
    hxn qba ru da. No one wants                       än-än pro.
    others to see his abdomen.                           only them. kaþai. Variant:
ãdãsä v. (past qdqskq)                                   nqn-nqn.
    put to shame. fallasa, jin                      ãn2 prep.
    kunya.  A noc la tu z[m                             at, in, on, from, to, by etc. a,
    hyan, nan qdqsq un d'hwen.                           daga. Variant: má.
    If a person likes to gossip about others,
    she will one day be put to shame.               ãn mî adv.
                                                         inside. cikin.
d'ãi n.
    kind of traditional farm work.                  ãngàu adv.
    al'adar gargajiya.                                   by force. tilas, ìarfi.
äk pùsú n.                                          ãnlé adv.
   good luck. sa'a.                                      why? for what? dori, damme.
äk pùsùní n. (plural qkqn                           änlú adv.
   pusane)                                               there. can. Variant: qnzu.
   angel. mala'ika.                                 ãntämã adv.
ãkãlsä vt. (past qkqlskq)                                now. yanzu.
   scrape sth off by running finger                   ãntämãntämã adv.
   along it. katse, kankare.                            at this minute, urgently.
ãkãnnä v. (past qkqrkq)                                 fafasfafas.
   split. èara.                                     änzù = qnlu.
ãkäskã v.                                           ãpãsä v. (past qpqskq)
    detach. èalle, þaiþaye,                             open (esp. of eyes). buþe. See:
    sassaìe, taya.                                      qbqsq.
äkskùtù n.                                          ãrmä1 n. (plural qrqmnq)
    kind of grass. haki mai                             man. mutum namiji.
    yatsu.
                                                      ãräm gyõzó n. (plural qrmqn
                                                        gy[zane)
                                                        strong, brave man or warrior. jan
                                                        gwarzo, farto.

8
ãrm¿                                                                    bàbbàbbà
ãrm¿2 n. (plural c'qrmq)                      äsmã v. (past qsqmkq, active noun
       1) bravery, courage. jaruntaka.             u'qsmu)
       2) virility. See: ãrmä.                     eat, biting in chunks. kurmusa,
äs adv.                                            murkusa.
   'shoo'. as, cas.                           ãu v.
äsä v. (past qskq, qsqskq, active                lose interest in sth, be
   noun ù'äsú)                                   disinterested in. fidda.
   suck breast, breast-feed, suckle.          ãvgä v. (past qvgkq, active noun
   shan mama. Variant: gubqsq;                   u'qvgu)
   qsqsq.                                        scoop, pick sth out of liquid.
qsqsq = qsq.                                     tsame.
                                              qvsaktasa = v'sakca.


                                     B    -    b

bá1 v.                                        báadç adv.
       grip suddenly. danìa. See:                'jolly good', fine (in the reply to a
       gwxgo, kxk, dado.                         greeting). sannu dai.
bà2 n.                                        bàahõ[mrî = h[[mri-zada.
       grounds.                               bàaká v.
bà adv.
   3
                                                   conditional. ban yi wa kaina
    first. farko.                                  balle wani.
bà v. (past báakà)
   4
                                              bàakú v.
    carve, cut into shape. yanka,                  race, examine, test, contest.
    goge, fafa.                                    rigyangyato, rige.
d'bà n. (plural c'ba)                         bàalá n.
    place. gu, wuri.                               travel. tafiya.
  bàadän cæpkò See: cepka.                      m'bàalà n.
  bàc'hwáalà n.                                   travelling. tafiya.
       place for buying things. wurin         d'bàatî n. (plural c'baati)
       sayawa.                                   children's toy drum made of a skin
  bàd'kàrgà n.                                   and a calabash. gangan yara,
   place where people assemble.                  ìwarya.
   magama.                                    bàazá n. (plural s'baaza)
báabá1 n. (plural s'baaba)                       fringed
   indigo shrub.                                 leather apron.
                                                 beje.
bàabá2 n.                                     bàbbá v. (past
       1) father (familiar). baba, uba.
       2) uncle, or any older male               babka)
       relative. kawu. See: ceto.                sell. sayar
                                                 (da).
c'bàabánà n.
       elders, 'class in g[lm[ age            bàbbàbbà id.
       setting'. ubannin golmo.                    sound of
                                                   rushing water
báabò ad.                                          or wind. wani
       no. babu. From: Hausa.                      irin motsi.
                                                                                         9
bácò                                                                   bàkæ
bácò n.                                  bàglá v. (past bagqlka)
   home. gidan ko wurin mu.                  lock gate or door. kalmasa,
bàdá v. (past badaska, badka)                taushe.
   grab, catch hold of. danìa.           d'bàglò n.
m'bàdá n.                                   bolt. ìulle.
   stitch round both ends of arrow       k'bài n. (plural c'bai)
   shaft; nick at end of arrow shaft.       goat skin bag often used by
   lallautu.                                hunters. burgami.
d'bàdà (plural                           bàkà v. (past bakka)
   c'bada) =                                1) split (e.g. a log). faskara.
   k'cidi.                                  2) flay, skin or pluck. feþe.
ù'bàdà n.                                k'bàkà n. (plural c'bàkà)
   (plural                                  1) crevice. saìo, lungu
   c'bada)                                  (þan).
   loincloth                                2) chapped, cracked skin on the
   made from                                foot. fason ìasa.
   animal skin.                          bàkàsá v. (past bàkáskà, active noun
   warki.                                   u'bakasa)
bádgà v. (past                              1) remember, recall. tuna,
   badgka)                                  maro.
   grind flour                              2) remind.
   coarsely.                               c'bakasa n.
   èarza.                                    memory.
bàdgbàdgò                                  i bákkà me
    adv.                                     it has come back to me - I have
   trickling of                              remembered. na tuna.
   water onto a person carrying a
   leaking vessel. jirwaye. Variant:     bakazowa n.
   c'badgo.                                  woven mat borrowed from
                                             Kambari people and often used
c'badgo = badgbadgo2.                        instead of cornstalk bed mats.
bádgùrá n. (plural badgurana)                tabarma.
   kind of bird like a bush-fowl which   s'bàkävtò n.
   only flies when the year's rains          long-
   are about to end. wani irin               distance
   tsuntsu. Variant: badgurwin.              shooting (an
badgurwin = badgura.                         arrow).
bàgá v. (past bagka)                         cilla,
   become jammed or stuck.                   jarau.
   kakari.                               d'bákcæ n.
k'bágágáu n. (plural c'bagagau)             (plural
   loud thunderclap. abassama.              c'bakce)
   See: v'txno; v'rado.                     underwear.
                                            adako.
k'bágànî n. (plural c'bagani)            bàkæ n. (plural
   somersault or hand-spring.
                                            s'bake)
k'bágbágò n. (plural c'bagbago)             kind of tree. wani irin
   rattle, child's mouth-organ made         itace.
   from cornstalk. karan busa.

10
bàkæsç                                                               v'bápcò
  bàkæ táagnæ n. (plural bakes            bànà v. (past banka)
   taagne)                                   invite. gayyato.
   kind of tree. wani irin                bàncò n. (plural s'banco)
   itace.                                    medicine. magani.
bàkæsç v. (past bakeske)                  m'bàncò n.
   split wood. faskara da.                   witchweed, a destructive red
bákká1 n. (plural bakkana)                   weed. ìuduji. Striga spp.;
   sb with unusual teeth growth.             Buchnera hispida.
   kacakaura.                             d'bàndà n. (plural c'banda)
bákká2 n. (plural bakkana)                   fence (round sth), pen (for
   kind of wild animal. wani irin            animals). shinge.
   naman jeji.                            s'bàndò an.
d'bàklábnà n.                                 kind of game using a hoe, played
    1) at a late time. dabbaya,               by g[lm[ people. wasa da
    latti, makara.                            hauya wani iri.
    2) foolish (talk).                    d'bànç n.
báknánà n.                                   invitation. ganyata.
   stalk, cornstalk, guinea corn stalk.   bángánî  n. (plural
   rassa.                                    s'bangani)
ù'bàlá n. (plural c'bala)                    kind of shrub. ìaramin itace.
   winnowing floor. masheka.                 Variant: bangni (Senchi).
bàlà v. (past balka)                      bàngbàngò ;
   invent, pretend. ìaga.                     id.
                                             looking terrified. firigtace.
bàlbàlà1 v.
    evaporate. watsal-watsal.             bángnæ  n. (plural
bàlbàlà2 adv.                                s'bángne)
    looking this way and that.               kind of tree. wani irin
    ficiko.                                  itace.
d'bàlkç n.                                k'bàngó  n. (plural
   risk life pluckily. kasai.                c'bango)
                                             large hide-bag. teki.
bàlmá vi. (past balqmka)
   turn, revolve, rotate. juya.           bánkál  adv.
                                             alone, unexpectedly without a
báltà v. (past baltka)                       companion. kaþaita.
   boil. tafasa.
bámbámá ad.                               bánkãlá  n. (plural
    different(ly). sun bambanta.             bankqlana)
    Variant: bamme.                          wolf, jackal, Fennec (African fox)
                                             etc. kerkeci, dila,
bámcò n. (plural s'bamco)                    yanyawa. Canis zerda.
    pillar. ginshiìi.
                                          bànnã v.
  k'bámcò n. (plural c'bamco)                 invite. gayyato.
    pier, pillar. ginshiìi.
                                          bànùgwç v.
bamme = bambama.                              set a day to go hunting in the
bán n. (plural s'ban)                         bush. sa ranar farauta.
    kind of tree. uwar magunguna.         bàp adv.
k'bàn n. (plural c'ban)                       idly, lazily, uselessly, sitting
    body of water, pond. kandami,             inactive and unwilling to do sth.
    tabki.                                    zaman kashe-wando.

                                                                                  11
bàpá                                     bàrgá
bàpá v. (active noun c'bápó)
   join, connect. hada.
v'bápcò n. (plural s'bapco)
   link. mahaþa.
     c'bápó v.
   join, link, solder. hada.
bàr zö[ræ n. (plural s'bar
   z[[re)
   shrub. cibra.
k'bárá n.
      title used to show rank. sarauta
      wani iri.




12
bàrgá                                                                      bä
bàrgá n. (plural s'barga)             bàsnçmà n. (plural s'basnema)
    kind of tree. ìaramin itace           tree from the fig-tree family.
    mai kama da dinya. Vitex              siriya. Figus carica. See: dapa.
    diversi folia.                    d'bàtá
  d'bàrgá (plural m'barga)               drum. = d'bõ[rõ.
    plum-like fruit. 'ya'yan          bàtà v. (past bátkà, active noun
    þinyan biri.                         s'bàtà)
ù'bàrkätãi n.                            1) release, let go, throw away.
   disorderly. aika-aika.                saki.
k'bàrktà n. (plural c'barkta)            2) kicking. shuri. Variant:
   calyx of sorrel. soèarodo.            batkka.
bàró n. (plural s'baro)               c'bàtç n.
   desert date tree. aduwa.              entrusting animals to be reared in
                                         another's care. tallafi.
  c'bàró
    desert date fruit. dabino,        bàtæsç v. (past bateske)
    aduwa.                               be at ease, relax. busar iska,
                                         sakewa, sake jiki. Variant:
                                         batka.
                                      batka = batese.
                                      bàtkàbátká n.
                                         sparks. tartsatsi.
                                      bàtkñ n. (plural batkene)
                                         eagle. gaggafa, jahurma.
í'bàró n. (plural m'baro)             bàtó vt. (past bátkò)
    kind of small chisel. kurfi.         drop sth inside a pot or drum of
                                         water. sàká.
bàs id.
   'crash!'. amon faþuwar kaya.       bátt id.
                                         kicking, clicking sound, as when a
bàsá v. (past baska)                     grasshopper shoots upwards.
   urinate or relieve oneself.           harbawa kamar na fara.
   zawaye.                               See: bàtà.
m'bàsá n.                             d'báttà n. (plural c'batta)
    urine. fitsari, bawali.              metal container, receptacle.
bàsämpùsämnî n.                          batta. From: Hausa.
    semen (fluid produced by the      bature = zemna.
    testes of mammals, containing
    sperm). maniyyi.                  bàzà v. (past bazka)
                                         bird-hunting at night. farautan
c'bàsæ n.                                 tsuntsaye da dare da
   watery stools/excrement,               wutan kara. Variant: bazgka.
   diarrhoea. zawayi.
                                      v'bàzgnà n. (plural s'bazgna)
d'bàsæ n. (plural c'base)                Indian hemp. rama.
   knot on calabash where it was
   originally attached to the tree.   v'bázgùtàaræ n. (plural
   cibanya.                              s'bazgutaare)
                                         a kind of tree. wani irin
báskà v.                                 itace.
    have an attack of diarrhoea.
    èute. See: c'base.                bä1 n.
                                          part, place.

                                                                            13
bã                                                                      bäksí
bã2 ad.                                 bãgbãgã id.
   looking absent-minded, distant.         in a flapping manner. sako-
   wani irin kallo.                        sako.
bãqgä v. (past bqqgkq)                  k'bägbägù n. (plural c'bägbägù)
   beat (a drum), for warming up or        kind of cornstalk flute. karan
   introduction. somin tabi,               wasan yawa. See: k'fxku.
   kaþa, kiþa. Variant: bqqgu.
bãqgù v.
   hunt mice in the dry season.
   farautan kusa.
bäqkä v. (past bqqkkq)                  bãhämã n. (plural s'bqhqmq)
   hit or beat repeatedly. buga,           kind of shrub. wani irin
   duka.                                   ganye.
bäqrã v. (past bqqrkq)                  k'bãhú n. (plural c'bqhu)
   1) cover, hunt, walk all over a         sack. buhu. From: Hausa?
   large area in search of sth. bazu.
   2) spread all over. yaþa,            à'bãi n. (plural c'bqi)
   warwatse.                               hip or lower back.
                                           kwatangwalo.
d'bãqrã n. (plural c'bqqrq)
   cleared open space. fage.            bãkä n.
                                            husks, the coarse part of ground
bãqrbãqrí v.                                flour. tsaki.
      wander about. gararamba.
                                          bãklä v.
bãqtîbãqtî id.                              grind sth coarsely, grind for the
   fumbling. jani inja.                     first time. èarza.
bäblä n. (plural c'bqblq)                 ù'bãklä n.
   toothless. dasori, mamulko.              coarsely-ground results of first
bäbrç = bãbú. Variant: f[tr[.               time grinding. niìan farko.
bqbrindu = v[nv[.                       bäkälkã v.
                                           be coarsely ground. fashar-
bãbsîndí n. (plural c'bãbsîndí)            fashar.
   = gyõ[nàgyö.
c'bãbú n.                               bãkännä v. (past bqkqnkq)
                                           split, cut into two parts. tsaga,
   toothless person. dasashi.              èara.
d'bãbú n. (plural c'bqbu)               bãkärkã v.
   toothless mouth, gap from loss of        split, crack. tsaga, èara.
   a tooth. gièi, èaèurka,
   dasori.                              ù'bãklã n.
                                           coarse ground flour. dabaza.
     ká c'bãbú
      toothless person. dasashi.        bäkrã v. (past bqkqrkq, active noun
      Variant: bäbrç.                      u'bqkru)
                                           split (into pieces). raba,
bãd id.                                    tsage, èara.
   crack (open). ìarar fasawa.
bãdä v. (past bqdkq)                    bäksí v.
                                            (eat) breakfast, eat sth for the first
   be relaxed, at ease, feel easy in        time in the morning. karya
   mind. saka.                              kumallo.
k'bãgã n.
      mud bed. gadon ìasa.

14
bqlgq                             bämä
 d'bãksî n.
   breakfast, food prepared for
   morning meal. karin kumallo.
bqlgq = bqrgq.
bälgúnù vi.
   dissolve. narke. Variant:
   bälgún.




                                    15
bämä                                                      bãtã d'dän
bämä n. (plural                        bãrbãrã id.
     s'bqmq)                             scattered. watse.
     low-built                       bãrgù v.
     screen wall                         hunt. farauta.
     within a
     room,                           bãrkãnsàa adj.
     partition for                       in disorder, confusion, disturbed.
     privacy.                            barkatai.  Qm emk
     kariya.                             bqrkqnsaa am hong tin
                                         h[dunlo. I became disturbed and in
bänã n.                                  confusion when I heard that.
     their place,
     their home.                     ù'bãrmà n. (plural c'bqrma)
     wurin su.                           kind of grave. kushewa.
bãnänkã  n. (plural      k'bãrmà n.
   s'bqnqnkq)                            special heap of soft soil to honour
   rumours, gossip. baza, bazu.          a few titled g[lm[ workers,
                                         according to Lelna tradition.
bãngärkã  v.
   grow quickly, shoot up. girma     bärù adv.
   nan da nan.                           possibly, really, at all; expresses
                                         uncertainty in a question, possibly
bänglä  n. (plural             softening it. kuwa.
   c'bqnglq)
   wrestling tactic, move. dabaran   bãsä v.
   kokawa.                               1) proclaim, make proclamation.
                                         shelanta.
bãngrãm  adv.                 2) speak aloud.
   in large chunks, sizes. gundun-
   gundun, manya-manya.                d'bãsã n.
   Variant: bqngrqmbqngrqm.              proclamation, publicity, news.
                                         shela, bazawa.
b¿p id.
     oof!                            bãsä d'kwærmà n.
                                         promise-breaker, sb who does not
bãrãm id.                                keep a promise. marar
     fanned out, stretched out.          alkawari.
     faski, fankacece.
                                     d'bãskù n.
d'bãrãndãmî n.                           bursting, ready to pass urine. jin
     type of hatchet. barandami.         fitsari.
     From: Hausa.
                                     d'bãtã n.
bärgã v.                                 human stomach, abdomen.
   sprinkle. barbada. Variant:           ciki, tumbi.  Bqtqd cim
   bqlgq.                                nqm'sono. I have stomach ache.
bãrgämhõ n. (plural bqrgqmh[[n[)       c'bãtã
   skink lizard. kulèa. Variant:        bladder, intestine. mafitsara,
   b[lgqmh[, mqlgqmh[.                  hanji.
bãrgbärgú n. (plural bqrgbqrgnu)     k'bãtã n. (plural c'bqtq)
   Green Fruit-Pigeon. kurciyar         stomach; the sack that contains
   gamji. Treron australis.             food, especially of ruminant
bärgsã v. (past bqrgskq)                animals. ciki, tumbi.
   scatter, become dispersed.        bãtã d'dän adv.
   warwasar, watsar da.                  relaxed, with mind at ease,
                                         carefree. saki jiki.
16
bãtãmsä                             bqtqnsq
bãtãmsä vt. (past bqtqmskq)
    unravel, unwind, spread open.
    warware, walwale. Variant:
    bqtqnsq, bqtqnskq.




                                         17
bqtqnsq                                                                  bælædïmä
bqtqnsq (past bqtqnskq) =                   bçdgà vt. (past bedgka)
      bqtqmsq.                                 cross, lay sth across, slide over.
                                               gilma.
bätäs adv.
      1) relaxed, carefree, mind at rest.   v'bædgcó n. (plural s'bedgco)
      mai sauìin kai ko mai                    1) lintel, step inside or at the door
      walwala.                                 of a house. dokin ìofa,
      2) extravagantly. almubazzari.           taya ni shiga. See picture for:
                                               d'kqbq.
bãtksä v. (past bätkskã)                       2) rung, crosspiece forming step
      1) trim to shape. gyara,                 on a ladder or crosspiece on
      shirya.                                  chair. mataki þaya na
      2) stretch out, expose.                  tsani.
     k'bãtksã n. (plural c'bqtksq)          bæenº n.
      1) exposition, expression of sth.        dream.
      2) dictionary. ìamus.                 bægá1 v. (past begka)
bättärmà1 n. (plural bqttqrmana)               1) intercept. tarye, ci tare,
      kind of wingless grasshopper.            tarba.
      wata irin fara.                          2) prop up. tokare. See: pægá
                                               'keep near'. Variant: bekka.
bättärmà2 adj.                              bægà2 n. (plural begna)
      short, broad (person), rotund.           ground squirrel, chipmunk.
      tittirna. See: magyangoro.               buzai, kurege. Sciuridae.
bãtúsù v. (past bqtusku)                    d'bçgcò n. (plural c'begco)
      feel secure, at ease, relaxed,           wedge, chock, piece or block of
      unpressured. sake, saki                  sth used to prevent sth else (e.g.
      jiki, babu jin tsoro,                    a wheel) from moving. waiji,
      hankali kwance.  Hamcqv                 ìafa.
      ri bqtusku nu'bu. My guest feels
      at ease in my house.                  bægæ n. (plural s'bege)
                                               kind of climber tree. inwar-
bçbà n. (plural bebna)                         gada.
      huge person, giant. ìatti.
                                            bægná1 v. (past begqnka)
d'bæbá n.                                      grow fully. gingatau.
      teenage years, teens. waþanda         bægnà2 n. (plural s'begna)
      shekarun su sun wuce 15.                 the marga tree or its pods. gama
d'bæbò n. (plural c'bebo)                      faþa. Swartzia madascariensis.
      below, low down. tushe.               bego = cwicwi.
k'bæcæ n.                                   c'bælà n.
      dirt, dirtiness. ìazanta.                uptown; the outer district of a
                                               town. karkara.
bædá v. (past bedka)
      intercept. tarba.                     ù'bælà n. (plural c'bela)
                                               farm. gona.
v'bædàa n. (plural s'beda)                  Bælædïmä1 np.
      decoration made on a granary,             tradition practised every 7 years.
      ridge of mud raised to stop water         al'ada.  Beledimq i d'hxt
      rushing through the lower level.          d'gubk qn copu qn a'Lela
      mataran ruwa.                             dqn na reen nan em u'Daba.
                                                This is a Lelna cultural festival which is
                                                celebrated at Dabai every seven years.

18
bælædïmä                                                                    bêf
bælædïmä2 v. (active noun
    u'beledimq)
    turn (head) and look back. dubi
    baya.
c'bæmkò n.
   thatching. baibaye.
bængsá  v. (past
   bengska)
   lift sth up to survey or inspect it
   critically. þaga, ta da.
bærcæ adj.
    different (not the same or
    unusual), left sided. wani,
    daban.
                                           s'bébgò n.
bærò adj.                                   like an excited he-goat, the
    left. hagu. See: kanta.                 sticking up of the upper lip of a
  d'bærò n.                                 he-goat. wani irin kukan
   left-handed, left hand side.             bunsuru.
   hagance.                              bébké n. (plural s'bxbkx)
bçsà v. (past besaka)                       acacia-like ferny shrub. þunþu.
   take out a small amount, pinch        Bédê1 n.
   out. defana.                             Morning Star. ganzaki.
bé con.                                  bédê2 n. (plural bxdnx)
    if. idan.                               aphid, an insect that has specially
d'bé n. (plural c'bx)                       adapted mouthparts for piercing
    outdoor granary - a thatched            and sucking the sap from plants.
    building made out of clay or            ìwaro mai kama da galla.
    cornstalks used for storing grain.   bédé3 v. (past bxdkx)
    rufewa, rufeni, rumbu.                  purse lips. buntsura.
    See: d'birgq 'indoor corn-bin'.
    See picture for: d'sipi.               bédém n.
  bxd c'neta n. (plural bxc              c'bédê n.
    c'neta)                                  residue, dregs. dusar giya.
    outdoor granary store with many      bédéxm adj.
    separate storage areas inside and        facial contortion, with twisted or
    usually a door at the side.              curled lips. See: bxdx3.
    rufewa.
                                         bêxbê1 n.
  béd àrmä n.                                dumb (person). bebe. From:
    outdoor granary store, often with        Hausa.
    removable roof. See picture for:
    d'sipi.                              béxbé2 adv.
                                             1) just now, this very moment.
bébbéx id.                                   þazu.
   open-mouthed, gaping, indicating          2) earlier.
   astonishment. hanhai.
                                         béxzó adv.
bébgê v. (past bxbgkx)                       a while ago, since. dazun.
   act like an excited he-goat.
                                         bêf adj.
                                             concave (-shaped), hollow.
                                             gantsararre.
                                                                                  19
bégbégé                               bêgò
bégbégé id.
   shiver, shake due to being cold.
   makyarkyata.
bégé n. (plural bxgnx)
   (earth) centipede. shanshani.
   Variant: vxgx.




20
bêgò                                                           béték c'wîn
bêgò v.                                 d'béntê n. (plural c'bxntx)
    catch adroitly (in a clever or          loincloth. bante. See: d'kêmpê.
    cunning way, demonstrating              From: Hausa.
    physical or mental skill). cafka,
    cafke. See: gwxgo.                  bênyá n.
                                            rice.
bégtém adj.                                 shinkafa.
    facial dryness, thinness. fuska
    wani irin duba. Variant:            bép id.
    vxgtxm.                                 sound of one
                                            thing falling on
békê1 n.                                    top of another.
   muneous eye discharge.                   wani irin
   kwantsa.                                 motsi.
békê2 v. (past bxkxkx)                  d'bérêxdí n.
   step or jump over sth. ìetara,          (plural c'bxrxxdi)
   tsalle.                                 loaf of bread. burodi. From:
béknê n.                                   Hausa, English.
   sleepy dust. lanya.                  bêrgê n. (plural bxrgxnx)
bêlbêlò = bxrgx.                           swallow, very common in Lelna
bélê v.                                    areas; a small graceful swift-flying
    turn head round to look behind.        songbird, with long pointed wings
    waiga.                                 and a forked tail. allaka.
                                           Hirundinidae. Variant: bxlbxlo
bélvé vi.                                  (Dabai).
   turn head.
                                        bésê vt.
à'bémé n. (plural c'bxmko)                  finish. gama.
   roof, thatch. jinka, rufi.
                                          d'bésê n.
                                            last occasion of, final. ìarshe.
                                        bésêké v.
                                            finish. ìarasa, tsuce.
                                        í'bésêké n.
                                           accompanying, having,
                                           concomitant. game da.
                                        bésété n. (plural bxsxtxnx)
                                           last born, youngest of several
                                           siblings. auta.
                                        d'bété n. (plural c'bxtx)
                                           nest, termitarium. gije,
  bémé v. (past bxmkx)                     sheìan gara.
    thatch (a roof). baibaye.           bétébêtê n.
d'bén n.                                   kind of food made from leaves
   sediment. allaka, dalaki,               and flour. azuìuìu.
   cito.                                béték c'wîn n. (plural bxtx
m'bêndé = m'dxndx.                         c'win)
                                           excrement covered with soil by
bêngrêm  adv.                   beetles. burtsa.
   loneliness in a big house or
   compound. kaþaita a wuri.

                                                                               21
bétk-d'hçrgæ                                                            d'bîmä
bétk-d'hçrgæ n. (plural                  bíikî n. (plural biikni)
      bxtk-d'hergene)                       castrated animal. taure,
      ant-lion, an ant-eating lizard.       agufi, fiþiye.
      tururuwa da dangin su.             bíitsî v. (past biitski)
   Variant: gòng-d'òrgó (Zuru).             wag, sway, stagger. rangwaþa,
bétkê v. (past bxtkkx, active noun          rausaya.
   c'bxtko)                              s'bíkî n.
   1) dig up, scrabble around.              menial work. aikacen gida.
   tona, tono.
   2) scatter.                           k'bíkí n. (plural c'biki)
                                            refuse heap, pile of rubbish or
c'bétkò an.                                 trash. juji.
   scrabble, scratch. bece.
                                         bîkîm id.
bézé v. (past bxzkx)                         swell, becoming swollen.
   split open, warp, truss. banìara.         sundundun. See: birim.
     bézém adj.                          bîlã1 v.
   trussed, fanned, untidily cut.           change statement. sake
   banìararre, buyaya.                      shawara.
d'bî n. (plural c'bi)                    bílã2 n. (plural c'bilq)
   act of thrashing (usu. corn). bugu.      river bank, shore. gaèar ìogi.
s'bî an.                                 bílã3 v.
   beat with a stick. duka,                  splice. kuta.
   bankashi, þuma.
bíbä v. (past bibkq)                     bílämpàsò n.
                                             opposite river bank. ìetare.
   wrangle, dispute, disagree, refuse
   to accept sth. gardama.               c'bîlbîlù adv.
                                             1) insinuatingly, indirectly (of talk).
bíbíbí id.                                   habaici.
   sound of a hastening crowd,               2) dodging aside. kauciya.
   commotion, hubbub. dakaka.
bícú n. (plural bicnu)
   Otter Shrew, or mongoose; an
   ant-eater. dabgi, tunku.
   Potamogale velox. See picture for:
   k'bai.
bídgsî v. (past bidgski)
   pound or grind to a certain level.
   ribþi, daka zurce.
bîdù adv.
      disappeared completely, never
      seen again, eloped, absconded.
      tutur.
bíi id.                                  bîlõngnò  n.
   buzz, rushing sound of people or         a hole dug straight down,
   a swarm of bees etc. dakaka.             underground drain. wani irin
bíibî n. (plural s'biibi)                   rami, rariyar ìasa.
   balsam apple, a twining plant.        d'bîmä1 n. (plural c'bimq)
   garafuni. Momordica balsamina.           pitcher, ewer, large jug used for
                                            storing honey. tulu.

22
d'bîmã                                                      bítãm c'hwîn
                                          d'bîrbít n.
                                              "once upon a time", beginning,
  í'bîmä n.                                   here begins the fable. almara.
    (plural
    m'bimq)                               bírgá n.
    small                                    strong powder concoction used by
    pitcher.                                 hunters to revive an animal
    tulu.                                    temporarily. maganin
                                             maharbi.
d'bîmã2 n.
   lynching,                              bîrgã v. (past birgkq)
   punishme                                  1) knead. mulmula.
   nt for                                    2) roll (over). mirgine.
   fornication                              bírgsä v.
   or                                        roll sth along. mirgina.
   adultery act or attempt.               d'bírgã n. (plural c'birga)
   kwartanci.                                1) small
bímbí n. (plural bimbini)                    clay corn-
   adult imago beetle, or the Shield-        bin
   back Bug. buzuzu. Stiretrus               usually
   ancorago.                                 inside a
k'bîndigài n. (plural                        house for
   c'bindigai)                               storing
   Dane gun, a simple old-fashioned          grain.
   gun. adaka.                                rahoniy
                                              a. See:
bîngî  n. (plural                    d'bx
   bingini)                                   'outdoor
   male donkey. namijin jaki,                 granary'.
   aura, goho.                                2) pantry.
í'bíní n.                                   í'bírgã
    odour of sour flour or urine. ìari.        n. (plural
bíntãlmá n.                                  m'birgq)
    bank (for money). banki.                 small corn
                                             bin made of clay. rumbu.
bînyànyálà n.
   rice and beans. shinkafa da            d'bírgù n. (plural c'birgu)
   wake.                                     trunk (of body). gangar jiki.
bip1 = pat.                               d'bîrî n.
                                              whole. gundumbuli, duka.
bíp2 adj.
    plump, fat. mai' yar ìiba.              bîrîm adj.
                                              swollen. sundundun. See:
d'bírämbîntù adv.                             bikim.
   randomly, uncertainly,
   hesitatingly, unsurely,                d'bísä n.
   haphazardly. fafaka.                       good smell, pleasant odour.
                                              ìamshi.
bírävnàísä n. (plural
   s'birqvnaisq)                          bítãm c'hwîn v.
   door, doorway. ìofa.                       throw earth over ones shoulder as
                                              an act of repentance. afa,
bîrbîrî adj.                                  hurwa.
    kneaded into a ball shape. dunk-
    uli.

                                                                               23
d'bîtî                                                                  bòsà
d'bîtî n.                                    reticulata. kalgo, bohania.
     traditional festival. al'adar           Bauhinia reticulata. Variant: pqnkq
     gargajiya, biki.                        (Pani dialect).
bítî v.                                  bòmà2 v.
     bury, cover. rufe, bizna.               mourning for a period as widows
bítísî v.                                    are supposed to do. takaba.
     cover (oneself) up, wrap up.          c'bòmà n.
     lulluèe.                               traditional dress of a widow or
ù'bîtú n.                                   widower during the period of
   throwing or putting ashes on             mourning. kayan takaba.
   heads in obeisance. afi.              bòmsç n. (plural bomsne)
bítú v. (past bîtkù)                        widow or widower (female or
   meet, find sb. ishe, tarar               male) in mourning. mace
   (da), iske riska. See:                    gwauruwa ko namiji
   gàdá. Variant: bitkq.                     gwauro.
k'bòbá n. (plural c'boba)                bòn n. (plural bonno)
   shrub, bush, scrub, undergrowth.         bush cat. muzuru, magen
   þan itace, daji.                         daji, tsararawa.
bòbà n. (plural bobna)                   bònà v. (past bonka, active noun
   weevil, a small beetle with a hard       s'bona)
   shell that feeds on grain, nuts and      throw or fling sth quickly and
   seeds. wani irin ìwaro.                  strongly. jefa.
d'bòckcò n. (plural c'bockco)            bòncò n. (plural boncono)
   both the biceps and calf muscle.         kind of biting insect. wani irin
   ìunduwa. Small (in Senchi):              ìwaro.
   í'bòckcò. Small Plural:               bóngà  v.
   m'bockco. Variant: botkco.               pay no attention, ignore, fail to
bódbódó1 adv.                               listen, turning a deaf ear (to).
   silently, without speaking.              rashin kula wani iri.
   shiru-shiru.                          bóngbóngó  adv.
bódbódó2 n. (plural bodbodno)               puffed-up. fushi ko tura,
   kind of elephant-snout fish.             baki sama wani iri.
   lamsa. Gymnarchus niloticus.          bóngkà  adj.
bódó id.                                    puffed up, filled with pride,
     quietly, still. mara motsi, mai        conceited. wani irin
     kurum, mai                             kumburi. Variant: mongka (Pani
     shiru. Variant:                        dialect).
   bodbodo.                              bòró adv.
d'bòká n. (plural                           usually. na kullum. Variant:
   c'boka)                                  boroko.
   round stand for a                     bòsà1 v. (past boska)
   water pot.                               pinch, break off a piece of sth.
   gansarwa. See                            gutsura.
   picture for:
   d'ubgcu.
bòmà1 n. (plural
   s'boma)
   the tree Bauhinia

24
bòsà                                                                   bõlgö
bòsà2 n.                                 d'bõgö n.
   special community work done by           aversion, tidiness, neatness.
   teenagers (g[lm[ people) early in        ìyama.
   the morning before going to           b[gt[m = bugtum.
   another place to work. ganyan
   noma wani iri.                        d'bõhç n.
                                            1) group for traditional communal
bòskç n. (plural boskne)                    farm labour. wani irin
   age range or rank in g[lm[               ganya.
   (teenagers). tsara.                      2) (making) a promise to engage
bòtà1 n. (plural botna)                     oneself for farming. alkawarin
   ugly woman. badusa,                      noma.
    bacikkida, bunga,                    bõhõ = bõpõ.
    mumuna.
bòtà2 v.                                 bõk id.
                                             sound heard as sth falls down
    forget. manta.                           from a height. wata irin
  c'bótbótò n.                               ìara.
   forgetfulness. mantuwa,               bõkbõk id.
   matasala. Variant: c'bótó.                stagger, walk with heavy single
botkco = d'bockco.                           steps. èuluk-èuluk.
bö1 v.                                   bõkbõkõ id.
    cook kind of draw soup. miyan            boiling continuously, a running
    kadi.                                    boil. zaèaka. See: s'b[kto.
bö2 part.                                bõkkãdkwä n.
    then, (used for emphasis).               wingless grasshopper.
d'bõ n.                                      adindima.
    recognition. mutum wanda aka         bõkkç n.
    fi kula wa.                             kind of wingless grasshopper,
bõbõbõ id.                                  similar to the Rainbow
    sound of running water in a gorge.      Grasshopper. dunduèa.
    motsin ruwan da ke gudu                 Dactylotum bicolor.
    a kwari.                             bõkö n. (plural b[kn[)
bõcæbõcæ v.                                 guinea pig, an animal looking like
    trampling. tattakawa                    a rat without a tail, native of South
    cikintabo.                              America. wani irin kusu.
                                            Cavia porcellus.
bõdbõdõ adj.
   soft to the touch. mai taushi.        bõkrõ bõkrõ id.
                                             plop plop! sound of a series of
bõdkö v. (past b[dkk[)                       fruit falling. amo, ìara,
   knead. cuþa, cura.                        motsi.
bõdõ id.                                 s'bõktò an.
   relaxed, at rest, comfortable.           boil continuously for a long time.
   ligis, laìwas.                           zaèaka.
böf = bxf.                               bõlg-c'góló n. (plural
bögãmb÷ n. (plural bögãmbönõ)               b[lg-c'golno)
   Cattle Egret. belbela. Bubulcus          Black-winged Oriole, a kind of bird
   ibis.                                    with yellow and brown feathers.
                                            wani irin tsuntsu. Oriolis
                                            nigripennis.

                                                                               25
bõlgö                                                          bõpãm d'bà
bõlgö1 v. (past b[lgk[, active noun        k'bõngnõ  n. (plural
     c'b[lgo)                                  c'b[ngn[)
     stir, mess up, crumple, muddle.           trap for catching fish. dubaran
     yamutsa.                                  kamun kifi. See: k'sqpknq;
bõlgõ2 n.                                      zogo.
   searching for sth in mud.               böngölö[dí  n.
   cigiya.                                     the food hura. hura.
bõlö v. (past b[lk[, active noun           d'bõnkällõ  n.
   c'b[l[)                                     (plural c'b[nkqll[)
   mix. kwaèa, gauraya, cuþa.                  dumpling, kneaded ball of food.
                                               mulmule. Variant: c'kwqtkq
c'bõlõ n.                                      (Zuru).
     food mixed together by hand; act
     of mixing food together by hand.        í'bõnkällõ 
     gwalitsa.                                 n. (plural m'b[nkqll[)
                                               small dumpling. dunìuli,
bõm adv.                                       curi. Variant:
     squatting, sitting firmly, rigidly.       i'b[nkqll[-b[nkqll[.
     daèas.
                                           d'bõnkö  n. (plural
                                               c'b[nk[)
bömkõ v.                                       lump. dunìule.
   thank. gode.                            bö[ v. (past b[[k[)
   See: b[m[.                                  method of cooking soup. dafa.
bömö1 n. (plural                           bõ[kãdhî n. (plural s'b[[kqdhi)
   b[mn[)                                      medicinal shrub. hankufa.
   a kind of deadly
   snake, possibly                         bö[kõ v. (past b[[kk[)
   the Puff Adder.                             soothe, make and apply a
     kasa - wani                               poultice. farsa.
     irin                                  d'bõ[rõ n. (plural c'b[[r[)
     maciji.                                   kind of drum which should not be
                                               touched without good reason.
bõmõ2 v. (past                                 wata irin ganga. Variant:
     b[mk[, active
     noun c'b[m[)                              d'bàtá.
     praise,                               bõ[yî n. (plural b[[yini)
     acknowledgement, thanks,                  rank range, ones equal, rank in
     gratitude. yaba, yabo.                    g[lm[.
c'bõmõ n.                                    c'bõ[yî n.
     thanks, praise. ada'a.                    2nd year age group in g[lm[.
bõnbõnõ id.                                    shiga shekara na biyu a
   looking sloppy, slushy, damp,               golmo.
   greasy. caèa, nas-nas. See:             bõp id.
   dõntdõntò. Variant: b[ntsk[,               thud, sound of falling. matsi,
   b[nts[.                                    amon faduwa wani iri.
                                              Variant: b[pb[p.
d'bõngnæ  n.
   marked piece of land (with a            bõpãm d'bà n. (plural b[pbqm
   boundary), area. juyayya,                  c'ba)
   kadada, fili.                              vow, a promise made to a deity in
                                              exchange for fulfilment of a
                                              request. kiran kurkutu. See:
                                              bõpõ 'hold'; d'ba 'place'.

26
b[pb[p                                  bùcbùcù
b[pb[p = b[p.
bõpõ v. (past böpkõ)
    1) come near, approach. ìarata.
    2) hold, grip. riìe, kama,
    danìa. Variant: b[h[.
k'b÷ss n.
    bus. From: English.
bõzbõzõ adj.
   healthy, well, enjoying a state of
   good health. ìoshin lafiya.
K'Bözörí np. (plural B[z[rini)
   Fulani person. bafillace,
   bafillata.
bözrõ n. (plural b[zr[n[)
   traditional meal of rice. wani
   irin dafuwan shinkafa.
bú v.
    thrash, beat harshly. ìwala wa
    bulala, yi wa duka.
c'bù n.
   sb who has become master of
   himself. magidanci.
ù'bù n. (plural c'bu)
   1) house, home, compound.
   gida.
   2) family, (people at home).




                                             27
bùcbùcù                                                                   bùlú
bùcbùcù n.                                bùgtùm adj.
   dawn, beginning to get light in the        fat cheeked, plump. mai'yar
   morning. asalatu.                          ìiba wani iri. Variant:
k'bùcú n. (plural c'bucu)                     b[gt[m.
   rumen; the special stomach             bùgù v.
   possessed by ruminant animals.             fly. tashi sama.
   tubura, tumbi, ciki.                   d'bùgù n.
k'búdbúdù id.                                 group, band, multitude, team.
      loose sand, dust. turèaya.              taro.
bùdgkú adj.                               k'bùk n.
      dusty. furu-furu.                       book. From: English.
     bùdgãskî adj.                        bùk id.
      (has been) covered in dust.             thud, sound of a heavy fall. þim.
      hurtutu.                                See: bõk.
d'bùdgù n.                                bùkà n.
      dust. ìura.                             future marker, in future time.
c'búdú n.                                     gabani.
      setting fire to bush. jan kanki.    bùkbúkú1 n.
k'búdú n.                                     tomorrow (emphatic). gobe-
   game played on sand with a                 gobe.
   circular knotted rope. wani            bùkbùkù2 ad.
   irin wasa a kasa. Variant:                 semi darkness, density, gloom,
   k'karo.                                    unlit, obscurity. duhu-duhu,
bùdú v. (past budku)                          kududu.
   thrust. turbuþa.                       búkk d'lúud n.
búdúrî n. (plural budqrni)                   turning somersaults.
   civet cat, a wild mouse-eating cat.       kutubyalbyal.
   buddari, bodari. Viverridae.           búkkädlúudù n. (plural
   From: Hausa.                              bukkqdluudunu)
bugqbugq n. (plural bugqbugqnq)              somersault. tulluwa.
   flying insect (general name).          búklúud id.
bùgãbúgä n. (plural bùgãbúgänã)              hoot of owl. kukan mujiya.
   flying insect, bug, fly. See picture   bùktù v. (past buktku)
   for: sxxnx.                               become dusty. cike da ìura.
bùgãm d'hórmò n.                          bùkú n.
   dread, shock. fargaba.                     tomorrow. gobe.
d'bùgcú n. (plural c'bugcu)               bùkúrkù n.
   part of a chicken: the wing                mildew. fumfuna, rima.
   comprising all its base. guru,         bùlãbúlä1 n.
   gurun kaza na fifike.                     fever; disease of epidemic nature.
   Variant: d'cùcú (Senchi).                 masassare wani iri.
d'bùgrù n. (plural c'bugru)               bùlãbúlä2 n. (plural bulqbulqnq)
   forked stick in which the neck of a       insect. ìwaro.
   dog being led is fixed. karkiya.
                                          búlkù v.
                                              sprinkle, scatter. barbaþa.


28
bùlmù                                                               bùzbùzù
bùlmù n. (plural bulumnu)                 bùsú v. (past busku)
   midge. wani irin ìwaro                     spread, scatter. watse.
   ìarami. Variant: muku.                 bùtä v.
bùlú v. (past bulku)                          untie. kwance.
   sprinkle. barbaþa, yayyafa.            bùtãmc'bòmà n.
búmb-s'gwê n. (plural                         end of mourning period. wankan
   bumbs'gwxnx)                               takaba.
   Differential Grasshopper, a type of    bùtäskã v.
   grasshopper. wata irin                     untie, release. kwance.
   fara. Melanoplus differentialis.
k'búmbù n.                                d'bùtãsk¿i n.
                                              being free to do what you want to
    ship.                                     do. yantacce, da dama,
d'bùmbù n.                                    zarafi.
    (joining in sth with) ignorance, no
    understanding of the background.
    gangan.  U gadko netqn
    ni'dumi, u hy[u zq d'bumbu.
    He met some people quarrelling and                              bùtù v.
    intruded with ignorance.                                        (past bútkù)
                                                                    opening,
bùnkù  n. (plural bunknu)                                  developing
   kind of grasshopper. wata irin                                   of head (of
   fara.                                                            corn).
bùnù v. (past bunku, active noun                                    fitar
   a'bunu)                                                          (da). See:
   become lean, waste away. rame.                                   d'bùrù.
v'bùnù n. (plural s'bunu)
   grey hair. furfura.                    bùu kórändömö n. (plural
bùrkskú v.                                   buuc'korqnd[mn[)
   grow up, become adult. ìosa,              snail shell. katantanwa.
   bira, nuna.                            d'búucämhõ n. (plural
bùrù n. (plural burnu)                       c'buucqmh[)
   cichlid perch-like fish with silvery      fin or tail of fish. ìege.
   grey to green colouring, around        bùuc'têxcnç n.
   100-200mm long. gargaza.                   the state of being in early
   Tilapia galilaea.                          marriage with 2-4 children. wani
d'bùrù n. (plural c'buru)                     irin magidanci.
   young, freshly opened head of          bùumãm yón
   corn, but not ready for harvest.           churn. kaþa, buga,
   dawa ta fitad da kai. See:                 tugunya.
   butu.
bùsämtön1 n.                              bùutãq adv.
                                              unclear, dim (because of overcast
   dearth period - when nothing               weather). duhu-duhu,
   grows. afurgugu.                           dushi-dushi, muci-muci.
bùsämtön2 n. (plural s'busqmt[n)              Variant: puutqq.
   kind of tree. sabara. Guiera           bùzbùzù ad.
   senegalensis.                              gritty, covered in grit. jikin
d'búsù n. (plural c'busu)                     abu.
   loose sandy soil. turþa.
                                                                               29
bùzù                             byàtàtà
bùzù v. (past buzku)
   chase. aguje.
v'bùzù n. (plural s'buzu)
   wrestling move. dabaran
   kokawa. See: v'æmà 'Zuru
   dialect'.
bùzùzù adj.
     ruffled hair or feathers.
     cikirkita.
byà adv.
     balanced. daidaito wani
     iri.




30
byàtàtà                                                                             càkà
byàtàtà adv.                                      byazaza = byatata.
    fanned out, spread, opened out.
    buþewa. Variant: byazaza.

                                      C       -    c

c'-                                          càbàt2 adj.
    Prefix used to make an inanimate                   tasteless. mai lami, salab
    noun in the D or K classes (and                    sallaèi.
    others) plural. See the
    explanations for d' and k'. The               càccàccà id.
    class-marker c' should not be                      sound of drops of liquid falling
    confused with the pronoun c or                     (e.g. rain). saukan ruwa wani
    cq which is written without an                     iri. Variant: cadada; c[d[d[;
    apostrophe and replaces a noun.                    cxdxdx; cududu.
                                                  càdà v. (past cadka)
                                                       rain heavily. sheìa.
    When an entry has a class-marker
    it is written in italic writing. Class-       cadada = caccacca.
    markers may move to the end of a              cádás adv.
    word in a sentence. The class-                     clearly. kar. Variant: pyangas.
    marker is not included in the way
    entries are ordered. For example,             càdcàdà adj.
    the word c'kwq (gourds) is found                   watery. wani irin þiga,
    next to the word kwq, and the                      ruwa-ruwa.
    word c'gyan (eggs) is found
    between the words k'gyaara and                d'càgà n.
    gyan.                                              tassel. tuntu, alakwayi. See
                                                       picture for:
cá1 vi. (past cçka)                                    k'bai.
    reach, arrive at, come. isa.
    Variant: caa.                                 í'càgnà n. (plural
                                                       m'cagna)
cà2 v.                                                 bag woven from
   weave. saìa.                                        kaba leaves
cáagæ n. (plural caagne)                               worn by golmo
   weaver. masaìi.                                     workers.
càam d'wã adj.                                         kwaroro,
    nit-picking, pettifogging, arguing                 angara.
    over trivial details. kwankwanto.                  Variant:
                                                       i'kyagna;
cáará n.                                               i'cyagna.
   one's equal, one of a pair. tsara.
                                                  cák adv.
càasç v. (past caaske)                                 never ever!
   weave together with. haþa ka                        bidigis.
   saìe.                                               Variant:
cábát1 adv.                                            cakcaka.
    manner of plunging sth into liquid.
    yafaþa kogi.                                  càkà1 v. (past
                                                       cákkà)
                                                       shatter, slap, press, split, squash,
                                                       slither. dirtse, faska,

                                                                                         31
càkà                                                                 camssa
      faske.  Cak o d'gonankan            càmbá np.
      nu'yama. Give her a slap on the         title of esteem and honour given
      cheek.                                  to a person in g[lm[ by their
càkà2 n.                                      mates.
      husks, the coarse dry outer
      coverings of grain, left over from
      grinding flour. tsaki,
      fantsara, èarza.
     d'càkà n.
      coarse sediment of gravel.
      dalaki.
     s'càkà n.
      fresh vegetables cut up into small
      pieces and dried in the sun.
cákámcákám id.
   sound of smacking lips etc. when
   heavily chewing sth. tauna.
càkánkà  v.
   slap hard. faska.
càkáskà v.
   1) stolen (esp sth you want or
   need). cuta.
   2) any other offensive act. ci
   mutuncin wa.
cakcaka1 = cak.
càkcàkà2 adv.
   scattered all over. kacakaca.
   Variant: c[kc[k[.
càkcákç n. (plural cakcakne)
   Village Weaver. buwa.
   Plesiositagra cucullatus.
càkçsæ v. (past càkçskæ, active noun
   d'cakese)
   squash, hit oneself with sth (e.g.
   hammer). dirjewa.
càksá v. (past cakska)
   litter. ìazanta (da). Variant:
   c[ks[, catsa, c[tks[,
   camssa.
càktá v. (past caktka)
   break into pieces, crack. fasa,
   fashe.
càlcàlà adv.
      spurting. tsirga, fesa.
càm zànà adv.
      in the future. lokacin gaba.


32
camssa                                                                         cç
camssa v. (past camska) = caksa.
cán pro.
    those. waþancan. Variant: ca.
càrákç n.
    kind of potion. wani irin
    magani.
v'càrî n. (plural s'cari)
    kind of ornament (leather bangle).
    dangida.
cas1 = pas2.                             k'cqzcqzni = cqqzcqqzni.
càs2 adj.                                cç n. (plural s'ce)
    clean. ìal, caras. Variant:             tree. itace, bishiya.  A
    casse.                                  damran ce hyaa, ya nemqn
casse = cas1.                               bqrg qn d'kade. When a big tree
                                            falls, young birds fly into the bush.
catsa v. (past catska) = caksa.           cçd-wáalà n. (plural s'ced
cávcává id.                                 wala)
    tall and spindly. sham, tsala-          kind of tree. wani irin
    tsala. Variant: tavtava.                itace.
cä1 v phrase.                             d'cç n.
                                            stool, bench - seat without back.
    let's. bari.                            kujera.  Sxbxm ced d'sooco.
cã2 pro.                                    Carve me a sitting stool.
    they; pronoun for the plural c'       k'ce n. (plural c'ce)
    noun-class.                             stick. sanda, reshe.
cäqm adv.                                 v'cç n. (plural s'ce)
    a few, a little. kaþan,                 slender, thin stick, post. sanda,
    gulgule.                                tsumagiya.  U vosk o
                                            nqv'ce. He hit him with a stick.
k'cãqzcãqzní n.
    numbness of limb. dundurus.           cev n gagne n. (plural ces n
                                            gagne)
cãbgä v. (past cqbgkq)                      slender fencing post. karouki
    mix. gauraya, haþa, kwaèa.              tsarnu.
cãbgù n.                                  cçd d'bî n. (plural cec d'bi)
    day before a festival. jajibiri.        threshing stick. mafyaþi.  Cek
                                            n bid n hi za hodan cek n
cämmî ad.                                   bid n yal da. The threshing stick
    small quantity of. ìanìane,             for guinea corn is not the same as the
    kwiyam.                                 threshing stick for beans. Large: cek
cän pro. Variant: cqncqn.                   d'bi. Small Plural: ces d'bi.
    1) them, they (demonstrative). su.      See: d'bi 'threshing'.
    2) which.                             cçváansõmõ n.
                                            traditional staff (pole or stick) of
cqnca = cqn.                                office of a great farmer. sandan
cãwîimã n. (plural cqwiimnq)                girman, manomin fadama.
    crocodile. kado. Variant: cwîimã.

                                                                                33
cçbç                                                                s'cæræ
cçbç adv.                               cçndà v. (past cendka)
   full to the brim. þakaka,                stiffen, harden, become tough and
   manìas. Variant: cwebe.                  difficult to cook, dry out. yi
cæcãmsç v. (past cecqmske)                  ìarfi, sage.
   be sad. baìin ciki.                  s'cændò n.
cæcæ1 n. (plural cecene)                   grouse, grumble. mita.
   fish with strong spiked fins.        k'cængà  n. (plural
   ìaraye.                                 c'cenga)
cæcæ2 = sípsîpä.                           the stripped heads of guinea corn.
                                           soshiya, garera.
cece ava = cek-ava.
                                        cængà  n.
cæcká vi. (past ceckka)                     insect which eats flies. wani
   recover from illness. farfado.           irin ìwaron cin ìuda.
cæegsá v. (past cegska)                    Variant: valnatakavo.
   verify, make sure. tabbata.          cçnkàrç  n. (plural
cæetá n. (plural s'ceeta)                  cenkarne)
   pepper. barkono, tankwa.                Grey Hornbill, a noisy tropical bird
cæetád hãngù                               with a very large curved horned
     n. (plural         bill, often found in large groups.
   s'ceetasqd hqngu)
                                           cilakowa. Lophoceros nasutus.
   ginger. yaji.                          cçnkàr rîmúnî
cçetkà v. (active noun u'ceeto)               n.
   start to deteriorate. sansomin.          (plural cçnkàrän rîmánç)
                                            Allied Hornbill. wata irin
à'cægá an.                                  cilakowa. Lophoceros
     ready. a shirye.  M el                semifasciatus.
     na'cegcegqn valqm ru. I am
     ready and waiting for her.         cçntkà1 v.
cæk àvà n. (plural cek avna)                covet, show or express great
                                            desire for sth one cannot afford.
   male crab. namijin ìaguwa.               so wani iri.
   Variant: cev-ava, cece-ava.
cçkãn dõkõ n. (plural cecqn             cçntkà2 v.
   d[k[)                                    murmur, mumble, speak quietly or
   bangle carved of wood.                   indistinctly. gunini.
   munduwan itace.                        s'cæntò n.
cçlkà v.                                    murmur, act of murmuring.
     stiffen. sanìame.                      gunaguni.
cçmàa id.                               cæpká v. (past cepkka)
     distended, bloated and swollen,        pray, talk to God. yi addu'a.
     especially of sth which has died
     and looks about to burst. wani       cæpkò n.
     irin kumburi.                          1) prayer. addu'a.
                                            2) prayer place, fetish place, a
cæmcæmæ adv.                                special place set aside for offering
   slight taste, hint of. þanþano.          prayers. tsafi, gunki.
v'cænà n. (plural s'cena)                   Variant: bàadän cæpkò.
   gall bladder. þata,
   matsarmama.                          s'cæræ an.
                                            become embedded in mud or soft
                                            ground. kafe.

34
cçrfá                                                              s'cêkémî
cçrfá v. (active noun s'cerfa)             céxlãmhõ n. (plural cxxlqmh[[n[)
    trade, buying and selling. saye           kind of insect. wani irin
    da sayarwa.                               ìwaro.
cærgstö n. (plural cergst[[n[)             céxlê v. (past cxxlkx, active noun
    very small kind of cricket, possibly      u'cxxlx)
    the Scaly-winged Psocid. wani             spurt out, sting, bite. fesa,
    irin gyare. Echmepteryx                   jini ya tarsam.
    hageni.                                cégê n.
cæs n.                                         rattle instrument made of metal.
    fumigated, choking, filled with sth        kacau-kacau.
    preventing normal breathing.
    hayaìi, hamami, shaka
    hayaìi aþaki.
cçtà v2t.
   carry. þauka.
cçtæ2 v. (past cçtkæ)
   deliver. isar (da).
cætç1 n.
   inherited name, remembering a
   dear father. = cætò.
cætò n. (plural c'cetono)
   father. uba, baba. Variant:
   cætç; baaba.
cettu = cxttu.
cev ava = cek-ava.
cçvcçvç id.
   slenderly, vertically, sticklike.
   tsiriri. Variant: cxvcxvx;
   tevteve.
cæv-gòngò n. (plural cev-gongno)
   Lizard-Buzzard, a small hawk.
    taya ni raino, taya ni
    goyo. Kaupifalco monogrammicus.
    Variant: paa gongo.
cæzgnæ n.
    stunted seeds of locust bean
    pods. kalwa.
cécécé id.
    torrent, downpour, hammering,
    sound of continuous drops of rain.
    wani irin motsi, þigan
    ruwa. Variant: cxdcxdx;
    cxdxdx.
cêcêp adj.
   well positioned, interlaced, orderly
   arranged, woven. sarin jeri
   wani iri.
cxdxdx = caccacca.

                                                                              35
s'cêkémî                                                                    cïn
s'cêkémî n.                              cîhín num.
     grudge; harping on past wrong           6 (six). shida. Variant: cîhín.
     acts. jinini.                       Cîhíní n.
cêkú n.                                      constellation (group of stars), The
     a pebble game, play (according to       Sixes, elsewhere called the Great
     rules) with pebbles. wata irin          Bear. taurari.
     kasada.                             cíkkã v.
                                             be satisfied. ìoshi.
cés id.
     wet, dirty looking place, messy.    cîlkã v.
     wuri mai ìazanta wani                   settle, receive (or be) a guest,
     iri.                                    accommodate (or be
                                             accommodated), show/accept
cêttú adj.                                   hospitality, arrive, lodge at.
     small quantity of sth. yaci,            saukar irin na baìo,
     kadan. See: kwxttu. Variant:            shiþa.
     cettu.                                cílksä v.
cí v.                                        settle, hold on, rest (for a short
     have, own, possess. yana da,            time). tsai da.
     tana da.                            cîlú n.
                                             being a stranger to sb, lodging,
cíckï n. (plural cícknï)                     lodger. bakunci.
     acne pimple, spot, rash. ìurji.
k'cidi n.
     water pot, pitcher. tulu,
     randa. Variant: d'bada;
     rikwqndwq.
cídkö n. (plural
     s'cidk[)
     strong
     traditional tool
     for digging,
     especially
     iron ore, like a
     small pickaxe.
     gamajigo,
     diga.
cîdmã v. (past
     cidqmkq)                            cîmä v.
     become less                            stop from here, put a stop to.
     (of pain),                             tsaya daga nan.
     ease, abate. tsirga,                v'cîmcîmá n. (plural s'cimcima)
     kwantar da zafi.                       kind of drum. kimba. Variant:
cîdò v.                                     v'cîmcîmî (Dabai).
     loud cry, lullaby song, ease,       cín1 pro.
     galloping.                              you and me (2nd person
                                             exclusive/dual). ni da kai,
d'cígî n.                                    ke, mu.
     (stomach) full, satisfied. ìoshi,
     tatil.                              cïn2 num.
                                             one. þaya.

36
d'cínã                                                                    cóbtò
d'cínã n. (plural c'cinq)                 cíttä v. (past cîttkã, active noun
    back. baya.                               u'cittq)
ù'cínã n.                                     put down (a load) from being
   menstruation. haila.                       carried on one's head, or bring
                                              down a cooking pot from the fire.
cîncàr n. (plural cîncàrnæ)                   jidar (da), jido,
   Pigmy Kingfisher. wata irin                saukar (da).
    ci-na-wuya, maroìin
    ruwa. Ispidina picta.                 cízä v.
                                              climb down, descend. sauka.
cîncîncîn id.
    lullaby, gentle, soft sound, little     d'cízgcîzgní n.
    play song. yar waìa ta                    slope, descent. gangara.
    tawai.                                có1 n. (plural s'co)
v'cîndò n.                                    ridge. kunya.
    cornstalk flute. karan busawa         cò2 pro.
    wani iri. See: rado.                      us, 1st person plural pronoun
v'cínîkî n. (plural s'ciniki)                 when used as object. mu.
   kind of herb. kayan miya.                á'cò pro.
v'cînké  n.                     ours. namu.
   (plural s'cinkx)                       còbà v. (past cobka)
   1) kind of crab-grass.                    thread (beads). zura.
   darambuwa.                             í'cóbcò n. (plural m'cobco)
   2) children's pleated grass
   bracelet. abin hannu.                     awl - a small, pointed tool for
                                             making holes in leather.
cîp1 adj.                                    mahiyin maìeri.
    dark, black, unlit. duhu.              v'cóbcò n. (plural s'cobco)
cíp2 adj adv.                                gimlet, a bigger tool which is
    strong. ìarfi, ìaììarfa.                 heated to make a hole in wood.
                                             wani irin mahuji.
cîp-cîp adv.
    exactly. kyankyan.                    v'còbrò n. (plural
                                             s'cobro)
cípsä v. (past cipskq)                       a spit, a pole on which
    spit out. tofa, tud da.                  meat is secured for
v'círç n. (plural s'cire)                    carrying or cooking.
    spitted meat, pierced and                cina.
    remaining on sticks. tsire.           cóbtà v.
                                              make a contemptuous
círíim ad.                                    noise, sneer. tsaki.
    darkness. duhu.
                                            còbtò n. (plural
ù'cîrksä n.                                   s'cobto)
    comma [,] punctuation mark                particular insolent noise
    indicating a slight pause in a            made by pursing lips.
    sentence. waìafi.                         tsiwa, tsaki.
                                              Variant: covto.

                                          cóbtò n.
                                              kissing. sumba.


                                                                               37
còcãbsá                                                                  cõbõt
     còcãbsá v. (past cocqbska, active       k'còmtæ n. (plural c'comtne)
   noun u'cocqbsa)                             messenger, person carrying a
   level off ends, straighten, arrange,        message. wanda aka aika,
   tidy, set, put in order.                    masinja.
   daidaito, tsari. Variant:
   cocabska.                               ù'cón n. (plural c'con)
                                               ear. kunne.
còcbà n. (plural cocbna)
   small fish with red spiky, bony         á'cònà n.
   fins. ìaraye.                               1) up, top, sky, above, over.
                                               sama.
v'còckò n.                                     2) east. gabas.
   sting (or the stinging part) of
   wasp, bee or scorpion, spike,           cònká  v.
   prickle. ìari, ìaraye.                      swear, make an oath or promise
                                               to tell the truth. rantse.
còdà v. (past codka)
   prop sth against, lean against.           cònkò  n. (plural
   dangana, jingina.                           s'conko)
                                               oath. rantsuwa.
c'códó n.
       pawn, being resigned, giving up.    cón-ömõ n. (plural c'cón-ömõ)
       dangana.                                kind of creeper or twiner that
                                               grows on farmland. burabaya,
ù'cògnò n.                                     þama guraji, yaryaþi.
       bile, greenish vomit with a sour,       Commelina forskalaei.
       sharp taste. amai.
                                           còpá v. (past copka)
u'coho1 = u'copo.                             pay. biya.
ù'còhò2 n.                                 v'còpà n. (plural s'copa)
       paying, payment. biya. Variant:        spear-grass, elephant grass.
       c'còpnò.                               tofa. Imperata cylindrica.
còkó n. (plural cokno)                     c'còpnò = ù'còpò.
       1) slave. bawa.
       2) scarab beetle, dung beetle.      ù'còpó n. (plural c'copo)
       wani irin ìwaro. Coprinae.             1) earth, ground. ìasa.
                                              2) country, land. ìasa. Variant:
     m'còkó n.                                u'coho; c'copno.
       slave, slavery, over-taxed.           còpú gyõzó n.
       azaba, bamota, bàuta.                   Hell, Gehenna. Jahannama.
     còkäv nàyòmkò adj.                      còpú pçlkà n.
       assiduous, hard-working,                water from a spring, oozing
       persevering. nacewa,                    ground, well. tsattsafi.
       jimrewa.
                                             còpú pùsú n.
còmá v. (past cómkà)                           eternal life (colloquial). Lahira.
       send. aike, dika.
                                           cóssó adv.
     còmà n.                                   suddenly, unexpectedly. ba
       message, sent to one particular         zatan haduwa.
       person. aike, saìo.
                                           cót adv.
cómtæ v.                                      springing, suddenly, leaping,
       send, send to. aika.                   quickly. ìagal.
                                           còtánkà  v.
                                              sting. rambaþa.

38
covto                             cöntö
covto = cobta.
cõbõt adj.
   tasteless. wani irin motsi,
   mailami, salab. Variant:
   c[d[t.
c[d[d[ = caccacca.
c[d[t = c[b[t.
cõgcõgõ n. (plural c[gc[gn[)
   kind of warbler bird. tsigi.
c[kc[k[ = cakcaka1.
cõkdõ id.
    flop. kakume, langaèe.
    Variant: c[nd[s.
cõkõ v.
   pierce. huda, soka.
c[ks[ v. (past c[ksk[) = caksa.
c'cõktõ n.
    slush, mud. cakwali,
    caèalèali, ajagalgali,
    bagaja, gajaba.
cõncò n. (plural s'c[nco)
   shoulder. kafaþa.
c[nd[s = c[kd[.




                                     39
cöntö                                                                cúnkù
cöntö1 n. (plural c[nt[n[)
   kind of bird. wani irin
   tsuntsu.
cöntö2 n. (plural c[nt[n[)
   kind of grasshopper. wata irin
   fara.
k'c÷[c n.
     church. coci, majami'a.
     From: English.
cõrõrõ id.
     rumbling of an empty stomach.
     cida, gunji.
                                         cududu = caccacca.
cõrõs adj.
     tender, easily pierced. mai       cùkîsí v. (past cukiski)
     taushi.                               bump. yi karo.
cõscõsõ id.                            cúkkã v.
   insane. mahaukaci, hauka.               pushed up the soil (e.g. a seed
   Variant: ky[sky[s[.                     germinating). bunìu.
cõsõ v. (past c[sk[)                   cùkkãd adj.
   smash. fashe, ragargaza.               sticking out, protruding. zanìe.
c[tks[ v. (past c[ktsk[) = caksa.      cúkná n. (plural cuknana)
                                          kind of mushroom. naman kaza.
d'cú n.                                   Variant: wxnwxrx.
   corn heaped, ready beside a
   grinding stone. gumi.               cúktí v. (past cuktki)
                                          go further. daþin daþawa.
à'cú n. (plural s'cu)
   face. fuska.                        cùkú vt. (past cukku, active noun
                                          u'cuku)
cùbú n. (plural s'cubu)                   push. turo, tura, runguza.
   arched iron-working implement,
   prepared piece of shaft for tying   k'cùkú n.
   thatch to roof frame. kandama.          frying place, built-up base in farm
   Variant: cuvu.                          of a small granary used for frying.
                                           matoya.
d'cùcú n. (plural c'cùcú) =
   d'bùgcú.                            cùmbút id.
                                          splash, plop, the sound of sth
cùdcùdù id.                               leaping into the water. sulum.
   warmly. þumi-þumi.
                                       d'cùmkù n. (plural c'cumku)
k'cúdúdú n. (plural c'cududu)             forehead. goshi.
   waterfall. mafadar ruwa.
                                       k'cùmù n. (plural c'cumu)
                                          shield. garkuwa.
                                       í'cùmùnkùnnù
                                            n.
                                          darkness. duhu.
                                       cúnksí  adv.
                                          unexpectedly. cubus, cuèus.
                                       cúnkù  v.
                                          to call on sb to invite them to eat
                                          with you. taya.
40
cùnú                                                               í'cyàgnà
cùnú v. (past cunku)                       cwæcmà n. (plural cwecqmna)
   make offer. tayi.                          kind of fish like a catfish with a
cuvu = cubu.                                  bony head. wani irin kifi.
cwáav adv.                                 cwep = cwap.
    standing tall, erect. tsawo            cwê1 id.
    tsap.                                      tight grip. matsi wani iri.
cwàdàt id.                                 cwé2 n. (plural cwxxnx)
    smack, sound of sudden parting             shrew, or musk shrew. jaèa.
    of lips. motsin leèe wani                  Crocidura spp. Variant: swé
    iri.                                       (Senchi).
cwagkà v.                                  cwéccwé n. (plural cwxccwxnx)
   stay far apart or away in fear of           sunbird. sha kauci.
   sth, self-exile, go into hiding.            Nectariniidae.
   tsaya nesa don tsoro.
cwakamcwakam = cwakcwak ;                  cwéxcwéx id.
   cakamcakam.                                 squeak squeak! of a rat or other
                                               small creature. tsowa irin na
cwákcwák id.                                   èera. Variant: cwiicwii.
    smackingly, in a smacking way.
    tauna. See: cakamcakam.                cwéxtérî adj.
    Variant: cwakamcwakam.                     small (of people etc.). kuya-
                                               kuya.
cwán pro.
    we, us. mu. Variant: cwancwan.         cwéin adj.
cwàp adj.                                      dirty-looking place, messy.
    messy (e.g. of a face), contorted.         cababbe. Variant: cwxrxm.
    barkatai. Variant: cwep.               cwéméx id.
cwávává id.                                    dripping, soaked, drenched.
    hiss, fizz, sound heard when               jiìe.
    something is put in frying oil.        cwémémé adj.
    motsin mai wani iri.                       stunted. metso.
cwçbç v.
    fill to the brim, stuff full. sasum.   cwxrxm = cwxin.
    See: cebe.                             cwêt = wxt.
cwæbçe adv.                                cwîcwî id.
    packed full (almost overflowing).          clutching with both hands.
    bundum.                                    damuìa. Variant: bego.
cwæc vännàatà n.                           cwîi cwîi id.
    earwig. wani irin ìwaro,
    kunaman gero, tsatso.                      squeak (of a rat/mouse). tsi-
    Forficula auricularia.                     tsi.
cwæcãv ömnõ n.                             cwîimã = cãwîimã.
   flat centipede with a painful sting.    í'cyàgnà
   shanshani.                                  woven bag. = i'càgnà.
cwæcç n. (plural cwecne)
   scorpion. kunama.




                                                                               41
d'-                                                                             dàcämhõ

                                        D       -    d

d'-                                           dáacò n. (plural s'daco)
      Class-marking prefix for a singular                anvil, a smith's working tool.
      noun in the D class. Nouns in the                  maìeriya, kam maìera.
      D class are inanimate objects or              dáadà n. (plural s'daada)
      plants of medium size and shape,                   fig-tree. ceþiya. Ficus thonningii.
      between that of an egg and a fist.
      Plurals of D class nouns use the              k'dáadà n.
      c' class-marker. The class-marker                  open space in front of chief's
      d' should not be confused with the                 palace. ìofar fada.
      pronoun d or qd which is written              ù'dáagó v.
      without an apostrophe and                          hush (up), calm (down), peace-
      replaces a noun.                                   making, counselling a person
                                                         against (or quelling a person's
      When an entry has a class-marker                   desire for) shouting or fighting etc.
      it is written in italic writing. Class-            lallashi.
      markers may move to the end of a
      word in a sentence. The class-                dáamº conj.
      marker is not included in the way                  before. kafin. From: Hausa.
      entries are ordered. For example,             d'dàamkç n.
      the word d'kwq (gourd) is found                  cause of trouble, troublesome.
      next to the word kwq, and the                    fitina.
      word d'gyan (egg) is found                    dàatá n. (plural c'daata)
      between the words k'gyaara and                   pad. ganwo.
      gyan.
                                                    dáazòmò n. (plural daazoomno)
dá1 part.                                              kind of cichlid perch. gargaza,
      not. ba.                                         karfasa. See: buru.
dà2 conj.                                           dàbà v. (past dabka)
   and. da. From: Hausa.                               carefully look into, sort out with
v'dà n. (plural s'da)                                  care. zaèi.
   1) time, hour. lokaci.                           dàbgá v. (past dabgka)
   2) event. shagali.                                  talk non-stop, incessantly, babble,
   3) season, weather. lokacin                         chatter. magana ba tsayi.
   shekara, yanayi.
   4) menstruation, period. al'ada,                 dàcà v.
   haila.                                              dip, touch sth lightly into a liquid.
                                                       dangwala.
     v'dà v'dän adv.
   forthwith, at once, immediately.                 dàcämhõ n. (plural
   nan da nan.                                         dacqmh[n[)
                                                       dragonfly. þan
dàa v. (past daaka)                                    mazarin-iya.
   touch sth lightly, brush against.                   Anisoptera.
   dafa.
k'dàabæ n. (plural c'daabe)
   site. bullo. Small: d'daabe.
dàabé conj.
      if, on the condition that. idan,
      kaþan.
42
d'dàccà                                                                 dàkkæ
d'dàccà n. (plural c'dacca)            dàhàsá v.
   curved head of the stick used to        light, set fire to. hasa, haska,
   hit the hourglass drum. makaþi.         kunna, kyasta, hura.
   See: d'gúlã.                            Variant: dapasa (other dialects).
k'dàdà n. (plural c'dada)              dàhæ adv.
   kind of tree. wani irin                next year, the following year.
   itace.                                 baþi. Variant: dape.
k'dàdæ n. (plural c'dade)              dàká1 n. (plural c'dakna)
   callus, bare, rough, hard skin.        cichlid or perch, a tropical
dádgà v. (past dadgka)                    freshwater fish. gargaza. Tilapia
   spread along the ground (of a          sp
   plant). yaþa. Variant: dadgo.       dàká2 n. (plural dakna)
dàdgãmléndê n. (plural                    baby mouse. wani irin
   dadgqmlxndxnx)                         tsaran kusa.
   spider. gizogizo.                   dákác-dákácç id.
dàdgó1 n. (plural c'dadgo)                wobbling. wata irin tafiya.
   creeping plant. bubbuci.            dàká-rùmù n. (plural dàká-rùmnù)
dàdgó2 = dadga.                           kind of worm, or caterpillar,
                                          possibly those turning into
dádò adv.                                 butterflies. wata irin
   firm grip, held fast. danìa. See:      tsutsa, mani-mani.
   ba2.
                                       dàkänmáyùmù n. (plural
v'dágá n. (plural s'daga)                 dakqnmayumnu)
   1) waist band or bangle - a thin       kind of caterpillar. tsutsa.
   belt of woven threads worn
   around waist.                       dákärcò v. (past dakqrcko)
   dagumi, kambu.                         walk heavily with single steps,
                                          stomp, plod. wata irin
   2) charm or amulet                     tafiya.
   worn around the
   waist. guru. See
   picture for: k'bai,                 dàkdàkà id.
   c'dapa.                                 speckled, spotted.
dàgà v. (past dágkà)                       dabbare-dabbare,
   choose, decide.                         wake-wake.
   zaèa. Variant:                      k'dákká n. (plural
   dákkà.                                 c'dakka)
  c'dàgà vn.                              barren area of land.
    choice, decision.                     keìuwa.
    zaèe.                              dàkkáaræ n. (plural
dàgdàgà id.                               s'dakkaare)
   shakily. har yana rawa.                specially-made leather
                                          loincloth for wrestling.
d'dàgnà (plural c'dagna) = dagno.         ballode, warki.
d'dagne = dagno.                       dàkkæ n.
dàgnª n.                                   kind of twining plant that
    udder (of milked animals).             grows low down on ant
    hantsa, teki. Variant:                 hills. wani irin
    d'dagna ; dagne.                       itace.


                                                                           43
dàklà                                                                   dángà
dàklà n. (plural s'dakla)                  dámrá adj. (plural damrana)
   collarbone. karan karma,                    big, great, honoured (person).
   ìashin wuye. Variant: daklo.                mai girma.
daklo = dakla.                               d'dámrá n. (plural c'damra)
dákò n. (plural s'dako)                        sth big, the big one. babba.
   Fulani necklace ornament. wani            c'dámrá n.
   irin dutsen wuya.                           greatness, honour, promotion
dàkrà dàkrà id.                                above others. girmama.
   spotted, marked. þigo-þigo.               dámrá swàunç n. (plural damra
k'dàksá n. (plural c'dàksá)                    swanane)
   digging rod. dagi.                          the most honourable (person).
                                               ajauru. See: gàtãmgátmó.
dáksæ v. (past dakske)
   support sth by putting hand under       dàmsá v. (past damska)
   it. tallafa.                                call one to come, summon. kira.
                                               Variant: damse.
dàksò n. (plural c'dakso)
   instep, footprint, palm, sole.          dámtà v. (past damtka)
   tafi.                                       smoothen sth (e.g. flour) by
                                               tapping with a smoothing
dàktá v. (past daktke)                         instrument. daddale,
   carry on, pursue sth, push on,              dandaèa.
   pass over. miìe. Variant: dakte.
                                           dán pro.
dàktãmtön n.                                  you (nearby, not far). kaji.
    period in late October and early
    November. lokacin hunturu.             d'dàn n. (plural c'dan)
                                              anthill. gidan gara, juèa.
dàlmà n. (plural c'dalma)                     Large: k'dan.
    bald head. sanìo.
                                             g[mvqd'dan n.
dàmà1 v. (past damka)                          queen termite.
    stick on, add a small portion of sth
    to the larger part and stick them
    together. game.                        dánbàræ n.
                                               (plural
  dàmà2 v. (past damka, active noun            danbarne)
    i'dama)                                    Nile perch -
    quarrel, misunderstanding, fight.          an edible
    tazniya, faþa, adawa.                      freshwater
dºmá adv.                                      fish with
   already. dama. From: Hausa.                 spiny fins.
                                               giwar-
dámbà v. (past damka)                          ruwa.
   tack or fix sth together.                   Variant:
   lallafce.                                   wac'kwxxt
dàmænsç v. (past damenske)                     x;
   put together, become stuck                  wak[r[r[.
   together, join. game. Variant:
   gamense.
                                           dángà1  vi. (past dangka)
ù'dámó n. (plural c'damo)                     proceed from a place to another.
   wooden implement for beating a             ida isa.
   mud floor. madaèi.
                                           dángà2  v.
                                              entangle, tie up. dabaibaye.

44
dàngãm-cç                               dàngãrnà
dàngãm-cç  n.
   (plural dangqm-cene)
   stick insect, an insect white
   remains motionless for a long time
   resembling a twig. wani irin
   ìwaro. Phasmida. Variant:
   dápcí-m'làbá; dökí-s'yàngò;
   gwêxv-s'yàngò.




                                              45
dàngãrnà                                                                 dàptà
dàngãrnà  n.                  dàpà3 n.
    cereal grass. acca, intaya,               kind of children's disease.
    guzgus.                                   gojinjima.
c'dàngò  n.                     dàpà4 n. (plural dapna)
    tether. dabaibaya.                        leech, small blood-sucking worm
                                              living in water. matsattsaku,
  k'dàngò  n. (plural              cakwa. Variant: mádàmbólò.
    c'dango)
    tether rope, hobbling rope.            dàpà5 n. (plural dàpà) = v'ànînî.
    tarnaìi.                               dàpánkà  v.
dàngtá  v.                          touch (sb) with a lit torch.
    (past dantka)                             dallara.
    proceed along with.                    dàpäncç n. (plural dapqncene)
    iyar (da). Variant:                       imaginary spirit, ghost. ganin
    dangte, dangtke.                          zuciya, ìaga.
dánkúnyà                                   dàp¿rskæ v.
     n.                          stick to, cling to. þankafe,
   (plural dánkúnyànà)                        danìare.
   collarbone, clavicle.                   dápcí-m'làbá = dangqm-ce.
   ìashin wuya.
dánkúnyà n. (plural                        dape = dahe.
   dánkúnyànà)                             dàprà dàprà id.
   Black-bellied Pangolin,                     sound of footsteps. taf-taf-
   a reptile creature. wata                    taf.
     irin halitta mai
     rarrafe. Manis
     tetradactyla. From:
     Hausa?
d'dánkwálî
       n. (plural
     s'dánkwálî)
     head tie. þankwali. From:
     Hausa.
dàntràm ad.
   blank stare; unseeing. duba.
dánwêrê n. (plural danwxrxnx)              dàpræ-dàpræ ad.
                                              stickingly, (walking) with plodding,
   renowned farmer. sarkin                    single steps like a leper. þanko
   noma.                                      þanko tafiya wani iri.
k'dàpà n. (plural c'dapa)                  dáptá1 n. (plural daptana)
   hooked stick. makata,                      praying mantis, a large greenish
   maìata.                                    brown insect, which folds its long
dàpà1 v. (past dapka)                         forelegs as if praying. dokin
   gum, stick sth onto sth else.              Allah, ìoìi ìoìi. Mantis
   manna.                                     religiosis.
dàpà2 n. (plural s'dapa)                   dàptà2 n. (plural daptna)
   tree parasite of the fig-tree family.      ape, monkey (general term
   siriya.                                    describing several primates).
                                              biri.


46
dáptæ                                                                     däqpã
  dàpt-bíkà n.                             däqdù n. (plural dqqdnu)
    baboon. bika, gwaggo. Papio.               ant-lion. wani irin ìwaro.
    From: Hausa (partial).                     Myrmeleontidae.
  dàpt-gyözó n. (plural                    dãqgä v.
    dapt-gy[zno)                               press. danìara.
    red monkey. jan biri. Variant:
    dàpt d'kwîngî (children's              d¿ql id.
    name for it).                              bob, appear (and disappear)
                                               quickly. jefas, tulli.  Qm
  dàpt-rîmú n.                                 henk o dqql. I saw it bob.
    chimpanzee, small black monkey.
    baìim biri, birime                     dãqnsä v. (past dqqnskq)
    ganga.                                     turn on, prepare, start sth.
  dàpt-dîkà n.                                 shiryar da, kakkamta.
   (black) monkey a little larger than
   a chimpanzee. goggo.
dáptæ v. (past dáptkæ)
   pick up, catch, tend, take care of
   sth that is almost dislodging or
   disintegrating. lallaèa.
ù'dàrgæ n.
    'the wrong draught hole'. darar
    kashin awaki.  Zonga hek
    nu'darge. 'Your go has fallen on the
    wrong draught hole.'
dàs adv.
    direct, straight at or up. tsaye.
dàsà v. (past daska)
    dodge, cause to deviate. bauþa.
c'dáu n.
    thicket - thick growth of grass or
    guinea corn which is hard to see
    or walk through. labu.
k'dä n.
    things which bore one, or which
    one dislikes. guna wani iri.
c'dã v.
    flatter, give a feeling of pleasure
    to sb. lalama, lallaèa.
dã1 pro.
    it, pronoun representing nouns in
    the singular d' class. shi, ita.
    Variant: d.
dãq2 v. (past dãqk¿)
    press (in order to compact), bend
    under weight or stress. tausa,
    lotsa.

                                                                              47
däqpã                                     v'dãlã
däqpã v. (past dqqpkq, active noun
      u'dqqpu)
      repair temporarily, patch.
      lallaèa.
     c'dãqpù adv.
      temporarily, hastily. lallafce,
      lallaèa.
däqtã v.
      never again, not to be repeated,
      ultimate, last. faufau.
dãbã n. (plural s'dqbq)
      rubber tree. gamji. Hevea
      brasiliensis.
dãgdãgã id.
      soft and tender, swollen. rawa
      wani iri.
dägräq adv.
      unbalanced, wobbly. þagwarwa.
dãin adv.
      purposely, in a determined way.
      takanas.
däk adj.
      1) thick. (mai) kauri. See: tqk.
      2) crumpled and stuck together,
      become like a ball. dunìuli,
      ìundundune.
dãkãnnä v. (past dãkännkã)
      slap with an open palm of the
      hand on the back to create a loud
      noise but without causing pain.
      þima.
     d'dãkãnnä n. (plural c'dqkqnnq)
       thrashing, a slap. duka da
       tafin hannu.
dãkãsä v. (past dqkqskq)
      break off, divide. èantala.
däkkä d'bàtà n. (plural dqkkq
      d'batana)
      sloth, person who acts slowly.
      mara kwazo wani iri.
däklã v. (past dqkqlkq)
      run away, leave forever, travel
      away with the intention of never
      returning. barin wuri
      dungurungun.


48
v'dãlã                                                                   v'dãrî
v'dãlã n. (plural s'dqlq)                 dãnlàinç adv.
    quiver, arrow                             the season (year) after next.
    sheath. kwari.                            baþi waþancan.
dãmãrsî v.                                dãntàa adv.
    wrap, collect                            staring, goggling, with protuberant
    together. game,                          eyes. gwai, gwalam.
    rungume.                              däntã v. (past dqntkq)
dän pro.                                     bounce. èilla, èulla.
    1) it (third person                   dãntrãm ad.
    singular, neuter).                        giddily - unable to see clearly.
    shi.                                      mai dushewa, duba wani
    2) it_will.                               iri.
    — pro.                                däp v.
  d'dän num.                                  pad. laìe.
    one, only. þai,                       d'däpä
    þaya.                                     amulet, charm sewn in leather.
  v'dän pro.                                  laya.
    the one, the only,                      k'däpä n. (plural c'dqpq)
    the sole. shi kadai.                      charm, amulet. laya.
  dändän pro.                             dãpãnsä v.
    only it. abin.                            set, light a fire. hasa.
dãn v'dãn adv.                            dãpdãpã adv.
    one by one. þai-þai.                     sticky, oily. mai danìo-danìo.
dãnã n. (plural c'dqnq)                   dãpkä v. (past dqpkkq)
    bad taste, distaste,                     repair temporarily, fix up.
    unpleasantness, lack of savour.          lallaèa. See: dqqpq.
    gundura, ìosa.                        ù'däpkú n. (plural c'dqpku)
dängã  v. (past dqngkq)             manage (only just), struggle.
    be heated, become warm.                  lallaèa.
    zafafa.                               c'dãpkù adj.
  m'dãngã  n.                     light, temporary, not strong or
    warmth, heat. zafi.  H[m ci              persistent, loose. laèuna.
    m'dqngq. The water is hot (lit. has   dãprí adj.
    heat).                                    stuck together, joined. game.
  dãngsä  v. (past                dãprídãprí adj.
    dqngskq)                                  sticky. mai danìo-danìo.
    heat, warm up. zafafa.
dãngãm  id.                     dãrãk id.
                                             intense mass, (bursting out)
    swinging, dangling, swaying.             abundantly. cakacaka,
    zalau. Variant: dqngqm.                  furtutu, daèaèa.
  dãngdãngù  v.             därí n. (plural dqrini)
    dangle, shake, sway. lilo,               Senegal hartebeest. dari.
    reto, þagogo.                            Alcelaphus. From: Hausa.
dãnglî  adv.                    v'dãrî n.
    1) alone. kaþaita.                        halfpenny piece. sisin kwabo.
    2) (seated) motionless and quietly.
    zaune shiru.
                                                                                 49
dãs                                                                     déxdé
dãs adj.                                   dçgdçgç adv.
      balanced, comfortable (sitting).        exactly, precisely, at a precise
      daidaitawa.                             location. èagura. See: digdigi.
däskã v.                                   k'dehe = k'depe.
      1) bend. tanìwara.                   dækänskæ v.
      2) turn, circle, go around, make a      become dirty. duìunduìun.
      circuit. gewaya.
däskskã v.                                 dækç n. (plural dekne)
                                              warthog. gadu.
   push up or out (usu. the bottom of
   sth). fandaìa.                          k'dæpæ n. (plural c'depe)
                                              head of corn. zangarniya.
dässí n. (plural dqsni)                       Variant: k'dehe.
   kind of grasshopper. faran
   gonan acca.                             dçrç1 n. (plural dçrçnç; dçrnç)
                                              kind of antelope. wani irin
dç part.                                      mazo.
   now. yanzu. From: Hausa.
                                           dçræ2 n. (plural s'dere)
dæbá v. (past debaka)                         kind of tree. wani irin
   creep, use stealth, go secretly and        itace.
   quietly. halin sanþa.
                                           dævà v. (past devka)
     m'dçbó n.                                weigh down even more (e.g. by
dæbæ n.                                       sitting on a heavily-
   roof, top covering of a building,          laden donkey).
   top, apex (of a roofed room).              danìare.
   jinka, rufi, lalleìu.                   dé adv.
   Variant: dwebe.                            in the past. yaushe.
dçdgà v. (past dedgka)                     d'débé n. (plural
   1) pack carefully. lallaèa.                c'dxbx)
   2) make use of for a short time,           liver. hanta.
   meticulously care for sth so it
   does not spoil, tie slackly as a          débé n.
   temporary measure. taushe.                  pith, centre (of a
                                               tree). totuwa,
deega v. (past deegka) = dooga.                tuwo na cikin
dæelà n. (plural c'deela)                      itace.
   arrow. kibiya. Variant: eela;           k'débé adj.
   d'eela, c'eela.                             strength, fortitude,
     deeld m'laba n.                           bravery. ìarfin
       poison arrow. kibiya mai                zuciya.
       dafi. See: m'laba.                  m'débé n.
                                               temper. fushi,
                                               halin, zuciya.
                                           d'débköbö n. (plural c'dxbk[b[)
                                               short-lived edible fungus, a plant
                                               without leaves which grows
v'dæelà n.                                     quickly. burar kare da ure-
   metal pin or needle for braiding            iren su. Variant: dxtxhuhu
   hair. kibiyar kitso.                        (Senchi); duskuru (Senchi).
v'dæelà n. (plural s'dæelà)                déxdé n.
   screw (tool). ìusa mai                      yesterday. jiya.
   tiredi.
50
dêxté                                                                     dígméx
dêxté v. (past dxxtkx)                     démê v. (past démêké)
    pick up, lift, take up. dauki.             warn, scold, rebuke, chastise. yi
dêgälké v.                                     wa faþa, faþakadda.
    pick up one by one, select.            à'démlò n.
    tsinta.                                    profanity, prayer, curse. da'awa.
dégdégé id.                                m'dêndé n.
    vibrating, quivering, soft to touch,      an unhealthy blood condition
    shaky. wani irin motsi.                   delaying the healing of even a
                                              minor sore. ìanjiki. Variant:
déhçn = dxhne.                                m'bxndx.
k'déhê n. (plural c'déhê)                  dêngé  n. (plural dxngnx)
    the spleen. tsefa, saifa                  Yellow-throated Long-Claw. wani
    maraèiya. Variant: k'dxpx                 irin tsuntsu. Macronyx
    (Ribah).                                  croceus.
déhnñ ad.                                  déngléxsú  n.
    1) ancient, of old, old-fashioned.        (plural c'dxnglxxsu)
    na dauri.                                 stilts, a pair of poles with feet
    2) a long time ago. tun tuni.             supports for raising oneself higher
                                              when walking. þankwaro.
dék id.
    one step, single step. wata            déngsó  v. (past
    irin takawa.                              dxngsko)
                                              climb to the top. haye can
ù'dékdêké adj.                                sama.
    in bits and pieces, separated,         dêp adv.
    broken up. kashi kashi.                   deep (down). nutsa.
déké v. (past dxkkx)                       k'dépê = k'dxhx.
    stoop, bend down. duìa.
                                           dépêké v.
dékésê v. (past dxkxskx)                      cling, stick on to sb like a limpet.
    bend sth. lanìwasa,                       dafardu.
    tanìwasa.                              dérgsê v. (past dxrgskx)
dêklé1 v.                                     pick up sth heavy. þaukawa
    tap, swat. dafawa.                        wani iri.
                                           dxtxhuhu =
dêklé2 v. (past dxkqlkx)                      d'dxbk[b[.
    1) sharpen a knife edge or any
    implement. wasà.                       k'dîgã n.
    2) travel to an unknown place. yi          any imported tool used
    tafiya.                                    for digging, such as a
                                               spade, shovel or pick-
  c'déklò n.                                   axe. diga. From:
    sharpening of tools. wasà.                 English.
déktê v. (past dxktkx)                     dîgdîgî1 adv.
    care for, show concern for.                exactly, at a particular
    kulawa damu akan.                          point. daidai wadai
                                               da. See: degdege.
délê vt. (past dêlké)
    1) put in, insert. sa ciki.            dígdígí2 id.
    2) cause, make sth happen. sa,             dangling. reto,
    jawo, kawo.                                lilo.
                                           dígméx id.
                                               (standing) with a heavy load on
                                                                                 51
d'dîikõ                                 díkù
     one's head, weighed down.
     tsayuwa da kaya wani
     iri. Variant: digmxdigmx.
d'dîikõ n. (plural c'diik[)
   headscarf, headkerchief, head tie.
   adiko. From: Hausa.
díklãgù n. (plural diklqgnu)
   kind of male mouse. wani irin
   kusu.




52
díkù                                                                d'dòká
díkù n. (plural diknu)                   dînkírî  n. (plural
    1) single (unmarried) rodent,            dinkqrni)
    bachelor. burgu.                         kind of frog. matar kogi,
    2) single person (having no              ladin kogi. Variant: dinkili.
    husband or wife). tuzuru,            dîntã v.
    gwauro.                                  be blunt. dakusa.
  c'díkù n.                                díntsä v.
    lonely, abandoned, alone,                make sth blunt. dakusad da.
    absence of someone dear to you,
    being temporarily single without a   dîntkã v.
    husband or wife while they are           blunt. dakusa.
    travelling away. kaþaita,            dípròm id.
    zaman kewa.                             (with an) ugly look. kandabara.
dílõ[ id.                                disq, c'disq = isq.
    1) tossing about, going up and
    down, swaying. wani irin             k'dîsí n.
    motsi. Variant: dil[dil[.               want, desire, craving sth.
    2) hanging on, living off other         kwaþai, kwadayi.
    peoples' work. wani irin             dòdà v. (past dodka)
    rataye.                                 pile up, set or put one thing on
dímä1 adj.                                  another. aza.
   behind, back. baya.                   dòdgò n. (plural c'dodgo)
dímã2 v. (past dimkq)                       kind of edible (vegetable)
   drop with a thud. saki abu               tuberous, growth or plant. wasu
   ya, fadi wani iri.                       irin tsire-tsire.
dîmänã v. (past dimqnkq, active noun     dógdógó id.
   m'dimqnq)                                out of nowhere, out of the blue.
   (for a mother to) smack or beat a        kaþaita wani iri.
   child for some misdemeanour in        dògnò n. (plural dogqnno)
   pretence, making the noise and           kind of bush animal - antelope.
   causing the child to cry and feel        maje (dábbà).
   shame but without causing pain.
   buga. Continuous: dimqlk.             dògó adj.
                                            end, back, side of bed near the
dímîlmîlù n. (plural dímîlmîlnù)            wall. gabara.
   Senegal Kingfisher. tsintar,
   cinawuya. Halcyon senegalensis.       k'dògsá n. (plural c'dogsa)
                                            pot or saucer for collecting potash
d'dínä n. (plural c'dinq)                   water from a
   name. suna.                              colander.
díngö  n. (plural               d'dòká n.
   ding[n[)                                  (plural
   Pin-tailed Whydah, a small bird           c'doka)
   with a very long tail. wani irin          penis.
   tsuntsu. Vidua macroura.                  azakari.
díngríim  adj.
   size, mass, describing the size of
   sth. girman abu.
díngrím = kingrim.


                                                                               53
dòkàsá                                                                     dòrò
dòkàsá v.                                   doogte v. (past doogtke) =
     put a lot, add more than required,        doogta.
     overfill. danìari.                     dóolæ v. (active noun u'doole)
dòkná v.                                       force, coerce, compel. tilasta.
   knot, tie a knot. ìulla.                    From: Hausa.
d'dòknò n. (plural c'dokno)                 dóoræ num.
   knot. ìulli.                                nine, 9. tara.
ù'dòkò n.                                   dòorò n. (plural s'dooro)
     kind of stone, rock. wani irin            cotton material woven into a small
     dutse.                                    checked pattern. saìi.
dóm conj.                                   d'dòorò n. (plural c'dooro)
     because. domín. From: Hausa.              mortar (for pounding food etc.).
dómbá n.                                       turmi.
     heap, pile. tuli. Variant:             dóotó adv.
     dombdombo.                                 with enjoyment. wani irin
dómò n.
      1                                         daþi.
     special reference point prepared       m'dóotòró n.
     where food, salt, cloth etc. is kept      sweet juice that collects on locust-
     at the start of the second burial         tree blossom. wata irin
     ceremonial activities.                    ruwan fure.
     shiryaiyen wuri wani                   dòpá1 v. (active noun c'dopo)
     iri.                                      repair old hoe blade with fresh
dòmò2 n.                                       metal. rawaye.
    specially-built round grave.              c'dópó n.
    kushewa.                                   1) repairs, welding, repairing any
d'dón n. (plural c'don)                        iron implement by joining it with a
    breast. mama, nono.                        piece of fresh metal. rawaye.
dòndóokà n. (plural dondookana)                2) patch riveting. adabali.
    harnessed antelope. mazo,               dòpá2 v. (past dopka)
    ganjar.                                    join. haþa, gama.
dóngdóngó  id.                dòpræ v.
    1) curved out, bulging out of its           clasp, hook together, cling to.
    natural shape. doro.                        makale.
    2) piled or heaped up (very high).        d'dòprò n. (plural c'dopro)
    tula, jibga, tsiba.                         1) joint. gaèa.
dòogá vi. (past doogka)                         2) section of sugar-cane or
    come back, return. komo, dawo.              bamboo between two knuckles.
    Variant: dòogº.                             kundo gaèa.
  dóogà (past doogka)                       d'dòprª n. (plural c'doprª)
    go back. koma. Variant: deega;              joint. gaèa, magami.
    dorga; vaaka.                           dórfò n. (plural dorfono)
dòogtá v. (past doogtka)                        knob-billed goose, spur-winged
    bring sth back, carry sth back to           goose. þani, dinya, na
    its position, return. mayar,                mijin kwarwa.
    mayas. Variant: doogte;                 dorga v. (past dorgka) = dooga.
    dweegta.
                                            dòrî stõ n. (plural dorqm st[)
                                                soup pot. tukunyan miya.

54
dòrò                             í'dòrò
dòrò n. (plural s'doro)
    pipe for smoking. tukunyan




    taba.




                                     55
í'dòrò                                                                    dõkõ
í'dòrò n. (plural m'doro)                  dökcò n. (plural c'dökcò)
   pot. tukunya. Large: k'doro.                hammer used by a blacksmith to
   Large Plural: c'doro. See picture           flatten sth. hama, guduma.
   for: d'ubgcu.
d'dòtà n. (plural c'dota)
   stool.
   kujera.




dóvdóvó adj.
    stacked up, piled up, pile of things
    packed on one another. tsiri,
    tsirge, tsirga.
dö vt. (past d[[k[, active noun s'd[)
  1
                                           dõkdõk id.
    pound. dake.                               pouring out, gushing out in drops.
dö2 n. (plural s'd[)                           þarsawa.
    second private, hidden escape          dökí-s'yàngò
    door made by mice. ìofar                    =
    rami na boye.                             dangqm-ce.
dõ3 id.                                    dökõ1 n. (plural d[kn[)
     softness, or tiredness. luèu-            horse. doki. Large: k'd[k[.
     luèu.                                    Large Plural: c'd[kn[. From:
                                              Hausa.
s'dõ n.
     1) pounding. sakiya.                    dökv s'kõmõ n.
     2) puncturing of an abscess with a        bicycle. keke.
     hot arrow head. sakiya.                 dökv k'wæn n. (plural d[kna
dõgdõgõ ad.                                    c'wen)
     soft to the touch, tender. luèu-          cornstalk horse. dokin kara.
     luèu, lubiya. See: dugdugu.             dõkv k'yà n.
dõgrõt adj.                                    clitoris. þan tsakà.
   large and round, bulging out and        dõkõ2 v. (past dökkõ)
   clearly visible. gwara-gwara.               1) peck. caccaga,
k'dõhç n. (plural c'd[he)                      tsattsaga.
   digging hoe, hoe used for digging           2) choose someone to wrestle
   up ground. hauyan kaptu                     with, spar. zaèa.
   magini.                                   s'dwéklò an.
dõk v.                                        continuous pecking. caccaga
     drip, drop, fall of liquid. þarshi,      koyaushe. See: dwêklê.
     þik, þige.                            dõkõ3 n. (plural c'd[k[)
dökãv k'wæn n.                                biceps, large muscle round the
     cornstalk horse (for children's          arm just above the elbow.
     playing). dokin wasa.                    kwaþon hannu, ìunduwa.

56
k'dõkõ                                    dõm
k'dõkõ n. (plural c'd[k[)
    (left) hip throw, a wrestling move.
    dabaran kokawa. See:
    k'panta.
dõlö n.
    joke, simple play, teasing,
    approaching sb in a playful
    manner. wàsa.




                                           57
dõm                                                                    dõtræe
dõm id.                                    dõ[gsö v. (past d[[gsk[)
   very soft, lying in a soft place.           1) make fun of, play, joke, tease
   lumus.                                      (sb). wani irin wasa.
dõmbõ n. (plural d[mbn[)                       2) coax, beg or urge.
   grey heron. zalèe. Variant:                 kalallame, lallashe.
   d[mbo.                                      Variant: [bgs[; õbgãvsõ.
dömk à rîmkà np.                           dö[kãv-lõngò
     'black mouth', an insulting refrain         v.
     or nickname meaning very ugly.           line up, make into single file.
     muni wani iri, baki                      dodo.
     baìi. See: k'd[m[. Variant: dömk      dö[kõ v. (past d[[kk[)
   ã rîmkã (original phrase                   pierce, stab. jibþe, soke.
   distorted in singing).                  dõ[m nù'gõvõ n. (plural d[[m
k'dömö n. (plural c'd[m[)                     c'g[v[)
   beak. bakin sunsu. See: dömk               farmers' feast. walima, biki.
   à rîmkà.                                dõ[rõ n.
dõndõnõ adv.                                  kind of celebration. wani irin
   kind of look (on face). wani               biki.
   irin duba.                              d'dõ[rõ n. (plural c'd[[r[)
dõngcó  n.                         hoe (newly-made by blacksmith).
   top, peak. ìololuwa, ìoìuwa.               hauya.
dõngdöngó1  n.               dõ[sö v. (past dö[skõ)
   kind of tree. wani irin                    startle, unexpectedly rouse animal
   itace.                                     from hiding. tada.
dõngdõngò2  adv.             dõ[tõpö n. (plural d[[t[pn[)
   swaying from side to side. rawar           dullard, fool. dolo.
   (da). See: t[ngt[ngo.                   dõrkö n. (plural c'd[rk[)
dönköl  adv.                        1) cockscomb. lage-lage,
   sticking out awkwardly. kafuwa             ciroki.
   wani iri.                                  2) kind of shaving with line of
dõntdõntò ad.                                 unshaved hair left on the centre of
   wide-eyed, with large and round            the head. toliya. See: ù'gãmbã.
   eyes, indicating lack of respect,       dõrõnnö v. (past dõrönkõ)
   innocence or fear. gwara-                  poke the forehead (or cheeks) as
   gwara (wani iri). See:                     a rebuke. cungula,
   bõnbõnõ.                                   tsungula, matsoni.  Kadav
k'dõntõ n. (plural c'd[nt[)                    d[r[nn[ wa unlo. Don't poke that
   bare forehead between horns on              lad.
   a goat, ram, ox etc. even a camel.      dös id.
   goshi, gumale.                             1) sound of sudden breaking.
dõntrõm ad.                                   ìarar karyewa.
     with large, round eyes focussed          2) be concave, curved inwards.
     on one thing. wani irin                  komaþaþþe.
     kallo. See: dõntdõntò.                dõsõ v. (past döskõ)
                                              break away suddenly.
                                              gantsavarre.



58
döt                                   dùgdùgù
döt id.
    round and large (esp. of eyes).
    daìwa-daìwa.
dõtãmdõtmò adv.
    acting strangely. wani irin
    hali.
dõtræe adv.
    nearby. wuri, halin
    matsayi.
dõvò vt.
   touch. taèa.
k'dùdú n. (plural c'dudu)
   pimple. ìurji.




                                           59
dùgdùgù                                                                            dúskã
dùgdùgù ad.                                        v'dúmú n. (plural s'dumu)
     soft to the touch. luèu-luèu.                    1) heart. zuciya.
     See: d[gd[g[.                                    2) bad, evil ways, wickedness.
dùgù n.                                               mugunta.
     bottom (anus). dubura.                        dùmú v. (past dúmkù, active noun
c'dùgù n.                                             v'dúmú)
     act of tickling. cakulkuli.                      fight, tease, be rough with sb,
                                                      quarrel. mugunta, faþa. See:
dùgùzºu n.                                            i'dumi.
     castrated goat worshipped in
     Wasagu. taure.                                dúndù n.
                                                      kind of g[lm[ song that gives no
dùk id.                                               room for even a short rest; a kind
   sound of pestle pounding in                        of punishment. waìar noma.
   mortar (low and high sound
   respectively on tones). motsin                  dúndùrúsù n. (plural
   daka.                                              dundurusunu)
                                                      kind of black flying insect. wani
dúkã v. (past dukka)                                  irin ìwaro.
   blow, cause draught. buso,
   huro.                                           dúngdúngú  ad.
                                                      imperfectly rounded, not quite
dùkkî n. (plural dukni)                               spherical. mai siffar doro.
   traditional age group for girls,
   when they reach puberty. tsara                  dùngú  n.
   na gado na yammata.  A wa                         1) the back yard, behind the
     wanta caa c'dukki, kusk u                        house. ratsi.
     s'wxx s'ilq u'yaat daato. If                     2) lavatory. bayanguri.
     a girl reaches the age of initiation, there   dúnkù  n. (plural dunknu)
     are two more years until she reaches the         White-thighed Hornbill. burtu.
     last stage of girlhood.                          Bycanistes albotibialis.  Dunk ci
d'dúkú v.                                              k'd[m k'swakq. The hornbill has a
     lay egg. nashi ìwai.                              large beak. See: cçnkàrç ('Grey
                                                      Hornbill', which is much smaller).
dùkú v.
    sow seed by scattering. watsa.                 dúrgú n. (plural durgunu)
                                                      kind of mouse that lives in tree
v'dùkù n. (plural s'duku)                             cavities. wani irin èera.
    temporary animal track.
    barauniyar hanya.                              dùrúskù v.
                                                       cave in. ìurmushe, burme,
dùmänkã  v.                                èurme. Variant: turusku.
    rumble or growl (inc animals).
    cida, gunji.                                   dús1 id.
                                                       be concave, curved inwards.
  d'dúmú n. (plural c'dumu)                            wani irin duba - doro.
    rumble of thunder. cida.
                                                   dùs id.
                                                       2

k'dùmdùmnù n.                                          sound of sth falling softly; 'thud'.
     moist, black soil which is good for               fashewa a sannu.
     crops. daèaro.
                                                   dùsdùsù adv.
dùmdùmù adv.                                           in a confused or incoherent
     soft to the touch. luèu-luèu,                     manner. botsotso.
     taushi.
                                                   dúskã v.
í'dúmî n.                                              waft or blow towards you. buso.
     fight. faþa. See: dumu.

60
dúskã                                                                  dwãqgärí
dúskã n.                                      dùvgkù v.
   person who talks nonsense.                    buckle up, become dented.
   wawa.                                         komaþa.
duskuru = d'débköbö.                          dùvínsî v. (past duvinski)
dúsmá n.                                         mix up, join together. gama,
   1) senseless speaking. magana                 game. See: sxmxnsx.
   rashin hankali.                            dùvîsí v. (past duviski)
   2) person who talks nonsense.                 come together suddenly, clash,
   wawa.                                         meet in conflict, bump into,
dúsmù v. (past dusumka)                          collide. ci karo, buga,
   talk rubbish or irrelevantly.                 banka.
   bangara, badau.                              d'dùvîsí n.
  à'dùsmù n.                                      bump. karo, banka.
    1) chatterbox. bangara                    dúvkù v.
    bandau.                                      plunge. faþa kogi.
    2) nonsense. magana maye.                 k'dùvú n. (plural c'duvu)
dút id.                                          basket-like net for catching fish.
    shallow. rashin zurfi.                       taru.
dútê np.                                      dwà v.
    a childrens' playname.                        burn. ìone. See: c'dwaako.
k'dútú n.                                     c'dwàakò an.
   rear lumbar region. ìugu,                      clear bush by burning. toyi,
   kwankwaso, ìunguru.                            sassabe.
   Variant: abqj; k'ziti.                     dwàhwælá n.
dùuhù n. (plural s'duuhu)                         one of the golmo workers in
   shrub which grows well during the              charge of keeping the fire burning.
   rainy season. wasu irin                    dwàkà-dwákà n.
   tsire-tsire.                                  a g[lm[ person nicknamed for
dúunà n.                                         working hard. wani irin
    nickname for golmo person who                kirari.
    awards punishment to 1st year.           m'dwángrî  n.
    Duuna baan g[lm[, i unwan                    stench. þoyi.
    tu buu a c'k[t[. A person that is
    given this title is in charge of giving   dwát id.
    punishments to anyone found guilty.           intense, sharp (taste), clear
                                                  (moon). (þanþana) mai
d'dúutú n.                                        ìarfi.
    quickly made and uncooked
    tuwo. kaþìwarya,                          dwàtãmsç v.
    sharandaèo, sharèila.                         smack the lips. þake.
dúutú1 v (aux).                                 s'dwàtãmsæ n.
    must. dole.                                  licking of mouth. tanþa.
dúutú2 adv.                                   d'dwã n. (plural c'dwq)
    by force. tilas.                             hole where water collects, well.
                                                  ma zaunin ruwa,
dùvdùvù ad.                                       ìwiyaka, ìorama.
    crookedly. komaþa.  H[dk
    nu'bel emk duvduvu. The                     k'dwã n.
    boundary of the farm is marked                large pond, lake. tafki.
    crookedly.

                                                                                      61
dwãqgärí                                                                        æmà
dwãqgärí n. (plural dwqqgqrni)                dwxxz id.
   police. dansanda, dandoko.                    perching alone on top of sth.
dwebe = debe.                                    tsaye. Variant: dwxxv.
dwædáká v.                                    dwêklê v. (past dwxkqlkx)
   put sth on top of another, put one            peck. sakkwata wani iri,
   thing in another. aje kan aza                 yi koto.
   akan.                                        ù'dwêkló n.
dweegta v. (past dweegtka) =                  dwêvê adj.
   doogta.                                         accessible. nan. See: d[v[
dwçeræ n.                                          'touch'.
     kind of tree. wani irin                  c'dwévlé v.
     itace.                                        incite to anger, provoke.
d'dwçesæ n.                                        zungura, tsokana.
     burn mark. tambo.                        dwíkîkí v.
í'dwçkcæ n.                                      sprinkle. burbura.
   cliff. dutse mai gangare.                  dwîklä v. (past dwikqlkq)
dwæpá v. (past dwæpákà)                          pound something already
   continue from where you left off.             pounded repeatedly. wani irin
   haþa, gama.                                   dakawa, kirèa.
dwæpãrsnæ v. (past dwæpärskæ,                   ù'dwîklú n.
   active noun s'dwæpãrsnæ)                   dwírí n. (plural dwirini)
   be stuck together. ìame, maìe.                  hyena. kura.
dwçpcæ n.                                     dwítríi adv.
     summit, highest point.                        poised to move. tsuguna.
     ìololuwa, ìoìuwa.
dwêxv = dwxxz.
                                    E     -    e

çdgà v. (past edgka)                          2) (illness) become worse. hanìoro,
     lie across, arrange in rows.                    hangula.  Gaagq m'na
     gindaya.                                      elqvka o txntx. The illness of
                                                   madness has attacked him today.
v'ædgcó n. (plural s'edgco)
     piece of wood supported by two           ælävskò v.
     forked sticks (or used as lavatory           act rudely to sb. mara ladabi.
     seat). mafyaþi.                            ælãvsò n. (plural c'elqvso)
æelà n. (plural s'eela) = deela.                  rudeness. rashin ladabi.
                                              ælló v.
çkkà v.                                            there is. akwai.
     light (fire). kunna wuta.
                                              çlvà v.
ælá v. (past elka)                               rise up on the surface. tashi.
     climb. hau.                              çmà n. (plural emna)
                                                   1

ælävkà v.                                        grasshopper, locust. fara.
     1) strike sb down, make someone            çmnás-wáalà n.
     collapse. tashi.                             farm locust. faran gandu.

62
æmà                                                                                  êm
æmà2 v. (past çmkà)                               çnkà  v.
     do, make, happen. yi.                           finish being cooked. dafu.
    à'çmkò n.                                     æpà n. (plural epna)
   1) an act, happening or doing.                    grass-cutter mouse. gyabji,
   aiki.                                             kusun kyauro.
   2) verb, a word describing what                æpärskæ v.
   sth is or what it does. fi'ili,                     smell strongly. gumus, gumèa.
   aikatau.                                       k'çpcò n.
v'æmà n. (plural s'ema)                                any lotion made by soaking herbs.
   wrestling tactic, action, move.                     tsimi.
   dabaran kokawa.  Qm hetk                      çpkà v.
     o nqv'ema. I felled him with a                    ferment. ruèa, sa su giya,
     wrestling move. (I wrestled him to the            su tashi.
     ground). See: v'bùzù.
                                                  æsá vi.
æmánkà  v.                                  stand. tsaya.
     wound. yiwa rauni.
d'æmçsæ n.                                        ù'çsásá n.
                                                       full stop, period. aya.
     injury, hurt. jimuwa.
                                                  çskà v.
c'æmlò n.                                            halt, stop. tsaya.
   imitating sb (not always negative).
   ta-banjama, wawa.                              d'æsò n. (plural c'eso)
                                                     standing. tsaye.
emnas wala See: ema.
çmskæ v.                                          æssç ad.
                                                     small. figil. Variant: esso.
   behave in a way that will
   displease sb, wrong sb. aikatau                esso = esse.
   mara dacewa.                                   çvkà v.
en = xm2.                                              lay (eggs). nasa.
ænà n. (plural s'ena)
   shin. kwauri.

                                         X    -    x

ê    excl.                                        égné n.
     'whoops!'; exclamation of                         money. bakunashi, kudi.
     forgetfulness. alamar motsin                 êkçe v.
     rai.                                              'say cheese!' display teeth. buþe
écéxm adv.                                             haìora.
     cross-eyed, squinting, with                  êkké v.
     screwed up face. wani irin                      do well (of grain). hatsi ta yi
     duba.                                           ido.
écké n.                                           élbé n. (plural s'xlbx)
     male (usually of crabs). namijin                kind of tree. wani irin
     ìaguwa, etc.                                    itace.
ê'ê excl.                                         élê v. (past xlkx)
     oh! o'o.                                        clear away, move out of the way.
                                                     gushe.
                                                                                      63
élésê                                    êm
élésê v.
     clear or move sth out of the way.
     þaukewa kan hanya.




64
êm                                                                              fàtàp
êm1 n.                                          éssê n. (plural s'xssx)
      1) strong wind, air. iska.                     neighbourhood, settlement.
      2) shame, shyness. kunya.                      maìwabta.
      Variant: en; m'xn.                        d'été n.
åm excl.
  2
                                                   1) starting point, beginning, origin.
      'not me!', 'it's none of my                  asali, farko.
      business'. dai.                              2) reason. dalili.
émémé v.                                        k'étê n. (plural c'xtx)
   not get to the point. i'ina.                    1) zana mat, a thick woven grass
m'ên = xm1.                                        mat. zana.
én n.                                              2) a zana mat shelter. mafaka.
      kind of tree or shrub, possibly
      Rock Pepper. dargaza. Grewia
      mollis.
  m'ên n.
      leaves and flowers of the xn tree.
      ganyen dargaza.
k'êndé n.
      indigestion, stomach spasm.
      masoki.
ênênê adv.
   only. kaþai.
épé v. (past êpké)
   bite. ciza.                                  êvsæ v. (past xvske)
éplê v. (past xpqlkx)                                put off until later, delay, waste
   eat mush food without soup. ci                    time. jinkiri, tsaida.
   gaya.
éskkê v.
      throw water over sb. antaya.

                                       F    -    f

fàa id.                                         fàffàffà id.
      fly without moving wings. tashin               with wings flapping. faffaka.
      tsuntsu.                                  fàk id.
fàar id.                                             sth being stripped off quickly.
      sound made by cricket or                       kwace da karfi.
      grasshopper flying. wani irin             fàràp id.
      tashin ìwaro.                                thump! sound of person or animal
fáarà vt.                                          falling to the ground. gwaraf,
      start. fara, soma. From: Hausa.              yaraf. See: fxrxp. Variant:
fàf id.                                            farktap; furktup.
      1) flop! sound of sth falling which       farktap = farap.
      isn't too solid. yaraf.                   fàtàp ad.
      2) limp or flat (of tyre). mai                 broad. alwasa, faski.
      yaushi.

                                                                                         65
fºu                                                                                fö[
fºu adv.                                     férép id.
     swift in movement. mai sauri,              'plonk' - sound of something thin
     tsattsewa.                                 falling. motsin faþuwa wani
fãqn adv.                                       iri. See: farap. Variant:
     clearly. tarmazaizai.                      fxrktxp.
fãqn-fãqn adv.                               fxrktxp = fxrxp.
     fumbling (metaphorical). fafaka.        fåu id.
fãl id.                                          1) sound of a bird's wing in the air,
     slowly, blinking, as if you have just       whiff, slight puff of air, swift cf. fau.
     woken up. ìibta.                            wani irin sauri.
                                                 2) sound a bull makes when it is
fãlfãlã id.                                      ready to fight. yi firji.
     flap, flutter. fuffuka.                     3) sigh, breathe heavily. yi
fãmkî-fãmkî v.                                   ajiyar zuciya.
     pull about, pull this way and that.     fíf id.
     jagula, jagwalgwala.                        whiff, slight puff of air, something
fãrãp id.                                        moving quickly through the air.
     1) sunken, low down, fallen in on           motsin abu cikin iska.
     itself. nitse.                          fíffíffí id.
     2) See: farap. Variant: furup.              sound of flapping wings, or by
fælà id.                                         object moving through the air (e.g.
   1) wilting of corn through lack of            a flag). motsin faffaka.
   rain. yaushi.                             fíi id.
   2) of muscles - flabby, soft, fleshy.        slight puff of air, sound made by
   laìwas. Variant: g[z[.                       bird flying quickly, sound of bird's
d'fêccê n. (plural c'fxccx)                     wings moving through the air.
   last part; highest part of a pile,           wani irin motsi.
   e.g. end of tail. tsiri sama              fílfílí n. (plural filfilni)
   dirkokoniya.                                 crane (large bird).
fêx id.                                      fír id.
     1) unexpectedly light in weight or          with a flurry of wings. motsin
     sound. jin rashin nauyi.                    iska wani iri.
     2) zooming movement of small
     bird.                                   fírím ad.
                                                 shady, spreading. yalwatacce,
fêf id.                                          toho, shirim.
   whoosh! - with a short, quick blast
   of air. busar iska.                       fírktíp adv.
                                                unexpectedly grabbing. raruma
v'fêkù n. (plural s'fêkù)                       ìwace.
   kind of cornstalk flute. karan
   wasan yawa. See: k'bqgbqgu.               k'fòkò n. (plural c'foko)
                                                lung. huhu.
félfélé ad.                                  fõdfõdõ vn.
     thin. mara kauri, mara
     gwièi.                                      sniffing. mai da majina.
                                                 Variant: fudfudu.
fêmtæ v.                                     fõf id.
     pull out, drag away. janye, ja.
                                                 sound of sth falling. motsin
                                                 faþuwa wani iri.



66
fõffõffõ                                                                   fyu
fõffõffõ id.                            fùtùbài (plural c'futubai) =
    sound of wind blowing. motsin           h[r[mbai.
    iska wani iri. Variant:             fúu adv.
    fuffuffu.                              gaping. èalau.
fö[ id.                                 fúuí n. (plural s'fuuni)
    gaping (of hole). èalau. See:          turban. rawani.
    f[r[r[.
c'fö[tö n.                              fyàa id.
                                            gliding; flying without flapping
    without kernels (e.g. pods).            wings. shawagin tsuntsu
    huhus.                                  wani iri.
förörö ad.                              fyàakänwäq n.
    hollow, gaping. bututu. See:           drama recalling a person's life at
    f[[.                                   their funeral. wani irin wasa.
fõrtõp id.                              fyàatàa = d'yaasa.
    emphatic PLONK! wani irin
    faþuwa.                             fyàf adv.
                                            flat. shimfi-þaþþe.
fötrö ad.
    1) toothless. dasori, wawilo.       fyàffyàa adv.
    2) seedless (e.g. of groundnuts).       floating in the air. tashin
    ban da 'ya'ya. Variant:                 tsuntsu a iska.
    bqbre (Zuru dialect).               fyàflàam ad.
  fõtrõ-fõtrõ adv.                          slyly; absent-mindedly. wani
   nonsensical manner of speaking           irin duba.
   of a toothless person. maganar       fyáin id.
   maras haìori.                            like a streak of lightning. bukut.
fudfudu = f[df[d[.                      fyàk fyàkò adj.
fuffuffu = f[ff[ff[.                       flattened, flat. fici-fici.
fùká n.                                 k'fyakda n. (plural c'fyakda) =
    bronchitis. huka. Variant: huka.       k'sopla.
fùmú v.                                 fyàknò n. (plural s'fyakno) =
    1) pull. ja, shaìa.                    hyakno.
    2) sniff.                           fyàl fyàlà adv.
fùr id.                                     fluttering, flapping. motsin
   with a flutter. fur. From: Hausa?        ìyalle a iska.
furktup = farap.                        fyàu id.
                                           swift in flight, fast-moving (of
furup = fqrqp.                             water). saurin tafiya wani
fúrúrú id.                                 iri. Variant: fyu.
    1) exposing the private parts by    fyu = fyau.
    stooping. gaho.
    2) See: f[r[r[; mõs.
fùt adv.
    1) for a long time. na dogon
    lokaci.
    2) quickly. da sauri.




                                                                               67
d'gá                                                                        gàbàsá

                                       G   -    g

                                                 s'gáagò n.
d'gá n. (plural c'ga)                               measles; chicken-pox; smallpox.
     mush food, tuwo. tuwo.                         agana, gaida, ìyanda,
                                                    tumfus.
s'gà n.                                        c'gàagò v.
   woman's coiffure; plait,
   hair-do. kitso.                                loud raising of the voice in anger.
                                                  raratu, gurnani.
gáa1 v. (past gáakà)                           v'gàatnæ n. (plural c'gaatne)
   marry. aura.
                                                  ornamental or ceremonial stick
gàa v. (past gaaka)
   2
                                                  made from buffalo hide to mark
   splice (rope). kuta.                           out a renowned hunter. sandar
                                                    fatàn bauna, sandar
                                                    fatà bauna, ìiri.
                                               gáav adv.
                                                    upright. tsap.
                                               gàaz gàaz adv.
                                                    hurriedly. sauri wani iri.
                                               gàb s'zãtnã n.
gáa hàngò  v.                       kind of bee. kuþan zuma wani
     risk; unfortunately or accidentally          iri.
     cause death or similar disaster by        gàbà vt. (past gábkà, active noun
     interfering with an object or                u'gábó)
     person already damaged.                      1) follow, work on. bi.
     gwada, jarraba.                              2) obey. bi, kiyaye.
gàadçmà n.                                       gàb õmõ v.
     an official position within the                go and bring (sth one has
     golmo system, identifying only                 forgotten to take). tafije
     one individual. galadima.                      kawo.
gáadò1 n.                                        à càv gàbº
     inheritance. gado. From: Hausa?                come later and collect (food etc.).
gáadò2 v.                                           zo anjima karbi.
     inherit. gada, al'ada.                      s'gàbò n.
gàagàró n.                                          immediate junior, the person who
     red guinea corn, a kind of                     immediately follows another in
     sorghum. janjare, wata                         age. ìane.
     irin dawa, ìaura. Sorghum                 s'gàbà n.
     bicolor.                                      1) believe. gaskata.
d'gàago n.                                         2) Christianity. addinin
     1) bitterness. þaci.                          Kirista.
     2) war. yaìi.                               ká s'gàbà n. (plural á s'gàbà)
gàagó n.                                           believer, Christian. Kirista.
     sickness, disease. ciwo, cuta.            gàbàsá v. (past gabaska)
                                                   be gentle, calm and collected,
                                                   settled. bi sannu.
68
gàbæsç                                                             gàgãrgàgrò
gàbæsç v. (past gabeske)                     gàdæsç v. (past gàdçskæ)
    follow, follow suit, copy, join in. yi       start early, take care to set out or
    kamar.
c'gàbæsæ n.
    pretence. yi kamar.
c'gàblá n.
    bran. dussa, dususu,
    dissa.
gàbòn s'gábò adv.
   in groups according to age, step
   by step. bi da bi.
gábtæ v. (past gabtke)
   lead, take charge. bita.
                                                do sth early. yi sammako.
gácbá v. (past gacqbka)                         Variant: gatese; atese.
   prepare, get set and ready to
   wrestle. shirya tsayuwa na                gàdgá v. (past gadgka)
   kokawa.                                      aid, help. taimako, agaza,
  ù'gàcbó n.                                    agaji wani iri.
  d'gàcbò n.                                 gàdgàdà adv.
                                                 in a shivering, trembling or
    prepared wrestling stance.                   shaking manner. farfarwa,
    tsayuwa na kokawa.                           makyarkyata.
gàcbàl adv.                                  gàdgò n.
    limp, of a (dead) lizard or                  1) (first) aid, help. wani irin
    crocodile. kwanciyar kada                    taimako.
    wani iri.                                    2) guard, prevent. rigakafi.
gàcgàcà id.                                  gàg c'débé excl.
   in a wriggling manner like a lizard.         please, a polite, concerned appeal
   yi magowa maþoþowa.                          or request. yarda, so. Variant:
gaco = gada1.                                   gak-c'dxbx; gag-dxbx.
gàdá v. (past gádkà)                         gag dxbx = gag-c'dxbx.
   meet sb. iske, ishe. See:                 gàgá v.
   bítú. Variant: gaco; gato; oso.               tie, join, wrap up. þaure,
í'gàdæ n.                                        daura.
    woven material on the inside of a          d'gàgà n. (plural c'gaga)
    grass roof. wata irin tanka.                 1) bundle; number of articles
  v'gàdç n.                                      fastened together. adila,
    hoop (often of wood or twine)                ìunshi, þauri.
    around the inside of the roof to             2) general dense forest, a mixture
    hold the apex of the roof firmly.            of trees. kurmi.
    wata irin tanka. See:                      gàgçnkæ  adv.
    í'gàtç (the outer hoop);                     clenched, grabbed, as in fighting.
    v'kàkcò 'rafter'.                            harìuma.
                                             gàgäd c'zán n.
                                                 bundle of hay. daurin-
                                                 ciyawa, ganye.
                                             gàgãrgàgrò n.
                                                 roughness. kausasa.
                                                                                   69
v'gágcò                                                                   gándkà
v'gágcò n. (plural s'gagco)                   s'gàlmà an.
     cord, string; sth used for tying.            1) smack lips. yi þaþar baki.
     hargi, maþauri.                              2) song sung during g[lm[.
d'gàgæ n.                                         waìa.
   1) bound, charmed, bewitched,              c'gàmá n.
   under a charm to make you                      wickedness. ìeta.
   ineffective. sammu.                        k'gámbá n. (plural c'gamba)
   2) wound around leg of an animal               1) forked stick. gwafa.
   from being tied up. þauri.                     2) cross (crucifix). gicciye.
gàgæsç v. (past gageske)                        ù'gámbá n. (plural c'gamba)
   tie together, bundle (different                forked stick, stick with branches.
   types of thing). haþa damre.                   gwafa.
   See: gàgá (bundle of things not
   necessary different).                      gàmb-c'lõn  n.
                                                  (plural gamb-c'l[nn[)
gàgnæ n. (plural s'gagne)                         a kind of fungus from which soup
   cornstalk fence. darni,                        is made. burar jaki.
   gurami.
                                              gámcò n. (plural s'gamco)
gágsæ adv.                                        branch, esp. of guinea corn stalk.
     with little notice, short/late notice,       reshe.
     at the last minute. nan take.
                                              gamense v. (past gamenske) =
gágskà v.                                         damense.
   1) prompted, without prior
   information. gaggauta.                     gàmçskæ v.
   2) spring new task on sb when                  join. haþu.
   they are already busy. totsiya.            ù'gàn n.
k'gàhámà n. (plural c'gahama)                     1) special rope of tobacco.
   phlegm. majina. See: k'[l[.                    igiyar taba.
                                                  2) rope used by women to tie
gak c'dxbx = gag-c'dxbx.                          firewood. wata irin igiya.
gàkkç n. (plural gakne)                         k'gàn n. (plural c'gan)
   set of people in same age group,               rope. igiya.
   before g[lm[. tsara.
gàlà v. (past gálkà, active noun              c'gánà n.
                                                 the Hausa language. Hausa. See:
   m'gala)                                       k'kögõ 'Hausa people'.
   1) become completely solidly
   twisted, bent, deformed.                   gàná v. (past gánkà)
   lanìwasa.                                     listen. saurara. See: gánú
   2) undisciplined, unruly, ill-                c'cón.
   mannered. taurare.                         m'gàncò n.
gálgálá ad.                                       1) scrap of news. duriya.
   the only one, completely alone.                2) find out, discover. jin
   rak, kaþai.                                    labari.
k'gàlmá n. (plural c'galma)                   gàndàl ad.
   type of hoe. wata irin                         stiff and bent out of shape.
   fartanya.                                      lanìwasa, tanìwasa.
gàlmà n. (plural galmana)                     gándãlkà v.
   kind of kite, or other bird of prey.           interweave, interlace, entwine.
   shaho wani iri.                                sarìa.


70
gándkà                                                          gàzãrgàzrò
gándkà v.                                  gàrämsà v. (past gàrämskà)
    entangle. cukwikwiye.                      decide on the spur of the moment,
v'gànæ n. (plural s'gane)                      unplanned. babu shiri.
    a medium-sized claw, talon, or           gàrãmsá n. (plural c'garqmsa)
    cock's spur; a sharp horny                 quick unexpected, unplanned
    projection on the legs of some             work, not necessarily careless.
    male birds, above the claws.               karmatse.
    ìaimi, akaifa.                         gàsà v. (past gaska)
  k'gànæ (plural c'gànæ)                       remove, set portion aside. þebi,
    larger spur. babban ìaimi.                 þiba.
gànænæ ad.                                 d'gàsà n.
    sticking out, strange, not in normal      parting; wide, natural spacing
    position, an insult. tsatsaye.            between teeth. wushirya. See:
d'gàngá  n. (plural               gata1.
    c'ganga)                               gata1 v. (past gatka) = atese.
    kind of drum. ganga. From:             gàtà2 v. (past gatko)
    Hausa?                                    meet. iske. Variant: gada1.
gàngà  v. (past gàngkº)           gàtãmgátmó n. (plural
    dry sth in sun. shanya.                   gàtãmgátämnò)
  c'gàngò  n.                     honourable, important. mai
    sun-drying. shanya.                       girma. See: dámrá swàunç.
gángáná  adv.                  gàtãrnò ad.
    curious, inquisitive. mai                 poorly-grown (teeth), crossing
    kasagani.                                 over each other, haphazard.
gàngræe  ad.                       gwamace.
    stiff, not easily bent. ìadabari.      í'gàtç n. (plural m'gate)
d'gàntá n.                                    outer roofing hoop; the topmost
   1) verbosity. kauþi.                       section of a grass roof frame
   2) rudeness. aþþe.                         tightening near the apex to hold
                                              the top part of the grass thatch.
gàntà n. (plural gantna)                      wata irin tanka. See:
   kind of cricket. ìwaro.                    í'gàdæ (inner hoop).
gánú c'cón v.                              gatese v. (past gateske) =
    listen, pay attention with your           gadese.
    ears. kulawa, lura,
    saurara, kasawan kunne.                gato = gada1.
   See: gàná 'listen'.                     gávgává id.
gàpàa v. (past gapka)                          upright, erect. kafa a tsaye.
   hang, dangle, swing. reto.                  See: gqvgqvq.
k'gàpç n. (plural c'gàpç)                  gàzãrgàzrò ad.
   hard white fungus that grows at             friable, hard, brittle, crumbly and
   the base of anthills. kashin                broken up, of dry food or earth
   wata.                                       etc. mai sauìin fashewa.
                                               Variant: wàzãrwàzrò.
gáplá1 adj.
   knock-kneed (person). gwami.
gáplà2 v. (past gapqlka)
   do sth roughly, not level. mai
   kaushi.
                                                                                  71
gàzgàzà                                                                 gãhämã
gàzgàzà id.                                  d'gädbá n. (plural c'gqdba)
     1) trembling, shaking involuntarily         food made with bean flour,
     and uncontrollably.                         dumplings. tubani. Variant:
     makyarkyata. Variant:                       d'gxdba.
     zagzaga.                                í'gãdù n.
     2) hurriedly, quickly. tsakiya.            1) belched gas, stench. gyatsa,
     Variant: gezgeze.                          gyatse. See: gãsä.
gäqgù n.                                        2) special small clay pot or
     chosen, ordained spouse, the one           pitcher, containing a potion used
     and only person sb is destined to          in determining if someone is
     marry. matan mutum                         telling the truth. ìaramin tulu.
     kabarin sa.                             k'gãgã n. (plural c'gqgq)
gãqgù v.                                        molars, large back teeth used for
     1) rove, wander from place to              grinding food. matauni, gabo.
     place, walkabout. gilo,                   d'gãgã n.
     ragaita, gararamba,                        toothache, molar pain. ciwon
     shukaliya.                                 haìorin matauna.
     2) loiter. baþaþa, marshe,
     èakyalu.                                gãgänkã  v.
                                                entangle, pass ropes in and out of
v'gãqrù n. (plural s'gqqru)                     sth to tie it up. kate-kate,
   root. saiwa.                                  lanyace, marwa, rikita,
d'gãbgnä n. (plural c'gqbgnq)                    harþe.
   younger sibling, the sibling born         gãgãrdãdrù id.
   immediately after sb. ìane.                   brittle, hard but easily broken.
   Variant: d'gqbgni.                            gaggautsa. See: gqdqrgqdru.
d'gãbgnî n.                                  c'gäggänsî n.
     younger brother or sister whose            1) entanglement. harþe.
     arrival requires slightly older child      2) giving birth. haihuwa. Variant:
     to be weaned to make room for              u'gqggqnsi.
     the new baby. ìane. See:
     d'gqbgnq.                               gãgmánkà  n.
                                                undergrowth, vegetation, kind of
gãd áknà n.                                     growth low on the ground, herbs,
   kind of herb, called "Leper's Liver"         grass and other field plants
   in Hausa. gabasaya, hantan                   spreading on the ground and
   kuturu.                                      producing thorny seeds. wani
d'gãdä n. (plural c'gqdq)                       irin tsiro mai ìaya.
   vagina. farji.                            gãgmölö n.
gãdãmgãdmù ad.                                   seasonal shrub. wasu irin
     1) faint, semi-conscious,                   tsire-tsire.
     unconscious because of shock or         c'gãgnù n.
     loss of blood. suma.                       belt, sth tied around the waist
     2) about to die, kicking legs all          hurriedly. þamara.
     over as if one is dying. gangama
     sautu.                                  gägú n. (plural s'gqgu)
                                                groin, depressed area between
gãdãrgãdrù adj.                                 the belly and the thigh. wurin
     brittle, breakable. aras. See:              jiki inda kaluluwa ta
     gqgqrdqdru.                                 ke.


72
gãhämã                                                                     gãsä
gãhämã n. (plural s'gqhqmq)                c'gãmgãmã n.
    kind of shrub. wasu irin                  stutter, stammer (stomatitis of the
    tsire-tsire.                              tongue). hartatande.
c'gãi n.                                   gäng  adj.
    marriage. aure, auranya.                  focussed, serious, thoughtful,
d'gãlä n. (plural c'gqlq)                     conservative, not given to
    half, piece, one part of sth broken.      pleasure-seeking. mai
    èantare.                                  tsanani.
  v'gãlä n. (plural s'gqlq)                m'gängã  n.
    half, piece, as above, for source         erection, sth standing up straight,
    objects with different class              (e.g. penis). tsaye, tashi.
    markers. èantare. Variant:             gängärí  n. (plural
    u'gqlq.                                   gqngqrni)
gãlãm v.                                      black corn-storing ant.
    flick, suddenly bend one side, fling      tururuwa.
    suddenly on one side. janye.           gãní n.
gälämpäq id.                                   a kind of shrub known as the
    not properly seated on the base,           Asclepiad plant, violet tree and
    can easily detach and fall off.            mother of medicine. uwar
    tsaye.                                     magunguna. Securidaca
                                               longepedunculata.
gãlgãlã id.
    in a rolling, sprawling way.           gãnyá n.
    mirgin-mirgin.                             communal labour/workers,
                                               working together. gayya.
d'gãlhängnã
      n.                 gäp id.
   lying on one's back. rigingine.             unnoticed, sneakily appearing
                                               right in front of one. nan da
gãlùsú v. (past gqlusku)                       nan farmaki.
   request sb to bend over.
   bankara.                                gãpgãpã id.
                                               fluttering wing movement.
d'gämã n. (plural c'gqmq)                      fafaka.
   unripe, raw (fruit). þanye,
   þaita. Variant: d'gim[.                 gäpskã v.
                                               wake up, come to, recover, revive
  m'gãmã n.                                    from faint, awake from sleep.
    unripe berry fruit or small seedy          farka.
    plants. þanyu.
                                           gãrãmskî v.
gãmb dáwákç n.                                 impulsively go, act on impulse, do
   kind of guinea corn or sorghum.             sth unplanned and decide and act
   doron zabo.                                 on it right away. wata irin
u'gãmbã n. (plural c'gãmbã)                    niyya.
   shaved patch anywhere on the            gärgärä adj.
   head, sometimes in the shape of             only one, single. guda take.
   the moon, sometimes allowing the
   remaining part to be plaited.           d'gärgätã n.
   toliya. See: dõrkö.                        (covering) a small area of space,
                                              ground, land. da'ira.
gämbkã v.
    extract self, go to one side, take     gãsä v. (past gqskq)
    oneself or a small group out of the       belch. gyashi.
    larger group. sami wuri.
                                                                                  73
c'gäsrä                                                                    gædmò
     d'gãsã n. (plural c'gqsq)            gçcmá2 v. (past gecqmka)
       belching. gyashi.                       dislodge sth firmly-embedded.
c'gäsrä an.                                    gaggaèa.
       1) be sarcastic. gace, gatse.        ù'gçcmó n.
       2) be witty or amusing in speech   ù'gæcmà n.
       (considered ill-mannered or             flour after first grinding. riìa na
       humorous). santi, fanya.                biyu. See: gætá.
gät1 adj.                                 gæcmàl adj.
       undersized, not long enough to        shape or position of body lying or
       cover sth up. guntu.                  standing. tsaye.
gãt2 adv.                                 gçdá v. (past gedka, active noun
   suddenly, confidently (often of           ù'gçdó)
   stopping doing sth). tsayuwa              1) cut up (e.g. meat) or break off a
   nan take, gyat, cik.                      piece. yanka, gundule.
ù'gãtã n. (plural c'gqtq)                    2) circumcise. kaciya.
   cheek (side of face). kumatu,            d'geda
   kunci.                                      piece, a bit of sth broken.
     k'gãtã                                    gutsure. See: d'gungu.
       big cheek: emphatic. babban        d'gædá n.
       kunci.                                  partially-filled vessel, portion of,
gãtãrgãtrù id.                                 half of. tumbi.
       uneven. bai þaya.                  gçdán adj.
gãtúnlàndà n.                                restricted boundary. iyakaci.
   hidden agenda (secret motive).         gædàngwê  n.
   da lauje cikin haki.                      kind of grass-eating caterpillar.
gãu n. (plural gqunu)                        èurma hanci.
   migratory locus a large edible         gædæsç v. (past gedeske)
   locust. burduduwa. Locusta                cut self, injure, pierce, slice off a
   migratoria (Orthoptera).                  part of one's body. datsa'
m'g¿u n.                                     gididdiba.
       truth, fact. sahihi, sahaha.       gçdgà v.
gãvgãvã id.                                    impede, fend off, prevent, disrupt,
       quiverring, as if dangling or           disturb. tare.
       hanging straight but pointing      gædgò n.
       upwards. kafuwa wani iri,             tracking, bush-hunting strategy for
       kafa fegi. See: gavgava.              catching small game. wata
gäzäbkã v.                                   irin farauta.
       wake fully, throw of stupor of     gædksç v. (past gedske)
       sleep on awakening. wartsake,         stop. gutse.
       washe.
gæccãm c'kõlõ v.                          gçdmà v. (past gedqmka)
                                             cut out small portions.
       tell a lie. shirga ìarya.             fatantana.
gçccò n.                                  gædmò n.
   antidote, a potion that is used to          fried blood mixed with fatty kind of
   protect against poison. katala,             meat. hanta wuya.
   kirni, kas dafi.
gecma1 v. (past gecqmka) = geta.

74
c'gædmò                                                              gætkká
c'gædmò n.                               d'gæná n. (plural c'gena)
   mixing and squashing food and             the thorny plant Mimosa asperata.
   water by hand. gwamutsa,                  ìaddaji, ìwiya, garjen
   gwalisa.                                  giwa. Mimosa asperata. Large:
d'gædmò n. (plural c'gedmo)                  k'gæná.
   1) boast or descriptive epithet, a      k'gæná n. (plural c'gena)
   special song of praise for a              thicket, dense collection of
   special occasion. wani irin               bushes. daji, jeji.
   kirari, laìaèi.                       gændébé n.
   2) bridge or introduction song.           chest, direct centre of the chest,
   gaþa.                                     by the heart on the front of the
gçdó n.                                      body. ìirji, gaba.
    frontier, boundary, limit, line or   gçndkà v.
    point that may not be passed.            coagulate, become thickened, as
    iyaka.                                   with snow or dust lying thickly and
c'gçdó n.                                    condensed. daskare.
    highway robbery. fashi.              d'gændsà n.
ù'gçezà n.                                  1) kind of mush made from the
    shaving head except narrow line         pulp inside locust beans.
    left over side of head between          murshe, tuwo.
    temples. aski.                          2) condiments. kayan yaji.
k'gælà n.                                gæntãdgá n. (plural gentqdgana)
    cowardice, fear. raki.                  goblin, evil spirit. dodo,
  v'gælà n.                                 fatalwa.
    fear. tsoro, fargaba.                gçplà v. (past gepqlka)
  gçlkà                                     1) break a mass in irregular
    frightened, feeling fear. mai           lumps. lauma.
    tsoro.                                  2) large mouthfuls of tuwo. cin
                                            ... da babbar loma.
  gælãmsà v. (past gelqmska, active
   noun c'gelqmsa)                       gærçgærç n. (plural gærçgærçnæ)
   frighten someone. tsoratadda.            water-boatman, water beetle that
                                            swims in grounds round and
gçlämsá v. (past gelqmska)                  round in stagnant water. wani
   frighten. soratadda.                     irin ìwaron ruwa. Corixidae.
  ù'gçlämsá n.                           gætá v. (past getka, active noun
gælgöngö  n. (plural           u'geto)
   gelg[ng[n[)                              break sth into smaller pieces.
   coward, fearful person.                   karye, kakkarya,
   matsovaci.                                karyawa. Variant: gecma.
gæmà n. (plural gemna)                     d'gætçsæ n. (plural c'getese)
   coney hyrax. rema.                        fracture, break. kariya.
gçn n. (plural s'gen)                    s'gætà n.
   river. rafi.                              kind of dancing performed by
                                             older girls. ranwa,
d'gæn n. (plural c'gen)                      dawurwuri.
   chest. ìirji.
                                         gætáskà v.
                                             daunt, discourage. jajirma.


                                                                              75
gætkká                                                                     géglê
gætkká v.                                    gébêsté adj.
   tell, narrate a story. ba da                 prescribed. ìayyadadden.
   labari.                                   d'gxdba = d'gqdba.
gætòsó v. (past getosko)                     ù'gédgêdé adj.
   truss (as in chicken), protrude,             exaggerated fuss. kwakwazo,
   push in or out to breaking point.            rigima.
   banìara.
d'gçttà n. (plural c'getta)                  gxxge-gxxge = kyaura-kyaura.
   broad axe with long point, a small        gêxkæ-gêxkæ id.
   hatchet for chopping animal                  shuttle about to and fro between
   fodder. tsitaka, kurada.                     near places. dabainiya,
                                                jangainiya, jarogama.
gættá v. (past getka)
   walk, shoot, fire across in the way       géxsê v. (past gêxské)
   of sth moving, especially sth flying         cool, add sth into boiling soup to
   (e.g. shooting birds). harba.                make it cool down to stop foam
                                                frothing over. lura da miya
gætùgwámbá n.                                   wani iri.
   leafhopper, kind of beetle, of
   which the sierraperla cora                gêxv id.
   (Roachlike Stonefly) is a species.           erect, upright. tsaye.
   Draeculacephala spp.                      géxvé n. (plural gxxvnx)
gætùkòklª n. (plural                            Roan antelope. gwanki, debi
   getukokqlno)                                 elan.
   kind of beetle of the family              v'gégê1 n.
   Buprestidae. wani irin                        imitation, mimic, act like another
   ìwaro.                                        whose habits have been noticed
k'gævà n. (plural c'geva)                        as odd or interesting. wani
   gorge ; deep channel cut out by               irin wasa.
   water. kwazazzabo. See:                   v'gégé2 n.
   k'kivrqmq.                                   behaviour among people, record
ù'gæzgçzæ n.                                    of someone's past behaviour,
      pushy-ness. buduniya.                     manners. þa'a, hali,
                                                ladabi.
gæzgæzæ id.
    fidgeting, hither and thither,           géggê v. (past gêgké, active noun
    pilfering. buruntu.                         m'gégó)
                                                eke out, eat meat together with
gê v. (past gxxkx)
  1
                                                mush instead of soup. damke,
    lean, bend over to one side,                danìe. Variant: gxkkx.
    overflow. jingina, dogara,
    tafasa har ya zube.                      m'géggê n.
                                                1) cut toe or a bunion (a sore
gé2 adv.                                        round the underneath of toe).
      1) actually. a gaskiya.                   kumbuþuwa.
      2) continuously. yi ta ...,               2) kind of medicinal herb with
      ba tsayawa, ba fasawa.                    white sap. ganye irin na
gébêské adv.                                    magani.
      fittingly, correctly, appropriately,   gxglx1 = gy[gro.
      truthfully. dace, kamata.
      Variant: gxbske; gxbskx.
     í'gêbské
      it is right that. ya kamata.

76
géglê                                                                         gêp
géglê2 v.                                  gén n. (plural s'gxn)
   cut by blows with an axe round             West African Copaiba balsam
   the trunk base, with the intension         tree. kadaura, maje
   of felling the tree. yanka                 (itace). Daniellia oliveri.
   gewaye.                                 gênbéntê n. (plural gxnbxntxnx)
d'géglê n. (plural c'dxglx)                   kind of fish. wani irin kifi.
   prolapse of the bowel, guts.            gêndé v. (past gxndkx, active noun
gêgó n. (plural s'gxgo)                       u'gxndo)
   dividing line between the end of           mark out an area with lines,
   circumcision point and the penis           sprinkle, scribble, draw picture or
   head or glans. kwido.                      writing. zana, rubutun
gékkç ad.                                     garaje.
   full-grown, adult, sb no longer a       ù'gêné n.
   child. ìososo.                             ringworm. makero.
gélê v. (past gxlkx, active noun           gêné1 n. (plural gxnnx)
   m'gxlo)                                    fish. kifi.
   winnow. sheìa, bakace.                  génê2 v. (past gxnkx, active noun
gélgê v. (past gxlkkx, active noun            u'gxno; s'gênó)
   u'gxlgo)                                   write; make grooves. rubuta.
   winnow chaff. sheìa.                       Variant: u'gxrgo.
gélgkê v.                                  gêngæ-gêngæ 
    run at a furious pace, run very            id.
    fast, take to one's heels.                twistingly, winding. tafiya
    babura, kwaza.                            murde-murde.
gêlk än kwéxvé v.                          gêngé1  v.
    run off, take to one's heels.             whisk round, whirl, turn round.
    wantsara, fyalla, ranya.                  wartakawa wani iri.
    See: gxlgkx.                           géngé2 ;  n.
gémgémé id.                                   kind of crab grass, grass with four
   blended so that it changes taste.          or more petals like a finger. wani
   þanþana, salab.                            irin haki. Variant:
gémgsê v. (past gxmgskx)                      kqkkankankqk.
   1) blend, stir up. garwaya,             géngå3  n. (plural
   gurèata.                                    gxngxnx)
   2) act as if you are pretending,            kind of bird. wani irin
   wave. þaga hannu.                           tsuntsu.
gén n. (plural gxnnx)                      gêngòngò  n. (plural
   shell, large oval precious stone or         gxngongno)
   bead found in river beds used for           lizard fish, a kind of catfish which
   scraping dried crumbs off pots.             doesn't look much like a fish.
    ìumba, katantanwa,                         wani irin kifi.
    marmara mai daraja.                        Auchenoglanis.
í'gén n. (plural gxnnx)                    gêp id.
    sea shell like a small calabash,           blink! a flash/shot of blinking.
    similar to a mussel or oyster shell,       ìibta.
    but with very poisonous contents.
    ìumba da danginsu wani                   gêpgêpê v.
    iri.                                       flickering repeatedly, flapping.
                                               ìibìibtawa.
                                                                                  77
gxptx                                                                      gíngàa
     gêpté v. (past gxptkx, active noun       d'gígä n.
       u'gxpto; s'gxpto)                          special meal made to appease the
       blink. ìibta, kyaftawa.                    gods or spirits at a designated
                                                  shrine. abincin da
gxptx = gxp.                                      akashirya na rokon
gxpto = gxp.                                      aljannu.
u'gxrgo = gxnx.                               gígä1 v. (past gigkq)
                                                  keep, put sth down. ajiye.
gésê v. (past gxsxkx)                         gígã2 n. (plural gigqnq)
       extract, take, pick sth out. þiba          kind of ant. wata irin gara.
       ma.
                                                d'gígã n. (plural c'gigq)
gésgésé id.                                       special small anthill in the shape
       gleaming, glittering, shining and          of a hat. suri, jièa, na
       glistening. walìiya ko                     gara wani iri.
       ìyalìyali, maiìo maiìo.                d'gígbù n.
ù'gété n.                                        mysterious existence of nature
       moustache.                                usually found in a place of a
       gashin                                    traditional cult. abun da ya
       baki.                                     wuce ikon þan Adam.
d'gêttí n.                                    gígní n. (plural gigqnni)
       (plural                                   kind of worm that spoils potatoes.
       c'getti)                                  tsutsan dankali.
       short woman's                          gíikä v.
       underskirt.                                return, go back. koma.
       fatari                                 gíitä v.
       mukuru.                                    bring sth home. kawo gida
                                                  wani iri.
                                                gîití v.
gêvgêvê id.                                       take sth home. kai gida wani
   standing erect, on both feet.                  iri.
   colob.
                                              m'gílã1 n.
gézéngénné  n.                    club, secret male-only society for
   (plural s'gxzxngxnnx)                          entertainment and fetish worship.
   the tree gadakuka: the marga                   gunki.
   tree. duman dutse, gama
   faþa marga.  El nan em                    m'gílã2 n.
       s'banco an cen gxzxngxnnx.                 fetish. gumki, tsubbu.
       Medicine can be made from the marga    gímgímí id.
       tree.                                     grey, ash-coloured. wani irin
gîdgîdî adv. 1                                   launi.
       closely; with short intervals.         d'gim[ = d'gqmq.
       dandangina.
                                              gínä v. (past ginkq)
gídgídí2 id.                                     despise, be ungrateful and
       pitter patter, quivering, trembling.      discontent with the small size of a
       farfarniya, þandangina.                   gift. raina. Variant: ginmq.
                                              gíngàa  id.
                                                 erect, usually of ears or horns,
                                                 broad and standing right up.
                                                 fala-fala tsatsaye.

78
ginmq                                                                         gònà
ginmq v. (past ginqmkq) = ginq.               v'gòdà n. (plural s'goda)
m'gînú n.                                        raised doorstep, mid ridge on fish
       contempt, arrogance,                      hut. gudunka. Variant: v'godco.
       impertinence. raina.                   v'godco = v'goda.
gípä v.                                       v'gòdò n. (plural s'godo) Emphatic:
       strike. buga, doka, gubre.                k'godo.
í'gípî n.                                        1) voice. murya.
       whirlwind. guguwa.                        2) oesophagus, windpipe, throat.
                                                 jannai, maìogwaro.
gîrgîrî id.
       rounded, fine-figured, full-figured.   gògà n. (plural s'goga)
       cambala.                                  the tree Detarium Senegalense,
                                                 exudates. bafur, taura.
gîrîp id.                                        Detarium senegalense.
   immediately, in a very short time,
   at once, at an instant,                    gógró n.
   simultaneously. haþuwa nan                     alcohol. barasa. From: Igbo,
   da nan.                                        Yoruba or elsewhere.
gítä1 v. (past gitkq)                         gòlgòlò id.
   meet at an appointed time or                  with an anxious, sharp look on
   place, have an appointment.                   one's face. wani irin duba.
   taras, sadu.                               gòlhàngò  n. (plural
gítã2 vi.                                        golhangno)
   take home. kai wani abu                       kind of edible frog. bididdigi,
   gida.                                         bududdugi.
d'gítí n. (plural c'giti)                     gòlkà v.
   spindle. katari, tangori,                      tighten, make taut. þama.
   mazari, guluwi.                            gòló n. (plural s'golo)
gívä v. (past givkq, active noun                  locust tree. þorowa.
   m'givi)                                      k'gòló n. (plural c'golo)
   mate, copulate, synchronise,                   locust bean pod. þorowa.
   foreplay, procreate. guha,                   c'gòló
   guhi.
                                                c'gòlcgóló n.
gívgîvî n. (plural givgivini)                    yellow; the colour inside locust
   vampire bat. jemage.                          bean pods. rawaya.
gívlàm id.                                    d'gómá n. (plural c'goma)
       with ears sticking out. dubi              1) word, sentence, speech.
       siffa, kama.                              kalami, ìala, kalma.
gó n.                                            2) proverb, topic. karin
       kind, type, sort. wani, wata.             magana, batu. Variant:
  s'gó s'gó id.                                  d'gomo, c'gomo.
       different kinds, various, assorted.    gòmàa id.
       dabam-dabam, iri-iri.                      untidy, long thick beard. buyaya.
gó n.
   1
                                              gòmgòmò v.
       seed(s). iri.                              twitch. mus-mus.
  d'gó n.                                     d'gomo, c'gomo = d'goma.
   sowing crops. shuka.                       gón n.
gò n. (plural goono)
   2                                              type. iri.
   white Oryx. mariri.
                                                                                    79
gònà                                                            gòtãrgòtrò
gònà v. (past gonka)                       à'gónó n. (plural c'gono)
   harden an earth floor. daèa.               mud-made floor of a house.
gònánnà v. (past gonanka)                     daèe.
   slap (sb) with one's palm. mara.        d'gòntò n. (plural c'gonto)
     d'gònánkànnà n.                          throat. maìogwaro.
    slap, (a slapping). mari.              k'gòntò n. (plural c'gonto)
góndà v. (past gondka)                        goitre. maìaìo.
    deride, contradict, act in a way       d'gòogá n.
    that shows one is not in                   well (source of water). rijiya.
    agreement. wani irin duba.
                                           v'góorò n.
gòngò  n. (plural gongno)             kola nut. goro. From: Hausa.
    1) lizard. kaþangare.
    2) an imaginary lizard, forced by      gòrãbdãländä n. (plural
    pressing on the hand. Variant:             gòrãbdãländänã)
    gugre.                                     Red-billed Wood-Dove. kurciya
  gòngd gõpæ  n.               wani iri. Turtur afer.
    (plural gongd g[pene)                  gòrbà n. (plural gorqbna)
    skink lizard. lindo.                       dove. kurciya. Columbidae.
  gòng gícé  n.                 Variant: gwerba.
    male lizard. gwargwada. Variant:         gòrãb d'ländä n. (plural gorqb
    gong gile; gong gule; gícé                 d'lqndqnq)
    gòngò; gile gongo.                         cape dove. bardo.
     gòng-d'òrgó                             gòrãb púsú n. (plural gorqb
      n. (plural             pusnu)
   gong-d'orgno)                               Red-eyed Turtle Dove, a kind of
   anthill lizard, an ant-eating lizard.       white dove, distinguished by a half
   ìarami ka dang dare.                        collar of black feathers around the
   Variant: bétkãd hçrgæ (Ribah).              back of neck. kurciya.
m'góngónò  n.                  Streptopelia semitorquarta.
   cheekbone, side. tsaurin ido.             gòrãb yàahí n. (plural gorqb
   See: m'tqsi.                                yaahini)
d'góngónò1  n.                 Laughing Dove, a blue-winged
   (plural c'gongono)                          dove. kurciya wani iri,
   mud platform, raised mud floor in           bardo. Stigmatopelia senegalensis.
   front of a round sleeping hut.          gòrgòrò id.
   þakali.                                     looking hither and thither, eyes
d'góngónò2  n.                 darting around. rarraba ido,
   twiner, creeper plant whose fruit           dubedube wani iri.
   are used for tanning goat- and          m'gòsá n.
   sheepskin. wasu irin                        ancient, time immemorial, long
   tsire-tsire.                                ago. daþaþþe.
d'góngö  n. (plural
   c'gong[)                                góskà v.
   can, tin. gwangwani.                        remain a long time. daþe.
gónkà  v. (past gonkka)
   take here, receive here. inniya,
   ungo. Variant: onka.
gónmà v. (past gonqmka)
   slap (continuously). mammara.

80
gòtãrgòtrò                                                            d'gõngõ
gòtãrgòtrò id.                              gõlmö n.
    uneven shape. wani irin                     golmo - a convention, or
    duba.                                       traditional organisation among
c'gõ n.                                         Lelna people for communal
   vomit. amai, lalas.                          farming by young men for 7 years
                                                before marriage. golmo,
gö d'kãbã n. (plural c'kqbq)                    bàutan aure.
   leader of the entrance porch.
   sarkin zaure.                                — vi.
                                                do g[lm[. bauta.
d'gõbõ n. (plural g[b[)
   toe. yatsan ìafa.                          gõlämkõ v.
                                               start g[lm[, initiate into the
v'gõbõ n. (plural s'g[b[)                      traditional Lelna engagement
   bamboo. gora.                               work organisation. fara, soma.
c'gõcç n.                                   v'gõlõ n. (plural s'g[l[)
    care, tending (animals). kiwo.  U         fishing hook. kugiya.
    el tu em c'g[ce, a gwesu
    can. She takes care of animals during   gõmõ n. (plural gömgömnõ)
    the rainy season.                          chief, Emir, king, leader (of
                                               people). sarki.
ù'gõcó n.
    1) soothsaying. bokanci.                  c'gõmõ n.
    2) soothsayer, fortune-teller.              reign, being the ruler, having
    duba.                                       sovereignty, area under influence
                                                of above (=kingdom). sarauta.
gõdãrgãdrù n.                                 gõmvän gõlmõ n.
    cartilage, gristle. gurungurtsi.
                                                leader of g[lm[. shugaban
gõdrõs id.                                      yan golmo.
    short buffed nose. wani irin
    duba.                                     gõmv táagnæ n. (plural
                                                g[mg[mqn taagne)
m'gõgãmbælà n.                                  chief hunter, a very well respected
   soot. kunkunniya.                            hunter. sarkin baka.
gõglõ n. (plural s'g[gl[)                     g[mv d'dan n.
   fruit of g[gl[, gardenia shrub.              queen termite. uwar gara.
   gauþe.
                                            g[mv taagne See: g[m[.
gõglõ hyán n.
   shrub Gardenia Sokotensis.               g[mvqn g[lm[ See: g[m[.
   gauþe.                                   d'göndö n. (plural c'g[nd[) Large:
gögrò n. (plural s'g[gro)                       k'g[nd[.
   Adam's apple. maìoshi. See:                  1) navel, tummy-button, point on
   hqru.                                        abdomen where the umbilical
                                                chord entered and was cut. na
gõgrõt id.                                      cibiya.
    gulp, sound, especially of                  2) umbilical cord. cibiya,
    swallowing a lump of food.                  cibanya.
    motsin haþiye.
                                              göndöd nù'cón n.
gölgölö id.                                     ear lobe. cililiga.
    only. kaþai.
                                            ù'gõndõ n.
                                                kind of porridge. ruþa, talge.



                                                                                81
d'gõngõ                                                               d'gúbgù
d'gõngõ  n. (plural             gö[kõ v.
      c'g[ng[)                                 vomit. mayar da.
      drum. aturfan.                       gõ[l id.
                                               protruding. zumbulko.
                                           görgörö id.
                                               well, in good health. kalau,
                                               gwar-gwar. See: u'y[ro.
                                           görgörö id.
                                              single, only. kaþai.
                                           gõsõ v. (past g[sk[)
                                              cut (usu. grass) with a sickle.
                                              maya.
                                             m'gösö n.
                                               work of using a sickle to cut.
                                               aikin maya.
                                           göstãmgö n.
                                               kind of guinea corn (sorghum
gõngörímæ  n.                   vulgare) mostly grown in the old
      (plural s'g[ng[rime)                     town of Dabai. wata irin
      kind of plant bearing edible black       dawa.
      berries. gilo, hauza.                gõt id.
     m'gõngörímé                              gulp, sound of swallowing sth.
     n.                     haþiya.
   berry of the g[ng[rimx tree.            gõtó v. (active noun c'goto)
   'ya'yan hauza, gilo.                       look (distant). dubi can.
göngöwáalí  n.             gõtö vt.
   (plural s'g[ng[wali)                        look at (nearby), watch. duba.
   physic nut, a kind of tree. ci ni
   da zugu. Jatropha curcas.               gövgæ n.
   Variant: gunguwale.                        farmer. ma nomi.
gõngræe  adv.                   gõvö v. (past g[vk[)
   crouching, sat huddled up,                 weed, taking out the weeds from
   squatting. maìaram, ìazaza,                the ground. nome.
   angalawa.                               ù'gõvö n.
ù'gönó n. (plural c'g[no)                     farm, farming, cultivating. noma.
   burial ceremony, entertainment,         g[z[ = fela.
   kind of game with v'kiru drums
   and with women singing. wasan           gõzõm id.
   makoki.                                    easily bent over, bent clumsily or
                                              helplessly. langaèe.
à'gö[gö n. (plural s'g[[g[)
   watch, clock. agogo. From: Hausa.       gùbãm d'hwçn n. (plural gùbãm
                                              c'hwçn)
gö[gö1 n. (plural s'g[[g[)                    afternoon. rana, yamma. See:
   a tree of the species terminalia.          c'gùbù 'growing'.
   kandare.
                                           gubqsq = qsq.
gõ[gö2 v. (past g[[gk[)
   attend to a person carefully.           d'gúbgù n.
   lura.                                       hubbub. kwiyatu.


82
gúbkù                         c'gùbù
gúbkù v.
   enough. isa.
gùbù n. (plural gubnu)
   kind of perch. wani irin
   kifi. Tilapia spp.




                                  83
c'gùbù                                                                   í'gùtî
c'gùbù n.                                   d'gúlã n. (plural c'gulq)
   growing up, growth. girma.                   talking drum,
ù'gùbù n. (plural s'gubu)                       shaped like an
   fence or wall joining two huts               hourglass with
   together, or porch. þabi.                    strings around
                                                the side which
gùdãgúdä n. (plural gudqgudqnq)                 are used to
   third year g[lm[ person. tsara.              change the
gúdgkã v.                                       drum's pitch.
     rise up, make a loud noise, roar.          kalangu. See:
     hayaniya.                                  d'dàccà.
d'gúdgù n.                                  gùmîgyõzínæ n.
     1) loquacity, talkativeness, rabble,       rock salt.
     noise made by a crowd of people.           gishirin da
     surutu.                                    ake haìa a
     2) uproar, noise of disturbance.           ìasa.
     harigido.                              m'gùmù n.
     3) interjection, word or phrase of         salt. gishiri.
     exclamation. kalmar motsin
     rai. See: u'zapska.                      gùmî gyõzînç n.
                                                mangul salt. adabir.
gùdgù vi.
     jump up. yi wuf.                       d'gúngù  n. (plural
                                               c'guntu)
ù'gùdgúdù n.                                   piece, a bit of sth broken.
     lot of noise, clamour, racket.            gutsure. See: d'geda.
     daniniya.
                                            gunguwale = g[ng[wali.
gùdnù n.                                    d'gúrgù n.
     fourth year g[lm[ person.
     tsara, wari.                              small receptacle made from the
                                               fruit of kokiya. batta. Variant:
c'gùdtù n.                                     d'tqkrq.
     turbid, thick, murky and dirty (of
     liquids). ruþe.                        gúrõ n. (plural s'gur[)
                                               a kind of tree. lura (itace).
                                            gùrùt id.
gùdù n. (plural gudnu)                          gulp, resounding or echoing
   immature beans,                              sound of swallowing a lump of
   young bean pods.                             food. motsin haþiye. Variant:
   hansari.                                     gugrut.
v'gùdù n. (plural                           gùsùm id.
   s'gudu)                                      with dignity, in a dignified way.
   ring or belt of                              hakimce.
   'medicinal' leather,
   charm sewn in                            gút1 id.
   leather with                                 protrude, stick ones lips out in
   suspended knot                               anger. tura baìi wani iri.
   worn on forearm or wrist. guru,          gùt2 id.
   kambu, sagau, karfu.                        gulp, swallowing sound. haþiya.
gugre = gongo.                                 See: g[t.
                                            í'gùtî n. (plural m'guti)
                                               clan (the word for). kabila,
                                               dangi.

84
gútkã                                                              a'gwana
gútkã v.                                 gwàansá v. (past gwanska)
   spasm, sudden convulsive                  smear, rub on, make dirty.
   movement. tsanki.                         shafa, goga.
gútù v. (past gutku)                     á'gwàansà adv.
   1) gulp, bite, hold water in ones        on occasion. lokaci. See:
   mouth ready to burst out. gunda          a'gwqqnq; gwana. Variant:
   ruwa abaki.                              a'gwqqnsq (older).
   2) take a measure of liquid (in the   gwáantà v. (past gwantka)
   mouth). maìwarwa. Variant:               meet. haþu. Variant: gwanka.
   guccu.
gùugá n.                                 d'gwáazá n. (plural c'gwaza)
                                            coco-yam root. gwaza. Variant:
   well bucket. guga. From: Hausa.          d'gwaza. From: Hausa.
k'gùusù n. (plural c'guusu)              c'gwàgãmtà n.
   beehive. amya, burtumi.                   coercion, compulsion, the act of
gùzú v.                                      forcefully imposing one's will on
   wash. wanke.                              sb. nuna isa ko iko.
gwà v. (past gwaka)
    1
                                         gwàgràt id.
   catch sth which has been thrown.          resounding of a swallowing
   cafe.                                     sound. motsin haþiye.
  gwa d'nwqq idiom.                          Variant: gwxgret; gwarat.
    understand.                          gwàk id.
d'gwà1 n.                                    stop or stick suddenly. tsaye.
    present given by a person                Variant: gwxk.
    returning from a journey.
    tsaraba.
gwà2 v.
    plant. shuka.
d'gwà2 v.
   take sb's load. tarba.
gwáabà v. (active noun u'gwabo)          í'gwámbá n. (plural m'gwamba)
   concoct, mix up, make up,                 1) ladle, long-handled spoon.
   prepare. gauraya, cuþa,                   gago.
   haþa, kwaèa.                              2) part of gourd plant from which
  gwab badqm xn n.                           ladles are made. Variant:
   a special concoction pot kept at          i'koklo.
   the middle of a farm. wata irin       gwámbî n.
   tukunyan al'ada.                         gambling, game of chance. caca.
gwàam d'nwä v. (past gwàak               v'gwàn n. (plural s'gwan)
   d'nwä)                                   the grass saccharum spontaneum
   understand. dugu, ganewa.                used for arrow shafts. kyauro.
d'gwàanà n.                                 Saccharum spontaneum.
    meeting, meet on the road.           a'gwana = a'gwaansa.
    gamuwa.
d'gwàancó n.
    encounter with evil spirits,
    unexpected meeting with evil
    spirits. gamo.

                                                                              85
m'gwànà                                                          gwçebà
m'gwànà n.                                gwãqn-bîrbîrní n.
    kind of traditional second burial       bambarra groundnut. kwaruru,
    ceremony of a youth who had not         gujiya.
    attended the pre-g[lm[ age          v'gwãqnã3 n.
    group or who has not measured          haemorrhoids, piles. basur,
    c'madugu. wani irin                    zafi, angurya.
    makoki.
gwándà n. (plural s'gwanda)             a'gwqqnsq = a'gwaansa.
    papaw tree. gwanda. From:           gwãnàgwä n. (plural c'gwqnagwq)
    Hausa?                                 hay, fodder grass, a common
                                           weed which grows on the ground.
  d'gwándà n. (plural c'gwanda)            gadagi.
    papaw fruit. gwanda
    ('ya'yan).                          gwãnî n. (plural gwqnini)
                                           expert. gwani.
gwàngç  n.
    kind of yellow guinea corn.         gwãp id.
       ìaura, akwiya, wata                 blinking heavily. kyaftan ido,
       irin dawa. Sorghum bicolor.         kièta.
     gwàng s'cç  n.      gwæbæ n. (plural gwebene)
   similar kind of guinea corn which       he-goat. bunsuru.
   prefers to grow in the shade of      ù'gwçdá =
   trees. wata irin dawa.                  u'gwedasa.
gwanka = gwanta.                        gwædá v. (past
gwáp id.                                   gwedaka)
   pointing straight up. nun tsawo         close (usually
   wani iri. Variant: hwap1.               door or gate).
                                           rufe. See:
gwarat = gwagrat.                          gwedese;
d'gwaza = d'gwaza.                         gwedasa.
gwäq v.                                 d'gwædá n.
   rescue, save, salvage. ceta,             door or gate.
   ceto, tserar.                            rufa wani
gwäqmí v. (active noun d'gwäqmã)            iri.
   rescue, deliver, make safe, set      gwædá gwélé n. (plural s'gweda
   free. ceto, tserar.                      gwxlx)
     d'gwäqmã n.                            the shrub Crotalaria obovata.
       redeemer. fansa.                     biya rana. Crotalaria obovata.
                                            Variant: gweda-dwiri.
     ká d'gwäqmã n.
   rescuer, saviour, the one that       ù'gwçdásá n.
   saves or rescues. mai ceto,             quotation marks. buþe. See:
   tserar, maceci.                         u'gweda.
á'gwãqnã = a'gwaansa.                   gwædàsá v. (past gwedaska)
                                           open (gate or door). bankaþa,
v'gwãqnã1 n.                               buþe.
   Egyptian cobra. wani irin
   maciji. Naja haje.                   gwædæsç v. (past gwedeske)
                                           close or shut in. rufe kanka.
v'gwãqnã2 n. (plural gwqqnq)
   groundnut. gyaþa.                    gwçebà1 n. (plural gweebna)
                                           kind of mouse. wani irin
                                           èera.

86
gwçebà                                                                   gwélé
gwçebà2 n. (plural s'gweeba)              v'gwê1 n. (plural s'gwx)
    guava tree.                               drum made from a calabash with
    goba.                                     a mat flap on top. kurtun kiþa
  d'gwçebà                                    irin na gargajiya.
     n. (plural                           v'gwê2 n. (plural s'gwx)
    c'gweeba)                                 grass, single blade of grass.
    guava fruit.                              haki, ciyawa.
    goba.                                   d'gwx n. (plural c'gwx)
                                              stack of hay or thatching grass.
                                              cibci.
gwæmbæ n.                                   d'gwê-zõndæ n.
   chaff of guinea corn; gleanings left       kind of grass. wani irin
   for winnower. kono.                        haki.
gwçn n. (plural s'gwen)                     gwéc-héxkkê v.
   enclosed space at entrance to              first shoots of grass sprouting all
   compound. fafaranda,                       over the place. bazo-bazo.
   fangali.                               v'gwê3 n.
gwængwçrímà                                   time of initiation for women into
     n. (plural              'dukini' age-group. noman
   s'gwengwçrima)                             tsara na yammata.
   kind of tree. wani irin                gwédé n.
   itace.                                     kind of thick-rooted vine of the
v'gwæntà n. (plural gwenta)                   wild yam variety. mai kama da
   bitter garden egg, or bitter tomato.       rogwan jeji.
   gauta, þata. Solanum.                  gwédgwédé id.
  gwænt-mõlö n.                               1) fidgeting. sukurniya.
   poisonous variety of above.                2) short running steps of a child.
   gautan kura. Solanum incanum.              karkakai.
                                              3) struggling to get free.
gwærá v. (past gweraka)
   shoot and hit. harba ka sama.          ù'gwêx n.
                                             1) successful hunt. farauta.
gwerba = gorba.                              2) game (meat caught by hunting).
gwærgwçntà n.                                naman daji.
    kind of bitter tomato found in the    gwêxkámbà (plural s'gwxxkamba)
    bush, European "garden egg".             = hílämláká.
    gautan kura, gautan
    turawa. Lycopersicum esculentum;      gwêxpî (plural c'gwxxpi) = hyodo.
   Solanum incanum. See:                  gwêxv-s'yàngò
   gwent-m[l[. Variant:                        =
   wqrgwenta.                                dangqm-ce.
gwærgwçrç n. (plural gwærgwçrnæ)          gwxgo See: bxgo. = ba2.
   aphid; insect which sucks juice        gwxgret = gwagrat.
   from plants. galla, rakuwa.
   Aphididae.                             gwéin adv.
                                             bulging (of stomach). tsaye.
ù'gwæsç n.                                gwxk = gwak.
    the rainy season. damuna. 
    Doav nu'gwese, el nan em              gwélé n. (plural gwxlnx)
    u'g[v[. Farming is done during the       goat. akuya.
    rainy season.

                                                                                  87
d'gwén                                                                        gwíisí
     gwélvãn-dùngú n.                              k'gwêsævà n. (plural s'gwêsævà;
       'thrown goat' - used in ritual by              c'gwêsævà)
       drummers at the second burial                  kind of tall marsh grass used for
       ceremony. akuyan al'ada.                       thatching. roba, yama.
     gwéläv-c'gõmõ n.                                 Hyparrhenia rufa; Monocymbium
       'chief's goat' - brought by new                ceresiforme.
       chief to kingmakers. tauren                 gwésê v. (past gwxsxkx)
       sarauta.                                       cut (usually with sickle). maya
     gwéläv-c'mêné n. (plural                         masa, mata, shi.
       gwxlna c'mxnx)                              gwêtlé v. (past gwxtqlkx)
       he-goat given at second burial                 look around. fatar kawa,
       ceremony. akuyan                               fafutuka.
       surukanci.
                                                   gwézê v. (past gwxzxkx)
     gwéläv-s'kémê n.                                 frequent, stay with, rely on and
       goat given to peers by chief upon              visit sb excessively. lizamta,
       his being made a chief. wani                   dogara.
       irin bunsuru.
                                                   gwézéxm adj.
     gwéläv-nù'òló n.                                  shrivelled, curled up. lanìwasa
       goat provided as a gift by the                  wani iri, yankwahewa
       elected chief. wani irin                        wani iri. See: g[z[m. Variant:
       bunsuru.  Nocu nqn na kai                      gwiziim.
       c'g[m[, uwan tu sav
       gwxlqv-nu'olo. The chief-elect              k'gwîdbî n. (plural c'gwidbi)
       provides the 'shaving-goat' by tradition.      water-lily. bado.
     gwélv-¿n-wä n.                                gwígbî n. (plural s'gwigbi)
   (female) goat provided by host of                  kind of tree. tuna.
   second burial ceremony. wani
   irin bunsuru.
d'gwén1 n. (plural c'gwxn)
   grass torch. ballo.
d'gwén2 n.
   an excessively forward, cheeky or
   nosey child who is very smart and
   knows it. kwarmato,
   kwakwazo. Variant: d'kata1.
v'gwénbé n. (plural s'gwxnbx)
   fibre peeled from locust bean pod
   used for mending calabashes,
   stringing bows, etc. meþi.
í'gwêntlê n. (plural m'gwxntlx)
   'kuli-kuli' - small fried cakes made
   from groundnuts. ìuli-ìuli.
gwérgwéré ad.
       clever-looking, sharp and alert (of
       eyes). wani irin duba. See:                 gwíimí n. (plural gwiimni)
       gòrgòrò.                                       leopard. damisa.
                                                   gwíisí n. (plural gwiisni)
                                                      Tooth-billed Barbet. cigoro.
                                                      Pogonornis bidentatus.

88
k'gwín                                                               gyöntí
k'gwín n. (plural c'gwin)                c'gyòmbnò n.
    1) secrecy of holiness, glory,          kind of very smelly brown chicken
    honour. shedari.                        droppings. kashin kaza.
    2) mat of reeds or grass used to        Variant: c'kyombno.
    cover window or doorway.             ù'gyòmbò n. (plural c'gyombo)
    tufaniya, asabari.                      1) eyebrow. gira.
    3) respect. ladabi, daraja.             2) eyelash. gashin ido.
à'gwîsî n.                               gyòndó = gyòdó.
   melon seeds. agushi.
                                         gyòpó n. (plural s'gyopo)
gwízî v. (past gwiziki)                     night. dare.
   wash. wanke ma.
                                         ù'gyózò n.
gwiziim = gwxzxxm.                          1) a tendency to be easily broken
k'gyàarà n. (plural c'gyaara)               or otherwise ruined. fashe da
   cactus. kirana.                          sauri.
d'gyàn n. (plural c'gyan)                   2) bad reputation, unpopularity.
   egg. ìwai.                               baìin jini.
  gyàn n.                                d'gyòzò n. (plural gyozno)
   eggs (usually of lice, fish, toads,      very young child, baby. jariri
   frogs, etc.). ìwayaye.                   ìarami.
gyä vi. (past giikq)                     gyõbó n. (plural gy[bno)
   go home. tafi gida.                      weak person. marar ìarfi.
  gyã vi.                                d'gyõbó n. (plural c'gy[bo)
    come home. zo gida.                     basket. kwando.
gyäqrã v. (past gyäqrkã)                 í'gyõbó n.
    circle, go round, possibly leaving      part of a roof.
    one area untouched. yi               gyõgró n. (plural gy[gqrno)
    da'ira.                                 1) woodlouse, a beetle that cuts
  d'gyãqrã n. (plural c'gyqqrq)             wood, wood-cutter insect. wani
    environment. kewaye.                    irin ìwaro. Pselliopus cinctus.
                                            Variant: gxglx2.
  d'gyqqrq-gyqqrq n. (plural                2) large striped beetle with long
    c'yqqrq-yqqrq)                          antennae - Longhorn beetle.
    circle. da'ira.                         mageduwa.
gyòbó n. (plural gyobono)                gyõngræe  ad.
    dung beetle, stag beetle,               solid stance, like a big fat person
    rhinoceros beetle. buzuzu,              standing (perhaps in the way).
    gungura kashi.                          tsaye.
  gyòbó-tàtí n. (plural                  gyönönö ad.
    gyobo-tatini)                            not level, sticking out. wani
    stag beetle, dung beetle.                irin tsini. See: j[n[n[.
    buzuzu.
                                         gyöntí n.
gyòdó n.                                     yellow fever, an infectious, often
    kind of grass which produces             fatal viral disease carried by
    tubers. wata irin ciyawa.                mosquitoes causing a high fever,
    Stylochiton spp. Variant: gyòndó         hemorrhaging, vomiting of blood,
    (Ribah).                                 liver damage, and jaundice.
                                             shawarà.


                                                                             89
d'gyö[bò                                                                      hº
d'gyö[bò n. (plural c'gyö[bò)            gyúmbælàmà n. (plural
    split or broken piece of pot; a          s'gyumbelama)
    potsherd. kàtángà,                       kind of elephant grass (in the
    balgacen.
  í'gyö[bò (plural m'gy[[bo)
    Variant: ù'gyõõbõ.
gyö[cò n. (plural s'gy[[co)
    lowland area, usually water
    passage near stream. magudana
    wani iri.
gyö[n id.
     straight. þoþar.
gyõ[nàgyö n.
     kind of vegetable with edible
     leaves and yellow flowers. kimba
     magajiya. Variant: j[[naj[;
     bãbsîndí.                               cymbopogon kuprechtii family)
                                             used for arrow shafts. wani
gyõrgyõrõ id.                                irin haki mai ìwari da
     looking hither and thither, all         wari. Cymbopogon kuprechtii.
     around. fangima.                       Variant: júmbælàmà.
györöt id.                               gyúmù n. (plural gyumnu)
     with wide open eyes. wani              fly. ìuda.
     irin budaddun idanu.
                                         d'gyúngù  n.
gyöt id.                                    (plural c'gyungu)
     stand still. tsaye.                    cutting, a piece cut off. datsa,
gyõzgyõzò adj.                              gaèa.
     brownish in colour. jaja.           gyùrî ménké 
gyõzó adj.                                  n. (plural gyurm qn mxnkx)
     red, from crimson to light-brown.      thunderstone, flint. aradu,
     ja.                                    dutsen aradu.
v'gyú n.                                 í'gyùrù n. (plural m'gyuru)
     finger. yatsa.                         axe. gatari.
                                           gyuri taagne n.
                                             prize axe given to famous hunter.


                 H      -                            h

                                         hº1 excl.
                                             noise to chase kites from
                                             snatching chicks. tsawatawar
                                             shaho.
                                         hº2 id.
                                             ah! opening of the mouth wide, an
                                             opening. har.


90
háaba                                                     hábãr kàdà
háaba v. (past haabka, active noun    hàagùlä n. (plural haagulqnq)
    u'haabo)                              Common or Hooded Vulture.
    dry, dry out, become dry.             agulu, angulu. Necrosyrtes
    ìeìasa.                               monachus. Variant: haagulú.
haagqska = haagsa.                    hábá1 excl.
                                         please, come on, expression to
hàagsá v.                                urge or convince someone.
    shout out to frighten chickens       bisimilla, mana. From:
    from kites. tsawatawa. See: ha.      Hausa.
    Variant: haagqska.
                                      hàbà2 v. (past habka)
                                         reduce, lessen, shorten, limit.
                                         rage.
                                      hàbàbà excl.
                                          said when a wrestler fells his
                                          opponent. kuwwar nasara.
                                      hàbàt id.
                                          waking up suddenly. wani irin
                                          hanzari, ìagal. See: hagat.




                                                                           91
hábãr kàdà                                                                hàká
hábãr kàdà n. (plural c'habqr             hàdæsç v. (past hadeske)
                                             include, affect, co-opt, bring sb
     kada)                                   uninvolved into sth. gega.
     cap with points to
     cover ears. haèar                    hàdgá v. (past hadgka)
     kada.                                   scrape with sand or sandstone.
                                             goggoga.
hàbdò n.                                  hàdgò id.
   kind of brown-
   coloured guinea                            random, not carefully selected.
   corn. wata irin                            barkatai.
   dawa.                                  hádkà v.
ù'hàbdò n. (plural                           be related to. jièinta.
   c'habdo)                               hàgà v. (past hagka)
   residue from the                          gnaw, bite sth which is hard with
   sheabutter-nut oil production             teeth. ciza, gwagwiya.
   process. mai maras kyau.               hàgámà n.
ù'hàbdú hàbdò ad.                            greed. haþama, zari.
     brownish colour in the sky, the      hàgàná v. (past haganka)
     dust in the sky warning of an           scrape. karta.
     impending storm. tsanwa-
     tsanwa.                              hàgàt id.
                                              happen quickly, rush, with a start.
ù'hábræ n.                                    nan da nan, gaggawa.
     miss of a target when shooting.          Variant: habat.
     kwewar harbi, kurewa.
     Variant: u'habse.                    hàgãr-hàgãr id.
                                              rough, not smooth. kaushi. See:
ù'hábsæ v.                                    hãgãr-hãgrù.
     miss the target. ìurewa. Variant:
     u'habre.                             hàgæ n.
                                              rough (surface), like sand-paper.
hàcbò ad.                                     mai kaushi.
     the manner in which a lazy person
     bends. wani irin duìawa.             m'hàgæ n.
                                              roughness to the touch, dirty and
háccí n.                                      coarse skin (e.g. of a lizard).
     sneeze. atishawa.                        busassar jikin abu.
hád v.                                        Variant: hwage.
   move in quickly. gusa da               hàhàhàa id.
   sauri.                                     laughter - a particular way of
hàdá1 v. (past hadka)                         laughing. dariya.
   smooth, scrape to smooth or              hàhàháayæe id.
   clean away dirt and residue.               laughter, the way women end
   goge.                                      their laughter. shewa.
hàdá2 n. (plural hadna)                   hºin excl.
   caterpillar which makes the skin           oh dear, expression of inner
   itchy. wata irin tsutsa,                   feeling. o o ni.
   gizaka.
                                          hákà1 v.
ù'hàdà n.                                    came. ya, zo.
     third round of grindinguinea corn.
     niìa na uku. See: u'bqklq.           hàká2 v. (past hakka)
                                             open (usu. mouth). buþe.


92
hàkàp                                                                      hàmtá
  d'hàká n.                                hàlgká v.
    ajar, open, (usu. a door or gate). a       show a sign of
    buþe.                                      ripening,
hàkàp id.                                      mature. halin
    deep, heaving breath with wide             nuna.
    open mouth, as if tired from           hàm1 id.
    intense exercise. ajiyar                  profusely, in
    zuciya. Variant: hakaphakap.              great numbers.
                                              daèa-daèa.
                                           hàm n. (plural c'hamma)
                                              2

                                              yawn. hamma. From: Hausa.
                                           k'hámà n.
                                               solid, heavy imported hammer,
                                               used by blacksmiths. hama,
                                               guduma.
                                           hàmàmà id.
                                              said by a wrestler when he
                                              overcomes his opponent.
                                              kuwwar nasara.
d'hákò n. (plural c'hako)                  hàmällà n. (plural s'hamqlla)
    snare, trap of various sizes for          decorative sling worn by young
    different animals. tarko,                 girls during festivals. hamila.
    burma. Large: k'hako.
                                           hàmbò n.
m'hàkrò n.                                    creeper plant bearing soft oblong
    underneath, space between two             fruits used for tanning skins.
    sides. aìarìashin.
                                           hàmcæ n. (plural hamcne)
hál conj.                                     guest, visitor. baìo.
    even. har.
                                             d'hàmcæ n.
hál yé çmtæ adj.                               being a guest or stranger.
    evermore, forever, everlasting.            baìwanci.
    da'imi.
                                           hàmhàmà id.
m'hàlá1 n.                                     gobbling, eat speedily. hamus-
    an attack of the larvae of the             hamus.
    digger-wasp attacking (feet).
    burau.                                 k'hámò n.
                                               gluttony, greed (negative
m'hàlá2 n.                                     characteristic). zari.
    painful sore caused by a thorn in
    ones instep. ciwo a tafin              hàmpá v.
    ìafa.                                      come (usu. here). zo nan.
                                               Variant: nokaha; nokapa.
hálç n.                                    hàmtá v. (past hámtkà)
    character, temperament. hali.
    From: Hausa?                               1) hold to one's chest, embrace in
                                               one's bosom. rungume.
  k'hálç n.                                    2) wrap (up). yafa, lulluèa.
    greed, strong desire for more than
    is reasonable. haþama.                   d'hàmtà n. (plural c'hamta)
                                               a bundle of sth embraced to one
  v'hálç n. (plural s'hale)                    side of the chest. ìunshi.
    greed, bad character. hali.

                                                                                93
hºn                                                                   házházá
hºn v. (past haka)                        háttà v. (past hatka)
   come. zo.                                 take sth (usu a message) to sb to
k'hàná n. (plural c'hana)                    give out to sb on their journey.
   specially-made large earthenware          raso da. Variant: hatte,
   bowl-shaped vessel for frying             hatke.
   sheabutter nuts. wani irin             hatte v. (past hatke) = hatta.
   kasko.                                 s'hàu n.
hànà v. (past hanka)                          mysterious event, sth strange.
   feel warmth of fire by sitting near        abin na gaibi.
   it. jin þumi.                          hàu1 adj.
hànhànà id.                                   gluttonous, greedy (for food).
   yellowish, pinkish, orange colour.         zari.
   zabibi.                                hàu2 n.
hàpá v. (past hapka)                          kind of traditional homage paid to
   jump down. cilga.                          Dabai soon after c'kwqqgu of
d'hàpà n. (plural c'hapa)                     mxnkx (the hoeing which marks
   armpit. hamutta, hamata.                   the end of the rains). wani irin
                                              fadanci. See: c'kwqqgu.
hàpànà n.
   late-planted, late-ripening guinea     hºu3 id.
   corn. wata irin dawa.                      bark, sound of a dog's bark.
                                              haushi.
hàpànká  v.
   hit hard, whack. gwausa,               hºu4 vi.
   faka, fyaþe, raþa.                         come. zo.
ù'hàpó n. (plural c'hapo)                 hàuu id.
   piece of animal skin or cloth use         rushing, blowing, rumbling sound
   as a sling to carry a baby.               of wind. suu.
   majayi.                                hàvá v. (past havka)
hàpsípä n. (plural hapsipnq)                 go. je.
   kind of eagle. ziparma.                hávkän wàntá
d'hàræ n.                                     petting, sexual activity.
     cleanness. tsabtace.                     tsarance.
hàrhàrà id.                               háyà n.
   sheen, shine, glossiness, as on a          Fat mouse, an edible kind of very
   glazed pot. sheìi, talli.                  fat mouse living alone in a sandy
                                              place. wani irin kusu.
hàrká n. (plural s'harka)                     Steatomys caurinus.
   brakes, walker attacker, reins.
   linzami.                               k'hàyò n.
                                              mother-in-law (of a daughter-in-
hás id.                                       law), mother of a woman's
     'shoo!', 'go away!'. mas. Variant:       husband. sarakuwa.
     has-has.
                                          c'hàzà n.
hássà id.                                     light matter, sth not serious or of
   expression of worry, usu. said by          lesser importance. ganin dama.
   women. ìarar damuwa.
                                          házházá id.
hàtà v. (past hatka)                          size of things which are
   swerve off, stray from the road.           uncountably great in number.
   fanþare, ratse.                            girman abu. Variant:
                                              hxzhxzx2.
94
hã                                                                      c'hãlã
hã excl.                                 hägcã v. (past hqgckq, active noun
   yes, well, expressing agreement           a'hqgcu)
   or affirmation. e.                        1) walk, go on journey. yi
d'häqbù = d'hyäqbù1.                         yawo, tafiya.
                                             2) walk for first time. tafiya.  A
d'häqdî n. (plural hqqdni)                   wa caa s'wxx s'ilq tu
   kind of frog. wani irin                   hqgcq. If a child reaches the age of
   kwaþo.                                    two, it will walk.
häqn excl.                               hägmã v. (past hägämkã)
     exclamation of surprise and             gnaw, scrape with teeth.
     disgust, what?! me?                     ìwaìule.
  häqnyú excl.                           h¿i excl.
    what is it? mene?                        kind of cry. waiyo.
hãbã v. (past hqbkq)                     häk id.
   search, look for. nema, biþa.            sudden intake of breath, or
hãbgä v. (past hqbgkq)                      unexpected spasm of vomiting.
   mix up. gauraya, hautsuna.            hãkãmsî v. (past hqkqmski, active
  hãbgcú n.                                 noun s'hqkqmsi)
   1) ingredient. kayan miya.               stretch out to full height, stand up
   2) antidote, a potion that is used       straight. miìa.
   to protect against poison.            häkäp id.
   makari.                                  retch or hiccup. shaìuwa wani
hãbgsî v. (past hãbgskî)                    iri.
   mix together. cuþanya.                häkäsã v. (past hqkqskq)
hãbhãbã ad.                                 become light. assalatu ta
     mixed up with (usually grain- or       ìara haskaka.
     crumb-like substances).             hãkhãkã n.
     gaurai-gaurai, diddiga.                 dawn, beginning to grow light.
d'häblä n. (plural c'hqblq)                  asalatu.
     abdomen. ciki kasa cibi.            k'häkhäkù n.
hãbsä v.                                     hiccup, hiccough. shaìuwa.
     plough again after rain to loosen       Variant: k'hqkhqku.
     soil. garwaya.                      häkkàa id.
hãd ad.                                      with a leap on to. þare.
   imposing stance, as of a pot-         k'häkú n.
   bellied person. tsayuwa wani             heaving breathe, hiccup,
   iri, tubura.                             hiccough. shaìuwa.
hãdgä v. (past hãdgk¿)                   hälã v. (past hälkã)
   drink up all of a large amount,          refuse. ìi. See: c'hqlq.
   absorb more than one's fair share.
   tsotsa, wankaþe.                      c'hãlã n.
                                             alienation, hatred, end of a
hãdgsä v. (past hqdgskq)                     relationship. ìiyayya.
   push. tura.
                                           hãlíhälîní n.
hãgãr-hãgrù ad.                              mutual hatred. ìiyayya.
     rough, brittle - hard, but easily
     broken. gaggautsa. See:
     hàgãr-hàgãr.


                                                                                    95
hãlsä                                                                     hæesá
hãlsä n.                                    hãpkä v. (past hqpkkq, active noun
      1) a kind of seasonal twining plant       d'hqpkq)
      that provides a habitat for small         pull ends of leather loincloth
      safe snakes. tsire-tsire,                 through one's legs. sanìe,
      wani irin itace.                          ìunzugu.
      2) refusal to co-operate. ìin           d'häpkä n. (plural c'hqpkq)
      tafiya wani iri.                          end of leather loincloth, rag.
hãlsänã n.                                      tsumma.
      completely uncooperative,             häräbsí v. (past häräbskí)
      complete refusal, refusing. ìi            widen an existing hole. kara bu
      wani iri.                                 dawa.
hänã v.                                     hãrãm hãrãm adv.
   withdraw, stand apart. janye                 hurrying along (walking). furja-
   daga.                                        furja, faram-faram.
d'hängä  n.                     hãräskã v.
   a good effort or attempt, (exerting          glow, show signs of brightness.
   oneself to) the utmost.                      haska wani iri.
   yunìura, himma, aniya.
                                            hãrhãrã id.
d'hãngù  n.                        plump and shining, like a large
   pleasant smell. garþi.                      blister or ripe fruit. ìiba wani
hänkãlî  n.                        iri, hulu-hulu.
   prudence, good sense. hankali.           hãrsä v. (past hqrskq)
   From: Hausa?                                refuse, be unwilling. ìin yin
d'hãnsù n. (plural c'hqnsu)                    abu.
   a herb of the Ascelpiadae family.        härù1 n. (plural s'hqru)
   rojiya, rujiya. Raphionacme                 gullet, throat. maìogwaro.
   brownii.
                                            hãrù2 id.
hãnù n. (plural hqnunu)                         emphatic: too tired. sosai.
   brother, sister, relative, sibling.
   jièa, ìane.                              c'hãtãnkãnnã
                                                  n.
     hãn k'ïnu n.                              junction, branch, fork in the road.
       aunt. inna.                             mararraba.
     ù'hãnù n.                              hãtãnnä v. (past hqtqnkq)
      be in relationship of brother or         chop a thick slice off sth.
      sister with someone.                     bantala, gurza.
      dangantaka, dangi.
                                            hätäp ad.
häp1 id.                                        sudden pounce. bura-bura.
      instantly, at once. tashi wani            Variant: hqtq-hqtqp.
      iri.
                                            h¿u id.
hãp2 id.                                        1) exclamation of frustration,
      gulp - drink in one go.                   irritation or annoyance. jin abu
hãpãsä v.                                       wani iri, zuga.
      quaff - drink deeply; drink up.           2) itchiness. ìaiìayi.
      gugguba.                              hçeræ hçeræ adv.
                                                (walking) in a sluggish manner.
                                                faþi tashi.


96
hæesá                                                                   m'hénnç
hæesá v. (past heeska)                      héxkùdòrò n. (plural hxxkudorno)
    lay or spread mat on ground.                kind of bird. wani irin
    shimfiþa.                                   tsuntsu.
hçksæ v.                                    héxn excl.
    1) be able to. iyawa wani iri.             growl. nisà.
    2) afford, have enough (money)          hégê v. (past hxgke, hxkkx)
    for sth. qm ta hekse da =                  give way, clear out of the way.
    ba ni da ìarfin                            cekaþe, kauce.
    mallakar. Variant: hwçksæ.
                                              hégésê vt.
hærgæ n.                                       clear (sth) out of the way. kawar
   village. karkara.                           (da).
hærgsá v. (past hergska)                    hékép = hqkqp.
   verify. gaskata, hakikanta.
d'hçsç n.                                   hékhéké adv.
                                                in a gasping manner. riìe
    communal labour. gayya.                     baki wani iri.
hçtà vt.                                    hél id.
    fell, cause to fall, trip. faþi. See:      like a flash of lightning. waiìa,
    hyá 'fall'.                                ìyalli.
hçtæ v. (past hetke)                        hélké v. (past hxlkkx)
    trip up, drop, let or make sb or sth       jostle, turn away, turn to one side.
    fall. kayar.                                gizgaya, jirkice,
hævá v. (past hevka)                            jirkita. See: hxgx; hxskx.
    dance. yi rawa.                           hélksê v. (past hxlkskx)
  hævó n. (plural s'hevo)                       tilt, pour out. jirkice,
    dance. rawa.                                jirkita.
hé excl.                                      hêlknêx ad.
   maybe, OK. tou.                              tilted to one side, aslant.
hébê v. (past hxbxkx)                           karkace, kaikaice.
   lessen, reduce (price). rage.            hêlknêx adv.
hêbhêbó an.                                     askew - out of line. tsungur.
    be uncertain, reflect, ponder,          c'hémé n.
    doubt. waswasi.                             feverish, having influenza or a
hêbó n.                                         feverish cold. jante,
    doubt. shakka.                              mashasshara, zazzaèi
                                                jan waþþare.
  hébhébó adv.
    doubtfully. shakka-shakka.              héndém adj.
                                               standing position of a hungry
hédgnòo ad.                                    person. tsaya.
   manner of standing with puffed
   belly. tsaye. Variant: hxdoo.            héné v. (past hênké, active noun
                                               u'hxno)
hxdoo = hxdgnoo.                               see. gani, karèi, ngo.
héx excl.                                   hênkcæ  adv.
   expression of indecision, well...           suddenly. ba zato.
   tou.
hêxké v. (past hxxkkx)
   split, break. tazge.


                                                                                  97
m'hénnç                                                                hîhîhîi
m'hénnç n.                               hêzhêzê3 n.
   1) confidential chat. ganawa,            kind of purgative shrub (causes
   asiri.                                   evacuation of bowels). ayyara,
   2) meeting with sb you haven't           ayaya.
   seen for a long time.                 d'hî n. (plural c'hi)
hêntæ v. (past hxntke)                      head. kai.
   see, consider, think. gani.             s'hî n.
hênù d'kémé n.                               hair of head. suma. Sg: v'hi.
     enjoyment, fun, pleasure;           s'hî n.
     extravagant or lavish living.           some sort of tradition.
     gubala.
                                         c'hî
hêpó n.
     fiddle about, attempt to correct      mín c'hî
     sth; acting as though you know          beneath, underneath. ìarìashi.
     better than others. nuna            v'hí n. (plural hi)
     gwanin ta.  Qm vxcxkx o,               guinea corn. dawa.
     az u lag hxpo. I told her to stop
     fiddling.                             k'hí n. (plural c'hi)
                                             maize. masara.
hépòo ad.
     stance with part of the body          hî c'kéné n.
     hanging to one side. tsaye.             new-breed guinea corn. wata
                                             irin dawa.
héréré adv.
     in secret, secretly. laèaèa.          hî gyözînç n.
                                             red kind of guinea corn (sorghum
héròhérò ad.                                 vulgare). wata irin dawa.
   vigilant, watchful, on the look-out
   for danger. mai hadani.                 hî púsúnî n.
                                             white guinea corn. wata irin
héskê v. (past hxskkx)                       dawa.
   give way, let me pass, clear away.
   bada wuri. See: hxlkx.                hí cädgánà n.
                                             maize. masara. See: hi.
héssê v. (past hxskx)
   give way (to sb), clear off, yield.   m'híbã n.
   kauce bada wuri.                          blood. jini.
hétê v. (past hxtxkx)                    hîd ãn dòká n.
   get out of the way (usually on the        glans (of the) penis. kan
   road). ratse.                             kaciya.
c'hété n.                                hîd ãn gæn n.
   miracle, vision, wonder.                  source of stream. kan rafi,
   al'ajibi.                                 mafarin kogi, ìashiya.
                                             See: d'hi.
d'hété n. (plural c'hxtx)
   1) game, recreation, sport. wàsa.     hîd ãn têmó n.
   2) festival, holiday, celebrations,       anvil. uwar maìera. See: temo
   party. wasa.                              'anvil'.
hévê v. (past hxvxkx)                    hîd sípí n.
   go and attend to, spend time with,        external apex of a round thatched
   visit. amsa ganyata.                      roof. tuki. See: d'hi.
hxzhxzx1 = hazhaza.                      hîhîhîi id.
                                             laughter, giggling. wata irin
                                             dariya.

98
hîisí                                                                     hívä
hîisí v. (past hiiski)                  hínã v. (past hinkq)
    fill sth up. cika shi.                  dig (e.g. a hole). haìa.
hîkã v.                                 d'hínã n. (plural c'hinq)
    be full,                                1) drum (of any kind). ganga.
    filled up                               2) music. kiþa.
    (with                                 hínd än wä n. (plural hinc qn
    water,                                  wq)
    etc.).                                  death drum, drum marking funeral
    cika.                                   activities. gangar mutuwa. See:
                                            ká c'hínã.
                                          hind c'gomo n.
                                           drum played for chief. gangar
                                           sarki.
                                        hîrãrmù n. (plural c'hirqrmu)
                                           medicinal kind of herb. wani
                                           irin ganye.
híkämsã v. (past hikqmskq)              hírî n.
    emphasize, give emphasis to.            hunting expedition, days or weeks
    nauyin lafazi                           spent away from home hunting
    girmamawar.                             wild animals. farautar
                                            kwanan daji.  Kan hiri, el
hílä n. (plural s'hilq)                     tu hxn nqqmnq. The bush
    1) thorn-tree, a kind of tree.          expedition hunter sees game animals.
    itacen ìaya.
    2) (in plural) – general name for   hîrísí n. (plural s'hirisi)
    thorny plants. gumbi.                   kind of herb. wani irin
                                            ganye.
  k'hílä n. (plural c'hilq)
    thorn. ìaya.
  hílägòngò n. (plural
    s'hilqgongo)
    thorny grass. kashin yawo.
  híläkátá n. (plural s'hilqkata)
    low-growing thorny tree. ìaya
    wani iri.
  hílä kõlîlî n. (plural s'hilq
    k[lili)                             hítã v. (past hitkq)
    hook-thorn tree, a tree with           knead, scrub, clean by rubbing
    hooked thorns. kama mu raba.           hard, esp. with soap and water.
    Variant: hilq kwxdxt.                  cuþa.
hílämláká n.                            hítksã v. (past hitkskq, active noun
   Rottboellia exaltata, a kind of         c'hitksq)
   grass. gyazama. Rottboellia             cheat, act in a dishonest way to
   exaltata. Variant: gwêxkámbà.           gain an advantage. yaudara,
hímkä v. (past himkkq)                     yi wa zamba.
   groan. nisà.                         hívä v. (past hivkq, active noun
                                           d'hivi)
d'hîmú n. (plural c'himu)                  steal, take somebody else's
   groan. nisà.                            property without permission.
                                           saci, sata.

                                                                                   99
hîwéxré                                                                        hòmbàm
  hívî n. (plural hivni)                      hòbª v. (past hòbókò, active noun
    thief, rogue. èarawo.                         s'hòbò)
hîwéxré n.                                        breathe. numfashi.
      wild sorrel, prickly self-sown sorrel     s'hòbò n.
      (a sharp-tasting plant of the dock          breath. numfashi.
      family). ìaiìayi kuwa. Rumex.           ù'hóbósó n.
m'hm excl.                                       comma [,] a punctuation mark
      a reply to someone's greeting.             indicating a slight pause or break
      amsa gaisuwa. Variant: qhqm;               between words in a sentence.
      qhqn.                                      waìafi.
hnà det.                                      hòbósò v. (past hobosko)
   this, these. wannan,                          settle down, cool down. kwanta,
   waþannan.                                     lafa.
hòbà1 v. (past hobka)                         hocbo = hodgo.
   cover, invert or turn a small              hòdgá vi. (past hodgka)
   calabash upside down on top of a              move self closer towards sb.
   larger one full of water to prevent           guso.
   it spilling. burma, þaþþaka,
   gunka.                                       hòdgtá vt.
                                                  move sth closer to me. maso da.
hòbà2 v. (past hobka)
   search or look for sth. nema.              hòdgó v.
                                                 move away, perhaps a little.
  m'hòbà n.                                      gusa. Variant: hocbo.
   hunting, searching. farauta.
                                              hodunb[ = h[dqnb[.
hòbángîzî  n.
   Lord, the name of God, used                hògmá v.
   when swearing an oath. wata                   crush. rugurguje, niìe.
   irin rantsuwa.                             hókà1 v. = hwa.
hòbángúrù  excl.               hòkà2 v. (past hokka)
   meaningless utterances. magana                hide, keep out of sight. fake,
   ba ma'ana.                                    èuya.
hòbányànæ n.                                  hòkmá v. (past hokqmka)
   declaration, pronouncement,                   grate, scrape, wipe sth. goge.
   swearing. wata irin
   rantsuwa. See: hobanguru.                  hòktá v.
                                                  clasp, embrace, kiss. rungume.
d'hòbcò n. (plural c'hobco)
   the three stones forming a                 ù'hólà n.
   traditional fire for cooking. murfu.          Lelna festival of thanksgiving at
                                                 end of rainy season. hargowa.
hòbgá v. (past hobgka)
   search (for sth). biþa, cigiya.            hòlà v. (past holka)
                                                 prevent or hinder sb from doing
hòbgò n.                                         sth. hana.
      traditional medicine man, whose
      medicines are used to cure              hòmá n. (plural s'homa)
      potions; diviner using sand. duba.         crack, fracture in sth. tsaga,
                                                 kukkuèa, fashe.  Dori
hòbò v.                                           s't[ kobka, i emk homa. The
      hunting, looking for game. bida,            soup pot fell down, putting a crack in it.
      farauta.                                     Dorin lqkc emk homa. The
                                                  mush cooking-pot has a crack in it.

100
hòmbàm                                                   Hórãmd zéxgskåi
hòmbàm id.                                     hònî
    sodden, chock-full, flooded, usu.            d'hwîn
    of rain water over some land.                 n.
    fandam, fandal. Variant:                     a new
    hwambam.                                     calabash
í'hónà det. (plural m'hona)                      used to
    a few (of). waþansu, kaþan.                  keep dust
                                                 and dirt dug
hòngá  v. (past hongka)                 out of a
    1) hear, listen. saurara.                    grave hole.
    2) feel, sense. ji.                          ìwarya wata iri.
  m'hòngá  n.                      hònî d'lõmõ n.
    hearing, feeling. ji.                        traditional calabash. wata irin
  hòngàhóngà                     ìwarya. See: d'l[m[.
    adj.                                     hónsà v. (past honska)
    hearsay, gossip. karuma,                     equate, compare, make out to be
    jita-jita.                                   the same or right. daidaito.
c'hòngãmzán                                  hónúnæ adv.
      n.                       during or within the last two years.
    1) mischief-making, obstinate               bariya. See: dxune.
    person. sheji, shigi da
    fita, kini bibi.                         hòpá1 n. (plural c'hopá)
    2) stubbornness. kafiya.                    jute, corchorus tridens. lalo,
                                                turgunnuwa.
  m'hòngãmzán
      n.                    hòpà2 n. (plural hopna)
    disobedience. ìin ji,                       very common long-finned catfish.
    rashin biyayya.                             lamsa. Clarotes spp.
hónhónó ad.                                  hòpànná v. (past hopanka)
   1) correct, all right, sorted.               thrash, whack, strike heavily and
   madaidaici.                                  loudly. duka wani iri,
   2) the same (as). þaya.                      kwala wa.
   3) steady. ìwari.                         d'hópsná n. (plural c'hopsna)
honi d'hwin See: i'hono.                        gourd-based container for keeping
                                                things. ìwaryan da aka
honi d'l[m[ See: i'hono.                        gyara.
m'hònná n.                                   hòrángá  n. (plural
   a medium amount, a fair bit, not             hòrángánà)
   too much. matsakaici.                        West African Crowned Crane.
hònò n. (plural s'hono)                         gauraka, gamraka. Balearica
   gourd stalk, calabash plant.                 pervonina.
   duma, ìwarya.  Anan gwa                  d'hòrãmcó n.
    hono a kxtnx d'ba dq dqn                     reflection (of light, e.g. from a
    da. You do not plant a gourd stalk and       mirror). ganin irin na
    pumpkin in the same place.                   madubi.
  i'hono n. (plural m'hono)
    calabash. ìwarya. Large:
    k'hònò. Large Plural: c'hono.




                                                                                     101
Hórãmd zéxgskåi                           hõdänbö
Hórãmd zéxgskåi n.
   The Holy Spirit. ruhu
   maitsarki.
d'hórmò n. (plural c'hormo)
   1) spirit, soul, ghost, phantom.
   kurwa, fatalwa.
   2) reflection in water, shadow.
   inuwa.
   3) opposite. akasi.
hòtó n.
      picture. foto. From: English -
      'photo'.
d'hòzá n.
    traditional mixture of ground rice
    and water, for appeasing god(s).
    ruþan shinkafa.
hö1 v. (past h[[k[)
    dry. bushewa.
d'hõ n.
   fourth year g[lm[ person, sb who
   has done 3 years of g[lm[.
   tsara a wurin golmo.
k'hõ n. (plural c'h[)
   swing (e.g. rope swing or see-
   saw). abin lilo.
m'hõ n.
      water. ruwa.
  hõmän hwælà n.
    1) hot water. ruwan zafi.
      2) alcohol, or alcoholic drink.
      barasa.
  m'h[ m'h[ n.
    liquid. ruwa.
hõ2 id.
      speed of movement, haste, hurry.
      garaye, sauri.
hõbhõbõ id.
   like a paste or puree, food mixed
   up neither very thick nor thin.
   haþehaþe, kwaèa.
höbsõ v. (past h[bsk[)
   mix up, stir. cuþa.
hõdän ad.
      true, same, no difference, alike.
      kamar, ìan da, ba rabe,
      farìi. Variant: h[ddqn.


102
hõdänbö                                                              hö[tùhörù
hõdänbö excl.                                 hõmbõ n.
     that is so, it is true, that is how it      kind of creeper. wasu irin
     is. hakananne. Variant:                     tsire-tsire.
     hodunb[; h[dumb[; h[dunlo.               hõmõ v. (past h[mk[, active noun
  hõdún dá excl.                                 m'h[m[)
     that is not so, not true. ba haka           sexual intercourse. ciyayya,
     ba.                                         na sha'anin mata.
  hõdúngê excl.                               hõnhõnõ id.
   that is for sure, definitely.                 familiar, informal, cocky,
   hakane.                                       describing the attitude and actions
h[ddqn = h[dqn.                                  of sb who sees no need to show
                                                 respect. carangwaþa, same.
d'hõdç n.
   bark string. kirtanin èawo.                v'hõnsæ n. (plural s'h[nse)
                                                 raw or peeling skin at quick of
k'hõdç n. (plural c'h[de)                        finger-nail (usu. during dry-
   unsown edge of farm, boundary.                season). tashin fata
   bayala, iyaka.                                ayatsa a ìumba.
hõdhõdõ id.                                   hö[ v. (past h[[k[)
     forcefully, squeezing, pressing             dry. busar.
     hard for space. matsa da
     karfi.                                   hö[c'kàlà greeting.
                                                  greeting. gaisuwa. Variant:
hõdkàsîn n.                                       p[[c'kala.
   good deed, a good turn. adala.
                                              hõ[kkºu adj.
hõdksç v. (past hõdkskç)                          solid, dried hard. daèarbar.
   1) be serious, committed (about
   sth), make an effort. cingirin             m'hõ[knõ n.
   gata.                                          health, healthy condition.
   2) be close-packed, over-loaded.               lafiya.
   wuriya matse.                              hõ[kõ v.
hõdõ adv.                                         dry. busasshe, ìeìasa.
   tight. tsaurava, tanke.                    hõ[l adv.
h[dumb[ = h[dqnb[.                               wide and round (of eyes). buþe
                                                 ido.
hõdúnæ excl.
   that's right. haka ne.                     hõ[m rî za da Variant: bá hõ[m
                                                 rî. excl.
h[dunlo = h[dqnb[.                               'It's nothing to do with me'. ba
hõgõ v. (past h[gk[, active noun                 ruwa na.
   s'h[g[)                                    hõ[n v. (past h[[k[)
   swim. yi iyo.                                 cling, hang on to. þafe,
í'h÷i adv.                                       maìale.
     for no good reason. ba dalili.           hö[skæ v.
hõkhõkõ adv.                                      dry and become stiff. ìame. See:
     puffed up. huku-huku.                        kameske.
m'hõknõ n.                                    hö[sõ adj.
   well-being. lafiya.                            C'Lela greeting. gaisuwa. See:
hõlõ vt. (past h[lk[)                             h[[ckala 'welcome!'.
   pull sth out, remove. cira,
   cire.


                                                                                 103
hö[tùhörù                                                              hùkã
hö[tùhörù n. (plural                    ù'hõsö n.
   h[[tuh[runu)                             smell of blood. ìarni.
   Yellow-fronted Tinker-bird. wani     hõtõ v. (past h[tk[)
   irin tsuntsu. Pogoniulus                 sneak away. laèaèa. Variant:
   chrysoconus.                             h[tt[.
d'hõpçsæ n. (plural c'h[pese)             höttæ vt. (past h[tke)
   mush food in soup. tuwo da               sneak away with sth. laèaèa da
   miya a game.                             shi, su.
höpkõ v.                                h[tt[ = h[t[.
      jump down. cilga.
                                        h[zee = h[z[[.
höpkõ v.
   be tall or high. yayi tsayi.         hõzhõzõ adj.
                                            plump and soft. luèu-luèu,
hõpó v. (past h[poko)                       mai yar ìiba.
   put in (e.g. flour into boiling
   water). sa gari ka tuka.             hõzõ[ adj.
                                            relaxed, at ease. kwanciya
hõpókò v.                                   (saki jiki) wani iri.
      (stomach) shrink from hunger.        Variant: h[zee.
      kalaf.
                                        hú n. (plural s'hú)
hõpõ n.                                    kind of tree. wani irin
   dancing game played by girls with       itace.
   one standing in the middle falling
   and being caught by others in a      hùdú vi. (past hudku)
   ring around her. abke.                  move on with difficulty, press on.
                                           yunkura gab.
höpsæ v. (past h[pske)
   hang up high. rataya sama            húgã v. (past hugkq)
   da nisa.                                float on water and be carried
                                           away. kwasowar ruwa.
hõrävhwà adv.
      later on, soon. anjima.             c'hùgã-húgä n.
                                            washed and carried away.
à'hõrmõ n.                                  kwashen ruwan da ke
      noise, (unwelcome) talking,           gudu.
      chatter. surutu.
                                        hùgù n. (plural hugnu)
v'hõrö adv.                                 bush duck or the white-faced tree-
      later. da jimawa.                     duck. agwagwan daji.
hõröm ad.                                   Dendrocygna viduata.
   staring vacantly, absent-mindedly.     hùg-dórfò n. (plural
   galau.                                   hùg-dórfònò)
hõrõmbài n. (plural c'hõrõmbài)             Knob-billed Goose. dani,
   kind of grass. wani irin                 kwankwani, kwarwa.
   haki. Variant: futubai;                  Sarkidiornis melanotos.
   hutubai; hulubai.                    hùgúdkù v.
hõröng  ad.                        dominate, be entrenched,
   absent-minded, vacant look.              establish oneself. mamaye.
   baturuturu, galau. See:              húk adv id.
   h[r[m.                                  all in a group. gaba þaya.
m'hõsö n.                               huka = fuka.
      generosity. faida, hasafi,
      kyauta.                           hùkã v. (past hukkq)
                                           pull along, drag. janyo.

104
k'húkú                                                            c'hwàalà
k'húkú n.                                 d'hùtù n. (plural c'hutu)
   a sign showing that the snake has         gateway. ìofa.
   passed that way, the tracks made       hutubai = h[r[mbai.
   when something is pulled along
   the ground. nuna alaman jan            húu id.
   abu kasa.                                  1) sound or smell of sth or sb
                                              passing (far-off). motsin iska.
hùkú v. (past hukku, active noun              2) hoot - sound of owl. kukan
   u'huku)                                    mujiya.
   pull. ja.                                  3) sound of rain passing for the
hùlbéx adj.                                   end of the wet season.
    wan-looking. wani irin duba.          hùu id.
hùlù v.                                       sound or smell of sth or sb
    1) blow (e.g. horn). busa, huri.          passing swiftly (close-by).
    2) dry. tsane.                            motsin iska.
ù'hùlù n.                                 húulãgù n.
    exaggeration. azaizaita,                 kind of low-growing grass. wani
    zuguiguita.                              irin tsiron haki.
í'hùlù n.                                 d'húutú1 n. (plural c'huutu)
   pungent fumes which have an               penis not completely covered by
   effect like ammonia. wari.                foreskin. gantamau.
hulubai = h[r[mbai.                       d'hùutù2 n. (plural c'huutu)
s'hùmgcù n.                                  gateway. ìofa.
   company, companionship. wani           hwá v. (past hoka)
                                             1

   irin kaþaita. Verb Past:                  slaughter, kill. kashe, yanka.
   humgcku.                               hwàa2 v. (past hwàaká)
d'húmú n. (plural c'humu)                    dry up. ìafe.
   traditional working song, used         hwàa3 id.
   esp. in farming. waìar noma.              fly suddenly at the same time with
húmù vt.                                     a loud flapping sound. bai
    pull. ja.                                þaya.
hùndùm adv.                               hwáac'kõ n. (plural hwac'k[n[)
   puffed up or out. wani irin               kind of snake. wani irin
   kumburi.                                  maciji.
hùpù v. (past hupku)                      hwàakän wäq n.
   sip. kurèa.                                kind of ceremonial act or play
húrbù v. (past hurbku)                        during the second burial
   fan food to cool it, blow.                 ceremony. wàsa.
   saisaita, fifita.                      hwàakò n.
hùrùn d'gàagò n. (plural                      1) game where younger brothers
   s'hurun d'gaago)                           or sisters engage in mock fight
   the shrub Vernonia amygdalina -            with an older brother's fiancee.
   'bitterleaf'. shiwaka. Vernonia            wani irin wasan
   amygdalina.                                maaurata.
                                              2) partial ploughing of ridges in
hùrùndùmnù n.                                 field to mark them out for proper
    1) vapour. tururi.                        ploughing. huþa, yana huþar
    2) warmth. feeling of heat of fire.       gwaza. Verb Past: hwaakka.
    þumi.


                                                                               105
c'hwàalà                                     hwàkmàl
c'hwàalà n.
      bargain, trade, buying and selling.
      sayaiya, ciniki.
hwàar id.
      effect of lightning (i.e. the flash)
      and thunder (i.e. the sound)
      coming at the same time. ìara
      da walkiya. Variant:
      hwarhwar.
hwàgàggà id.
   sound of movement in grass,
   rustle. kasam-kasam.
m'hwage = hage.
hwàgmàl = hwakmal.
hwàhwàhwà n. (plural
   s'hwahwahwa)
   kind of tree. wani irin
   itace. Variant: sàktásà
   (Ribah).




106
hwàkmàl                                                           hwçd cækç
hwàkmàl id.                                 hwàská v. (past hwàskká)
    rough feel of new animal-hide              spread out (of a group of people).
    material (e.g. leather, lizard-skin).      wasu ko ina.
    ìarara.  Badu emkqv                    hwàtà v. (past hwatka)
    hwakmal, va swiki u m'nev                  dodge aside. kauce, bauþe.
    da. Your loincloth is rough, you have
    not rubbed oil onto it. Variant:        hwºu adj.
   hwagmal.                                    1) rough (of skin). èawo.
                                               2) sth passing with speed (e.g. of
hwàktá1 v. (past hwaktka)                      large snake). da sauri.
   turn sideways. juyawa wani
   iri.                                     hwã v. (past hwãqkä)
                                               1) fumigate, smoke out. turara.
hwàktà2 n.                                     2) swell. kumbura.
    kind of grass used in making
    bricks or plaster. wani irin              m'hwä n.
    haki.                                       swelling. kumburi, sasume.
ù'hwàktà n.                                 c'hwãqkù n.
    market. kasuwa.                            fumes, strong-smelling smoke or
                                               vapour. hayaìin magani.
hwàl adj.
    shine, glisten. yi ìyalli.              hwãqrí n. (plural hwqqrni)
                                               White-faced Owl. jimola,
hwàmbàm adv.                                   inyawara, mujiya. Ptilopsis
   in abundance (of water). kale-              leucotis. Variant: hwqqrrimuni
   kale. See: hombam.                          (black owl); hwqqrfirfirni
hwánbögö n. (plural s'hwanb[g[)                ('flapping owl'); hwqqric'con
   'bush orange' tree. wani irin               ('eared owl').
   itace.                                   hwãbgã n. (plural hwqbgnq)
hwándárá n. (plural c'hwandara)                kind of very small frog with a very
   kind of grass. wani irin                    large stomach. wani irin
   hakin fadam.                                kwaþo.
hwáng hwángó                                hwãp id.
     adv.                      stretched out, sprawled out.
   upright, erect. tsaleliya,                   kale-kale.
   ziza.                                    hwãt id.
hwànká  v.                           going past sb at speed. zarce,
   turn or twist round to one side.            wuce.
   karkata.                                 hwãtkã n. (plural hwqtknq)
hwáp1 = gwap.                                  firstborn. þan, yar fari.
hwàp2 id.                                   hwãú id.
    splish, splash, sound caused by            flustered, astonished,
    splashing water over one's body.           flabbergasted. gigice.
    ìaran watsa ruwa.                       d'hwæ n. (plural c'hwe)
hwàs adv.                                      heap, sth arranged in small
    everywhere, spread all over the            heaps. kasa.
    place. fankam-fayau,                    hwçd cækç excl.
    furfutu. See: haska;                        oh what? oh no! yau-yaune,
    hwasassa.                                   kaka nika yi!  Na hok o
hwàsàssà adv.                                   wa naama; hwed ceke, lxxlxn
    appearing in large numbers.                 nan emte? We have killed his calf.
    tumbuþo.                                    Oh no! now what can we do?


                                                                               107
hwçd déhänd næ                      í'hwædæ
hwçd déhänd næ adv.
      two days ago, day-before-
      yesterday. shekaranjiya.
hwæd yòndä n.
      bad day, sad day, evil day.
      mugunyar rana.




108
í'hwædæ                                                                hwçsà
í'hwædæ n.                               m'hwængcñ  n.
    1) schism, tear, division. sashe,       wakefulness. raye, falka,
    kashi.                                  farka.
    2) commune, community, section       hwengd gaadema See: d'hwenge.
    or department of people living and
    working together. dangi.             hwengd g[m[ See: d'hwenge.
m'hwæenç n.                              d'hwængæ  n.
   secrecy, keeping a secret                elder sibling, elder brother or
   between intimate friends. halin          sister. mafi girma, wa, ya.
   asiri.                                  hwængãd gàadçmà
hwæesç v. (past hweeske)                       n.
   harm. lahani.                             age group in g[lm[. tsara.
hwægá v.                                   hwængãd gõmõ
   sit or lie on. kwanci.                       n.
                                             age group and title in g[lm[.
hwæká v. (past hwekaka) = hwega.             tsaran golmo.
c'hwçkç an.                              v'hwænyálà n. (plural
   hide. èuya.                               s'hwenyala)
hwçksæ = hçksæ.                              a kind of plant. wasu irin
hwælá n. (plural hwelána)                    tsire-tsire.
   fire. wuta.  Hav qv dapasa           hwæpksá v. (past hwepkska)
    hwela nu'sama. Go and light the          fit, suit, be appropriate. dace.
    fire in the cooking place.           hwærá v. (past hweraka)
  d'rem dqn hwela n.                         rest. huta.
    flame. harshen wuta.                   hwæràsá v. (past hweraska)
hwælá nás wáalà n.                           give rest to, allow to rest. hutad
    fire-weed, red-flowered weed.            da.
    damagi. Chrozophora                    d'hwærá n.
    senegalensis.                            holiday, rest. hutu.
hwælá nàyörò n.                            hwæræ n.
   months of heaviest rain, July and         recreation, play, amusement.
   August. watan da aka fi                   wàsa.
   yin ruwa.
                                         hwçsà vt.
d'hwçlsæ n. (plural c'hwelse)                start. fara, soma.
   praise, egging on, encouraging
   words (e.g. by beggar, fellow
   golmo workers). agalanda,
   kirari, gumburi. Verb Past:
   hwçlskæ.
d'hwçn n.
    sun, day. rana.
  í'hwçn n.
   heat of the sun. rana.
v'hwæn n. (plural s'hwen)
   rope. igiiya.
hwændò n. (plural s'hwendo)
   whistling (sound). feþuwa,
   fito.
                                                                            109
hwçssæ                           hwécé
hwçssæ v. (past hwesseke)
      wound, injure. jin ciwo.
  d'hwçssæ n.
      wound, injury. jimuwa.




110
hwécé                                                                hwîipsã
hwécé n.                                 hwêrêm adj.
    gourd rattle or shaker with beads        faint, lean in appearance, or
    on the outside.                          absent-minded. wani irin
    kacau-                                   duba.
    kacau.                               hwéréré id.
hwêdî adj.                                  moving quietly, almost silently.
    many, much, a                           tafiya shiru-shiru.
    lot, greatly.                        d'hwérké n. (plural c'hwxrkx)
    aga.                                    kind of drum. wani irin
hwéx id.                                    ganga.
    stealthily                           hwés id.
    moving away. sulmuya,                    clatter, action of falling and spilling
    sulaye.                                  sth over. wani irin faþuwa.
hwéxnhwéxn id.                           hwåu id.
    muttering, murmuring. gunguni.          rustle, slither sound, hiss, sound
hwéxrämhwéx n.                              caused by a passing snake or
    kind of traditional activity which      when a light wind blows over dry
    involves giving presents to show        grass and leaves. ìarar busar
    appreciation. baiyana murna             iska. Variant: hwxuu.
    wani iri, shagali.                   d'hwî n. (plural c'hwi)
hwéxtél id.                                 lump or mouthful of mush food.
    light, not having much weight for       loma.
    its size. mara nauyi.                hwí1 adj.
hwêxún id.                                   a small, little (amount). kaþan.
    hiss, sound heard when sb            hwí adj.
                                             2

    releases air or wind. ìarar              secret, screened off. kara.
    tusa.                                hwící adv.
hwékmél id.                                 1) ahead, forward, further. gaba.
   looking lean, starved, in poor           2) leadership, first place or rank.
   condition. marar annuri.                 shugabanci, jagoranci.
d'hwélké n. (plural c'hwxlkx)            hwídî (past hwidiki) = hwigi.
   kind of drum, specially-honoured      hwígï v. (past hwigiki)
   traditional drum. ganga ìwarya           sit or lie on (as in hen sitting on
   wani iri.                                eggs). kwanci. Variant: hwidi.
hwémbém id.                              hwíilí hwíilí id.
    haggard, the look of sb tired and        conceited, jealous. ciccika.
    with face lined from worry or lack
    of food. tamukke.
v'hwênkê  n.
    (plural s'hwxnkx)
    pinnacle, top, summit.
    ìololuwa, ìoìuwa.
  hwênksò  v. (past
    hwxnksko, active noun
    v'hwxnkso)                           hwîipsã v. (past hwiipskq)
    climb, climb higher, go up to the        live with sb as a friend, look after,
    top. haura sama.                         show kindness to. aime.


                                                                               111
d'hwîmbî                             hwîndí
d'hwîmbî n.
      a while, a time. þan lokaci,
      jimawa.
c'hwîn n.
      loose earth or soil. yashi,
      ìasa.




112
hwîndí                                                                      hyàl
hwîndí n. (plural hwindni)                hyà2 v. (past hyàaká)
    Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu.                  withdraw statement, deny,
    asisita, wani irin                        rescind, nullify. janye magana,
    tsuntsu. Uraeginthus bengalus.            musu.  U hyaaka, az u ta ze
   Variant: kærànná (Senchi);                 tan da. She denied it, [saying] that
   hwîndù.                                    she did not say so.
hwîndù (plural hwindunu) =                hyàa dóokà n.
   hwîndí.                                   genet cat, a wild cat with black
hwíngî ;  n.               spots covering its brown body.
   (plural hwingini)                         kulen daji. See: làngò
   kind of big bush bird. tuje.              (general name).
hwînsã v. (past hwinskq)                  hyáabàbbà n. (plural
   be angry, annoyed. yin fushi.             s'hyaababba)
                                             kind of tree. wani irin
  d'hwínsù an.                               itace.
    grudge, anger, sulk, mope.
    fushi, harzuìa, èacin                 hyáagéngé  n.
    rai, baìosani.                           (plural hyáagéngêné)
                                             Red-headed Weaver, a scarlet
hwírî v. (past hwirki)                       and black bird. dala. Malimbus
   fan, blow on fire to fan into flame.      rubricollis. Variant: hyargxngx
   hura.                                     (Ribah).
hwírkî v. (past hwirkki)                  m'hyáaká n.
   working bellows, fanning (=               butter. man shanu, bugagge.
   blowing air on) a fire. gura,
   hurhuta. See: hwiri.                   hyáakà v. (past hyaakka)
                                             deride, mock at. yi wa ba'a,
hwîryà n. (plural s'hwirya)                  gori.
   kind of tree. wani irin
   itace.                                 c'hyàaksà n.
                                             imitation of sb else, scoffing
hwïu id.                                     imitation, impression.
    lash, sound of whip through air.         kwaikwaya.
    birþiþi, burþiþi, ìarar
    fasawa.                               hyàaræ n. (plural hyaarene)
                                             companion, friend, peer. gamka.
hwîzz id.                                    Variant: hyaaro.
    high-pitched sound of fast-moving
    object in the air, fast movement in   hyaaro = hyaare.
    the air, whizing sound.               hyàarùgù n. (plural hyàarùgnù)
    buhugari. See: hwiiu.                    Grey-headed Sparrow. èanta,
hwúunàamnà n.                                gwara. Passer griseus.
    kind of herb. ganye irin na           hyàgàl n.
    magani, miya.                             grit, coarse small hard stone or
m'hyá n.                                      sand felt when chewing. garin
   expansion, progress, growth.               dutse.
   auki.                                    hyàgãrhyàgrò n.
hyá vi. (past heka)
   1                                          grittiness. yawan jin garin
   trip, fall on to or into. faþi.            yashi.
  d'hyá n.                                hyàknò n. (plural s'hyakno)
    fall. faþuwa.                             sheath. kude. Variant: fyakno.
                                          hyàl id.
                                              glitter, shine brightly with a flash.
                                              ìyalli. See: wal.

                                                                                113
hyàlká                               hyàllàa
hyàlká vt. (past hyalkka, active
   noun u'hyalko)
   1) peel skin from fruit or
   vegetable. wade, tuèe.
   2) slice up (e.g. sticks, wood,
   skins, hides). gididdba.
hyállà v. (active noun c'hyalla)
   peel off the epidermis. gyaran
   fata wani iri, dawaye.




114
hyàllàa                                                                  hyãqlä
hyàllàa v.                                 v'hyã n. (plural s'hyq)
    loincloth left hanging, untidily not       wrestling move - a type of
    tucked in. ìazami, sako-                   shoulder throw. dabaran
    sako.                                      kokawa.
hyámkálá n. (plural hyamkalna)
    age group in g[lm[. tsara a
    golmo.
hyán n.
    oil palm tree. kwakwa.
d'hyàn adj.
    other, another. wani, daban.
m'hyànà n.
    'the thing' - a euphemism used to
    refer to sth you do not wish to say.
    amali.
hyànhyán rísí n. (plural
    hyanhyan risni)
    kind of rodent (mouse or rat).
    wani irin èera. Variant:               d'hyäqbù1 n.
    kwintqd z[[re.                            farming inheritance, often given
hyàpá v. (past hyapka)                        before death by father to start a
    1) hack, hoe deeply. sassara,             child off in life. iri. Variant:
    kafta.                                    d'häqbù.
    2) dig, dip into with hand. tsoma      d'hyäqbù2 n. (plural c'hyqqbu)
    hannu.                                    colander - a pot or calabash
                                              pierced with small holes for
hyargxngx = hyaagxngx.                        percolating ash-water. maþigin
hyàrhyàrà ad.                                 toka.
    glisten - ray of soft light that         ù'hyäqbù n.
    comes and goes. walìiya-                  soil containing potash. ìasa
    walìiya.                                  mai kanwa.
hyás = yas.                                hyãqkä vi. (past hyqqkkq, active
hyáskæ v.                                     noun u'hyqqku)
    misbehave, behave rebelliously.           get better; recover; regain
    gagara, buwaya.                           strength after illness. murmuje.
hyàtánkà  v.                  hyãqkskä v.
                                              emphasize, repeat for emphasis.
    slash. þaþara.                            nanata, kwakkwafa.
hyºu id.                                   hyãqlä v. (past hyäqlkã)
    noise of hoe plunging into soil, or       top-up, fill up. jela, yafa,
    knife into body. kafe.                    gyaran.  Va nxxm hwxdi da,
hyàwàl = hyºu.                                 hyqqlq, bat ma t[. You have
                                               not given me much; give me a little
hyã n. (plural s'hyq)                          extra so that I will go.
    kind of tree. wani irin
    itace.


                                                                                 115
hyäqmnù                                                                  hyòngrç
hyäqmnù n.                                    hyògädsà v. (past hyogqdska)
      energy. saura.  U kustku b[                balance. dandanta. Variant:
      hyqqmnu, av nap az i mank                   togqdsa.
      da. She still has some strength left;
      don't imagine she is old.               í'hyókò v.
                                                  subside, settle, become quiet after
hyãqmù n. (plural s'hyqqmu)                       being violent. lafa.
      kind of tree. wani irin
      itace.                                  hyòmsó n. (plural hyomsno;
                                                  hyòmsónò)
hyãqmú-hyãqmú adv.                                hippopotamus. dorina. Variant:
      walking slowly, slinking. somai             hyomsñ, hyomsnç.
      somai, soìai-soìai.
c'hyãmrî n.                                   hyón1 n. (plural hyónnò)
                                                  winged termite. shinge.
      title in golmo, d'biti. shaida              Reticulitermes hesperus.  Hyonn
      mulkin abu.  El nan ka                     el qn k'dan. There are flying
      g[mc qn g[lm[ az i                          termites in the ant hill.
      c'hyqmri. Some people in golmo are
      given this title.
s'hyãngãrnã
        adv.
      balancing load on head without
      holding it. þigirgire. Variant:
      s'hyongorno.
hyãnhyãnã adv.
      obliquely, transparently. gani
      wani iri.
hyãnsú (plural hyqnsnu) =
      hyunhyun.                               hyòn2 n. (plural s'hyon)
v'hyãnsù n. (plural s'hyqnsu)                    rubber vine, a twining plant or
      vein of leaf of dum-palm, locust           creeper. ciwo. Landolphia
      bean or corn, or of feather.               owariensis; Saba florida.
      ìarde.                                  d'hyón1 n. (plural c'hyón)
hyó1 v. (past hyoko)                             smoke. hayaìi.
      enter (usually well or river).            m'hyón n.
      shiga.                                     controlled smoke. hayaìi wani
                                                 iri.
hyò2 n. (plural s'hyo)
      kind of tree. wani irin                 d'hyòn2 n. (plural c'hyon)
      itace.                                     1) special stone used by a
                                                 blacksmith. wani irin
hyòdhyòdò adv.                                   dutsin maìeri.
      eagerly. shirye, mai                       2) a kind of fruit. wasu irin
      ìosawa, þokanta.  M lak                   'ya'yan itace.
      hyodhyod qn valqm rovo. I was           hyòngó  v.
      waiting for your arrival eagerly.          peep. leìa.
hyódò n. (plural s'hyódò)                     s'hyongorno = s'hyqngqrnq.
      marsh grass; a kind of grass used       hyòngrç  adv.
      for making brooms. tsintsiyar              upright. tsab.
      fadama. Variant: gwêxpî.


116
m'hyóngró                                                          m'hyùn
m'hyóngró  n.             d'hyú n. (plural c'hyu)
    brain-matter. èargon kai
    haèo.
m'hyóokò v.
    disagree, deny, disown, refuse to
    accept sth that has been said. yi
    musun.
hyòomãdhwçn adv.
    at sunset. faþuwar rana.
hyòorò adv.
   involving oneself in trouble
   through ill-considered acts or
   words. fitar ìafa.
í'hyòrkò n. (plural m'hyorko)
   trap for catching fish. haìon
   kamun kifi.  El nan sip
    gxnnx ni'hyorko. Fish are trapped
    and caught with this fish trap.
m'hyö n.
   resemblance. kama.
í'hyõbó n. (plural m'hy[bo)                hip. aguþi, ingwallo,
   adze - a tool                           kwatangwalo.
   similar to an                        hyubri = hyubu.
   axe used for                         hyubru = hyubu.
   cutting away
   the surface of                       hyùbù n.
   wood.                                    wives, co-wives. kishiya.
   gizago.                                  Variant: hyubri; hyubru.
hyök id.                                  d'hyùbù n.
    with a large                            envy, jealousy. hasada,
    stomach like a                          kishi.  Netav d'hyubu zau
    woman about                             kasi da. A jealous woman is not
    to give birth.                          good.
    runkwi.                             í'hyùkcù n.
hyõkó n.                                   sieve for dry goods. mararaki,
    sesame or                              maregi, maragaþi.
    benniseed in general, whether       hyùkdù v. (past hyukqdku)
    white, red, brown etc. nome,           slash, slit. þaþara, gigara.
    riþi. Sesamum spp.
                                        m'hyùkú n.
  hyõkän-bînyá n.                           epithet. siffa, kama.
    sesame/benniseed and rice.
    riþi da shinkafa.                   hyùmä k'bæbò n.
                                            guinea-flour from where a woman
  hyõk-zêxgãmzêxné          n.              was born given to her when she
   sesame, benniseed used in                marries. garin al'ada
   offerings to the gods. riþi.             wurin kai yarinya aure.
hyö[gãmhyö n. (plural                   hyùmúkù v.
   hy[[gqmhy[[n[)                           moisten, become damp. danshi.
   kind of insect. wani irin
   ìwaro.                               m'hyùn n.
                                            coarsely ground flour. gari.
                                                                              117
v'hyùndù                                                                                îllã
v'hyùndù n. (plural s'hyundu)                          hyúrù1 n. (plural s'hyuru)
        1) weal - swelling on skin of                     chewstick tree. marke. Anogeissus
        human or animal caused by                         leiocarpus.
        flogging. birþi (alamar                        hyùrù2 n. (plural s'hyuru)
        shan bulala).  G[t baa                           stick for stirring mush. mucciya.
        nu'vosim me emkq v'hyundu.
        Look at the weal I got from my flogging.       k'hyùrù n. (plural c'hyuru)
   2) nick, scratch mark on arrow or                      upper bone of fore-leg of cattle.
   tool. gwafi. Variant: v'pana.                            gajeran ìashi, dumtsi,
                                                            dambubu.
hyunhyun n. (plural hyùnhyúnù)
   iguana, or possibly a monitor                       hyús id.
   lizard. tsari, guza. Variant:                          snap (e.g. a rope). ìire. Variant:
   hyqnsu.                                                kut; kat; kqt.
hyúnkhyúnkù                            d'hyúu n. (plural c'hyuu)
        ad.                                               hip-joint. kutolo.
        wan-looking or grey. toka-
        toka, kodewa.

                                           I       -    i

i'-                                                í'- cm.
        Class-marking prefix for an                       class marker. aji, ìungiya.
        inanimate singular noun in the I               íbã v. (past îbkã)
        class. These are often very small                 remove, fetch, draw. þeba,
        and often related to nouns in the                 iba.
        D class. Plurals of I class nouns
        use the m' class-marker. The                     m'íbã n.
        class-marker i' should not be                       catch fish by making a pond in the
        confused with the pronoun i                         shallows and scooping out the
        which is written without an                         water until the fish become visible.
        apostrophe and replaces a noun.                     ìwarface, kwalhen kamun
                                                            kifi.
                                                       ígmä v. (active noun s'igmq)
        When an entry has a class-marker                    talk, speech. magana,
        it is written in italic writing. Class-             huruci, yi magana. Variant:
        markers may move to the end of a                  igmu.
        word in a sentence. The class-
        marker is not included in the way              ígmù n. (plural s'igmu) = igmq.
        entries are ordered. For example,              ílätkã v.
        the word i'jo (sieve) is found                      subsided. janye, kwanta.
        between the words jijjijji                     îlkã v.
        and jogo, and the word i'reke                       despise, see with dismay, be
        (small) is found between the                        disgusted by. raina.
        words regsa and u'reko.
                                                       îllã num.
î1 v.                                                       2 (two). biyu.
        it is.                                           a'ilq adv.
í   2
        pro.                                               twice. sau biyu.
        it, pronoun referring to a noun in
        the i' class, or vague/general
        meaning. ya, ta, shi, ita.

118
íllämmáláká                                                               îyõrç
íllämmáláká n. (plural                     ípkù v. (past ípkk¿)
   c'illqmmalaka)                              question (sb). tambaya.
   kind of thorny grass. wani irin           ípkú n.
   haki mai ìaya. Variant:                     ? (a question mark), the symbol
   pillqmmalaka.                               used to mark a sentence as a
íllãmsä v. (past illqmskq)                     question. tambayo.
   repeat memorably. kauli.
                                           c'írí n.
íllãnkãnnã                     abandoned site; old village
   n. (plural s'illqnkqnnq)                    settlement that has been
   kind of tree. wani irin                     abandoned. kufai.
   itace.
                                           ís górbà n.
íllävkã n.                                     sorghum species. wata irin
    a long time (since). an kwan               dawa.
    biyu ya daþe.
                                           c'ísä n.
ílõvç v.                                       1) tears. hawaye.
    pass wind. tusa.                           2) large eyes.
ïm pro.                                    d'ísä n.
    they are. su.                              eye. ido. Variant: disq,
în pro.                                        c'disq.
    it, used of inanimate objects. shi.    à'ísä n.
ínáakà excl.                                   outside (a house), away. waje,
   hush! horrid, exciting feeling of           baya.
   helpless fear, or petrified with fear     còpú nà'ísä
   or surprise. arwa, baci.                    abroad. a ìasashen waje.
ínävwágàdæ n. (plural                      ísäd'nùná n.
   inqvwagadne)                               ankle. idon ìafa.
   kind of poisonous snake. wani
   irin maciji.                            ísgéxvé n. (plural s'isgxxvx)
d'ínbù n.                                     a kind of grass. makwancin
    paternal (people of the father's
                                              zomo.
    side). na shiyyan uba.                 îtàn v.
înîn adv.                                      it is so. hakane.
    only (that), just. ìadai.              îtkã v.
înjí n.                                        meet. sadu. Variant: itkq,
   engine. inji. From: Hausa, from             gadka; itku, gadko; itu,
                                               gado.
   English.
ínù n. (plural c'inunu)                    îtkù v.
   mother. uwa.                                meet. cima, sadu.
d'îpcù n. (plural c'ipcu)                  îyé excl.
   sound of footsteps. motsin                  what or which. menene,
   takawar ìafa.                               wanne, wacce, waþanne.
îpé pro.                                   îyõrç adj.
   where. ina ne.                              uncooked, raw. þanye.
ípkä v. (past ipkkq, active noun
   s'ipku)
   ask (for), make enquiries.
   tambaya.

                                                                             119
já                                                                            jányç

                                      J     -    j

já1 adv.                                        jàkánnà v. (past jàkánkà)
    up high, on high. bisa.                          snap; sudden bite of a dog. ciza.
jà2 v. (past jaaka)                             jàkkämtädnã n.
    sift out. rairaye.                             a kind of mushroom. burar
jàaù adv.                                          jaki.
   in a dense mass. daèaèa.                     jákrà v. (past jakqrka)
jàbgsá v. (past jabgska, active noun               walk carefully (e.g. because of
   u'jabsa)                                        mud). taka sansan. Variant:
   pick up sth heavy with all your                 jxkrx, jxkerke.
   might. daddaìawa.                            jàkræe adv.
m'jàdà n.                                            squatting. tsuguna.
      rudeness, unruly behaviour. mai           jàktàl adv.
      tsiwa mara ladabi. Variant:                    upright - like grass not properly
      m'jata.                                        weeded, after it rains. haki ya
jàdàdà adv.                                          tashi. Variant: jqktql;
      profusely, in abundance. tsira.                jxktxl; j[kt[l; juktul.
      Variant: jxdxdx; j[d[d[;                  jàljàlà ad.
      jududu.                                        showing happiness as one walks
jàdká v.                                             along (esp. pleasure at sb's
      jump. ìetare.                                  arrival).
jàdkàl adv.                                     jàndàl adj.
      stiffly. gandagaura. Variant:                awkward, not level. tsaye.
      j[dk[l.                                   jángjángó  adj.
jàgàp ad.                                          thin, and wider at the top than at
      lumpy, jumbled up. mara                      the bottom. tamilo, ìyamo,
      laushi. Variant: jagrap.                     ìyamuri.
jàgjàgà adv.                                    jángò  n.
      loose. sako-sako. Variant:                   g[lm[ song leader. zabayi.
      j[gj[g[.                                  jánká  n. (plural jankna)
c'jágrá n.                                         donkey. jaki.
   leftovers of honeycomb. saìar                  jánkäv d'kàdæ
   zuma.                                               n.
jágrà v. (past jagqrka, active noun                 zebra (lit. bush donkey). jakin
   u'jagro)                                         daji mai jiki da zane.
   pick up in pieces, rake, sweep or              dòk jánká  n.
   brush away dirt. shara.                          (plural dòkc jánknà)
jagrap = jagap.                                     The Dragon's Football. wani
                                                    irin fure. Variant: dòk ömõ.
jàgtàl adj.
      bony, having large or prominent           d'jànknà  n.
      bones. rame. Variant: j[gt[l.                 fruit partially eaten by bats. cin
                                                    je magi.
jàjæ n.
      snare - piece of string tied across
      the skin of a drum. zaga.

120
jányç                                                                  jududu
jányç n.                                       alternative name for dog. sunan
   friend (woman). abuya. Variant:             kare.
   janyo.                                  jòkjòkò adj.
janyo = janye.                                perforated; pierced all over.
m'jata = m'jada.                              huji-huji. Variant: j[kj[k[.
jäbjäbí n.                                 j[dk[l = jadkal.
   kind of vegetable soup. wata            j[d[d[ = jadada.
   irin miyar ganye.                       j[gj[g[ = jagjaga.
jqktql = jxktxl.                           jögö n.
jãm v.                                        poorly mixed food in water given
   sit firmly or well-balanced. þos.          to dogs, scraps. wani irin
jäu n. (plural s'jqu)                         damu.
   fragrant kind of herb, like basil.      j[gt[l = jagtal.
    þaþþoya, þaþþoyar kare.                jõgtsö v. (past j[gtsk[)
   Ocimum basilicum; Hyptis spicigera;        chop up the bone with meat still
   Leucas martinicensis. Variant: zqu;        on it. sassara.
   soodo (Senchi).
                                           j[j[j[ = jxjjxjjx.
jægá n. (plural jegana)
   jigger insect. jiga. From: Hausa?       j[k = jxk.
jxdxdx = jadada.                           jökjökö1 adv.
                                              jogging manner in which dogs
jéjjéjjé adv.                                 walk, not as fast as running.
    profusely. wasu irin tsire-               tafiyar kare.
    tsire. Variant: j[j[j[.
                                           jõkjõkõ2 = jokjoko.
jék id.
   profusely (of plants sprouting          j[kt[l = jxktxl.
   closely together). bazo-bazo,           jõnàjö n. (plural c'j[naj[)
   batsatsa. Variant: j[k; jwxk.              kind of vegetable. wani irin
jxkrx v. (past jxkerke) = jakra.              ganye.
jéktél id.                                 jönönö adv.
    1) (hair) ruffled or on end.              standing or sticking out, not level.
    batsatsa. Variant: j[kt[l;                gandara. Variant: gy[n[n[.
    juktul; jaktal; jqktql.                jõ[ n. (plural j[uno)
    2) indecently dressed. burtsai.           kind of insect. wani irin
    3) upright - like grass not properly      ìwaro.
    weeded, after it rains.
                                           j[[naj[ = gy[[nagy[.
jíjjíjjí adv.
    rumbling sound (of thunder) -          ù'jõ[ù n.
    suggesting shaking. cida,                  making of loud noise. surutu.
    girgiza, jijiga.                       jõu id.
i'jò n.                                       noise of a festival - drums,
   basket-style sieve for removing            singing, shouting in good spirits.
   sediment from                              kiþimi.
   liquids such as                         v'jú n. (plural ju)
   beer. rariya,                              finger. yatsa.
   mararaki.
                                           jududu = jadada.
jógò n. (plural
   jogno)

                                                                               121
jùjjùjjù                                                             jyòbó
jùjjùjjù adv.                          ù'jùnjún n.
   with dishevelled hair. furcici,         feeling of aversion, wanting to
   gazargazar, buratsai.                   avoid something. ìyama.
   Variant: jukxx.                     júumõlõ n.
jukxx = jujjujju.                          kind of bush. wani irin
jùkjùkù adj.                               itaciya.
   greyish. toka-toka.                 jwédédé adv.
juktul = jxktxl.                          starting to grow in profusion.
                                          batsatse.
júmbælàmà n.
      kind of elephant grass (in the   jwxk = jxk.
      cymbopogon kuprechtii family)    jwêké n.
      used for arrow shafts. wani         track of tyre. sawu.
      irin haki mai ìwari da           jyòbó n. (plural jyobono)
      wari. Cymbopogon kuprechtii.        beetle. ìwaro irin su
   Variant: gyúmbælàmà.                   kyankyaso.
júmù n. (plural jumnu)
   fly (housefly). ìuda.




122
k'-                                                                                káalá

                                       K       -    k

k'-                                            kàa2 v. (past kàaká, active noun
     Class-marking prefix for a singular              c'kàakò)
     noun in the K class. Nouns in this               1) transplant (of plant, cutting), fix,
     class are inanimate objects or                   root. dasa.
     plants larger than D class objects.              2) hammer or nail sth. buga
     Plurals of K class nouns use the                 ìusa, kafa.
     c' class-marker. The class-marker             kàa3 n. (plural kaana)
     k' should not be confused with the               tapeworm. tsila.
     pronoun k which is written without
     an apostrophe and replaces a                  kàa d'hî v. (past kaakq-d'hi)
     noun.                                            move faster, hurry up. kara
                                                      aniya guzami.
     When an entry has a class-marker              káabòodó n.
     it is written in italic writing. Class-          water lettuce. kainuwa. Pistia
     markers may move to the end of a                 stratiotes.
     word in a sentence. The class-
     marker is not included in the way             k'káafó n. (plural c'kaafo)
     entries are ordered. For example,                1) embroidered numnah (padded
     the word k'koro (river) is found                 saddle-cloth). kahu.
     between the words d'koro and                     2) honeycomb without honey.
     kosa, and the word k'qku (spider)             kàagá v.
     is found between the words                         1) reprove, reprimand, rebuke,
     qkskutu and qm.                                    caution. kwaèa, tsawata,
ka det. (plural an)                                     fadakar.
                                                        2) clean round the dirtiest
     someone who ... See: ka d'hi.                      container. yashe.
v'kà n.                                            kàaká v.
     accusation. kazaf.                               put lips deep into water to drink it.
kº                                                    doèa, gwaèa.
     then.
                                                   kàakç n. (plural kaakene)
ká c'bàtç n. (plural a c'bate)                        kind of snake. wani irin
   herdsman, sb who tends flocks for                  maciji.
   pay. makiyayi.
ká c'hínã n. (plural a c'hinq)
   drummer. makaþi. See: d'hinq.                   kàakîtú v. (past
ká d'gwäqmã See: gwqqmi.                              kaakkitu)
ká nù'bù n. (plural a nu'bu)                          take note of, pay
   master of the house. mai gida.                     attention to. mai
                                                      da hankali.
ká nù'gõcó n. (plural a nu'g[co)
   soothsayer. boka.                               káalá n. (plural
                                                      s'kaala)
káa1 v. (past káakà)                                  small drum, a little
   pluck (e.g. fruit or vegetable).                   larger than a fist, beaten to
   tsinka, fige, cire.                                accompany the talking drum.
                                                      kuntukuru. See: d'kadga;
                                                      d'kukdu.

                                                                                         123
kàamc'nàpó                                                              kàdædæ
kàamc'nàpó v.                               kàbvän n.
      mark sth with a sign to make it          area, part of an area. kaèi.
      more easily identifiable.             kàcbá v. (past kacqbka)
      halamta.                                 take position, prepare for action.
kàams cæræ adv.                                shirya.
   stuck in mud. kafe. See: s'cere.         kàcæ kàcæ v.
kàamsà v. (past kaamska)                       struggle (physical). yamutsi
   keep under control. ìayyade,                wani iri.
   sarrafa.                                 káckàlà n. (plural kackalna)
káanà conj.                                    black-bellied bustard, a large
   so. kana. From: Hausa.                      heron-sized bird living in busy
kàar bämbä n. (plural kaar                     areas. tuje. Lissotis melanogaster
   bqmbqnq)                                    melanogaster.
   turtle. kiffiya. See: kaaro.             kádà v.
ù'kàaræ n. (plural c'kaare)                     don't (do not), not. kada. From:
   horn. ìaho.                                  Hausa.
v'kàaræ n. (plural s'kaare)                 kádádá id.
   tentacle. dohulo.                           dried out and hard. bushewa
                                               kwarai. Variant: kadal.
kàarò n. (plural kaarno)                    kadal = kadada.
   tortoise. kunkuru. See:
   kaar-bqmbq.                              kádáp kádáp id.
kàaswá n. (plural s'kaaswa)                    sound of throwing seeds or
   market. kasuwa. From: Hausa?                pebbles when playing traditional
                                               chess. shakashaka.
kàatá vt. (past kaatka)
   choke up, pack full. shaìe.              d'kàdæ n. (plural c'kade)
                                               bush, jungle, wilderness or remote
ù'kàatá n. (plural c'kaata)                    countryside. daji, hurumi.
   shoe. takalma.
                                            ù'kàdæ n.
kàayálà n. (plural kàayálnà)                    toilet. bayan gari.
   Fiscal Shrike. wani irin
   tsuntsu. Lanius collaris.                kàdædæ id.
                                                brushing against, sliding,
kàbà v.                                         slithering. jan jiki.
      1) receive, collect, get. karèa,
      amsa.
      2) contain. ìunsa.
      3) employ. þau w. aiki.
kábát id.
      sound of flapping. wani irin
      motsi.
kàbækábçnæ n.
   alternation - taking it in turns to do
   sth. mayayya.
v'kàbó n. (plural s'kabo)
   side, rib. gefe, hakarkari.
k'kábõ[d n.
      cupboard. From: English.


124
d'kádgá                                                               kagdap
d'kádgá n.                                 d'kàgcò n.
   small (helper) drum. kurkutu.              state, form, impression, general
   See: d'kukdu; kaala.                       appearance (of a person).
kàdkàdà = k[dk[d[.                            siffa, kama.
kàgá1 v.                                   kàgdá v. (past kagqdka)
   bend. duìa, sunkuya.                       bend over, stand in a bent way,
                                              stoop. tsaye.
kàgà2 n. (plural c'kaga)
   iron 'black stones'.
  d'kàgà n.
    solid, structure, frame, iron-stone.
    tsaiko, jikin mutum.
  ù'kàgà n.
    iron ore. baìin birji, tama.
kàgàgà id.
    stiffness of sth, sound heard when
    walking through dried grass or
    wood. ìabababa, ìanjau
    kanjau. Variant: kugugu.
kágágºu id.
    crunching, crackling sound, as
    when chewing a bone.
kágágºuno n.
    (crunchy) mushroom, usu.
    growing out from the rotten stump
    of a tree. burar jaki. Variant:
    kakagauno.
kàgàggà adv.
   in an agitated, preoccupied or
   worried manner. taka zo
   tori.
kàgàt ; ; 
    id.
    1) slam! the sudden sound of
    opening a door shutter (tone
    variations mean- near, far,
    emphatic near). ìarar fasawa.
    2) resonance made by something
    being scraped hard. wani irin
    motsi. See: k[g[t.
kàgàu kàgàu adv.
   with a crunch; noise of food being
   crunched. rimis-rimis.
kàgãdsá v. (past kagqdska)
   toast or grill meat. kawace,
   ìafe, ìaurara.



                                                                            125
kagdap                                     kàkàkî
kagdap = kugdup.
kàglº v. (past kagqlka)
      become lodged in or on.
      maìale, ìage, ìale.
      Variant: sqnklq, sqnkqlkq.
c'kágó n.
      catch, a children's game, throwing
      a stone in the air and catching it
      before it touches the ground.
      caèe.
kágráp kágráp id.
   gallop, clatter-clatter, the steps of
   a horse running. gangara-
   gangar.
í'kàhæ n. (plural m'kahe)
   shelter wall, a low wall built in
   kitchen (cooking place) to prevent
   wind blowing on the fire of the
   oven. wani irin gini,
   wurin sanwa.
kàhúrç n.
      severe punishment, serious
      trouble. mai tsanani.
ù'kái adv.
      early. da wuri.
  ºukºinç adv.
    early. da wuri.
kák1 = k[k.
kák2 id.
      being slow, awkward, dallying a
      long time when sent, ignoring a
      call or request. mankas.
kàk3 id.
   reach the end, finished, stopped.
   kai iyaka.
d'kàká n. (plural c'kaka)
   pancake, flat cake made of beans.
      gabda, þan gauda, masar
      dutsi, bena, ìarmo.  El
      tqm rya c'kak hwxdi. I eat
      plenty of pancakes.
kakagauno = kagagauno.
kàkàkà id.
      clattering, (the sound of a)
      sudden, involuntary, jerky
      movement. wani irin motsi.


126
kàkàkî                                                                  kálkà
kàkàkî n.                                kàkrà-kàkrà id.
   long horn blown in honour of Emir.        sound of heavy drops of rain on
                                             zinc roof or leaves. motsin
   kakaki.                                   þigan ruwan sama.
   From: Hausa.
                                         káksà n.
kakqd c'sen = kakqd c'swen.                  force in even where the place is
kàkäd                                        already full, stuff in, over-pack.
   c'swæn n.                                 tilasta, firmitsa.
    (plural kak                          kàksàl id.
    c'swen)                                  stiff. sage.
    (bee)hive.
    amya,                                kàktç id.
    sanka.                                   crowded, confused, disorderly.
    Variant:                                 harmutsi, firmitsi.
    kakqd                                    Variant: kaktka.
    c'sen.                               kàktîkàkò excl.
kàkbàa id.                                  a word used as a swear-word, or
   motionless,                              expression of sth being
   still, inflexible. ìababa. Variant:      impossible. kalma ce ta
   kakbal; kakbo.                           nuna mammaki.
kakbal = kakbaa.                         kaktka = kakte.
kakbo = kakbaa.                          kálà n.
                                             colour. launi, ruwa, kala.
v'kàkcò n. (plural s'kakco)                  From: English.
   rafter, truss, roof-supporting
   framework. tanka, guruma.             d'kálà n.
                                             completely, entirely. fafaratan.
k'kákdà n. (plural c'kakda)
   frond of Deleb palm; mat. kaba.         yàa d'kálà v.
                                             eat once and for all, eat finally. ci
kákkà v.                                     ba kari.
    be stunted. tsumbure.
                                         c'kàlà n.
kàkkàrnà n.                                 rest. bada gajiya.
    fowl louse, kind of red kind of
    chicken flea. fiti-fiti,             kalasa = kalka.
    gurdumu.                             kalaska = kalka.
kàkkädmúusù n.                           kálämsæ = karqmse.
    head stand, standing on one's        kàlfá n. (plural kalfna)
    head. gori.                             kind of mouse or rodent. wani
kàklà n.                                    irin kusu.
    kind of insect. wani irin            kàlfàa id.
    ìwaro.                                  floating in the air, swaying along.
m'kákó n.                                   gaþau-gaþau. Prdm: kalfa kalfa.
   drought and dehydration of fruit         Variant: kãlfàa (Ribah).
   caused by an early end to rainy       kalfa-kalfa = kalfaa.
   season. ìanìamo.
d'kàkrá n. (plural c'kakra)              kálkà adj.
                                             too small, undersized. yakasa,
   kind of fruit. wani irin                  tsudu, kasa, kadan.
   'ya'yan itace.                            Variant: kalasa; kalaska.


                                                                              127
kálkálá                                                                     kànà
  kàlkàlà id.                               kámpál id.
      it's undersized. ìanìance.               swinging or flying the way a
kálkálá id. 1                                  broken or deformed leg does.
      swept or washed clean, pure              jefa ìafa mai rauni.
      [white], spotless. kalkalu. From:     d'kàmpàrçegæ n. (plural
      Hausa.                                   c'kampareege)
kálkálá2 ad.                                   chains, shackles, stocks with a
   twirl, turn round and round                 bar. gigar.
   quickly.                                 kámpãlá n. (plural c'kampqla)
kàlkç n. (plural kalkne)                        fresh pods of locust bean tree.
   poor person (or sb temporarily out           garda, huda. Parkia biglobosa.
   of money). ìananta.                        k'kámpãlá
kàlmá n. (plural kalqmna)                       collarbone; area around the
   Yellow-fronted Canary, small bird            shoulder. ìashin wuya.
   usu. kept in a cage. kanari.             kámtà v.
   Serilus mozambicus.                          grip, catch hold. danìa, riìe
kàlwà n.                                        kankan.
      kind of tuberous grass like onion,
      but smaller, used in times past for   ù'kán n.
      making fura sweet like sugar.             bridge. gada.
      wasu irin tsire-tsire.                kán1 n.
kàm id.                                         shriek, scream. kururuwa.
      erect, standing securely, stable.         Variant: kana2.
      tsap. Variant: kxm.                   kán2 pro.
kámà1 vt.                                       one.
      start, continue. káma. From:
      Hausa.                                d'kàn n. (plural c'kan)
                                                tethering post, stake. turke,
kàmà2 excl.                                     jigo.
      shut up, stop talking. manna,
      lika.                                 kán kómá  n. (plural
                                                án kómá)
d'kámántç n.                                    next-door neighbour. makwabci.
   namesake, sb bearing the same
   name. takwara.                           kán kónà  n. (plural
kambiri = m'katqmbiri.                          án kona)
                                                beggar, supplicant. maroìi.
kàmçskæ v.
      dry and become stiff. ìame. See:      kán pàatæ n.
      h[[ske. Variant: kamske.                  itinerant trader carrying his own
                                                load. jagale.
kàmêné n.
   kind of insect. wani irin                kán twærç n. (plural a s'twere)
   ìwaro.                                       a golmo person who wears a loin
kàmgsá v. (past kàmgskº)                        cloth with a tail. mai wutsiya.
   bring together, collect together.        kana1 = kan.
   haþa. See: amga.
                                            kànà2 vn.
kàmnà n. (plural manqnna)                       clearing virgin land for sowing.
   nanny, child-minder. mai                     shema, sheme, sara,
   raino.                                       cirbe.
  d'kàmnà n.
      nursing, caring for child. raino.

128
kánáná                                   v'kàndámà
kánáná id.
   1) sharp taste of salt in food. mai
   gishiri.
   2) how hot the sun is. zafi,
   gumi.
kàndà conj.
   before. kamin.




                                                129
v'kàndámà                                                            d'kápsá
v'kàndámà n. (plural s'kandama)          kánkà  v.
    thatching needle. bida.                  shriek, cry out with a loud, high-
kándímã n. (plural ándimnq)                  pitched voice. kuwata.
    junior. ìarami.                      kànksá  v. (past
kángá1  n.                          kankska)
    crab, or crab hole. ramin                shout to/at sb or sth. kausasa,
    ìaguwa.                                  tsawata.
  kángá àvà  n.             s'kànksà  n.
    (plural kanga avna)                      (plural u'kanksa)
    kind of crab. wata irin                  exclamation mark, ! kalmar
    ìaguwa.                                  motsin rai.
kàngº2  vi.                     kánskæ v.
    cry. yi kuka.                           warn, cry out, speak out to say
                                            what one thinks will result in the
kángáræ  n. (plural             future. kuka.
    kangarne)
    bed bug. ìwaron gado.                kántás gwírî n. (plural kantas
    Cimicidae.                              gwirini)
                                            a smelly insect-like creature about
kángás  id.                       the size of a grasshopper. wani
    plod, one step taken by a person        irin ìwaro.
    with a sore leg. dengeshi.
    Variant: kenges.                     kánwá n.
                                             potash for animal food. kanwa.
k'kángó  n. (plural               From: Hausa.
    c'kango)
    hind leg of a grasshopper.           káp id.
    ìallemu.                                 1) very tight, firmly together.
                                             kankan, kama sosai.
kángõ[dõ  n.                    2)
    too late, already happened. kuwa
    bayan yaki.                              — adv.
                                             totally. sarai, sosai.
kángrám  id.
    1) dried hard. dakaf, bushe          kápärskæ v.
    sosai.                                  brush off, flap away sth from
    2) sound made by sth metal falling      oneself, struggle. kaþuwa wani
    on hard ground.                         iri, gumzayya.
    3) (less commonly) gaunt.            kàpæ n. (plural kapene)
    siriri. Variant: kxngrxm.               soldier termite. manyan gara.
kángyúmù  n. (plural        kàpkàpà id.
    s'kangyumu)                             shivering, shaking, flapping
    kind of tree. wani irin                 (wings). makyarkyata, èari.
    itace.                               ù'kàpó n. (plural c'kapo)
kànî hwçn n. (plural kani                   1) wing. fiffike.
    hwenne)                                 2) shoulder. kafaþa.
    cicada. wani irin ìwaro.             kàpræ-kàpræ id.
kánk ãn sàpà                                 physical struggle, fight. yi
        n. (plural           kokawa. Variant: kxpre-kxpre.
      kanc qs sapa)                      d'kápsá n.
      forked upright beam for                small piece of cloth or calabash.
      supporting a weak roof. wacila,        kalkafi.
      jijjige.

130
kàptá                                  kárám-kárám
  í'kápsá n.
   tiny piece, small garment.
   èingili.
kàptá v. (past kaptka, active noun
   s'kapta)
   beckon, wave. yafata.
káptín n.
    captain. kyaftin. From: English.




                                                131
kárám-kárám                                                        d'kàtáwà
kárám-kárám id.                           kàrkàrà2 adj.
      small rattling bell or sound made      clear (of water or oil). ìarari.
      by this, worn by dancer. cakan
      sami gwararam, kyan-                k'karo = k'budu.
      kyan-kyan. See: kêrêmkêrêm.         kárúyàaká v.
      Variant: kararam-kararam.              long for, desire. kewa,
kárántá v.                                   beganta.
   read, study. karanta. From:            kàsá vi. (past kaska)
   Hausa.                                    cut, break, untie. tsinkæ.
karap = kurup.                            d'kásæ n. (plural c'kase)
kararam-kararam =                            paw; dog, goat or sheep's leg
   karam-karam.                              from the nails and hooves to the
                                             joint. dagi, ìafa.
kárát id.
      whoosh! the sound of a speedy       î'kàsî n.
      arrow shooting through bushes.          fine, nice, agreeable, good.
      Variant: parat.                         daþþada.
kàrãmbàane n.                             c'kásúwáncí n.
      meddlesomeness, interference.           business. ciniki,
      karambani. From: Hausa.                 kasuwanci. From: Hausa.
m'kàrämpómà n.                            kát id.
      night blindness. dindimi.              sound of snapping dried wood,
                                             suddenly cutting off twine. ìarar
kárämsæ v.                                   fasawa. See: kqt; kut.
      out-smart. faþa in faþi
      wani iri. Variant: kalqmse.         d'kata1 = d'gwxn2.
c'kàrbà vn.                               kàtà v. (past katka)
      going to and fro, roaming,             gather round, push more wood
      trampling around. kai da               into the centre of a fire. iza,
      kawowa.                                taram.
ù'káræ n.                                 v'kàtà n. (plural s'kata)
      desire, eagerness to see sth,          wrestling move - trip. dabaran
      strong longing, missing sb.            kokawa.
    marmari, i'irici,                     d'kàtà2 n.
    fifirniya.                                meddlesome, busybody.
  yàam nù'káræ v.                             karambani.
      long to see somebody, be eaten        c'kàtà n.
      up with longing. haso.                  1) mischief making, idle gossip.
d'kàrgà n.                                    game-game, hadida.
   meeting, congregation, gathering.          2) false charge. karfa.
   taruwa, gamko, haþuwa.                 kátánà n.
   Variant: d'wera.                           kind of mushroom. burar jaki.
kàrgsá v. (past kargska)                  kàtàp id.
   collect, gather, meet. tara.               pitter-patter, clip-clop, sound of
kárkárá ad. 1                                 animal walking.
      clear, translucent. ìarari,
      kala-kala. Variant: kxrkxrx.



132
d'kàtáwà                                                            käqpã
d'kàtáwà n.                           kávává id.
    rat trap made                        sound of bubbling oil when frying
    out of string                        something. ìunar mai wani
    and wood.                            iri.
    alminjir,                         káyá n. (plural c'kaya)
    èurma.                               stuff. kaya, abubuwa,
m'kàtãmbîrí                              tarkace. From: Hausa.
    n.                                kázáp id.
   face cosmetic                          sound, in good health, fine.
   made from                              kalau.
   fruit and leaf                     kä excl.
   sap.                                  "ah!", "fancy that!"; an expression
   katambiri.                            of surprise. nuna mammaki.
   Variant:
   m'kambiri.                         kãqkãnsí v. (past kqqkqnski)
                                         separate, divide. raba,
kàtæsç v. (past                          dabam, bambanta.
   kateske)
   start early. soma tun da             m'kãqkãnsî n.
   wuri. Variant: gàdæsç; àtæsç.          division, separation. halin
                                          rabuwa, nuna son zuciya.
k'kºté n. (plural c'kºté)
   card. kati. From: English?           m'kãqknã n.
                                          selfishness. nuna son
kàtnà n.                                  zuciya. Variant: m'kqqkni.
   bad growth of teeth, e.g. two on
   top of each other (from the same   käqlcù v.
   root).                                idling about, wandering with no
                                         direction (aimlessly).
d'kàttáwà n. (plural c'kattawa)          gararamba.
   snare, trap for rats or other
   rodents. katawa, èurma.            käqpä1 v. (past kqqpkq, active noun
                                         u'kqqpu)
káu1 id.                                 stand with one or more people to
    1) completely dried up. rumus,       one side to discuss a matter
    daìau.                               privately. keèewa don
    2) healthy, in perfect health.       ganawa.
    kalau, baras.
                                      käqpã2 v. (past kqpkq)
  kàu kàu id.                            isolate. kaþaita.
    crunchingly, the sound made
    when crushing something dry.
    garas-garas, kam.
d'kºu n.
    kindness, good behaviour.
    kirki.
kºu excl.
    hey! kai!, ke! From: Hausa.
kºu id.
    2

    snap, break (sound). ras. See:
    kat, kqt, kut, hyus.




                                                                         133
käqsä                                                                  d'kãglä
käqsä v. (past kqqskq, active noun             käcãv d'lõmö n phrase.
      u'kqqsq)                                   traditional plundering of chickens,
      separate. raba.                            sb can take a chicken (or
käqtä käqtä id.                                  calabash, goat etc.) from his
   staggering. runkwi-runkwi.                    mother's place without needing to
                                                 ask first and without it being
d'kãbã n. (plural c'kqbq)                        returnable. kaza wani iri,
   thatched porch, the entrance to               kazar ìwace. See: honi
   the compound. zaure.                          d'l[m[.
ù'kãbã n.                                      käcãv nù'gõvö n phrase.
      gathering place in the bush where          a farming tradition, and the hen or
      hunters keep their belongings.             cock given as an advance
      magama.                                    payment to sb who will later do
kãbk d'kàrgà n.                                  farming for one. kaza wani
   conference, meeting hall.                     iri, hanyar al'ada.
   zauren taro. See: d'karga.                  käcãv s'bàncò n phrase.
käblä v. (past kqbqlkq, active noun             cock or hen stewed for nursing
   u'kqblu)                                     mother, traditional medicine
   plough - usu. to plant cassava.              supposed to purge her of the
   kafta.                                       blood of the recent birth. kaza
                                                ta hanyar al'ada.
c'kãblù n.
      loose earth dug out from the           kãdärî n. (plural kqdqrni)
      ground. kaftu.                            any insectivorous (insect-eating)
                                                bat. birbiri.
käbrî adj.
    thick. kakkabra.                         kädäs id.
                                                suddenly, all of a sudden. fuj
käcí n. (plural kqcni)                          atan.
    chicken. kaza. Gallus domesticus.
                                             kãdksä v. (past kqdkskq)
  käc-hyãqmù n. (plural                         cut off completely, cut off the
    kqc-hyqqmnu)                                remaining small part. yake
    Long-crested Helmet-Shrike, a               duka.
    black and white bird with a white
    crest. wani irin tsuntsu.                kãgädkã adj.
    Prionops plumata.                            1) (like) stiff leather.
                                                 kadabarbari.
  käcvãn cæpkò n phrase.                         2) stiffened. sanìame.
      chicken set aside for sacrifice to         3) resisted cooking. horiyo,
      traditional deity. kazan al'ada.           hori.
  käcvãn yòn n phrase.                       kãgãrkãgrù adj.
      traditional cock given by the              brittle. gagautsa. See:
      parents from the side of one's             gqdqrgqdru.
      father if the father dies during the
      second burial ceremony.                ù'kägdú v.
    kyautan zakara wani iri.                     stiffen, put sth on fire and fail to
                                                 cook it intensively enough. sage,
  käcãv-c'gãi n phrase.                          sanìame.
      traditional wedding hen, gift to the
      bride from the groom's parents.        d'kãglä n.
      kazan aure wani iri.                       broken old block, a ball of
                                                 anything squeezed together.
                                                 èungu, kantu.


134
käk                                                                   kämpãnî
käk id.                                    kãmdän ad.
    break, all of a sudden. tsinke            similar, the same, as of a uniform.
    nan da nan.                               bai þai.
käkäkä id.                                 kãmksä v. (past kqmkskq)
    hurry up! watch out! an                   urge on, encourage. izawa.
    expression of feeling in reaction to   kämpä n. (plural kqmpqnq) =
    seeing sth about to fall. kai-            m'kípî.
    kai-kai.
                                           kãmpãl id.
kãkälä id.                                     floaters, wisps floating on top of
    uncared-for. sasakai, fanko.               liquid. firkaki, butaci.
ù'kãkälä n.
    uselessness. addakari,
    balam, banza, batsam.
kqkkankankqk = gxngx2.
kãkkã n. (plural kqkkqnq)
    fool, nitwit; dull, stupid person.
    daìiìi.
käkkäkkî id.
    quick, hurry. maza-maza.
kãkmîi v.
    stick to doing sth without a break.
    maìe.
käkrä-käkrä id.
    suddenly, done quickly, in a hurry.
    fuj'a, fuja'a, nan da
    nan.
kälã n. (plural kqlnq)
   African Black Kite. shirwa.
kãlänkã  v.
   fail, be unable to complete sth.
   kasawa wani iri.
m'kãlãnkãnnã
      n.
   drowsiness, dizziness, unable to
   balance. mai þimaucewa,
   jiwa diwa.
kãlfàa = kalfaa.
d'källãpî n. (plural s'kqllqpi)
   head tie. kallabi. From: Hausa.
kältí v. (past kqltki)
   leave remainder of sth. bari
   saura.
kãmã n. (plural s'kqmq)
   kind of rubber tree. wani irin
   itacen gamji.
ù'kämbärî n.
    south. kudu.
                                                                               135
kämpãnî                                                                      kät
kämpãnî n.                                 känkäncí  id.
   company. kamfani. From:                     upheaval, confusion, a bad and
   English.                                    unresolved situation. ruþe.
k'kãmplã n. (plural c'kãmplã)              käntäl id.
   the grass Andropogon guyanus               fall down flat (on its face) with a
   used for 'zana' mats. gamba.               plop. faduwa.
kämrí n.                                   käpsã v. (past kqpskq, active noun
      father-in-law (husband's father),       u'kqpsq)
      ie. A is kqmri to his son's wife,       pick up one by one, select.
      and A's wife calls A's father           tsinta.
      kqmri. suna.
d'kämrù n.
      on the 4th day ahead. citta.
kän pro.                                   s'kärgî n.
      it, the one of that size. shi.           ambience of a
                                               place, open
d'kãn n.                                       country, cleared
      children's disease that swells one       area around one.
      side of the stomach. tseifa.             sarari.
ù'kãn n.                                   d'kãrmã n.
      1) stage (including extended             hand-plough,
      meaning of 'place where things           used for making
      happen'). dakalin, wurin                 ridges for planting. garma.
      da aka bari don masu
      wasa.                                kärú adj.
      2) hunters' camping place.              shorter, a short cut. a yanke.
      madaba.                              d'kãrú n. (plural c'kqru)
c'kãndí n.                                    1) loop, knot. ìulli.
   joy, glory, happiness. nuna                2) corn; a sore on the sole of the
   alfarma, yabo. See:                        foot caused by a thorn breaking
   c'mqqnq.                                   the flesh.
kqngrqm = kingrim.                         käs excl.
                                               bother! oh dear! an expression of
kängù  n.                             (unhappy) surprise or annoyance.
   serious trouble. ciwo.                      kash.
d'kängù  n. (plural           käs ná wádá adv.
   c'kqngu)                                   there is not a pin to choose
   embers; hot, burning coals.                between 2 people. halin bori.
   garwashi.
                                           kãsãnnä v. (past kqsqnkq)
känkä  n. (plural                    snip sth off, cut (a piece) off.
   kqnkqnq)                                   gunce.
   Grey Woodpecker.
   maìwaììwafi, ìoìobiro.                  kät id.
   Mesopicos goertae.                          sudden cutting of a rope (action).
                                               tsinkewa farat þaya,
                                               ìire. See: kat. Variant: kut;
                                               hyus.




136
kätrã                                                              v'kçlcò
kätrã v. (past kqtqrkq)                                            kækbá v.
    stumble, kick against, trip up.                                (past
    tuntuèe.                                                       kækäbkà,
kãv pro.                                                           active noun
    (the one) which, that. wanda                                   s'kàkbò)
    (m), wadda (f), waþanda                                        think,
    (pl).                                                          meditate,
                                                                   reflect
käzkäzä id.                                                        seriously
   not sticky, smooth, clean. sumul.                               and hard,
kçbà n. (plural kebana)                                            imagine. yi
   star. tauraro.                            tunani.
kæbãntç v. (past kebkqntke)                kækbò n. (plural s'kàkbò)
   mix up. haþa, cakuþa.                   concentrated thought, reflection,
    Nesam goon yalin qv                     meditation. tunani.
    kebkqntxine. Give me the seedlings   kçkbç n. (plural kekqbne)
    of the beans you have mixed up.         kind of red-tailed fish. kifi mai
kæbgnæ adv.                                 jan bindi.
    mixed together (e.g. grain).         s'kækbò n.
    hautsuna.                               pensive, deep (in) thought.
kæbkæbæ id.                                 turaddadi.
    spotted, covered with spots.         kækæ n. (plural s'keke)
    dabbare-dabbare. Variant:               kind of grass. wani irin
    kyabkyaba.                              haki.
ù'kæcækçcæ n.                            kækkæ n.
    restlessness, fidgetiness.               grass sc:Cymbopogon
    mutsuniya.                               sc:ruprechti, used for making
kæcækæcæ id.                                 zana mats. ìyara, gajiri.
    moving around, labouring, being      m'kçkó1 n.
    stirred up and busy. cuwa-               tracing out footprints of a runaway
    cuwa, katanniya,                         animal or thief. bin ìafa.
    mutsunniya.
                                         m'kçkó2 an.
kædà v. (past kedka)                        trace the footprints of a suspect or
   shell, pull out, remove, as when         shot and wounded animal. bin
   plucking out groundnuts from their       sawu.
   stalks. tsiga.
                                         kæksá v. (past kekska)
kægá v. (past kegaka)                       criticise, look at sth critically.
   eke out, make sth last a long time.      duba da kyau.
   tsimi.
                                         kæksç v. (past kekske)
  m'kægá adj.                               rub, (e.g. one's eyes). murza
   thrifty, economical. tanadi,             (ido).
   farar gwana.
                                         kælá vt. (past kelka, active noun
kækà v. (past kekka)                        u'kelo)
   pick selectively, pick up one by         bore a hole, pierce. huda,
   one, pick out, follow footprints.        soka, hudewa.
   tsinta.
                                         v'kçlcò n. (plural s'kelco)
kækàsá v. (past kekaska)                    gimlet. mahuji.
   observe, take time to consider sth.
   nasuwa.
                                                                            137
kçmó                                                                    kêxsé
kçmó n.                                     d'ké n. (plural c'kx)
      harvest. girbi.                         small hole, gap or opening.
kæmpá n.                                      kafa, fangali ìarþaþe.
      lad, young man (teenager).          í'ké n. (plural m'kx)
      saurayi.                               small outlet. matsassen
c'kæmpá n.                                   mafita.
      1) handsome(ness). tsinkeke.        ké d'gwê n. (plural kx d'gwxnx)
       Wa kempa unl ci c'kempa.             Can Rat, Cutting Grass or Grass-
      That young lad is handsome.            cutter; a rodent which cuts grass
      2) teenage years. kyakkyawa.           as a characteristic habit. wani
      Variant: c'kemha.                      irin kusu. Thryonomys
kæmpá hélkò n.                               swinderianus.
   kind of tree. wani irin                ù'kêcê n.
   itace.                                    parenthesis, brackets, commas,
d'kçmprà n. (plural c'kempra)                dashes within sentences;
   kapok, stuffing inside the pod, e.g.      punctuation used to mark off self-
   of white silk cotton tree. rimi,          contained extra information in a
   kwasfa, ko gida. See: nàkò.               sentence. keèe magana.
kenges = kangas.                          kécê v. (past kxcxkx)
                                             weed around the stalks, lightly
kæránkà  v.                      hoe around crops. noma ka
   set out. hurce, aggai.                     kebe, burburta, noma
kærànná = hwindi.                             gewaye da.
kærämkærmò adj.                           kédé v. (past kxdkx, active noun
   sporadically, sprouted here and           u'kxdo)
   there. bani kai, ba'ra                    pour, tilt, turn down sth, e.g. pour
   ba'ra.                                    onto or into another container.
                                             jirkice, zuba.
kæræ n. (plural s'kere)
   the tree Prosopis oblonga used         kxdkxdx = k[dk[d[.
   for charcoal. ìirya.                   d'kéx n. (plural c'kxx)
kçrmà v. (past kerqmka)                      1) opportunity. zarafi.
   pierce all over. huhhuda.                 2) place. wuri. Variant: d'baa
                                             (Senchi).
kæsà v. (past keska)
   pierce open, e.g. a boil with pus in   k'kêxjí n.
   it to release it. èare,                    cage. keji. From: Hausa, from
   karmatse.                                  English.
d'kæzá n.                                 s'kéxkdo an.
      unhafted, a hoe, axe, knife etc.        cackling of hen before laying
      without a handle or haft.               eggs. kyarkyara.
      famfariya.                          k'kêxkê n.
d'kæzná n.                                    assumption, doubt. ìaddara,
   blade, a tool without a handle.            þauka cewa.
   rashin mariìi.                         kêxké v.
ké v. (past kxxkx)                            falsely accuse, frame. ìallafa.
   separate, slit, cut a long narrow      c'kéxkò an.
   incision. yanka.                           segregate, discriminate. ìece,
                                              raberabe. Variant: c'kwæsá.


138
v'kéxrò                                                                     kénbé
v'kéxrò n. (plural s'kxxro)                    d'kémcnç n.
   stripe. ratsi, zane.                            getting on well together. halin
kêxsé v. (past kxxskx)                             zaman jin daþi, mai
   understand. fahinta, gane,                      kyau.
   fahimta.                                    kêmç n.
kéxv id.                                           harvest, reap. girbi.
     straight, standing erect, propped         d'kémê n.
     up, tall. tsap, tsar. Variant:               1) very good, in the best of states,
     kxxvkxxvx.                                   the best of conditions. kyau,
kêgê1 adv.                                        daþi, jin daþi.
   really! it's the truth! existing in fact.      2) sweetness. zaìi.
   gaskiya na anihi.                           v'kémê n. (plural s'kxmx)
kégé2 n. (plural kxgnx)                           equal (in age and social standing).
   stork, Abdim's white-bellied stork.            tsaran juna.
   shamuwa. Sphenorynchus abdimii.             s'kémé adv.
kxgxt = k[g[t.                                    spot where cutting has been done
                                                  with an axe, hoe, cutlass, etc.
kégrú adj.                                        sara.
     short, small. cigul, tsugu.
                                               kémênké  vt.
kék id.                                           hack. kafta.
   tenacious, firm grip.
   katakankan. See: ba.                          kémêské v.
                                                   hack oneself. kafta wa kai.
kékdê v. (past kxkqdkx, active noun            d'kêmêrà n.
   ù'kçkdó)
   divide into pieces, chop up.                    camera. abin þaukar hoto,
   kacancana, guggunta.                            kyamara. From: English.
kêkêdkêkêd v.                                  kémgê v. (past kxmgkx)
   cackling. kyarkyarkyar.                         weed for the last time before
                                                   harvest. yi sassara.
kéklê vi. (past kékälké)
   laugh. yi shewa.                              c'kémgò n.
                                                   final weeding (before harvest).
  c'kéklê n.                                       sassarya, bangaje.
   1) the loud laughter of women.
   shewa.                                      kémgtç v. (past kxmgtke)
   2) dawdling, dilly-dallying, shilly-            be disgusted, begrudge, show
   shallying, wasting time.                        dissatisfaction of someone's
   ìuminiya, muìwiniya.                            action. ìyama.
kélfê n. (plural kxlfnx)                       d'kémnênné n.
   gazelle. barewa. Gazella                        nice, sweet, good. daþi. Variant:
   procapra. Variant: kélpê.                       d'kxmqnne.
kélféx adj.                                      à d'kémnênné ad phrase.
   light (in weight), not heavy. þaga              nicely, well. da kyau.
   abu marar nauyi.
kélpê = kélfê.                                 d'kêmpê n. (plural c'kêmpê)
                                                   underpants, underwear. bante.
kxm = kam.                                         See: d'béntê.
kémád'páskà adj.
     enjoyment, good, very much. da
     kyau dayawa.

                                                                                     139
kénbé                                                                kxrkxrx
kénbé n. (plural s'kxnbx)                  d'kéngê  n. (plural
      the palm Raphia vinifera.                c'kxngx)
      gwangwala. Raphia vinifera (or           fallow field, a piece of farming
      sudanica).                               land left to rest. saura.
  v'kénbé n. (plural s'kxnbx)                k'kéngê  n.
      midrib of raphia used                    virgin farm land. madawaci. See:
      for roofing and canoe                    k'usu.
      poles (paddles).                     v'kêngnî  n.
      gwangwala,                               (plural s'kxngni)
      tukurwa.                                 sound of zqri rings being rung.
k'kéné n. (plural c'kxnx)                      gwarjen shela. See: zqri.
      1) feather. gashi.                  kêngrêm = kangram.
      Kxnk horanga ta ca                   kép yõgò n.
      kxnk zimina da. The                     moustache. gashin baki.
      crane bird's feathers are not           Variant: u'gxtx.
      as large as ostrich ones.            à'képälké adj. (plural
      2) wool. ulu.                           c'kxpqlkx; s'kxpqlkx)
      3) body hair. gashi.                    many in number, numerous. suna
v'kéné n.                                     da yawa. See: pxtqlkx.
      persistent ill luck, kêng            képé v. (past kxpkx, active noun
        id.                            u'kxpo)
      1) really, undoubtedly, definitely      1) start grinding. soma
      so. tabbatace, babu                     èarzawa.
      shakka.                                 2) trim, start to shave around the
      2) sound of iron when struck once.      edge of the hair. soma askewa.
                                           ù'képé n.
                                               smell of donkey meat. wani
                                               irin ìarni.
                                           képêské v.
                                              exceed, more than it should have
                                              been. fiye.
                                           s'kêpó n. (plural s'kxp s'kxpo)
                                              layered, stepped, built up piece by
                                              piece with overlapping layers.
                                              matakala, mataki.
                                           kxpre kxpre = kapre kapre.
                                           kérê v.
                                               add, gather (more) fuel. hasa.
                                               Variant: kxtx1.
                                           kêrêmkêrêm adv.
                                               jingling sound made by bells tied
                                               to the ankles of dancers.
                                               ìoroso, koroso. See:
                                               karamkaram.
                                           kêrêrê id.
                                              thin and watery. ruwa-ruwa.
                                           kxrkxrx = karkara.


140
v'késtú                                     kêtämsæ
v'késtú n. (plural s'kxstu)
    fire-lighter, steel for flint tinder.
    masaèi.




                                                 141
kêtämsæ                                                               kímísî
kêtämsæ v. (past kxtqmskx)               d'kígbù n. (plural c'kigbu)
      distract, flummox. þauke               sth kept for future use, stash,
      hankalin w.                            provisions. ajiya.
kxtx1 = kxrx.                            kíkàa v.
kété2 n. (plural s'kxtx)                     lift up sth. þaukan abu sana.
      stalk of a pumpkin. tsiron           kíkàa id.
      kabewa. Cucurbita.                     sth raised up unexpectedly in the
kétêké v.                                    air and moving slowly along.
      hem in, surround, gang up              Variant: kikkaa.
      against. gewaya, kewaya,           kîkã v. (past kikkq)
      ritsa.                                 tap, hit (of a bundle of sth on the
kåu id.                                      ground, to even up the ends).
      examined minutely.                     kwakkwafa.
      ìalailaice.                        d'kíkã n. (plural c'kikq)
kêzêp adv.                                   stump, corn root left in the ground
      healthy, lively. wani irin             after reaping. tushiya.
      lafiya. See: kazap.                  k'kíkã n. (plural c'kikq)
kîbís v.                                     stubble. tushiya ta girbi.
   meet sb unexpectedly. cuèus.          d'kíkí n.
kîckélé n. (plural s'kickxlx)                plaited or woven grass hat.
   kind of tree. wani irin                   malafa.
   itace.
                                         kikkaa id. = kikaa.
kíckîlní v.
      turn sth inside out. bullashe,     v'kílómçtà n.
      birkice.                               kilometre. kilomita, kilo.
                                             From: English.
m'kídí n.
      bent over, bowed down head.        kímä v. (past kimkq)
      kai duke.                              pound, strike pestle on corn
                                             during pounding. jinþa,
kídíp id.                                    jibda.
   bending a part of the body down.
   duke.                                 k'kímã n.
                                             dirt, anything not clean; meddling
kídísî v. (past kidiski)                     in dirt; clumsiness. ìazanta.
   bend down (head). duìa da
   kai.                                  v'kímã n. (plural s'kimq)
kídkídí id.                                  hall of fame, customary ceremony
      1) struggling with difficulties.       displayed or celebrated. al'ada.
      fama, gwagwarmaya.                 kímãsä v. (past kimqskq)
      2) busy doing sth. shagala da,         settle in, cool down, gather self
      yi þawainiya.                          together. huce.
      3) = k[dk[d[.
                                         kîmbítí n. (plural kimbitni)
kídõ[ id.                                    kind of fish. mari, ramboshi.
   horse or donkey standing with
   sad, drooping ears. langaèe.          kímísî v. (past kimiski)
                                             make up one's mind, smarten up,
kígä v. (past kigkq)                         wise up in sth one is doing. mai
   keep down, put down. ajiya.               da hankali.
   Variant: kinq, kinkq.


142
k'kímksã                                                              kîtkîtî
k'kímksã n. (plural c'kimksq)             kípî ad.
    one storage area inside the               a fool, foolish, nitwit, nincompoop.
    women's outdoor granary.                  dolo, wawa.
    rumbun mata.  Netan el ta              m'kípî n.
    kin c'hono qn k'kimksq.                   fool, dull, stupid person.
    Women keep calabashes in this inner       wawanci, wauta,
    segment of the outdoor granary. See       daìiìanci. Variant: m'ormo;
    picture for: bxd c'neta.                  kämpä.
s'kímksí n.                               kípríkíprí id.
    stamping of foot on ground.               great struggling with a task, strife.
    tattakawa.                                gumurzum, dabul-dabul.
kîmlíkîmlí id.                            kíràa id.
   heavy steps taken, stamping,              suddenly struck and blown into
   stepping heavily on the ground.           the air (e.g. dust, fluff or blossom).
kínã v. (past kinkq) = kigq.                 buya.
d'kínbù n. (plural c'kinbu)               kîrämsã v. (past kirqmski)
   supernatural thing. abu na                1) (do) intense work, busy oneself,
   gaibu.                                    as with many people pounding
kînd-dàptà n. (plural                        food. kowa na tayi.
   s'kînd-dàptà)                             2) fumigate, intensify make dense
   twining plant growing mostly near         smoke or smell. burara,
   streams or rivers.                        turnuka.
kîndí n.
    money. kuþi.
  kîndpùsínî n.
    cowrie shells. biringizau.
kîng  adv.
   tight, tightly (tied). tanke,
   dauri tamtam.
kíngrím  adj.                  kîrkîtîkàtàp id.
                                             drumming sound. ìarar
   massive, very broad (like stance          ganga.
   of elephant). doìoìo,
    fankameme, þokoko,                    v'kîrú n. (plural s'kiru)
    þokwarokwaro. Variant:                   kind of drum. wata irin
    kqngrqm; dingrim.                        ganga.
kínmãn làlkò v.                           kískísí id.
    promise, keep a promise.                  speckled, spotted. wake-wake.
    alkawari.                                 Variant: kyabkyaba.
kînt ù'cón v.                             kítîkí v.
    pay attention, heed, notice,              gang up, team up against sb.
    observe. ankara, birincin                 taramma.
    kula.                                 kîtîp adj.
kíntãm nù'cón adj.                            closely grown together. matsewa
   diligent, insisting on learning            wani iri.
   carefully and precisely. lura,         kîtkîtî id.
   sa kai wani iri.                           tittering, laughing in a silly way,
d'kîntù n. (plural c'kintu)                   giggling. kekkewa.
   heel. diddige.
                                                                                143
kîtkù                                                                   kógógó
kîtkù v.
      meet (at a place). same shi,
      ta.
d'kîtú n.
      stunted (of a plant or animal),
      dwarf. tsaurare.
                                            d'kòbó n.
kîvîvî id.                                   dive, result of falling into water.
   upside down, turning down edge            zurma.
   of sth. kalmasa.
                                          k'kòbó n. (plural c'kobo)
k'kîvrämã n. (plural c'kivrqmq)              bridle, a kind of bit for horses.
   gorge. kwazazzabo. See:                   èurmi, linzami.
   k'geva.
                                          d'kòbò n.
kívú v. (past kivku)                          gift given in return to sb who gave
   pour out (much). cafkata,                  one a gift when ill. tukuici.
   bunduma.
                                          kòbrò adv.
kó1 con.                                      meddlesomeness, intruding,
    or, if, even if, ever-. ko. From:         interfering. shisshigi.
    Hausa.
                                          c'kòbròn törö n.
kò2 n. (plural koono)                        collarbone or the hollow of the
    frog. kwaþo.                             neck above it. karan karma,
kóbà1 v. (past kobka)                        ìashin wuya.
    fall (down from a height). faþi.      kòbsá v. (past kóbskà)
  d'kòbá n.                                  wash body or sth else thoroughly,
      1) fall, act of falling down.          very well. wanke ya fita.
      faþuwa.                                Variant: kobske.
      2) suffering. wahala,               kòbtá v. (past kóbtkà)
      tagayyara.                             knock off from below, throw off
kòbà2 n.                                     (burden). kado. See: kobto.
      traditional Lelna period of         kóbtkæ v.
      mourning (for one relation of the      just miss sth (e.g. a meeting) or
      deceased). arja, bwani,                sb. yanzu-yanzu, kuru.
      takaba.                                Variant: koptke.
d'kòbà adj.                               kòbtó v. (past kóbtkò)
   foster. tallafi.                          throw sth down (from above).
kòbnòcó n. (plural kobnetna)                 kada. See: kobta.
   poor person. matalauci.                ù'kódkà n.
  c'kòbnòcó n.                               1) sharpen the grinding stone.
      poverty, being a poor person.          wasà.
      talauci.                               2) fully mature, grown up.
                                             balaga, ìosa.
s'kóbó n.
   second burial festivities,             v'kògà n. (plural s'koga)
   ceremony of the dead. makoki.             grave of a person who died of
                                             smallpox. kushewar agana.
kòbó v. (past kobko, koboko, active
   noun u'kobo)                           kogdop = kugdup.
   dive, fall into water. zurma,          kógógó id.
   tsinduma.                                  stuffed, pushed out, bulging out.
                                              ciki ya tura, kumbura.

144
k'kókärwá                                                                    d'kónó
k'kókärwá n. (plural c'kokqrwa)                   kõmî c'kómá n. (plural kõmmä
   egg shell. èamèaroki,                            c'kómá)
   kwasfa. Variant: k'kokkorwa.                     bangle, bracelet. muduwa,
k'kokkorwa = kokqrwa.                               ìarau. See: kõmî s'nà.
í'kòkló n. (plural m'koklo)                       kómá s'tõ n.
   gourd for dipping water out of a                 right hand (side). hannun dama.
   pot, cup. moþa. See: i'gwamba.                 kómá sùtù n.
kòknò n. (plural s'kokno)                           stinginess, stingy person, an
   physic nut. ci ni da zugu.                       insulting nickname given to
   Variant: r[ktk[; kopno.                          someone who shrinks back from
                                                    giving but expects others to give
k'kòkó n. (plural c'koko)                           to him. ìeìemuìe, þame-
   pod, outer covering, nut-shell,                  þame.
   peel, bark. kwasfa.
                                                v'kòmà n. (plural s'koma)
kòkò n. (plural s'koko)                             pubic hair. gashin tsuliya.
   elbow. gwiwar hannu.
                                                kómtà v. (past komtka)
d'kòktò n. (plural c'kokto)                         clench. dunìule.
   fragment of a calabash.
   sakaina.                                       d'kòmtà n. (plural c'komta)
                                                    fist. dantse, dunkulallen
kòktò d'rwîn n. (plural kokto                       hannu.
   c'rwin)
   kneecap. ìoìuwan gwiwa.                      kòná v. (past konka)
   Patella.                                         request, beg. roìa.
kòlá v.                                         kónämkà v. (active noun ù'kónmó)
    strike a flint, strike fire with a flint.       fall out (of teeth, leaves or
    ìyasta.                                         feathers). zuba, kaèe.
kólkà v.                                        kóndò n.
    strike. ìyasta.                                 outskirts, edge. a wajen,
                                                    karkara.  Tqm gwa biny qn
kólkóló1 ad.                                        kond k'seva. I will plant rice on the
    semi-bald, describing a person                  outskirts of a swamp.
    with little hair on their head.
    barbaro.                                    d'kòndò n.
                                                   shaved head (all hair removed).
kólkólò2 n. (plural kolkolno)                      ìundume.
    Grey Plantain-eater, or possibly
    the Senegal, long-tailed parakeet.          kóngómá  n. (plural
    tsirya. Crinifer piscator.                     kongomana)
                                                   old person or animal. tsofo,
  kolkol m[l[ n. (plural kolkol                    tsofuwa.
    m[ln[)
    Levaillant's Cuckoo. Clamator               kònkà  n. (plural
    levaillantii.                                  c'konka)
                                                   self-sown young guinea corn or
à'kómá n. (plural c'koma)                          other plants. hambama,
    hand, arm. hannu.                              karaèaèa.
  d'kómá n.                                     c'kónkónkò  adv.
    a handful of. cefana, jimka,                   loose-handled, handle falling off,
    dintsa.                                        unhafting. kwaèiya.
                                                c'kónkónò  an.
                                                   become loose (of handle).
                                                   famfariya.
                                                                                     145
d'kónó                                       s'kòonó
d'kónó n.
      teething, falling out of milk-teeth.
      famfara.
kóofî n.
   spell-casting, feeling of helpless
   fear from magic. ìwaffi.
kòoká n. (plural s'kooka)
   acacia tree. gawo, kawo. Acacia
   albida.
c'kóolò n. (plural koolno)
   warrior, someone who caught and
   sold slaves. wanda ya sai da
   bayi.
kòoncç n.
      'tree frog', a type of bat. biri-
      biri, kwaþon itace.




146
s'kòonó                                                              köböt
s'kòonó v.                             kòsmàhyùn n. (plural
   consider, ponder on sth, think          s'kosmahyun)
   continuously on a matter.               frankincense tree. hanu. Boswellia
   luraddadi.                              dalzielli.
kòorò n. (plural s'kooro)              c'kòsmò an.
   stream. rafi.                           smell (perceive). sansana.
kòpà v. (past kopka)                   kòsó n.
   tie, sew loosely at the end, base       smell, odour. hancini, ìari,
   or sides. þinkan gefe, kusa             ìanshi.
   da karshe.                          kótá-bîibí n.
kópé adv.                                  kind of soft shiny, pliable and
   anywhere, everywhere. ko ina.           maleable, light-grey metal.
kopno1 = kokno.                        kóupê wã pro.
kòpnò2 v. (past kopqnka, active noun       any. wani.
   c'kòpnò)                            kªus'lébé n.
   set out, get ready. shiri.              impatience. harzuìa.
kóptkæ v.                              kówé pro.
   1) risk. ìuru, kasada.                  everyone, anyone. dukan
   2) (just) miss meeting sb or sth.       kowa, kowa da kowa.
   þaro. See: kobtke.                  kóyé pro.
kòräd wçn n. (plural korsqcwen)            anything or everything. kowane
   bridge of nose. karan hanci.            abu.
kòrändömö n. (plural korqnd[mn[)         kóyé dàvà adv.
   snail. dodon koþi.                      always, whenever, any time.
c'kórfá n.                                 jiddin.
    'pattens' - high wooden heels        kóyé hwçdà adv.
    worn during the rainy season.          every day. kowace rana.
    kwarakwa.                          kõ1 n. (plural s'k[)
                                            karaya gum tree. kukkuki.
                                            Sterculia setigera.
                                       kõ v. (past k[[, active noun u'k[u)
                                          2

d'kórkórò n. (plural c'korkoro)             scrape. karta.
   nodule, length of cornstalk         kõblõ n. (plural s'k[bl[)
   between two joints. gaèa.                ebony tree. kanya. Diospyros
d'kòró n. (plural c'koro)                   mespiliformis.
   very hard stone for roughening        d'kõblõ n. (plural c'k[bl[)
   the surface of a grinding stone.         fruit of the ebony tree. kaiwa.
   makoþi.                             kõbö1 n. (plural k[bn[)
k'kòrò n. (plural c'koro)                   buffalo. èauna.
   river. rafi.                        kõbõ2 v. (past k[bk[)
kósá ad.                                    draw out a small amount of liquid.
    almost, nearly. kusan.  C emk          ìwarface.
    kosa c taaste. We are nearly
    finished. From: Hausa.
                                       köböt ad.
                                           dented in, hooked, curved or
kòsmá v. (past kosqmka)                    hollow in shape, like the face of a
    sniff, smell. sansana.                 monkey. abu lusasshe,
                                           gantsararre.
                                                                             147
ködgnö[                                                                 kõkkõ
ködgnö[ adv.                          k'kõgõ2 n. (plural c'k[g[)
      in an unbalanced, leaning,          cranium. ìoìon-kai.
      awkward manner. tsaye.
                                        kõgk d'hî n. (plural k[gc d'hi)
kõdkõdõ id.                               cranium. famfama, ìoìwan-
   slithery sound - made by a rat,        kai.
   lizard or person by touching sth
   repeatedly. wani irin motsi.       kõgõgõ id.
   Variant: kadkada; kxdkxdx;             rumble, rattle; sound caused by
   kidkidi; kudkudu.                      two things rubbing together.
                                          cida, jin motsi. See:
kõdõ v. (past k[d[nk[)                    kugugu.
   rap hard on a child's head with
   your knuckles. dangwara.           kõgõt id.
kõdõ[ v.                                  resonating sound of sth being
      droop. logwaf.                      scooped hard, the vowels and
                                          tone varying depending on the
ködöp ad.                                 distance from the sound. wani
   with a low forehead, head bent         irin motsi. Variant: kagat;
   forwards and down, furrowed-           kxgxt; kugut.
   brows. agammu, kuþuf.
   Variant: kudup.                    kögröp = k[g[t.
k[d[s = k[d[t.                        kõhön id.
kõdõsõ v. (past k[d[sk[)                  sound of hard cough. wani
   bend. tanìwara.                        irin motsi. Variant: kuhun;
                                          kwxhen.
k[d[t = k[b[t.
                                      kõin adv id.
ködrîi adv.                               lying flat. miìe.
      awkwardly. yadda tsayuwar
      abu yake.                       kök id.
köf id.                                   'plop'. wani irin faþuwa.
   astride - with one leg on either       Variant: kak1; kuk.
   side. zaman a ware ìafa.           kõk id.
   Variant: k[f[d; kwxf.                  thud - sound of something falling
k[f[d = k[f.                              nearby. wani irin motsi.
kõgärkõ v. (active noun u'k[gqrk[)    kõkälkõ v.
   mature, grow up, become fully          endure (through pain), persevere.
   grown. riìa, ginshike,                 jimiri.
   gwayyo. See: sõ[kö.                kõkcò v.
k'kögõ1 n. (plural k[gn[)                 1) plaster, smooth. kwashewa
   tribe of Hausa (or Fulani).            da wankewa.
   kabilan Hausa. See: c'gánà             2) scrape pot clean after cooking
   'Hausa language'.                      mush food. kwashewa da
kõgõ n.                                   wankewa.
      sheabutter nut seed. ìwara.     ù'kõkkö n.
ù'kõgõ n.                                 dullish brown or red in colour (of
   'the back of beyond'; an               weather), a sign in the clouds that
   unspecified far-off land. ìasa         rain will soon come. sararin
   mai nisa.                              wama wani iri.
v'kõgõ n. (plural k[g[)                 dwak u'k[k[ v phrase.
   sheanut. ìwara.                        it looks like it will rain.


148
kõkkõ                                                                  k'kõmõ
kõkkõ n. (plural k[kn[)                    kõlõ2 n. (plural c'k[l[)
    kind of spiky finned fish. ìaraye.         tale. tatsuniya.
kökköbí n.                                 kölöndí n.
    very serious recent disease that           liar. gillau.
    attacks babies, affecting the skin     ù'kõlösõ n.
    and causing some internal                  serving, horse-breeding,
    damage. gojinjima.                         stimulating the mating of stallion
kõkkõrîrîkõ id.                                and mare. baye.
   sound made by cockerel (rooster)        költkõ v.
   crowing - 'cock-a-doodle-do'.              scoop. ìwalkwala wani iri.
   ìaìarako. Variant: k[kk[r[[t.
                                           kõltö v. (past k[ltk[)
k[kk[r[[t = k[kk[ririk[.                      hook up. sarìafa. See: sqbtq.
m'kõkö n.                                  kõmgnõ n. (plural s'k[mgn[)
   camwood. majigi.                           white silk cotton tree. rimi. Ceiba
kõkö1 v. (past k[kk[, active noun             pentandra. See: nako; d'kempra.
   c'kõkõ)                                 k[mi c'koma See: a'koma.
   1) sharpen. wasà, ìaifafa.
   2) carve, decorate or mend              kõmkõmõ adv.
   calabash. gyatta.                           feverishly, in a fever. zazzaèi.
kõkõ2 n. (plural k[kn[; k[k[n[)            kõmnú còpó n.
   spotted syondont catfish.                  low-growing herb with bitter
   ìurungu, ìaraya. Synodontis.               leaves like the mahogany. ganye
                                              irin na magani. Variant:
kökrö n.                                      k[mnu-coho.
   disease that kills birds. ciwon
   kaji.                                   kõmõ n. (plural s'k[m[)
                                              African mahogany tree. maþaci.
kõkù hyàmà n. (plural k[ku                    Khaya senegalensis.
   hyamna)
   kind of lizard. kandangare              d'kõmõ n.
   wani iri.                                  spotted blind snake, supposed to
                                              be an unnatural, amazingly
í'kõlç n.                                     poisonous snake. wani irin
    copulation (by animals).                  maciji. Typhlops punctatus.
    barbara, baye.
                                           k'kõmõ n. (plural c'k[m[)
m'kõlgò n.                                    metal rod; piece of iron, steel or
    twigs, kindling for lighting fire.        other metal. ìarfe.
    makamashi, buyagi. Variant:
    m'k[lg[.
  v'kõlgõ n. (plural s'k[lg[)
    twig, small stick used for firewood.
    bubu, buyagi, ìirare,
    marabe.
kõlîlî n. (plural s'k[lili)
    kind of tree. wani irin
    itace.
kölkõ v.
   dip out, scoop out. ìwarface.
kölö1 n. (plural c'k[l[)
   lie, tendency to lie. ìarya.

                                                                               149
ù'kõmõ                                                               kõngö
                                           kõmî s'ná n. (plural kõmmä
                                             s'ná)
                                             anklet. munduwan ìafa.
                                         v'kõmõ n. (plural s'k[m[)
                                             metal wire, a strand of metal.
                                             ìyestu.
                                           kõmvãn hwælá n. (plural k[msqn
                                             hwela)
                                             flint, piece of steel used for
                                             lighting fire along with a strong
                                             flintstone. ìyastu.




  kõmk gyözknç n. (plural k[mc
    gy[zcne)
    copper, bronze. tagulla,
    janìarfe.
  kõmk púsknî n. (plural k[mc            m'köndî n.
    puscni)                                  collection of smelly oil on the
    aluminium. farin ìarfe.                  body, especially women's private
                                             parts, a vaginal discharge. wata
ù'kõmõ n.                                    irin ruwan dauþa. See:
      1) large piece of metal. babban        m'kõ[.
      ìarfe.
      2) gong. kuge.                     köndkõ v.
                                             wind, become crooked or bent.
  k[mu-c'ganga                               bauþe, kantara,
        n.                 lanìwashe.
      metal instrument which fills out
      the sound of the drum. kuge.       s'kõndõköndõ v.
                                            go by roundabout route, go the
  kõmû-c'gõmõ n.                            long way. regargaþi.
   chief gong, a heavy iron
   instrument used to announce           d'kõnæ n. (plural c'k[ne)
   important events                         hump. tozo.
   related to the village                köng dwàac'yà
   head. kuge.                                n. (plural
í'kõmõ n. (plural                           k[ngn[)
   m'kõmõ)                                  kind of small grasshopper. wata
   1) small piece of iron                   irin fara.
   or other metal.                       kõngî  n. (plural
   gutsuren ìarfe.                          k[ngini)
   2) bangle.                               adult. cikakken mutum.
    munduwa,                             köngõ1  v. (past k[ngk[)
    warwaro.                                separate out. ware.
  kõmî c'kómá n.                         kõngö2  n. (plural k[ngn[)
      (plural k[mm                          kind of grasshopper. wata irin
      c'koma)                               fara.
      bracelet, arm bangle.
      munduwan hannu.
150
kõnkäd yáakí                          könkö tõrö
kõnkäd yáakí
     adv.
   (of arrow) shooting straight up.
   harbi sama.
d'könkö  n. (plural
   c'k[nk[)
   vagina. èakwato, farji,
   gato.




                                              151
könkö tõrö                                                               k[r[p
könkö tõrö  n.              v'kö[ n. (plural s'k[[)
   castor oil plant. zurma,                    narrow strip of land that is being
   babule.                                     weeded, especially the one
                                               nearest to the edge of the field.
kõnkõnõ  adv.                      gefe.
   state of being soaked with sweat.
   nashi-nashi.                            kõ[ v.
                                               scrape. kankare, karta.
kõnlö excl.                                    Variant: k[; kwxxlx.
      sorry! what a pity! word of
      sympathy to sb who has               c'kõ[ adv.
      accidentally been hurt. jejeto,         at slightest pain or inconvenience
      sannu.                                  (of fussing). lambo.
könlskõ v.                                 kö[cò n. (plural s'k[[co)
   sympathise. jejeto. See:                   curved iron scraper esp. for
   k[nls[.                                    scraping pulp off gourds.
                                              mahuri, daga-daga.
d'könlsõ n. (plural c'k[nls[)
   word of sympathy, comfort or            kõ[dkö v.
   condolence. jejeto,                        suffer or wait a long time. ka
   ta'aziya.                                  jira wani iri.
kõntî n.                                   kö[sæ v. (past k[[ske)
      kind of bean with curly pod.            graze, scratch (esp. skin). karce.
      kanannaþo.                             d'kö[sæ n.
köntkõ v.                                     graze, scratch. dauje.
   swerve, twist. karkata,                 d'kö[tãmkö n. (plural
   bakata.                                    c'k[[tqmk[)
d'kõntõ1 n. (plural c'k[nt[)                  hoof. kofato.
   hooked stick or cudgel. sanda           Ù'Kõ[tõ n.
   kartkatace.                                 large area of stretch of land
d'kõntõ2 n. (plural                            belonging to Rikoto people.
   c'k[nt[)                                kõpkõpõ adv.
   curvature, circle.                          messy. dagaje, dagajamba.
   magantsari.                             c'köptö n.
köntötõrö n.                                   dirt. ìazanta, dauþa,
   kind of herb, hairy                         datti.
   thorn apple.                            köptskõ v.
   babajuji. Datura                           make sth (esp. body) messy by
   metel.                                     covering with sth like mud or
kõntsö v. (past k[ntsk[)                      soup. hurtutu.
   bend. lanìwasa.                         d'körítí n. (plural c'k[riti)
kõnyö n. (plural                              part of animal's leg above the
   s'k[ny[)                                   hoof (of animal that chews cud:
   physic nut. ci ni da                       cow, goat, sheep, donkeyÉ).
   zugu.                                       ìafar dabba wanda ya
m'kö[ n.                                       kumshi kofato.
      putrified, slimy, dirty and smelly   körkötõ n. (plural k[rk[tn[)
      partially-decomposed tissue from        louse (esp. Suckling louse).
      a dead animal. ruèe mai                 ìwarìwata. Siphunculata.
      ruwan wari.                          k[r[p = kurup.

152
k'körörö                                                                        kùk
k'körörö n. (plural c'k[r[r[)                   kúdòndõ n.
   sweet-smelling flower of baobab                 kind of bedroom. þakin barci.
   tree. kumbali.                               kúdõ n. (plural s'kud[)
kösmõ v. (past k[sqmk[)                            all trees of the Strychnos species,
   pluck or snatch away. fiffiga.                  esp. Strychnos spinosa. ìoìiya.
kõsö1 v. (past köskõ, active noun                  Strychnos spp.
   u'k[s[)                                      kùdú v. (past kudku)
   snatch. fance, cizga.                           bend over. duka.
kõsö2 v. (past köskõ)                           v'kùdú n. (plural s'kudu)
   short dry spell during the rainy                scar (plural esp. smallpox).
   season. bushi.                                  adabali, tabo, araha.
kõtõ v. (past k[tk[)                            kúdúp ad.
   sin, offend, make a mistake. yin                with a low forehead, head bent
    laifi wani iri, èata,                          forwards and down, furrowed-
    kuskure, aikata laifi.                         brows. kuþuf, agammu.
d'kõzö n. (plural c'k[z[)                          Variant: kudus; k[d[s; k[d[p.
    wrist. wuyan hannu.                            From: Hausa.
kõzõzõ adv.                                     kudus = kudup.
    walking as if not feeling well.             kùgädgúpù n. (plural
    sukuku.                                        kugqdgupunu)
Krïsmætí n.                                        alternative name for tadpole.
    Christmas. Kirsimati. From:                    talibambam.
    English.                                    kùgdùp id.
kú id.                                             sound made when a heavy thing
   at rock bottom level. intaha.                   is dropped on the ground. wani
                                                   irin motsi. Variant: kagdap;
kúbgù v. (past kubgku)                             kogdop.
   turn over. kife.
                                                kùgrú n. (plural kugrunu)
ù'kùbú n.                                          kind of very large, edible water
    the deepest part of a lake or river.           beetle. wani irin babban
    wuri mai zurfi a cikin                         ìwaron cikin ruwa.
    ruwa.  Cwiim sipk [m[ u
    cetk u'kubu. A crocodile caught a           kùgtkú v.
    dog and dragged it to the deepest part of       kneel. diddiìa, gurfana.
    the river.                                  kùgú v.
kùbù n. (plural s'kubu)                             bend down. tanìwara,
    baobab tree. kukà. Adansonia                    lanìwasa, þoìoìo.
    digitata.                                   kùgùgù id.
  k'kùbù n. (plural c'kubu)                        rumbling sound. motsi kamar
    baobab fruit. ìwame.                           cida. Variant: kagaga; k[g[g[.
c'kùcbù an.                                     kugut = k[g[t.
   crawl. rarrafe.                              kuhun = k[h[n.
kùdkcú v. (past kudkcku)                        kùk id.
   work hard, press on. masa dai.                   sound of knocking, possibly using
kúdkù v.                                            a stone, or bashing one's head
   be bowed down (usually with                      against a wall. ìwanìwasawa
   age). ìobara, ìobobo.                            wani iri. Variant: kak1; k[k.
kudkudu = k[dk[d[.
                                                                                  153
kùkãbsä                                                              d'kùngù
kùkãbsä v. (past kukqbskq)                kùlù3 n. (plural s'kulu)
   trim. dalaya, shirya,                      cow-itch; the climbing plant
   fera.                                      Mucana pruriensis. karara.
v'kùkbù n. (plural c'kukbu)                   Mucuna pruriens.
   finger- or toe-nail (human); claw      m'kùlù4 vn.
   (animal); talon (bird). ìumba,            1) clearing, preparing virgin land
   farce.                                    for building a farm. sassabe,
kúkdú1 n.                                    sara sabon gona.
   small drum that goes with larger          2) kind of weeding used as
   one. kurkutu. See: d'kadga;               punishment where a person has
   kaala.                                    to work for many hours without
                                             straightening up. foro wuri
kùkdú2 v. (past kukqdku)                     noma.
   squeeze. kusa, matsa da
   karfi.                                 kúlú kõmõ n. (plural kulu k[mn[)
                                             edible frog that lives in the silt of
kùkkà kùkkà adv.                             drying out river-beds and has a
   (walking) slowly and                      huge leap. wani irin kwaþo.
   cumbersomely. dièi-dièi.               kùmä v. (past kumkq)
kùknú v. (past kukkqnkq)                     find or get sth from sb or
   shake mat or garment to get rid of        somewhere. samu, sami
   dust. kakkaèe, karkaþe.                   (+noun), same (+pro).
kùkùkù adv.                                 c'kúmú an.
      lower down. ìasa-ìasa.                  finding of sth sb else has lost.
kùlãq adv.                                    tsintuwa, cintuwa.
    in a stooping manner, hunched.          kùmù vi. (past kúmkù, active noun
    wani irin duìawa.                         u'kumu)
                                              1) become rich. arzuta, yi
d'kùlê n. (plural c'kulx)                     arziki.
    brain. kwanya. Variant: d'pulu.           2) find, get sth from sb. samu,
kùlísî v. (past kuliski, active noun          sami (+noun), same
    u'kulisi)                                 (+pro). See: kumq.
    collide, hit hard (esp. one's head    kúmbkúmbú adj.
    against sth). karo, ìume.                concave shape. gantsararre.
  d'kùlîsí n. (plural c'kulisi)           kúncù n. (plural s'kuncu)
    hitting of head against sth.             pestle.
    ìumewa.                                  taèarya.
kúltù v. (past kultku; kultkq)            kùngävyònvä
    knock. ìwanìwasa.                          
kúlú1 n. (plural c'kulu)                       n.
    brain. kwanya.                            sth wicked or
                                              dangerous.
kùlú2 vt. (past kulku, active noun            mugun abu.
    d'kulu)
    1) drive metal head of axe, hoe       k'kúngsæ
    (etc.) into handle. kwakkwafa.              
    2) stick in (e.g. arrow in target).        n. (plural
    tsira.                                    c'kungse)
                                              lower back.
                                              kwankwaso.
                                          d'kùngù
                                               

154
d'kúnkú                                  kúntõmõ
    n. (plural c'kungu)
   log, tree stump. gungume,
   kututture.
d'kúnkú  n. (plural
   c'kunku)
   1) potato. dankali.
   2) brick. tubali.
kùnkùnkú  adv.
    (carrying) on shoulders. þauka-
   wuya.
kùnkùnù  adv.
   dilute, mixed with plenty of water.
   durguèi, dagwalgwalo.




                                              155
kúntõmõ                                                                        kùuín
kúntõmõ n. (plural kunt[mn[)                    v'kúsà n. (plural s'kusa)
      fruitbat. jemage.                            nail (tool). ìusa. See: v'mõklõ.
  kúntõm-kwéngó n. (plural                         From: Hausa.
      kunt[m kwxngno)                           kùsî c'dón n. (plural kusqm
      kind of vampire bat, a very small            c'don)
      restless bat. wata irin                      brassiere, bra. rigan mama.
      yabirbira.                                kùsú v. (past kusku; kuskq)
  kúntõm-gyözó                                     leave some amount, do not use all
      red or brown bat, smaller than the           of sth. saura.
      black bats. wata irin                     d'kùsú1 n.
      yabirbira.                                    piece of cloth. zane.
  kúntõm-rîmú                                     í'kùsú n. (plural m'kusu)
   black bat, larger than others.                   man's gown. riga, taguwa.
   wani irin jemage.
                                                  k'kusu n.
k'kùntú n. (plural c'kuntu)                        wrapper worn by women. zane.
   blanket. kuntu, bargo.
kùpù v. (past kupkq; kupku)                     d'kùsù2 n. (plural c'kusu)
                                                   heap, pile. tari, tuli,
   trim. dalaya, fera.                              þimbi, jibgi, kumma-
d'kúrbõ n. (plural c'kurb[)                         kumma. Emphatic Plural:
   1) deep hollow between deep-set                  c'kùsù-c'kúsù.
   eyes. ganni, kwarmi.                         kút id.
   2) a hole thinly covered by a crust              'snap' - noise made by rope
   of earth. furum-furma,                           breaking. ìire. Variant: kat;
   hurunhurumi.  Qm purusku                        kqt; hyus.
      d'kurb[ baa nu'g[v[. I scraped
      open a thinly covered hole when hoeing.   kùtknú adv.
                                                   mixed together. garwaya.
kùrk s'tõ n. (plural kurc s't[)
      kitchen. þakin sanwa. See:                kùtksä v. (past kutkskq)
      u'sama 'general cooking place'.              mix together. hautsuna.
kûrkúkù n.                                      kùtkù v.
      prison. kurkuku. From: Hausa.                 put sth together to one side.
                                                    jibge.
kúrkúrú adj.
   sharp-looking (of sb with deep-set           d'kútù n.
   eyes). wuri-wuri.                               together. gamaþe.
kúrkútù n. (plural kurkutnu)                    í'kùtù n. (plural m'kutu)
   black biting ant.                               thigh. cinya, katara.
   ìwanìwanbishi.                               kùtùmbõ n.
k'kùrú n. (plural c'kuru)                           mixture of two soups, or mush
   room. þaki.                                      food and soup served in the one
                                                    bowl.
c'kúrùmbúsù n.
      chicken-pox. ìarimbau,                    kùu id.
      baìondauro.                                   rumble, growl (noise made by
                                                    stomach). cida, gunji.
kùrùp id.
      sound of sth heavy knocking               kùuín id.
      against a wall or the ground.                 rising and falling of muscle after it
      wani irin motsi. Variant:                     is pinched; children's play.
      karap; k[r[p.                                 tashi.

156
kùutkù                                                                k'kwágmà
kùutkù n. (plural kuutkunu)                  kwàalà n. (plural s'kwala)
    small lizard-eating bird of prey,           kind of hardwood tree - Burkea
    the name given from the call.               africana. makarfo. Burkea
    taya ni raino, taya ni                      africana.
    goyo. Kaupifalco monogrammicus.          kwáanà1 v. (past kwanka)
   See: pàa gòngò (same bird).                  tuck in, tie up garment (e.g.
kùutû v. (past kùutkû)                          loincloth), tying up the flapping
   smoke (of fire), smoulder,                   parts of clothing. sanìe.
   fumigate. ci sannu-sannu                  kwàanà2 n.
   ba harshe wuta.                              kind of sexually transmitted
  àm kûutkû n.                                  disease, syphilis, gonorrhea etc.
    blister which has collected pus             ciwon sanyi, tunjere.
    and congealed blood. wani                í'kwáanò n. (plural m'kwano)
    irin bororo.                                metal bowl, basin. kwano. From:
kùzãsä v. (past kùzäskã, active noun            Hausa.
    ù'kùzãsä)                                kwáasà v. (past kwáaskà)
    cancel a planned meeting, change            shave off all hair. ìundume. 
    or nullify. fasad da, daga.                  Tqm kwaasa d'kondo buku. I
kùzgnù n. (plural s'kuzgnu)                      will shave my head completely
    hunter's pepper; plant whose                 tomorrow.
    stalks are used for binding the            d'kwàasà n.
    frame of a grass roof. The shrub             kind of tradition practiced by Lelna
    also provides medicine for                   where all the hair is shaved off to
    scorpion bites. kwiwa, kimbar                end a period of mourning.
    maharba. Adenodolichos                       al'ada.
    paniculatus; Lantana salvifolia.
                                             kwád id.
kùzú v. (past kúzkù)                            stuffed. cushe. Variant: kwak.
    give up, disown, refuse to
    recognize or decide not to do sth        kwádämsæ v. (past kwadqmske)
    or go somewhere. fashi.                     smack. þaþa. Variant:
                                                kwatqmse, kwatqmske.
  kùzäsã v. (past kùzäskã)
    postpone, put off. þaga, fasa,           kwàgá = kwa3.
    sa a mala.                               k'kwágmà n. (plural c'kwagma)
  ù'kúzú n.
   renegade, deserter; sb who
   changes his mind. gudu daga,
   ya da.
kwa = kwan.
   1

kwà2 v. (past kwàgká)
   circumvent, go around. gewaya.
    A caav kwa lxvqn sxmx.
    When you go, you should go by the side
    of the hill. Variant: kwaga.
kwà3 v. (past kwàaká)
    1) skim off, cut, scrape, pare.
    yaþa, reþe.
    2) cut or trim the ends or
    unneeded parts. yanka.
kwàaká v.
                                                                                 157
c'kwàgmà                                                                     kwát
                                             v'kwàn-dökõ n. (plural
      1) cornstalk bed (sometimes used          s'kwan-d[k[)
      as fence). kwarfon kai,                   hair of horse's tail. izga,
      karaga.                                   tsagiya.
      2) skull, bony part of head. ìoìon     kwángà  v.
      kai.                                      sit astride or with legs open. ware
  ù'kwágmà                                      ìafa.
c'kwàgmà n.                                  kwángràm  adj.
      tattoo on temples. akanza.                1) bare, dry. bushe.
                                                2) sound of sth hard falling. karo.
kwàgràp id.
   sound of cornstalks rustling when         d'kwánknà  n.
   they fall down. kakas.                       provocative action. gangan.
kwak = kwad.                                 m'kwánknà 
                                                 adv.
kwàkà n. (plural s'kwaka)                       without having thought about the
   tree similar to a palm bearing               matter properly. rashin
   large hard edible pods. kwakwa.              saurara wa wani iri.
   Elaeis guineensis. Variant: kwakwa.       kwánkwá  n. (plural
   From: Hausa.                                 s'kwankwa)
kwakwa = kwaka.                                 small horn blown by hunters
d'kwálbá n. (plural c'kwalba)                   carrying bush meat. kobira,
   bottle. kwalaba. From: Hausa.                kwabira.
kwàn n.                                      k'kwánò n.
                                                pan. kwano. From: Hausa.
   'smut fungus' guinea corn.
   domana, burtuntuna.                       v'kwàntà n. (plural s'kwanta)
   Variant: kwa3.                               ring. zobe.
v'kwàn n. (plural s'kwan)                    kwàntàmç n. (plural kwantamne)
   1) hair from a cow or horse tail             chameleon. hawainiya,
   used to wisk away flies (a fly               hanwawa. Variant: kwxntxme.
   switch). izga.                            kwàp id.
   2) bow or string made from animal             drenched or soaked in liquid and
   hair for playing musical                      looking dirty. jiìa. Variant: kwxp.
   instruments. izga.  Akqn el ta           kwàpãrkwàprò adv.
      em c'moolo qn s'kwan. Children             hurriedly, without paying attention.
      make musical instruments with animal       rashin kasa hankali
      hair.                                      wurin yin abu, hamzari
kwándás adv.                                     wani iri.
   distinctly, clearly. tangaram,            kwàràp id.
   garai. See: kyandas.                         (double) sound of sth large falling
kwàndökõ n. (plural kand[kn[)                   down. gwaraf. See: kwxrxp.
   kind of snake. wani irin                  kwárämsæ v. (past kwarqmske,
   maciji.                                      active noun u'kwarqmse)
                                                chase a person or scare an
d'kwàndökõ n.                                   animal away. kadaka firgita
      special kind of sewing (of a              da.
      broken calabash). þinkin
      ìwarya wani iri, þinkin                kwármà v. (past kwarqmka)
      saarka basitsa.                           be scared away; become aware of
                                                sth bad or an arrangement to
                                                harm one. farga wani iri.

158
kwát                             k'kwàtæ
kwát id.
   very salty. þau.
kwatap = kwxtxp; kwitip.
kwatqmse v. (past kwatqmske) =
   kwadqmse.




                                      159
k'kwàtæ                                                                 kwãnbä
k'kwàtæ n.                                    d'kwãqgã n. (plural c'kwqqgq)
      box. akwati, sanþuki,                     one scoop of mush food. maran
      kwali. From: ?                            tuwo, malmala.
kwºu id.                                    c'kwãqgù n.
      crash - noise of sth falling and          traditional communal hoeing of
      breaking. motsin faþuwa                   certain areas to mark the end of
      wani iri.                                 the rainy season. noma wurin
                                                gado.
d'kwä n. (plural c'kwq)
      gourd, used to hold liquid such as    kwãqkã v.
      medicine. gora.                           1) become less dark. waye.
                                                2) become dawn. gari ya
                                                waye.
                                            kwãqrí1 n.
                                               kind of tree that sprouts or grows
                                               new leaves during the dry season.
                                               gawo.
                                            kwãqrí2 n. (plural kwqqrni)
                                               kind of midge. Kwqqrqn el ta
                                                em c'sen h[d gwergwerne
                                                nu copo.
                                            kwãqsä v. (past kwäqskã)
                                                take off covering. þebe,
                                                lullubi.  Kwqqsq k'kusu,
                                                qv hav qv zola. Take off your
                                                wrapper, and go and have a bath.
                                            kwãqtí n. (plural kwqqtni)
                                               small kind of bat. jemage.
                                            kwäkä n. (plural s'kwqkq)
kwã v. (past kwäqkã)                           lower back - rear lumbar region.
      scrape or hoe up. bece,                  kwankwaso.
      farþa.                                kwäktäl id.
k'kwã n. (plural c'kwq)                         stuffed fat, thick-set. tubulluki.
      bark. èawo.                           kwãmbãm adv.
v'kwã n. (plural s'kwq)                         shaped like a low arch or dome.
      knee lock in wrestling. dabaran           kife.
      kokawa (katara).                      kwãnäbk-d'kàdæ n.
                                                malodorous wild lily shrub - kind
kwä wéxré n. (plural c'kwq                      of bush onion. albasar kuru.
      wxxrx)
      prickly kind of (self-sown) sorrel.   kwãnbä n. (plural s'kwqnbq)
      ìaiìayi kuwa, ramanniya.                  okra stalk. kuèewa.
      Hibiscus asper; Urena lobata.           d'kwãnbä n. (plural c'kwqnbq)
kwäqgã v. (past kwqqgkq, active noun            okra fruit. kuèewa.
      u'kwqqgu)                               kwãnäb-c'kwêxté
      dip out, scoop out, pour off small      kwãnäb-dêrê
      amount of sth, empty out.
      ìwarface, refata.                       kwãnäb-léndê
                                              kwãnäb-nùgwæsç

160
kwängä                                                               ù'kwærç
  kwãnäb-nùhólà                            kwægá v. (past kwegaka, active noun
kwängä  n. (plural                   m'kwega)
    c'kwqngq)                                  1) lay or make a fire. hura
    old or used loincloth. tsofon              wuta.
    walki.                                     2) take good care of sth. lura
                                               da.
kwärgkã adj.
    clean. waye. See: i'kwqqkq.            kwægbòo adv.
                                              crouching in readiness to act.
ù'kwärgú v.                                   takura, duìe.
   become clear after rain.
   daukewa.                                kwægnà v. (past kwegqnka)
                                              set, lay or make a fire (ready for
d'kwärîyá n. (plural s'kwqriya)               lighting). haþa wuta.
   = d'kwîryà.
                                           kwæmbnæ n. (plural kwembqnne)
d'kwäsä n. (plural c'kwqsq)                   kind of snake. wani irin
   bean cake. ìosai.                          maciji.
kwätämkã v.                                kwænárç n.
    crumble. marmashe.                        small shrub planted for its black or
kwätkã v. (past kwqtkkq)                      brownish seeds, which are eaten.
    knead a ball of sth. cura,             kwærá v. (past kweraka)
    dunìula.                                  end up (in sth happening).
  d'kwätkã n. (plural c'kwqtkq)               karkare da.
    1) dumplings, food kneaded into          d'kwærá n.
    small balls. dunìuli. Variant:             end, end of an act. ìarshen
    d'bõnkällõ (Ribah dialect).                abu.
    2) porridge or gruel made from
    these dumplings. tuwo.                 kwærcç n.
    3) a hard boil (often without any          act of poisoning or bewitching sb
    pus), common on animals from               by rubbing or eating sth, charm,
    injuries. maruru.                          spell. kwarce, sammu.
s'kwæbãlsæ v.                              ù'kwærç n.
    cleverly refuse an offer or                guinea corn pollen. bununi.
    invitation to do sth, dodge or avoid
    a responsibility. kauciya.
kwçbärskæ v.
   cleverly avoid or 'get out of' doing
   sth. ìin yin abu da wayo.
kwæbç n. (plural kwebne)
   ant-eater. dabugi, dabgi.
d'kwæcç n. (plural c'kwece)
   tuft. zanko.
kwæcnà n. (plural kwecqnna)
   carpet viper. gajere.
d'kwçedæ n. (plural c'kweede)
   lock, padlock. maìulli, kuba.




                                                                                161
kwçrgà                                                                    kwéxlò
kwçrgà n.                                     kwébê v. (past kwxbxkx)
   gravelly area. wurin dutse.                    scoop out a small amount.
kwærkwçrç n. (plural kwerkwerne)                  þibawa kaþan, kwarfata.
   kind of red tree-ant.                      d'kwéblê = d'kwxbl[.
   ìwanìwanbishi.                             d'kwébl÷ v.
kwærmà n. (plural kwerqmna)                      scoop out a large amount of soup
   smallest kind of mouse found in               with the mush food - 'using four
   Lelna areas, the Jumping Mouse.               finger to eat'. shan-miya.
   wani irin kusu. Rattus morio.                 Variant: d'kwxblx.
c'kwæsá an.                                   kwêdämsæ v. (past kwxdqmske)
      1) discriminate. nuna                      smack one's slips. þaþan baki.
      bambanci, wariya. Variant:              k'kwédê n.
      c'kxxko.                                   1) desire. marmari.
      2) example. misali.                        2) wait expectantly. saurara.
kwæsákà v.                                    kwédê1 v. (past kwxdxkx)
      alarm or show. nuna, gwada.                beg, desire to get sth from sth,
í kwæsákà v phrase.                              e.g. cadging a meal. kwaþai.
   index, sth that points or indicates.       kwédé2 n. (plural kwxdnx)
   ya nuna.                                      kind of rodent (mouse, rat etc.).
kwæzæ n. (plural kwezne)                         guddu.
   ground squirrel, or the lesser             kwédéx id.
   Bush Baby (Demidoff's Galago).                 sitting with a bent body for a long
   kurege, begwa. Variant:                        time. zama duke wuri þaya.
   kwæzç.
                                              kwédét id.
m'kwçzgà n.                                      hooked, with hooks.
      barren land or poor-quality farm           lanìwasasshe.
      land. hululuwa, shaèuwa.
                                              kwêdté v. (past kwxdtkx)
kwçzkwçzç adv.                                   scoop, dip out all. kwandahe.
      neatly arranged, clean.
      tsabtace.                               kwéx n. (plural kwxxnx)
                                                 morning dove. kurciyar jeji.
m'kwê n.                                         Streptopelia decipiens.
      1) act of walking stealthily to catch
      sth. sintiri, laèaèa, yi                kwéxdé v. (past kwxxdkx)
      sanþa.                                     repair well, finish sth off nicely.
      2) ambush, lying in wait to catch          mai arafici.
      sb. fako, haìo.                         k'kwéxlcó n.
  kwxkwxkwx id.                                  illness which makes a person
      walking stealthily to catch sth. yi        belch 'sourness' from his
      sanþa.                                     stomach.
kwê1 adv.                                     í'kwéxlcó n. (plural m'kwxxlco)
      all, completely, both. duka,               fragment of calabash used for
      rakaf, sarai, cif, gaba                    scooping mush out of a pot.
      þaya, kaf.                                 mara.  Ni kwxxlcqn nan [lk
                                                  tq d'ga. The mush food is dipped
kwé2 n.                                           out with a scooper.
      red/orange-bellied Senegal parrot.
      kalo.                                   kwxxlx v. (past kwxxlkx) = k[[.
                                              kwéxlê v. (past kwéxlkê)
                                                  scratch (sth). kwazura.

162
kwéxlò                                                               kwênté
kwéxlò id.                                 ù'kwêgdó v.
   dipping out mush food in                  squat. tsuguna.
   calabash-dipper-fuls. kwasa.          kwxhen = k[h[n.
kwéxlsç v. (past kwxxlske)               kwék id.
   scratch an itching place. sosa.          sound of sth dry falling on a hard
kwéxmsê v. (past kwxxmskx)                  surface. motsin faþuwa.
   move stealthily to catch sth, coax.   d'kwékkwédú n. (plural
   lallaèa.                                 c'kwxkkwxdu)
s'kwéxné n.                                 hammer. makoþi.
   kind of shrill song sung by girls.    kwéktê v. (past kwxktkx)
   murya mai karfi.                         start off, set off very suddenly or
kwêxtämkwé n. (plural                       quickly. nufa, dosa
   kwxxtqmkwxnx)                            kwatsam.
   Long-tailed Shrike. wani irin         í'kwélcó n. (plural s'kwxlco)
   tsuntsu. Corvinella corvina.             kind of spoon. cokali.
m'kwêxté n.                              kwélé n. (plural kwxlxnx)
    chaff, the dust which rises when        traditional distinctive marking
    winnowing. ìaiìayi, hanci.              below each eye carried out by
kwéxtê n.                                   Lelna. kwale.
   measles. dasusu, baìon                kwêlêjí n.
   dauro.                                   college. kwaleji, jami'a.
kwéxté rùsmú n. (plural                     From: English.
   s'kwxxtx rusmu) faskara               v'kwémbé n. (plural s'kwxmbx)
   toyi.                                    fish-hook. ìugiya. Variant:
kwéxtérùsmú n.                              v'kwxmbo.
    burr, seed case which sticks to      kwémbéxm id.
    animals' fur. ìarangiya.                lean-looking, thin and ill.
kwêxtké v.                                  ramamme wani iri.
    eagerly desire, have longing.        v'kwxmbo = v'kwxmbx.
    ìulafaci.
                                         k'kwén n. (plural c'kwxn)
  í'kwêxtké n.                              scabies, craw-craw. ìazwa,
   a felt urgent need for immediate         ìyambi.
   action on sth. þarara.
                                         d'kwêné n.
kwéxvé n. (plural s'kwxxvx)                  last bit of, end of. ìarshe.
   speed. sauri, gaggawa.
                                         kwénéné id.
kwêf id.                                    very prolific, producing much fruit.
   1) squatting position. tsuguno.          karankatsa.
   See: kwof.
   2) astride - with one leg on either   kwéng  id.
   side. zaman a ware ìafa.                 stench of a decaying corpse.
   See: k[f.                                þwai.
kwégdê v. (past kwxgqdkx)                kwéngó  n.
   squat (down). tsuguna.                   kind of bat. cibirbira.
  d'kwégdò n.                            kwêntê1 n.
    go to toilet, act of squatting and       chameleon. hawainiya,
    passing excrement. tsuguno.              hanwawa.


                                                                            163
kwênté                                                                     kwídî
kwênté2 v. (past kwxntkx)                    kwétép id.
      become tired of waiting or putting         drenched, looping very weak.
      hope on getting sth uncertain.             jikakke. Variant: kwatap;
      gaji dajira.                               kwxp.
kwéntéxm id.                                 kwêttú adj.
      very lean-looking. ramamme.                a little, small amount. kaþan. See:
kwép id.                                         cxttu.
      soggy, drenched, soaked.               kwåu id.
      jiìakke wani iri. Variant:                 sound of sth crushed.
      kwap.                                      rugurguje.
kwérép id.                                   kwéún id.
      sound of falling, usu. onto one's         sound of breaking wind. ìwi.
      hands and knees. gwaraf.               c'kwéz óopá num. (plural
      Variant: kwarap.                          s'zqngus ilq)
kwêrkwêrê adj.                                  two hundred (200). þari biyu.
      very small. kwiya kwiya,               d'kwézãn óopá num.
      muri-muri, miri-miri.                     thirty (30). talatin.
kwésäm tántánbãdã              n.            d'kwézé n. (plural c'kwxzx)
      cock pigeon. katutu.                      twenty. ashirin, ishirin.
kwésäm vãn hwící n.                          kwézkwézé id.
      (G[lm[) guide, leader. jagaba.             drizzling, showering. yayyafi.
  kwésäm vãn dímä n.                             See: kwizkwizi.
      leader in charge of the back line.     kwí adj.
      jagaba.                                   1) full of good resting shade.
  kwésäm vãn gõlmõ             n.               wuri mai inuwa.
      (general) G[lm[ team leader.              2) completely shut door. rufe
      jagaban kungiyar golmo.                   ìofa.
kwésbö v.                                    kwíbî n. (plural kwibni)
      swear. kuntu-billahi.                     orphan. maraya, katangala.
kwésé1 n.                                      m'kwíbî n.
   a special traditional reed-flute              being orphaned, orphanhood,
   used in the Lelna traditional                 being an orphan. maraici.
   religion. sheshe.                         m'kwíbî n.
kwésé2 n. (plural kwxsxnx)                       person with no visible means of
   friend. aboki, ìawa.                          support, and/or no relatives.
  c'kwésé n.                                     katangala.
    friendship. abota.                       kwícî v. (past kwiciki)
kwésmê n. (plural kwxsqmnx)                      throw sth into a pile, heap up.
      male friend of similar age.                zubshe.
      namiji.                                  d'kwícbí n. (plural c'kwicbi
kwêtämké v.                                      c'kwicbi)
      shrivel, cause sth to become dry           pile, heap, abundance. tuli.
      or curled. yi tamoji.                  kwîcîcî id.
c'kwétãmsé v.                                    small, very small, smallest.
      decorate, prepare. yi ado.  U             kutsitsi.
      emaka d[kqv-skom c'kwxtqmsx
      hwxdi. He has decorated his bicycle.

164
kwídî                                                                    kwísî
kwídî v. (past kwidiki)                  kwíntäd zõ[ræ n.
     stoop or bend (back) down to do         kind of rodent or mouse. kusu,
     sth. duìa.                              wani irin èera. Variant:
kwîdîrkí v.                                  hyanhyan risi.
     take care or, treat well (esp. of   kwîntskã v.
     hunting dog.). kiwo sosai.             squint, half-close. rintsa ido.
     Maase kwidirki [mqv ru. Mase             U kwinstkq isq kada hyond
     has treated his dog well.               uv u. He half-closed his eyes to stop
m'kwígcî n.                                  smoke from getting in them.
     leaves of the baobab tree. kukà.    kwîrämkã v.
kwîgîgî id.                                  subside. kwanta, sabe.
     puffiness, puffed up. hukuku.       c'kwîrî1 an.
kwígríi adv.                                 lower status. ìasìasta,
     crouching, skulking. duìu               ìasìasci.
     duìu, dudduìa.  Qm hxnko           c'kwírî2 n.
     noc o a pag kwigrii. I saw a            lamentable, serious in though,
     person crouched in hiding.  Qm         calm. koka, shiru, da
     hxnko hivi, u el                        sanyin rai.
     kwigri-kwigri                       d'kwírî n.
     ni'cumunkunnu. I saw a thief            blister preceding the issue of
     crouching away in the darkness.         guinea worm. hangara,
kwígríkwígrí adv.                            kumburin kuka.
   doubled over because of pain in       kwíríp id.
   the stomach. sanda-sanda.                 sudden descent into darkness.
d'kwíirù n. (plural c'kwiiru)                dakushe kwaram.
   1) yam-heap. tarin doya.              kwîrkwîrî id.
   2) heap of ploughed or hoed soil.         small and rounded. ìanìane
   bunga, tsibi.                             mulmulallu.
m'kwîn n.                                kwîrkwîryá n.
     powder, usu ground locust bean         fable, let's tell each other fables,
     tree pods. garin þorowa.               introduction to riddle or children's
     Variant: m'kwinkwin.                   game. gata nan gata nan,
kwíncí kwíncí id.                           taìanda.
   gathering, accumulating.              kwîrmã v. (past kwirqmkq)
   tattaruwa.                               go out, extinguish gradually.
kwîng  id.                          bice.
   1) quite replete, full, just right.   d'kwîryá n. (plural c'kwirya)
   daidai, tatil.                           the small helping drum,
   2) tightened hard (of a drum).           accompanying the larger drum.
   tam, kankan.                             kurkutu.
m'kwinkwin = m'kwin.                     kwísî v. (past kwisiki)
d'kwíntã n. (plural c'kwintq)               1) reduce, leave a remainder.
   hoe - general name for hoes              raga.
   made locally,                            2) forgive, pardon. gafarta.
   for weeding                             d'kwísî n.
   and other                                 leniency, pardoning, forgiveness.
   cultivation.                              afuwa, gafarta. See:
   fartanya.                                 d'kwizi.

                                                                               165
kwítíp                                                                       kyàs
kwítíp id.                               kyàiin adj.
      drenched. jiìa sosai. Variant:        dissension, noise made when two
      kwatap.                               or more people are in an uproar at
d'kwízî n.                                  a misunderstanding, confused
      changing one's decision.              disagreement. havgitsi.
      fasawa.                            kyáin id.
kwízkwízí v.                                roar, growl, bark, causing an
   drizzle, rain lightly. yayyafi.          uproar. ruri.
   Variant: kwxzkwxzx.                   kyák id.
kwof = kwxf.                                settled plonk! the sound of cutting
                                            hard wood with an axe. jirif.
kyá excl.
      okay, accepting eagerly.           kyàkòo ad.
      madalla.                              absent-mindedly, standing in a
                                            not-really-with-it manner. tsaye.
m'kyá n.
      locally-brewed beer. barasa,       kyàksàl id.
      giya, burkutu.                        expression of amazement at how
ù'kyáabá n.                                 thin and weak sth seems to be.
      rattle made with a calabash           tsayuwa ramamme.
      played to accompany a drum.        kyál id.
      cika saura, kacakaura.                spark, twinkle, glint of fire.
kyáabò v. (past kyaabka)                    ìyalli.
   sing in a group as a means of         kyándás id.
   encouragement. yi waìa                   clearly, without obstruction or
   tare.                                    difficulty. garai. Variant:
kyàaká v. (past kyaakka)                    kwandas.
   plan to divide sth. shirya            kyángá yògò 
   rabawa.                                  n. (plural kyanga yogno)
kyàaknà n.                                  male guinea fowl. namijin
      small guinea corn stalks or bean      zabo.
      plants which are poor, cut near    kyangas = kyadas.
      harvest-time for fodder.
      kakkarya.                          d'kyángnî  n.
kyàan id.                                   (plural c'kyangni)
   torn apart, ripping and tearing          circumcised penis. burar da
   sound. dar. Variant: pyàan.              aka yiwa kaciya.
ù'kyàankyáan             kyárát id.
      v.                                    (see) clearly, without obstruction
      act senselessly. mai shigar           or difficulty. gani sosai.
      hauka.                             kyárbát id.
kyàbkyàbà id.                               sudden entry, rushing or bumping
      speckled. dabbare-dabbare.            into sb or sth. shiga wani
      See: kiskisi; kebkebe.                iri. Variant: kyurbut.
kyádás id.
      clear. tangaram, ìarara,
      garai. Variant: kyangas.
i'kyagna = i'cagna.

166
kyàs                                                           ù'kyõksò
kyàs id.                                   kyõks rimuni (plural kyõksqn
   1) crash, as in the falling down of      rimane)
   an egg from on top of sth,               Death's head cockroach, a smelly
   crashing to the ground. ìarar            type of cockroach. kyankyaso.
   karo. Variant: ky[s.
   2) banging, piercing sound.
   buge-buge. See: ky[s.
kyát = ky[t.
kyàurà kyàurà id.
    trampling, stomping all over.
    tattakawa. Variant: kyaure
    kyaure; gxxge gxxge.
kyaure kyaure = kyaura
    kyaura.
kyã v. (past kyqqkq)
    press down. tausa, danna.
    Variant: kyqqgq, kyqqgkq.
  kyäqmsã v. (past kyqqmskq)
    press down deep. danna.
kyãqgä v. (past kyqqgkq, active noun
    u'kyqqgu)
    stuff sth in; use hands to press sth
    down. kimsa. See: kyq.
kyäqmsã v. (past kyqqmskq)
v'kyó n. (plural s'kyo)
    furrow, or ridge for planting crops.
    kunya.
kyòró v. (past kyòrókò)
    pierce, bore. huda.
d'kyòró n. (plural c'kyoro)
    unhafted, used (of a hoe or axe).
    kwance.
kyósó id.
    sudden unexpected meeting.
    èullo, kicièis,
    kutunguèus.
ky[ v. (past kyõ[kö)
    tangle, seize sth by force,
    catching and squeezing it.
    cikwikwiya.
kyökrönõ n.
   soup ingredient. kayan miya.
kyõksò n. (plural ky[ksno)
   cockroach. kyankyaso.
   Dictyoptera.




                                                                         167
ù'kyõksò                                                                  kyõtõ
ù'kyõksò n.                                   kyõrõrõ id.
      a disease like ringworm which             1) people or animals moving
      affects the skin. kyasfi,                 together in rows, trooping in.
      majau, maìero, kureci.                   ìungiya kan tafiya.
      Ky[kso el tu ryaa noc hyan                2) steady flow of a liquid.
      u'wxdx. Ringworm eats a person's          sarsar.
      skin.                                 kyõ[tö kyö[tö id.
kyõktö v. (past ky[ktk[)                       trotting walk, long staggering
      dig with a stick or hoe with             steps, staggering or swerving
      difficulty on the ground, pawing or      from side to side. wulle.
      scraping off hard ground. karta       kyõpò n. (plural c'ky[po)
      wani iri.                                eyebrow, eye lash or eye lids.
kyõm id.                                       dagarya, gira, karbu. See:
      sitting balanced. daram, zauna           u'gy[mbo.
      daidai, daèas.                        ù'kyõpò n.
kyõmpkyõmpò id.                                smithy - blacksmith's hut or
      floundering like a scatter-brain,        workshop. þakin ìira. Variant:
      acting senselessly. budum-               k'kyõpó.
      budum, buja-buja.                     kyörkrö n. (plural ky[kr[n[)
kyõmpskõ v.                                    fresh okra fruit cut into pieces and
   muddle up, mess up by hasty                 dried. busassar kubewa.
   action. burkuta, burkutu,                kyõs id.
   kirmitsa, karmatsa.                          1) crash. ìarar karo, ras.
kyömpsõ v. (past ky[mpsk[)                      See: kyas.
   botch some work, do a bad job of             2) piercing, banging sound.
   sth. jagwaggwaèa.                            huda, soka, tsone.
kyõncò n. (plural s'ky[nco)                 kyõskyõsõ id.
   shoulder. kafaþa.                           possessed by an evil spirit,
kyöntö n. (plural ky[ntn[)                     insane. juju. See: c[sc[s[.
   Broad-winged Katydid, a smelly           kyösmõ v. (past ky[sqmk[)
   green flying grasshopper with a             1) sway body when dancing.
   large abdomen, said to be                   rawar (da).
   poisonous. wani irin                        2) be a lout or fool. yi wauta,
   ìwaro, farar tumfafiya.                     susanci.
   Microcentrum rhombifolium.               ky[s[ v.
kyõ[kö v.                                       pierce, crack. huda.
   kick and squeeze. bangaza,               kyõt id.
   mangaza.                                     snap! twang! the sound of an
kyö[mõ n. (plural ky[[mn[)                      arrow being released from a bow
   sheep. tumaki, tunkiya,                      or something pinging like a string
   rago. Ovis. Variant: cö[m[.                  being cut. ìire. Variant: kyat;
v'kyõ[rò n.                                     kyut.
      (in a) row, line, lined up.           kyötmõ v.
      randam, jeri, layi,                       pinch, pluck, play instrument
      sahu.                                     pizzicato. buga, muntsuna,
                                                tsungula.
                                            kyõtõ v.
                                                pinch, pluck. kwantala. See:
                                                t[k[.
168
kyù                                                                           láabæ
kyù v. (past kyuuku)                             kyúrbút2 id.
      press down with a stick, dip a                  plop, sound of sth small and
      stick into. danna, tausa.                       round dropping into water. matsi
kyúk kyúk id.                                         wani iri, tsilluma.
   walking with heavy steps. tim                 kyúrmí id.
   tim.                                             sprout suddenly, grow and
kyùkrù n. (plural kyukqrnu)                         suddenly become large. gum,
   nitwit, stupid person. daìiìi,                   guma, gumfare.
   doshiro.                                      kyùrmù n. (plural kyurumnu)
                                                    deaf person. kurma.
  m'kyùkrù n.
      stupidity, foolishness.                      m'kyùrmù n.
      daìiìanci.                                    deafness (partial or full). kurma-
                                                    kurma.
kyùktú v. (past kyuktku)
      ram in repeatedly, pound (e.g.             d'kyùrú n. (plural c'kyuru)
      earth into hole). caccaka,                    1) club, cudgel; a heavy stick with
      tsattsaga. See: kyu.                          a thick end, staff. gulme,
                                                    gwami, kulki, gwalma.
kyúnksí  v. (past                        2) the capital to start up a
      kyunkski)                                     business. jalli.
      meet or come across sb or sth              kyúrúmkù v.
      suddenly. kacibis,                            become deaf. zama kurma.
      kutungubus.
                                                 kyut = ky[t.
d'kyúnksí  adv.
      very near. dunduèu.                        kyútúrkù v.
                                                      be stunted. tsaurare.
kyúnkùtù  n.                       kyúu1 id.
      (plural kyunkutnu)                              muddled, in confusion or uproar,
      leper, perhaps missing fingers or               the sound of much angry speech.
      toes. kuturu, daìasari.                         hargitse, èikince.
kyúntù v.                                        kyùu2 adv.
      coincide, stumble upon,                       suddenly (come up). rija.
      accidentally meet come across or
      find sb or sth unexpectedly. gamo          kyùulsî v. (past kyuulski)
      da katar kacibis.                             1) cause sb's downfall, waste sb's
                                                    time. èata lokaci.
d'kyúntù n.                                         2) distract, disrupt sb's work.
      heel. dunduniya.                              dulmuya.
kyúrämsí v. (past kyurqmski)                     kyùutî v. (past kyuutki, active noun
      fill up with, over stay, overdo sth.          kyuutu)
      gumre.                                        lean lightly on a stick. dogara,
                                                    dogare.
kyurbut1 = kyarbat.

                                       L     -    l

lá1 v.                                           là3 n.
      are. ne, ke.                                    1) stumble. yi tuntuèe.
là part.
  2                                                   2) mistake. kuskure.
      but, (used for emphasis). amma.

                                                                                    169
láabæ                                                                           làká
láabæ n. (plural laabene)                     làbá1 v. (past labka)
      kind of fish. baìin kifi.                   poison, apply poison to sth (e.g.
                                                  an arrow head for hunting). laìa
                                                  dafi.
                                                m'làbá n.
                                                  poison (any). dafi, guba. See:
                                                  deeld m'laba 'poison arrow'.
                                              k'làbà n. (plural c'laba)
                                                  muzzle. camfo, takunkumi,
                                                  addabari.
                                              v'làbà n. (plural s'laba)
                                                  sling, maybe for a sword.
làagäv gõmõ n.                                    hamila.
      title given to a golmo person.
      shaida mulkin abu.  El                 làbà2 n. (plural labana)
      nan ka noc g[mc qn laagqv                   catfish. kullume, tarwaþa.
      g[m[ - g[lqm an sxnce. A                làbàsá v. (past labaska)
      person can be given this title in the       hide, put or keep sth out of sight.
      Senchi tradition.                           maìe.
làagò n. (plural laagno)                        làbæsç v. (past labeske)
      mad person. mahaukaci.                      hide, stay hidden (self). èoye.
làaká n.                                      m'làdç n.
      sisal plant - used for making rope.         potash. kanwa.
      wani irin ganyen da a                   làdòo id.
      ke yin igiya da shi.                        the way a hyena stands and
láalábé id.                                       balances. tsaye.
    it would have been. dama.                   làdò làdò id.
làalç n. (plural s'laale)                        walking like a hyena. tafiya
    tamarind tree, an evergreen tree             irin na kura.
    with yellow flowers with red              làgà vt. (past lagka)
    streaks and pods containing an               1) stop! do not do that! leave.
    edible acid pulp. tsamiya.                   bari.
    Tamarindus indica.                           2) allow, let (sb do sth). yarda.
  d'làalç n. (plural c'laale)                 k'làilài n.
    tamarind fruit. tsamiya.                      membrane. tantani, murfi.
  s'laale n.                                  láin id.
   leaves of the tamarind tree.                   cling, slick like a leech to sb/sth.
   ganyen tsamiya.                                kanìa.
làamsá v. (past laamska)                      lák id.
   flatter, appease, appeal to.                   with a snatching or wrencing
   lallame. Variant: lxxmsx;                      movement. figa, fizge.
   lxxmkx.
                                              lákà1 v.
d'làasà n.                                        used to do sth, did it in the past
   loose and untucked, hanging out                (but not any more). da yi wani
   (of clothing). sake.                           abu.  Lak dx a ca em cqn
k'làasà n. (plural c'laasa)                       hau. We used to come to your place.
   city wall, ramparts round a town.          làká2 v.
   garu, ganuwa, katang.                          be spattered. damèare.

170
làkãnsá                                                                   làndà
làkãnsá v. (past lakqnska)              làlgà vi. (past lalgka, active noun
    stick to, attach to. damfara,          s'lalga)
    ìanìame.                               1) crawl (e.g. an insect on one's
lákçe id.                                  body). yi rarrafe, yi
    stuck fast. maìe.                      maita.
                                           2) climb hill. hau.
v'lákká n.
    sb inseparable from sb else,        làlkº vi. (active noun s'lalko)
    clinger. maìe, laìe,                   discuss. tattauna.
    maìeìe.                             s'làlkò vn.
lákláká1 id.                                1) speech. magana, jawabi.
    chatterbox, a person who talks          2) legal case. ìara.
    incessantly. kyakkyaèi.             v'làllàllà n.
  ù'lákláká n.                             epilepsy. farfajiya.
    talkativeness. surutu.              lállæ n. (plural s'lalle)
làklàkà2 id.                               1) henna leaves, the henna shrub.
   almost full, more than half full.       lalle.
   kusan cikakke.                          2) decoration of henna leaves.
                                           From: Hausa.
làkná v. (past lakqnka)
   stick on, seal up. damfare.          lalloo = paloo.
v'làkó n. (plural s'lako)               lálmà v.
   whip. bauji, bulah.                     cover up completely, bury.
                                           lulluèe.
c'làktá n.                              lama = lava.
    1) spoiled fruit.
    2) the white substance found        s'làmà n.
    under the foreskin of an                listening, waiting quietly.
    uncircumcised penis.                    saurare, jira, dakatawa.
làktká v.                               làmàsá v.
    smear. lallaèa.                         be or behave unexcitedly, calmly,
m'làlà n.                                   coolly, not showing any interest.
    madness. hauka. Variant: m'na.          nuna hali wani iri.
                                            Variant: lamaska.
làlàlà id.                              lámbkà v.
    pounce, climb onto a wall or tree
    like a cat or lizard. hawan             snatch, grab. fizke.
    itace.                              làn vi.
v'làlàlà n.                                come. zo.
   epilepsy. farfadiya.                 ù'làná n. (plural c'lana)
làlàsá v. (past lalaska, active noun       sore (spot), ulcer. dausashe,
   u'lalasa)                               miki, tande.
   walk away unnoticed, perhaps         lànà v. (active noun s'lana)
   taking sth away (may imply              hesitate, doubt, wonder,
   stealing but not very serious).         contradict, deny. kokwanta,
   þauka ka wuce. See: lqlqsq              shakka, zato, musu.  Qm
   (similar).                               el qn s'lana az baal mq hqn
                                            a tqm ema da. I am wondering
                                            whether this journey will not be
                                            possible.



                                                                             171
í'lànà                                    d'lànkà
í'lànà n.
      late morning, at the time between
      8 am and 11 am. hantsi.
s'lànà n.
      contest. takara.
làndà n.
    locust bean tree seeds. kalwa.
  d'làndà n. (plural c'landa)
    black cakes made from the
    fermented seeds of the locust
    bean tree, a kind of dumpling.
    daddawa, èula.
k'làngàlángà
     n. (plural
   c'langalanga)
   baling iron - strip of iron used for
   tying bales. langalanga.
làngò  n. (plural langno)
   genet or a dwarf mongoose.
   gurjagunda. Genetta; Herpestes
   sanguineus. See: hyàa dóokà.




172
d'lànkà                                                  k'lãkämlãkmú
d'lànkà  n. (plural         lãqsí v.
   c'lanka)                                be taught, learn. koya.
   1) penis. kwido.                      kan lqqsi n.
   2) circumcision. kaciya.                learner, student, one being taught.
k'lànkäcí  n.               þalibi.
   roof of the mouth. ganþa da         lãqtlãqtu adj.
   makusancinta.                           tender, soft to touch. mai
lánkò  n. (plural                 tapshi.
   s'lanko)                            d'lãcù n.
   kind of tree. wani irin                lying down. kwanciya.
   itace. Large: c'lanko.              d'lãglä n. (plural c'lqglq)
lásòkò v.                                 1) blister, swelling under the skin.
   still alive, yet in existence. a       bororo.
   raye. Variant: lasolaso.               2) sore on the foot of sb who has
lasolaso = lasoko.                        walked a long way. miki,
                                          gyambo.
lºu v.                                 läglägä id.
     coming. taho.
                                           squirming, wriggling, writhing,
lºun id.                                   reeling, struggling (from
     stride, a single large step.          discomfort or pain). maþoþowa,
     babban taki.                          magowa. Variant: zapzapa.
lávà1 v.                               c'lãglù n.
     be about to do sth. da zan.           puberty. balaga.
     Variant: lama; lawa; laya.
                                       lãgsí vn.
làvà2 v.                                   waiting, expecting. dakatawa.
    come on behalf of sb else,
    representing. tafe domin.          lãgù n. (plural lqgnu)
    Variant: lavo.                         rodent (mouse or rat etc.).
                                           èarya, èera, kusu.
lavo = lava1.                            lãgmêlê n. (plural lqgmxlnx)
lawa = lava2.                              kind of large rodent which lives
v'làwàláwá n. (plural                      alone. wani irin kusu.
    s'lawalawa)                          lãgpúsú n. (plural lqgpusnu)
    trap for catching birds. tarko.        kind of rodent (mouse or rat).
laya = lava2.                              þuþþu, tsere mai gona.
läq v. (past lqqkq)                      lãg-rîmúnî n. (plural
    know (how to do sth), be an            lqgqn-rimane)
    expert, be able. iya.                  new kind of strong black rat found
                                           all over Nigeria. baìaìen kusu.
  lqqsi v. (past lqqski)
                                       lãk id.
  m'lã n.                                  swallow, gulp sth down all in one
   1) pretence, acting as if one can       go. laìume.
   perform better than one really
   can. yi kamar.                      k'lãkämlãkmú n.
   2) wisdom, ability. iyawa. See:         the skin at the throat which is
   ù'läu.                                  sometimes swollen when you
                                           have mumps. haèa.
lãqsã v. (past lqqskq, active noun
   lqqski)
   teach, educate. koya.

                                                                             173
lãkãmsù                                                                       läsù
lãkãmsù v. (past lãkämskù)                   lãmlãmã v.
      wolf down food, gobble it down v.          eat quickly, gobble. zarin cin
      quickly (to avoid having to share).        abu, zaìa.
      hamas, razge. Variant:                 c'lãmlãmã n.
      pqkqmsku.                                  wattle (of chicken). layun
lãkcù n.                                         tumaki. Large: k'lqmlqmq.
      stirring mush food, preparing food.    lãmplãmpù id.
      tuìa.                                      quickly (of sth growing when
lãklãkkí id.                                     recently planted). saurin
   gobbling, fast greedy eating by sb.           girma na shuka wani iri.
   hanhamniya.                               ländä n. (plural s'lqndq)
d'lãkläkù n. (plural c'lqklqku)                  wild custard-apple (Annona
   chin. haèa.                                   Senegalensis) whose flower is
lãktä v. (past lqktkq)                           used for cooking draw soup.
   prepare mush food, stir sth of                gwandar daji, gwangwale.
   thick consistency. tuìa.                      Annona senegalensis. See:
                                                 d'wxckx.
lãlãlã id.
   gloomy, glum, hesitant. dukuku.             c'vàlãndã n.
                                                leaves of the above. ganyen
lãlãsä v. (past lqlqskq, active noun            gwandar daji.
   u'lqlqsq)
   sneak away secretly, stealthily,          lãnklãnkù  adj.
   unnoticed. wuce shiriu                       supple, pliable. mai raushi.
   abinka. See: lalasa (similar).            lqntq = lqntu.
m'lãlgã n.                                   läntù n.
      burning, bitter or sharp taste.            mosquito. sauro. Variant: lqntq.
      kalci, galmi, maìaìi.                  lãp id.
d'lãlgú n. (plural c'lqlgu)                     suddenly catching fire. fau.
      locust bean blossom. tutu,             lãpkä n. (plural s'lqpku)
      tuntu.                                    wink, giving the glad eye.
lãlí n.                                         gantsina, marmaþi.
      a tree possibly in the cactus family   lãpkù n. (plural s'lqpku)
      with a very poisonous white sap.          grimace. gwalo.
      kyarana, murtsunguwa.
                                             lãplãpã id.
  m'lãlí n.                                      flickering, shining or burning
      white poisonous sap from a                 weakly or with varying intensity.
      cactus shrub. maìaìi.                      wal-wal, balbala.
lãlùu id.                                    läsù v.
      looking unwell or loutish.                 be inattentive, unaware, naive,
      garmaje.                                   living a simple life without noticing
lãmbã n.                                         a bad plan against one. sake.
      bad target shooter, a poor shot.
  m'lãmbã n.
      being a poor performer, failure,
      one who falls short. kasawa,
      faþi, aibu.



174
lãtä                                                                      í'lê
lãtä v. (past c'lqcu)                       À'Lçlà n.
    lie down. kwanta.                         the land the
ù'läu n.                                      Lelna people
   knowledge, ability. iyawa.                 live in.
k'lãuzî n. (plural c'lquzi)                   ìasar
   sickle. lauje.  Lquzik getka              Lelna.
    baa na goso. The sickle broke           c'Lçlà n.
    while cutting the grass.                  language
lävã vi. (past lqvkq)                         spoken by
    1) sleep. yi barci.                       Lelna
    2) spend days away. yi kwana.             people.
                                              Dakarci,
  m'lävã n.                                   hausan
   sleep, a night's sleep, pass the           Lelna.
   night. barci.
lãvãsä v. (past lqvqskq)
   soothe to sleep, ease to sleep,          d'Lçlà n.
   lull. sa shi barci.                        the ways, traditions and religion of
                                              the Lelna people. babbauci,
lävcù n.                                      asanci.
    last bit of food, remaining ration.
    ìarìarin abinci, zuwa                 í'lçlà n. (plural
    gobe.                                     m'lela)
läví v.                                       traditional
   cling to. laìe, maìe.                      rounded razor
                                              for shaving.
í'læbç n. (plural c'lebe)                     aska.
   nape of neck. ìeya.
                                          lælgò n. (plural
lçclà v. (past lecqlka)                       s'lelgo)
   turn to pus. mugunya,                      chant, work
   surkami.                                   song, a g[lm[
  m'læclá n.                                  song, with a
    pus, thick yellow-white liquid            special high tone
    formed in a boil. mugunya.                like shouting to
                                              draw the
lægálæ n. (plural s'legale)                   attention. hargagi.
    the shrub Sarcocephalus
    russegeri. tafashiya.                   v'lælgò n. (plural s'lelgo)
                                              shrieking, high-pitched voice used
  d'lægálæ n. (plural c'legale)               on purpose by g[lm[ age group.
    fruit of the shrub Sarcocephalus          gaþa, kururuwa.
    russegeri. tuwan biri.
    Sarcocephalus russegeri.              c'lçlõjí n.
                                             knowledge of Lelna art, literature
lægæ n. (plural legne)                       and language (c'Lela). sani
    kind of small, red-tailed fish.          yare Dakarkari.
    harya, rajiya. Variant: wase.
k'Lçlà np. (plural Lçlnà)                 lê v. (past lxxkx)
                                             shrivel, dry out and curl through
    the tribe speaking c'Lela found          heat, frost or just general dryness.
    around Zuru Emirate (and Ribah)          yanìwana, þankale.
    in NW Nigeria. Dakarkari,
    badakkare, badakkara,                 í'lê n. (plural m'lx)
    Lelna.                                   town. gari (gaari).

                                                                              175
lébê                                                                      lélésê
lébê1 v. (past lxbxkx)                    légé n. (plural c'lxgx)
      cheat. yaudara.                         kind of malodorous wild lily.
lébé id.
       2                                      albasar kuru, albasar
      1) in good health, fine. lafiya.        kwadi.
      2) finely ground. lilis. Variant:     d'légé n. (plural c'lxgx)
      lxbxs.                                  tuber of the malodorous lily.
s'lébé an.                                    albasar kuru, albasar
      angered, feeling concern and pain       kwadi.
      within. fusata, fushi.                k'légé n. (plural c'lxgx)
lébéx id.                                     stem, or plant of the malodorous
   cooked well, fine. fasha-fasha.            lily. albasar kuru, albasar
   See: mu.                                   kwadi.
lxbxs = lxbx2.                            d'légé n.
                                             dust; fine sediment found below
lêbêt id.                                    water or after sieving gruel etc.
      completely finished, to the last       dalaki.
      point. kakaf.
                                          légsê vt. (past lxgskx)
léblébé id.                                  leave sth. bari, ta.
   soft and ripe, soft to the touch,
   tender. luèu-luèu.                     lêk dîyá id.
                                              hold on to, keep sth given one on
lébssê v. (past lxbskx)                       loan without returning it.
   cool it, chill, let one's anger die        karnene.
   down and abate. sassauce.
                                          v'lékê n.
lédê v. (past lxdxkx, active noun            tonsil, uvula; tissue at the back of
   s'lédé)                                   the throat. hakin wuya,
   1) stare, give a warning sign with        beli.
   one's eyes of impending danger.
   zura, ìura ido.                        lékê1 v. (past lxkkx, active noun
   2) flutter eyelids. marmaþa.              lxko)
                                             borrow sth, lend. ara.
lêdké v.
      wink (at lover). gibta, gibce.      léké2 v. (past lxkkx)
                                             taste. þandana.
lédòo id.                                 s'lélãmsæ n.
      1) standing the way a hyena does,
      with descending back, showing           lick lips, flick tongue in and out as
      buttocks (small) when in a              a snake does. lasa.
      standing position. tamule,            lélém n.
      tsayuwa wani iri.                       dart of the tongue, flick in and out.
      2) dilapidated, decrepit.               kaluma harshe.
      kyararraèo.                         lélê v.
léxkê v.                                     sieve out, wash (e.g. washing rice
      become emaciated. yanìwana.            in water to get rid of stones).
c'léxmsé n.                                  wanke, raraye.
      deception, trick, pacify, cajole.   lélê v. (past lêlké, active noun
      lallasa, kwantad da                    ù'lêló)
      hankali. See: c'palka.                 sieve (rice, corn, etc.) with water
lxxmsx, lxxmkx = laamsa.                     to remove sand. rega.  U havk
                                              u lxlkx benya. She went and
                                              shook some rice to get rid of the sand.


176
m'lélé                                                                      lîp
m'lélé n.                                lépê1 n. (plural lxpnx)
    shade. inuwa.                            Speckled Pigeon. hazbiya.
lélélé id.                                   Columba guinea.
   slow walking. dakwanniya.             lépé2 v.
lélésê = rérésê.                             press down, pin down. tausa,
                                             danna.
lêlmò n.
    praise-epithet of a wrestler. wani   k'lépé n.
    irin kirari.                             slowness or slackness in action,
                                             forgetfulness. nawa.
lémbê lémbê id.
   child's water play, paddling.         lépkê v.
   akori kada.                               foment, stir up trouble or rebellion.
                                             yiwa farsa.
lémé n. (plural lxmnx)
   cripple, lame person. gurgu.          c'lépkò n.
                                            poultice, bandage on a wound.
  m'lémé n.                                 farsa.
    permanent lameness, or
    temporary limping. gungurci.         d'lépò n. (plural c'lxpo)
                                            part pay, traditional ceremony to
lêmsò n.                                    mark completion of 7 years of
    gaunt, thin-buttocked person.           hard labour on in-laws' farm for a
    tsuge, zuìaììe.                         wife. wasa al'adan dan
léndê n.                                    golmo.
    cotton plant. auduga. Gossypium      låun id.
    spp.                                     one long step taken by sb.
  c'léndê n.                                 babban taki.
    cotton lint, cotton wool.            v'lêvcò n. (plural s'lxvco)
  m'léndê n.                                 rung of a ladder. matakala.
   cotton thread. zare.                  lévê v. (past lxvkx)
lénê1 v. (past lxnxkx)                       step on, go. taka. Variant:
   stop up, become stopped up,               lxvgx.
   seal. daþe, toshe. Variant:             k'lévê n. (plural c'lxvx)
   lxnkkx.                                   path, way, road. hanya. Small:
léné2 v. (past lxnxkx)                       v'lxvx. Small Plural: s'lxvx.
   ogle, make eyes at, gaze                  — ad.
   meaningfully suggesting love or           cheap. araha, rahusa. See:
   longing. kaluma.                          ölk táu 'expensive'.
v'lêngê  n. (plural          c'lévgò n.
   s'lxngx)                                  labour, pre-birth pain. naìuda.
   a bag specially woven for holding
   asbin salt. badami.                   lévún lévúnæ n.
                                             jack of all trades, a trader or
lêngé  v. (past lxngkx,             workman who does a great variety
   active noun c'léngò)                      of things. afurguma.
   lick. lasa.
                                         c'límlã n.
lénk súsú  id.                 dirt, dirtiness. ìazanta.
   proffering and then withdrawing,
   pretend to offer. dangoli,            lîp id.
   dangoliya.                                swift, sudden. bazata, (mai)
                                             sauri. Variant: lipkq; lipi
lêp id.                                      lipi.
    one swift step away.
                                                                              177
lóobæ                                                               d'lõnçsæ
lóobæ n. (plural lóobænæ)                  v'lõkõ n. (plural s'l[k[)
   type of elephant-snout fish. wani           row, in a line. jeri.
   irin kifi. Mormyrus rume.               lõlõlõ id.
lõ v. (past l[[k[)                            walking heavily, limping. lukuku.
   press down (self). tausa,               k'lõlõlõ n. (plural c'l[l[l[)
   danna. See: l[[se. Variant:                Rogeria adenophylla. loda.
   lwxxlx.                                    Rogeria adenophylla.
k'lõbnæ n. (plural c'l[bne)                lõmbõ n. (plural s'l[mb[)
   uncultivated land. sagagi.                 African rosewood tree.
ù'lõbö n.                                     madobiya. Pterocarpus erinaceus.
      potter's clay. yumèu.                lõmbõ nú'còpò n. (plural l[mb[s
lõbúpùsùnî n.                                 nu'copo)
      the earth used by Fulani for            very bitter medicinal herb used to
      whitening the outside of a              cure stomach aches. ganye
      calabash for decorations, or            irin na magani.
      whitening rooms. joje.               lömö n. (plural s'l[m[)
lõc id.                                       spike. tsini.
      swift movement away unnoticed,       d'lõmö n.
      slink off, steal away. sace jiki.       plunder, goods taken away by
lõdlõdæ id.                                   playmates. taubashi,
      very slimy. lututu.                     al'ada.
löglögó1 id.                               v'lõmõ n. (plural s'l[m[)
   large enough, sufficiently big for         long hair or fur hanging on a ram's
   sb's need. mai þan dama.                   neck. rero.
löglögò2 n. (plural s'l[gl[go)             lömzîbdà n.
   kind of tree. wani irin                     musk from a civet cat. juda.
   itace.                                  m'lön n.
lõglõgõ id.                                    rubber, gum. jirai, danìo,
   unsteady, loose. lage-lage,                 ìaro.
   gilgilwa.                               ù'lön n.
lõgmö n. (plural l[gqmn[)                     sliminess. dalala.
   elephant. giwa.                         d'lön1 n. (plural c'l[n)
  lõgäm d'hî n.                               blunt arrow made from tamarind.
      sth ostentatious, boastful, proud;      dullu, ìunda.
      a show-off. fahari.                  d'lõn2 n. (plural c'l[n)
m'lõgõ n.                                     yam. doya.
   1) (full of) self-praise, boastful,     v'lön1 n.
   ostentatious, self-important               unlucky person, person who
   manner. homa, alfahari.                    always has bad luck. marar
   2) large. babba.                           sa'a.
lõgõsö v. (past l[g[sk[)                   v'lõn2 n. (plural s'l[n)
   make sth bigger, extend sth.               vein, artery, muscle. jijiya.
   ìara masa girma.
lõkõ v.                                    lõndlõndó id.
                                               littered about, lying around,
      plunge weapon into sth. dima,            rubbish scattered about.
      nashi.                                   warwatse.

178
d'lõnçsæ                                                                 lwxxlx
d'lõnçsæ n.                                lõpæe id.
   wound, bruise. je-ka-huda,                  sit down in good number doing
   kujewa.                                     nothing for anyone's benefit.
v'lõngò  n. (plural                zaman kashe-wando.
   s'l[ngo)                                lõpõ v.
   1) special gate, wax entry to the          pound. kirèi.
   nest of the aphids. ìofar               löt v. (past l[tk[)
   galla.  L[ngov gwergwerne i               splinter, snap. èulce.
    v'zis vq. The aphid's wax entry to
    nest is long.                          ù'löu v.
   2) in single file. layi.                    press sth down into sth soft. lum.
lõnkö  v. (past l[nkk[)           í'lõvç v.
   grease, rub grease on sth. shafa           passing wind. tusa, tisa.
   mai kan ciwo.                           lõvõ v. (past l[vk[)
s'lõnó v.                                     make, or ask sb to pass wind. 
                                               Am gonanna vo, tqv l[v[. If I
    snore. nasari, minshari.                   slap you, you will pass wind.
lönö1 n.                                   lùc id.
   snore, wheeze, noisy breathing              passing into a hole, swallowing.
   with whistling sound in chest.              haþiye.
   minshari.
                                           lùdlùdù id.
lõnõ2 v. (active noun c'lõnõ)                  soft to the touch, finely ground.
   tan, tanning, scraping hair from a          laushi.
   hide or skin. jima, tuje.
lõnönkõ  v.                    s'lúklúkù n.
   strip off, accidentally ripping one's       gossip, talking ill of sb, destructive
   skin. tala, taya.                           criticism. alkususu,
                                               tsegumi.
lönwídí n. (plural s'l[nwidi)
   anus. dubura.                           lúlúlú id.
                                               moving through thick
lö[d id.                                       undergrowth.
    describing the situation where
    many things have fallen flat on the    k'lúudù n. (plural c'luudu)
    ground. kwakkwance wani                    grass hut. bukka.
    iri.                                   m'lwàdæ n.
lõ[kö v.                                       slippery, slipperiness. talaèiya.
    be deep. zuzzurfa, mai                     Variant: m'lwadlwade.
    zurfi.                                 d'lwàdsæ n.
c'lõ[nö n.                                     becoming victim of slipperiness.
    saliva (usu very slimy) of a sick          talaèiya.
    person. maleduwa.
                                           lwàin id.
k'lõ[nö n.                                     erection, moving (of penis) up.
   kind of creeper used in tanning.            tadi, tashi.
   tsiro ma yado.
                                           lwàtà v. (past lwatka)
lõ[sç v. (past l[[ske)                         1) slip away, slide. zame. Variant:
   dig deep. haìa/gina da                      lwat.
   zurfi, zurfafa. Variant:                    2) slip back, open e.g. a foreskin.
   pimqsq, pimqskq.                            èare, zame.
                                           lwxxlx v. = l[.

                                                                                 179
lwxxlx   lwxxlx




180
m'-                                                                          mádàmbórò

                                         M       -    m

m'-                                             máagà v. (past maagka)
       Class-marking prefix for noun in                 clutch with both hands, grab.
       the M class, often a plural of an I              daduma.
       class noun, or mass noun such as              máagæ n. (plural maagne)
       water. The class-marker m' should                builder, bricklayer, potter.
       not be confused with the pronoun                 magini.
       m or qm which is written without an
       apostrophe and replaces a noun.               màak yó! excl.
                                                          if you dared! gwada ka gani,
                                                          akul!
       When an entry has a class-marker              c'màakà n.
       it is written in italic writing. Class-            bluster, boast, bluff, sarcasm.
       markers may move to the end of a                   yanga, gatse.
       word in a sentence. The class-
       marker is not included in the way             màakò n.
       entries are ordered. For example,                buying grain by measure. awo.
       the word m'h[ (water) is found                maal = mxxl.
       between the words d'h[ and                    máalã n. (plural malqmnq)
       h[bh[b[, and the word m'banco                    teacher, literate person. malami.
       (witchweed) is found between the                 Variant: malqmq. From: Hausa.
       words banco and d'banda.
                                                     màamá n.
má con.                                                   1) mother. mama.
    also, too. ma. From: Hausa.                           2) aunt, any older female relative.
má v. (past maaka)
  1
                                                          inna, baba, gwaggo.
    build. gina.                                     máatà vt.
  à'mà n.                                                 bore, tire. gundura, ci wa
   building. gini.                                        rai.
mà v. (past maaka)
   2
                                                     màatàsàlá adj.
   tire, become bored of sth, have                        senseless, extravagant person.
   too much of sth. guna.                                 fankashali.
  màaká adj.                                         k'máatò n.
    1) boring, staple, eat sth too much                   motor, car. inji, mota. From:
    old stuff which bore one.                             English.
    gantsara, guna.                                  d'máccá n.
    2) fed up, measure, test, had                         nature, habit, trait. ilhami,
    enough of doing sth (do not want                      daþai, asali, salsalar.
    to do it any more). bidik.
                                                     màccà v.
mà pro. (plural ya)
  3
                                                        it would be better to, more
    I (singular), we (plural). ni zan.                  convenient. gara (v).
d'mà n.                                              màcúngãgã  n.
       arrogance, behaving                              tradition of adopting sb as your
       impertinently. alhurmatu,                        (surrogate) mother. al'ada.
       alfahari.
                                                     màdàmàdà id.
                                                          receive gifts in plenty, bounty,
                                                          hands full.

                                                                                             181
mádàmbólò                                                                v'màkó
mádàmbólò = dàpà.                           mágwîdî n. (plural s'magwidi)
mádàmbórò n. (plural madamborno)               galena, antimony (used as a
   leech. matsattsaku.                         cosmetic). kwalli, tozali.
mádàpcî n. (plural madapcini)               v'mágwîrzî n. (plural
   chief farmer. sarkin noma.                  s'magwirzi)
                                               a decorated iron rod specially
mádãkù n. (plural s'madqku)                    made for well-known farmers.
      twining shrub.                            sandan girma na manoma.
màdç n. (plural madne)
      kind of frog. kwaþo wani iri.
mádígí n.
      short-legged chicken. þun'gu
      þungu.
k'mádúbî n.
      glass. madubi.
màgà v. (past magka)
      try, offer, make a tentative offer.   mágyángórò  n.
      tayi.                                    (plural magyangqrno)
mágàzç n. (plural magazne)                     wingless locust that lives in the
      elder sibling, brother or sister         fadama and eats green rice
      senior to self. afalalu,                 leaves. wata irin fara.
      bappa.  M[[se, i magazev                Variant: bqttqrma.
      ri. Moose is my senior.               mágyózò n. (plural magyozno)
mágàzî n.                                      small, harmless centipede.
      priest. firisti.                         aimaka.
                                            ù'mágyózò n.
màgãlsá v. (past magqlska)                     irritating disease of feet in the wet
      squeeze sth into a small opening.        season, usu. affecting the toes.
      firmitsa, karþaþa.                       kurkushe, ìusha-ìushi.
mágçmpá n. (plural s'magempa)               màhínîkí n. (plural s'mahiniki)
      a kind of shrub. wasu irin               kind of herb or grass used for
      tsire-tsire.                             medicine. wani irin ganye
màglç vn.                                      ko ciyawa na magani.
      clinging. manne.                      màjòzò n. (plural majozno)
mágmágá id.                                    kind of worm. wani irin
      stick, poke, push sth into or            tsutsa.
      through so that it remains stuck.     mák adv.
      kafe.                                    stuffed full of sth. cike. See: mxk.
mágùgù n.                                   màkà v. (active noun s'maka)
      Finger Millet. tamba. Eleusine           jump. tsalle.
      coracana.                             màkàkà id.
  mágùgkwákrá n.                                brightness of a lamp, shine, glow
      type of finger millet. kama da            of headlights. falfalniya.
      tamba.                                mákárántá n.
màgúrwà n. (plural magurwana)                  school. makaranta. From: Hausa.
      rhinoceros bird. carki.               v'màkó n. (plural s'mako)
                                               kidney. ìoda.
182
mákyõncó                                                        màtämhõ
mákyõncó n.                            màmgsá vt.
    kind of water-loving bird that         prepare, repair. gyara.
    makes a very large nest. wani
    irin tsuntsu.                      ù'màmmà n.
                                           sandy soil. jigawa. Variant:
màlá v.                                    u'mamumama.
    stay long in a place, over-stay
    (one's welcome). daþe, jima        màmmáakí v.
    da yawa. Variant: malka.               wonder at. kakabi.
málãmã n. (plural malqmnq)             mámmámá n.
    teacher, conjurer, magician,          outskirts. a wajen gida.
    person performing supernatural     u'mamumama = u'mamma.
    act. malam. Variant: maalq.        mánàkò n. (plural manakno)
málç adv.                                 kind of locust. wani irin
   always, at all times. fiddin,          fara.
   dinga.                              c'màndrà n an.
málêndmò n. (plural malxndmono)            impolite act; act impolitely or
   gecko. tsaka.                           rudely. nuna isa.
máléndùsù n. (plural                   màngsá  v. (past
   malxndusunu)                            mangska)
   gecko. tsaka.                           repair. gyara.
k'màlhá n. (plural c'malha)            mànkà  n. (plural mankna)
   wide-brimmed straw hat. malafa.         old person. tsofo.
   From: Hausa.                          c'mànkà  n.
màlmálç n. (plural malmalne)               old age. tsufa.
    supernatural being that can show   márãrú n. (plural márãrúnù)
    itself in animal shape. suna.          Rove-beetle. gilo, wani
málõdæ n. (plural mal[dne)                 irin ìwaro. Staphylinidae.
    kind of locust. wata irin          marse = malse1; malse2.
    fara.                              d'másà n. (plural c'masa)
málsæ1 adv.                                fried cake. masa. From: Hausa.
    often, usually. sha, yi yawan.     másàngórò  n.
    Variant: marse.                        kind of snake. wani irin
màlsæ2 n. (plural s'malse)                 maciji.
    sickness, illness. zazzaèi.        màshïn n.
    Variant: marse.                       machine. inji. From: English.
màm id.                                mátà vt. (past matka, active noun
    (sitting) firmly on sth. daèas.       ù'màcó)
màmà n. (plural c'mama)                   deliver (a baby), give birth.
    dust, sand (maybe fine).              haifu.
    rairayi.                           à'màtà n.
màmgá v. (past mamgka)                    spin, weave thread, rolling two
    become reconciled. sulhunta,          strands of cotton to make thread.
    sulhu.                                murhi.
  d'màmgò n.                           k'mátäqkäcî n. (plural
    reconciliation. masalaha.             c'matqqkqci)
                                          mirror. madubi.


                                                                           183
màtämhõ                                                                              mæ
màtämhõ n.                                    mädí mädí n. (plural mqdi
   kind of grass. wani irin                       mqdini)
   haki.                                          tadpole. talibambam.
máyàná n. (plural s'mayana)                   mãglî id.
   kind of banana. wata irin                      fat person with short neck, thick-
   ayaba.                                         set person. kututture,
màzà v.                                           kutuèur-kutuèur.
   turn on. yada. See: mxzx.                  mägmägä id.
mázäkî n. (plural mazqkni)                       carrying a heavy load, short-
   newly-hatched locust. þango.                  necked. niìi, niìiìi-
                                                 niìiìi. Variant: yqgyqgq.
màzç id.
   perhaps, maybe. wataìila,                  d'mãkä n. (plural c'mqkq)
   ìila.                                         thumb-ring used by hunters who
                                                 shoot with a bow and arrow.
màzgsç v. (past mazgske)                         zoben harbi.
   hurry up. yi sauri,
   gaggauta.                                  mäkätä n. (plural mqkqtqnq)
                                                 short person. agwidu,
mázî adv.                                        dungwi.
   quickly. maza.
                                              mãkd än cídkó n. (plural mqkc
d'màzó n. (plural c'màzó)                        qn s'cidko)
   gums (without teeth). dadashi.               stopper ring, padlock. kwado
      Ka s'mazo a tu t[n c'nqms                  wani iri.
      da. A person with large gums does not
      like laughing.                          mãlgämhõ n.
                                                  skink lizard, a small smooth
mãqksî v. (past mqqkski)                          insect-eating lizard with a long
      ease off, minimise, relax, adapt            thin body and small limbs.
      sth to sb's requirements.                   lando, lindo, kulèa.
      daidaita.                                   Scincidae.
c'mãqnä an.                                   män pro.
      boast. cika baki,                           some, an amount of (of liquid).
      dodorido, fahari, yi                        kaþan, da dama.
      fadin rai. See: c'kqndi.
                                              mãndãmãn ad.
mäqnkã  v.                              moving or walking in a way that
   be enough, all right. ya isa.                  shows one is well fed. mai
mãqnsä v. (past mäqnskã)                          nauyi, wata irin tafiya.
   take enough, do sth (eat etc.) to          c'mãnîmãní n.
   satisfaction. ìoshi.  Qm yaaka                deformity which makes the upper
      qm mqqnskq. I ate to my satisfaction.       gum overly large. wani irin
mãcãm id.                                         leèe.
   look on sb's face, fat and dull-           männãmmännã
   looking. mai ìiba.                             once upon a time, long long ago;
mäcmã v. (past mqcqmkq)                           the beginning of a story. ana
   make progress, improve in health,              nan, ana nan.
   increase in quantity. ìaru.                mät id.
mãcrí n. (plural mqcqrni)                         sudden low jump, hop. tsalle.
   grandchild. jikoki.                        mæ pro.
mãdî n. (plural c'mqdi)                           me. ni.
   wrestling. kokawa.

184
c'mægá                                                                   c'mêné
c'mægá n.                                  mæsæ ;  n. (plural
   sowing early, before the rains fully        mesne)
   set in. bursune.                            kind of fighting red or black ant or
mægà v. (past megaka)                          termite; driver ant. kwarkwasa,
   store sth away (e.g. beans) to              makwaiwa.  Mesqn el ta hwa
   protect them from beetles etc.              txktxknx. Driver ants kill white ants.
   adana, adani.                                Txktxkqn a ta t[n mesqn
                                               da. Ordinary ants do not like driver
mægmægæ n. (plural c'megmege)                  ants.
   fragrant herb like Basil (Ocimum;
   Aeolanthus). doddoyan                   mçstà v. (past mestka)
   fadama.                                     replace, bring back and return to
                                               its place. maidoda.  Qm mestka
                                               kwintqd rovo. I returned your hoe
                                               to its place.
                 k'mægmægæ n.              mêxgæ n. (plural n/a?)
                 (plural c'megmege)            kind of ant. wani irin
                 1) peeled stalk of            ìwarìwasa.
                 india hemp.
                 siyaye, þaya,             méxl id.
                 ìeìasheshe.                  spark, twinkle, flash, flare when
                 Variant: k'regrege.          striking a flint or match. ìyalli,
                 2) cob after removal         ìyanìyasa. Variant: maal.
                 of maize. kututu.         méxtê v. (past mxxtkx)
mækásà v. (past mekaska)                      stuff completely. cushe. Variant:
   get into trouble, punish. wahala.          mxxte.
k'mænà n. (plural c'mena)                  mégéxm id.
   large intestine. hanji.                     (face looking) thin and tight.
                                               fuska da wani kamanni.
mænákà v.                                      Variant: mxgxxmme.
    is finally dead, skinned well.
    shure.                                 mêk id.
                                              stuffed. See: mxxtx. Variant: mak.
mærá v. (past meraka)
    1) collect in one place, gather,       mékmék-hwælá n. (plural
    meet. tara.                               mékmék-hwælánà)
    2) copulate with. yi jima'i,              firefly. maìesu, wutar yola,
    tara da.                                  wutar bango. Lampyridae.
  mæránsà v. (past meranska)               méléxm id.
    collect (things) in one place, pack.       flicking and licking of the tongue
    tara.                                      like a snake. lasan harshe
                                               wani iri.
  d'mærá n.
    meeting. taro. Variant: d'wera;        mémémé id.
   d'meranna.                                 describing the way a sickly child
                                              or goat walks. wata irin
d'meranna = d'mera.                           tafiya.
k'mæró n.                                  c'mêné n. (plural c'mxnnx)
    hunger. yunwa.                            in-laws, as in father-in-law, son-in-
                                              law, mother-in-law etc. (relatives
                                              by marriage). sarakuta,
                                              sirika.
                                             k'mêné

                                                                                 185
ménké                                                                mòdódò
ménké  n.                         míndímíndí adv.
   rain. ruwan sama, hadari.                  in a wriggling manner. watsal-
d'ménké  n.                      watsal.
   small local hand-hoe. hauya. See:       mîngsí  v. (past
   d'kwintq.                                  mingski)
mênläntã n. (plural c'mxnlqntq)               move the body. wani irin
   fragrant herb. þaþþoya, kafi               motsi.
   amarya. Variant: mxnlqntu.              v'mîntí n. (plural s'mîntí)
d'mésé n.                                     minute. minti. From: English.
      centre. ìul daka.                    mîrämsí v. (past mirqmski)
mésmésé id.                                   disappear miraculously. èatan
      trouping along in great numbers,        dabo.
      in profusion, abundantly.            mîrmîrî adj.
      tururu, dagwan dagwan,                  scratchless. sumul-sumul.
      daèa-daèa.  Netan lan gx            mîsàmï n. (plural s'misami)
      mxsmxsx ta hav baan kabmq               a mere fiction, made-up story,
      s'banco. Women are trouping en-         fairy-tale. almara,
      masse to receive medicine.              tatsuniya.
mêt id.                                    mísä v. (past miskq; miskkq)
   pick up with ease, lift easily.            sprinkle. darsa.
   cira.
                                           mîskã v. (past miskkq, active noun
mézê v. (past mxzxkx)                         u'misku)
   light (e.g. a torch). yada. See:           drizzle. ciccifi, yaiyafi.
   maza.
                                           mísmísí adv.
mézézé id.                                    drizzle. caccafa. Variant:
      describing the thin structure/body      mizmizi.
      of an animal. rame.
                                           mîstã v. (past mistkq)
mî pro.                                       1) return sth. mayar.
   I, me (1st person singular). ni.           2) weed again. maido,
mígã v. (past migkq)                          maimai.
   twist. fitila'murda.                      ù'místã n.
mîglá-mîglá adv.                               second weeding of farm. mai-
      in a wriggling manner. wata              mai.
      irin tafiya. Variant:                  k'mistq = u'muutq.
      migli-migli.
                                           mítä v. (past mitkq, active noun
mîi excl.                                      c'mitu)
      "for goodness sake". o o ni.             disappear miraculously. èatan
mîi n.                                         dabo.
   inside, among. cikin,                   mizmizi = mismisi.
   tsakanin. Variant: mïu
   (Senchi).                               mó n. (plural c'mo)
                                               dew. raèa.
mínã v. (past minkq)
   clear off. kauce.                       mócó ad.
                                               have more to eat than expected.
mínãsä v.                                      ruzu, cin ìeta.
      clear sth away. kawar (da).



186
mòdódò                                                                       mõ[l
mòdódò id.                                  mõdksç v. (past m[dkske)
       large (of stomach), thin but pot-        congest, press against, squash.
       bellied (of a child), usu due to         matsu.
       malnutrition. tanìeshe,              mõdksçi n.
       þuskwikiw, burum,                        narrowness. agedu.
       tsiruku.
                                            mõdkskñ ad.
mògmògò adv.                                   narrow, crushed (e.g. in back seat
       in a smiling mood. wata irin            of car). matsattse.
       dariya.
                                            mõdõ v. (past m[dk[)
mógtà v.                                       squeeze out, extract. matsa.
   snigger, smile (within). dariya
   aboye, murmushi.                         mõgäd'mõlö
                                               'said by disgruntled cadger'.
mòlà v. (past mólkà)                           albasar-gizo.
   go to challenge sb who has
   wronged you. tafi gidan                  mõgõ v. (past mögkõ)
   wani domin fada.                            borrow. aro.
mònà v. (past mónkà, active noun            m'mõgõ n.
   c'mònà)                                      archery competition. gwajin
   skin, flay (of animals). feþe.               halbi. Variant: m'nei.
mòrmòrò n. (plural s'mormoro)               mõgõl mõgõl adv.
   the tree Ximenia americana - the             wobbling. motsa baki wani
   spiny plum. tsada.                           iri.
c'mòrmòrò n.                                mõgõm adj.
       red coral. murjani.                      plump-looking. suntum,
                                                lumbu, burþumene.
k'mótà n.
   lorry. babbar mota. From:                mõk id.
   English.                                     thick-set. ìaììaura,
                                                gwaggwaèa.
mòtà1 v. (past motka)
   give a lot of. wuce kima.                v'mõklõ n.
                                               nail, for wood or other materials.
mòtà2 n.                                       ìusa.
    kind of guinea corn. wata irin
    dawa.                                   k'mölö n. (plural c'm[l[) =
                                               k'mö[lö.
mòzà v. (past mózkà)
    stir up, (of a fish) make a ripple by   mõlö n. (plural m[ln[)
    moving through the water. bala.            sorcerer. maye.
  d'mózó n. (plural c'mozo)                 mõnmõnõ ad.
    ripple, disturbance of surface of           running, watery (of eyes).
    water caused by fish. bulma.                gwara-gwara (wani iri).
                                               Variant: m[n[m.
c'mö n.
       dew. raèa.                           m[n[m = m[nm[n[.
mö n.
   1
                                            mõ[kö v. (past mõ[kkõ)
       fruit of tigernut (cyperus              1) talk too much. wani irin
       esculentus). aya-aya, ìafar             surutu.
       fakara.                                 2) pester, treat harshly. ìwazaba.
mõ2 adv.                                    mõ[l id.
       in a squatting manner. daèas.            sticking out (of eyes). gwal.


                                                                                187
k'mö[lö                                                                 mùtúskù
                                             mùkú n. (plural muknu)
                                                 midge. wani irin ìwaro. See:
                                                 bulmu.
                                             c'mùlgù an.
k'mö[lö n. (plural c'm[[l[)                      try to push sb who has already
   (traditional) stringed instrument             fallen on the ground in order to
   played by plucking the strings with           win a point (illegal move in
   the fingers. molo. From: Hausa.               wrestling). dabaran kokawa,
mõ[msñ v. (past mõ[mskñ)                         turanya wani iri.
   use on your own (e.g. eat) without        múrmúrú adv adj.
   sharing.                                      with nothing on - nude. cirara,
mö[ræ n. (plural m[[rene)                        huntu.
   in-law relative. siriki,                  mùs adv.
   sirika.                                       in a puff (of smoke or vapour).
mõs id.                                          yar iska. Variant: pus.
       with the bottom uncovered. gaho.        mùs-mùs adv.
       See: fururu.                             continuous puffing or billowing of
mõt id.                                         smoke. fitar hayaìi.
   sudden coming out of stool from           músú n. (plural musnu)
   the anus. èulsa.                             cat. kyanwa, kule.
mõtõ v. (past mötkõ)                           mus-mus excl.
   squeeze, force to ooze out.                   "here pussy!" a shout when calling
   èulso.                                        a cat. kirawan kyanwa.
d'mõtõ n. (plural c'm[t[)                    mùtîsí v. (past mutiski)
   heap (usu. of hungry rice). tari.             dislocate, sprain. gullewa,
ú'mú n.                                          gocewa.
       1) fermenting, especially of guinea     d'mùtîsí n. (plural c'mutisi)
       corn. ruèa.                               dislocation, sprain (an injury) to a
       2) soaking to start seeds growing.        part of the body. gulliya,
       tsiro, soko.                              goce, gurde, girþe,
mù id.
   1                                             jirþe.
       soft and ripe, cooked nice and        mútkskú v.
       soft. luèu-luèu, fasha-                  somersault. adungure.
       fasha. See: lxbxx.                    mùtksú v. (past mutksku)
mû2 id.                                         turn sth inside out (e.g. a shirt).
       moo, the cry of cattle. kukan sa.        birkita.
       See: m[.                              mùtù v. (past mutku)
mùdùt id.                                       blunt, bend (a knife blade, hoe,
   detached, sth (e.g. cloth or rope)           etc.). duskura, malìwasa,
   cut gently. tsinkæ, yenke.                   kalmada, gwalmaþa.
mùglú v. (past mugulku)                      mùtúskù v.
   shovel a lot of sth into one's                dislocate, bend over the tip of
   mouth. hamfuþa.                               hoe, knife, axe. maìwasa.
mùkmùkù adv.
       in a smouldering manner.
       sannu-sannu ba harshen
       wuta.

188
ù'mùutã                                                                            náasæ
ù'mùutã n.                                       myàaz id.
       field or piece of land that has                flash of light, flickering, flashing.
       weeds and needs a second                       haskawa wani iri. Variant:
       weeding. wurin noman da                        myazka; myaza; myazaza;
       yake bukata na biyu.                           myaal.
       Variant: k'mistq.                         myàm id.
myá id.                                               sitting with a flop. wani irin
   sticking on, straight, direct, erect.              zama.
   tsab.
myaal = myaaz.
                                         N   -    n

n- conj.                                         d'nàacò n. (plural c'naaco)
       of. -n, -r.                                    upper grinding stone. ìaramar
-n1 conj.                                             dutsin nika. See picture for:
       of. -n (m), -r (f), -n                         d'ná.
       (pl).                                     náad náadç id.
                                                      limping. þingishi.
                                                 nàagäd zõmõ n.
                                                    a kind of tuberous grass. wani
                                                    irin haki.
                                                 d'nàagò n. (plural c'naago)
                                                    testicle. cuye, gwaiwa,
                                                    tsuwe. Large: k'naago.
                                                 náakò v.
                                                      swing a stick.
                                                 nàam c'débé adj.
                                                    downcast. èacin rai.
-n2 post.
       with.                                     nàamá n. (plural naamna)
                                                    ox, bull, cow. saniya. Bos.
d'ná n. (plural c'na)
    lower grinding stone. maredi.                c'nàamángædæ
                                                        n.
ù'ná n. (plural s'na)                                 young leaves of baobab.
    leg. ìafa.                                        gantsika, saèe.
ná vt. (past náákà)
  1
                                                 nàamãd hwçn n.
    spoil. èata, lalata.                              accident (involving physical
nà pro.
   2
                                                      injury). tsautsayi, hasa'u.
       we. mu.                                   nàamná n.
nà conj.
   3
                                                    3rd year g[lm[ age-group.
       and. da (in lists).                          tsara.
m'nà n.                                          náasæ v. (past naaske)
       madness. hauka. See: m'lala.                 1) spoil, damage, waste.
                                                      al'ala, huþu, battala.
                                                      2) disagree.


                                                                                         189
nàatà                                                                  nämänsã
  d'nàasæ n.                               nàràsá v. (past naraska)
   destructiveness of a child.                spread out. baza. Variant:
   janjanci. Variant: d'naaso;                nxrxsx, nxrxskx.
   d'naaske.                               nàrgsá v. (past nárgskº)
nàatà n. (plural s'naata)                     1) flatten, spread out. shimfiþa
   bulrush millet. gero. Pennisetum           wani iri.  Nargsa l[bq
   glaucum.                                    d'nama qv b[dk[. Flatten the
nàdá v. (past nádkà)                           moulding clay and knead it.
   become bent. tanìware. See:                 2) fill up container to (flat) level
   nadasa.                                     with top. malmalinni.  Neta
                                               nargska k'gaa qn k'hono. A
m'nàká n.                                      woman has spread out a large cake of
   far off distance. nisa, jajawa.             mush food in a large calabash.
nàká vt. (past nákkà)                      nássç num.
   1) lead sb (e.g. a blind person).           4 (four). huþu, 4.
   jagora.
   2) pull up (from well, etc.).           á'nã pro.
   fitoda.                                    their, theirs. nasu.
nákkà v.                                   nã v. (past nqqkq)
      be far away. nisa, fitar da.            press down, buckle, become
                                              dented. tausa.
nàknàkà adv.
      many. batsa-batsa. Variant:          d'näqkù n. (plural c'nqqku)
      nxknxkx.                                inner gizzard of a bird. ìundu.
nàkò n.                                    nãqmä n. (plural nqqmnq)
      budding flowers of the Kapok tree.      wild game, a wild ('bush') animal
      sabbin furen itacen                     hunted for food including
      rimi. See: k[mgn[; d'kempra.            antelope, buffalo, deer, but not
                                              elephants, lions etc. dabban
nàktá v. (past naktka)                        jeji.
   crush. caccaka. Variant: nxktx,
   nxktkx.                                 k'näqmù n.
                                              core of boil or blister. kututu,
nàmá1 v. (past namka)                         kutsitu.
   grind. niìa.
                                           nãbä v. (past nqbkq)
nàmà2 pro.                                    1) waste time. èata lokaci.
      when. yaushe.                           2) be away for a long time. daþe.
nán1 pro.                                  k'nãgrù n. (plural c'nqgru)
      we will. za mu.                         brown spear grass.
nán pro.
      2                                       karairayau. Diheteropogon
      who. wanda (m), wadda                   hagerupii; Andropogon arthrolepsis.
      (f), waþanda (pl).                   nãkãmsî v. (past nqkqmski;
nàpà vt.                                      nqkqnskq, active noun
      know. sani.                             s'nqkqmsi)
                                              stretch out. miìa.
  s'nàpà n.
    knowledge, being aware. sani.          nãkänskã v.
                                               stretch. zala.
  nàpàsá v. (past napaska)
    teach, show how. kwatanta,             näm kyö[mõ n.
    gwada, faþakar (da).                       mutton. naman rago.
                                           nämä n.
                                               meat. nama.
190
nämänsã                                                                nòkà
  k'nämä n. (plural c'nqmq)              néxù adj.
    meat portions.                           spread out. bazawa.
nämänsã vt.                              v'nêi n.
   stir. juya.                               nine-pence. nai.
nãmãsä v. (past nqmqskq)                 m'néké adj.
   mix, stir up (e.g. soup). cakuþa,        mean, stingy, not generous. na
   motsa.                                   sumulmula.
nämsã v.                                 nxknxkx = naknaka.
    laugh. dariya.                       nékté v. (past nxktkx)
nãmzànnämzànà adv.                          squash. gwalitse. See: nakta.
    very early in the morning.           nxrxsx v. (past nxrxskx) =
    sassafe.                                narasa.
nän pro.                                 nêté n.
    3p - they, them. su. See: qn.           difficulty or luck (usu. 'with
  nän-nän pro.                              difficulty' or 'by chance').
    only they, them. zalla.                 bishakkil.
-næ det.                                 nétnêtò n. (plural nxtnxtno)
   type. iri.                               a bird which is both diurnal and
næcç n. (plural necne)                      nocturnal. kere-kere, wani
   electric catfish. mijirya.               irin tsuntsu.
   Malapterurus electricus.              m'nî n.
m'nei = m'm[g[.                              heaviness. nauyi.
næmà n. (plural nemna)                   nîgnîgî adv.
   bird. tsuntsu.                            in a shaking manner. rawan
                                             jiki wani iri.
næsá v. (past neska)                     k'níikä adj.
   give (to me), help sb by giving
   them sth (possibly via a third            thick, heavy. ìaììaura.
   person). bayar da.                    v'nínä n. (plural ninq)
nçsæ v2t.                                    tooth, fang. haìori.
   give, hand to. ba da,                   k'nínä n. (plural c'ninq)
   hannanta.                                 large tooth. babban haìori.
nætà n. (plural netana)                  nínmú n. (plural ninqmnu)
   woman, wife. mace.                        house rat. èeran daji. Rattus
nætná n.                                     rattus.
    people. mutane. Sg: nocó.            nló det.
m'nævç n.                                   that near, that, the. waþancan.
   any oily substance - oil, fat,        noboko = nxbx; noboso.
   grease, petrol. mai.                  nóbósò v. (past nobosko)
nê v2t. (past nxxkx)                        to wet, moisten sth, (put on water
   give. bayas.                             to make it wet). jagab,
nébê v. (past nxbkx)                        jikawa. See: nxbx. Variant:
   moisten, water. dansasa,                 noboko.
   jiìa. Variant: noboko; noboso.        nòcó n. (plural netna)
néxnê excl.                                 person, human being. mutum.
    a small child's way of begging sth   nòkà vi. (past noko)
    (corruption of nxx mx). ba ni.          go. tafi.
                                                                           191
nòksó                                                       nwqqk d'bqtq
  nòká                                  nõdõt adj.
   come. zo. Variant: nokso,               insipid, without flavour. salaf,
   noksko; nokte, noktke;                  falama.
   nokta; nokto, noktko.                n[gn[g[ = n[bn[b[.
nòksó v. (past noksko)                  nõin id.
   go first, in front of us. ka ci          spreading out on the floor. mai
   gaba da tafiya. See: noka.               ya malale akasa.
nòktá vi.                               nù prep.
   bring here. kawo. See: noka.            to, towards. zuwa.
nóktæ vi. (past noktke)                 nugnugu = n[bn[b[.
   remove, take. tafi da, tafi
   da ka kai. See: noka;                númkù v.
   m'nokte; u'nóktç.                       lean, bend over. karkata.
nóktò v. (past noktko)                  nùzãsä v. (past nuzqskq)
   bring sth when coming. kawo.            melt. narkad da.
   See: noka.                           nwá pro.
nòoká v.                                    you (pl). ku.
      be fat. yi ìiba.                    nwá-nwá pro.
nòvãrnòvrò adv.                             only you (pl). ku kurum.
      unevenly; with uneven ends. ba    d'nwä n. (plural c'nwq)
      bai dai ba.                           blister. hangara.
nóvkà v.                                s'nwä n.
      start late. ìurewar lokaci.          write or leave a will. wasiyya.
      See: toolsa.
                                        k'nwä n. (plural c'nwä)
  nòváskà v.                               mouth. baki.
    delay. jinkirtad da.
                                          nwädãn táabà n.
nõbnõbõ adj.                               small chewable lump ('quid').
   soft to the touch; watery, slushy.      baro.
   laèalaèa, þanyata. Variant:
   n[gn[g[; n[dn[d[; nugnugu.           nwqqk d'bqtq n. (plural nwqqc
                                           d'bqtq)
n[dn[d[ = n[bn[b[.                         meat from the side of a cow,
                                           sheep or goat etc. rebu.




192
ò                                                                            òpà

                                     O   -    o

ò    pro.                                    ògá v. (past ógkà)
    him, her, it. shi, ita.                     produce a large crop or yield, be
òblá n. (plural òbälnà)                         productive. haifu, yayi
    snake. maciji, sago.                        þiya þayawa. See: og
                                                nu'copo.
  òbäl-gyözó n. (plural
    obql-gy[zno)                             ògmá v. (active noun d'ogmo)
    kind of poisonous snake. bi                 count. ìidaya, ìirga.
    rana.                                    d'ògmò n.
  òbäl-kwæcnà n. (plural                          counting. kidaya.
    obql-kwecqnna)                           òg-nú'còpó n.
    carpet viper. gajere. Echis                   kind of wild tuber.
    carinatus.                               ògò n.
  òbäl-kwígcî n. (plural                        the grass Rhytachne congoensis,
    òbäl-kwígcnî)                               used for making screens. iwa.
    Green-lined Snake or any green           òká v. (past okka)
    snake. damatsiri. Hapsidophrys              eat mouthfuls of sth which has
    lineata.                                    been pounded into flour.
  òbäl-pêx n. (plural obql-pxxnx)               hamfuþa.
    python. mesa. Sebae.                     òkósò v. (past okosko)
    òbäl-ùsù n.                                 break off, peel off. èamèare.
     harmless kind of snake. dako,           ókskò adv.
      macin mata, þan gida,                     a while ago, short time ago. da
      farin maciji.                             þanjimawa. Variant: okso.
    òbäl-gògà n.                             okso = oksko.
     African beauty snake: striped
     form. wani irin maciji.                 òlá v. (past ólkà, active noun ù'òló)
     Psammophis sibilans.                       shave. aski, aske.
    òbäl-bòmõ n.                             ù'òló n.
   Puff Adder, a snake whose skin               an after-death celebration
   looks like that of a python. wani            practised by the Lelna. al'ada.
   irin maciji. Bitis arietans.              òná v. (past ónkà)
óbò n. (plural s'obo)                           1) stop.
   the gum-yielding Acacia.                     2) ripen and fall off. ìare.
   tarauniya. Combretum                      óndò n. (plural s'ondo)
   verticillatum.                               marsh-tree. giyayya. Mitragyna
d'òbª n. (plural c'obo)                         africana.
   pumpkin (fruit). kabewa.                  ónkà  v. (past onkka)
ódämkà v.                                       take, get. ungo. See: gonka.
   prune, cut off all new shoots or          óopá num.
   leaves growing from a tree.                  10 (ten). goma, 10.
   ìundume.
                                             d'òpá n. (plural c'òpá)
òdäncç n. (plural odqncene)                     red-hot ball of iron.
   woodworm. gunþa, kiciciya.

                                                                               193
òpà                                                                                 ögö
òpà n. (plural opna)                        m'ormo = m'kipi.
    tick. kaska.                            k'òrò n. (plural c'oro)
ópkà v. (past ópkkà)                             raffia; frond, leaf of a kind of palm-
    1) warp - become a funny shape.              tree used for making mats, hats or
    banìare.                                     bags. kaba.
    2) = opse.                              óskæ v.
ópsæ v. (past opske)                           cause anxiety (impersonal).
    1) count up to ten. ìirga zuwa             damuwa.
    goma.                                   oso = gàdá.
    2) make up to ten.
    3) be about ten.                        òtá2 n. (plural s'ota)
                                               handle. ìota.
órgò n. (plural orgno)
    termite. gara, zago.                    òtà1 v. (past ótkà)
                                               weigh down. nauyi.
  d'órgò n. (plural c'orgo)
    small anthill, termite mound.           òvà v. (past ovka)
    jièa, suri.                                cut with a knife. yanka.
órmà v.                                     óvçsæ v. (past oveske)
   hoe hard ground lightly.                    cut oneself. yanke.
   kankare.                                   d'òvçsæ n.
v'òrmá n. (plural s'orma)                        wound sustained by cutting
   wart, small hard growth on the                oneself. yanka.
   skin. baìin þan-danya,
   tusar jaki.

                                    {   -    [

d'öbcò n. (plural c'[bco)                   õbk-wçttãrwê n. (plural
   quick leap. tsalle.                         õbk-wçttãrwêné)
õbgãvsõ v. (past õbgãvskõ)                     stone partridge. kazar dutse,
   encourage, urge someone (e.g. a             wata irin makwarwa.
   wrestler to act furiously), cheer           Ptilopachus petrosus.
   on, support. ìarfafa, yi                 õbö v. (past [bk[)
   fadanci, gumburi. Variant:                  1) uproot. tumèuke.
   dõ[gsö; [bgs[.                              2) take out (e.g. from mortar).
õbgõ v. (past [bgk[)                           þebe.
   be full of joy, rejoice. cira.           s'õbõ n.
[bgs[ v. (past [bgsk[) = d[[gs[.               a flash of lightning. walìiya,
                                               aradu.
õbk wêttãrwê n. (plural [bk
   wxttqrwxxnx)                             õdö v. (past [dk[)
   stone partridge. kazar dutse.               take your turn, get it over with.
                                               huta.  Hav qn dwq qv [d[.
õbkõ n. (plural [bkn[)                           Go to the well and do your turn.
   Bush-fowl. makwarwa,
   fakara. Francolinus bicalcoratus.        õglõ n.
                                               gravel. birji.
  õbk-d'gwê n.
      kind of bush-fowl. movro,             ögö v. (past ögk÷)
                                                 1

      fakara.                                  be watery. ruwa-ruwa, yayi
                                               ruwa-ruwa.

194
õgõ                                                                        õsö
õgõ2 n. (plural s'[g[)                     Ömná dàptà n.
    Combretum kerstingii, a kind of           Canis - the 'Dog' constellation
    tree. ciriri. Combretum                   (Orion. Iwani.
    kerstingii.                            ömõ1 n. (plural [mn[)
  õgõ-púsú n. (plural s'[g[-pusu)             1) dog. kare.
    white [g[. tarauniya.                     2) (met.) adulterer, promiscuous
    Combretum glutinosum; C.                  person. mazinaci, kwarto.
    lamprocarpum.                            d'ömõ n.
  õgõ-gyözó n. (plural                         adultery, promiscuity. zina.
    s'[g[-gyözó)                             dòk ömõ See: janka. = dòk
    red [g[. ciriri.                           jánká.
öhõ pro.                                   õmö vt. (past ömkõ)
                                               2
   he, she, this one. shi, ita.                take, pick up, bring along. þauki.
   Variant: [p[.
                                           v'õmõ n. (plural s'[m[)
õkõ v. (past [kk[)                             lifting opponent in the air when
   pinch, chip off, break off a piece of       wrestling. cirar
   sth. ìuci, fara, soma.  Qm                 shisshiniya.
    [kk[ b[ bx rumv qn taaba
    rovo. I broke a bit of tobacco from    ömsæ v. (past [mske)
    your piece.                                be fast asleep. amshi.
õkõnnö v.                                  ömvãn dwã n. (plural [mnan dwq)
   pinch off a fragment. èincina.              kind of water beetle. kunamar
   Variant: t[k[nn[.                           ruwa.
õlkäcí n. (plural s'õlkäcí)                õnö1 n. (plural s'[n[)
   kind of creeper or climber used for         kind of twining plant. tsiro ma
   making medicine for chickens.               yado.
   tsiro ma yado.                            õn dáptà n.
õlkö v. (past ölkk÷, active noun              variation.
   u'ölkò)                                 õnõ vi. (past [nk[, active noun s'[n)
                                               2
   1) scrape, dig up. ìwaìule.                1) cry - weep or sound. kuka.
   2) spoon out mush from cooking             2) ooze. yi naso.
   pot. kwasa.
                                             s'ön n.
õlö1 n.                                       sound. ìara.
    cough. tari. Continuous: s'õlö.
                                           [p[ (plural [pn[) = [h[.
  k'õlö n. (plural c'õlö)
    phlegm. majina. See: k'gahama.         öpúhà pro.
                                              this one. wannan. See: [punlo.
õlõ2 v. (past ölkõ)                           Variant: [puhana; [puna.
    1) scoop out small amount (e.g. oil
    using a finger). þiba.                 öpúnló pro. (plural [pnanlo)
    2) draw a bow (pull string tight to       that one. waþancan. See: [puha.
    shoot an arrow). jabaka ka                Variant: [punzo.
    harba.                                 õsö v. (past öskõ, active noun u'[s[)
  ölk táu ad phrase.                          1) be damp or ooze. mai yin
    expensive. mai tsada. See:                naso.
    k'lévê.                                   2) sweat, implying working hard.
                                              zufa.
õmgö v.
    uproot, pull up. tuge.                   d'össkæ n.
                                               trouble. damuwa.
                                               3) = gada.
                                                                             195
õs-õsõ                                                                            pad
õs-õsõ id.                                     õtõ v. (past [tk[, active noun s'[t[)
      1) damp, oozing. naso.                        fry. soya.
      2) sweating, perspiring. naso.           í'÷u n.
össkõ v.                                            shoulder of meat. karfata.
   be proud of sb. ji da.                      í'õzç n.
d'õtö n. (plural c'[t[)                             loud, unpleasant noise. surutu.
   back of the head. ìeya.

                                       P   -    p

d'pá n.                                        pàatæ2 n.
    childhood. yarinta,                             side, beside or by sth. gefe.
    ìuruciya.                                  pàav id.
pà n. (plural paana)                                sound of sudden vomiting or
    1) shikra, a small greyish hawk.                spraying. fesa.
    wani irin shaho. Accipiter                 pácàl id.
    badius.                                         sound of sth falling into shallow
    2) any bird of prey in general,                 water. facal. From: Hausa?
    including eagles, hawks etc.
    shaho.
  pàa-púsú n. (plural paa-pusnu)
    white hawk, possibly a Dark
    Chanting Goshawk. farin
    shaho. Melierax metabates.
  pàa gòngò = cev-gongo.
  pàa hwælá n.
   grasshopper-eating bird of prey.
   wani irin shaho.
pàa v. (past pàaká)
   1) hang up out of the way.
   rataya.
   2) plunge or thrust (into roof to
   keep sth out of the way). þirka.
páad adj.
   whitish. fat, kal, kas.
   Variant: paade.
d'páalá n. (plural c'paala)
   small piece, strip. yanki,
   gutsure. Variant: d'páará.
c'pàatáabà n.
   shaving of hair into three parts.
   faskare.
pàatç1 v. (past pàatkñ, active noun
   u'paato)
   take round, share, display goods
   for sale. yawata, tala.


196
pad                                                         k'palgwxvce
pad = pat.                              pàkò v.
                                            ambush, lie in wait for sth. fako.
pàdá v. (past padka)
   filter. dige.                        pákpáká adv.
                                            never ever! taba.
pàdàacú v. (past padkaacu)              pàkpàkà adv.
   hurry, move fast. hanzarto.
                                            fluttering. faffanniya,
pàdàdà = pididi.                            fiffika. Variant: pqkpqkq
pàdàt id.                                   (perceived from a distance);
    sound of sudden parting (e.g. of        pxkpxkx (for small birds).
    rope). ìatse. See: pudut.           pákpákò n. (plural s'pakpako)
pádpádá1 ad.                                Bauhinia reticulata - a kind of tree
    very white. fari ìal-ìal.               that bears long rattling pods.
                                            shakala, kargo.
pàdpàdà2 ad.
   flowing. fitowa, yayyo.                k'pákpákò n. (plural c'pákpákò)
                                            pods of the Bauhinia tree. diyan
pàgá vi. (past págkà)                       icen kargo.
   keep out of the way, avoid being
   noticed. kauce wa, laèe.             pákrá-pákrá id.
                                           crackling noise made by a bush
  à pàgà adv.                              fire. raþaþa. Variant:
   to one side, out of the way.            pxkrx-pxkrx; pukru-pukru.
   waje, a fake.
                                        pakta1 v. (past paktka) = pakda.
pàgàsá vt. (past pàgáskà)
   put aside or away. ajiye w.a.        pàktà2 n.
   waje þaya.                               kind of creeping plant with bitter
                                            roots used as medicine. jibdar
pàgát id.                                   ìasa. See: pxktx.
   sound of sth suddenly being
   forced open (with a bang). wani      pàktà3 n.
   irin motsi. See: pugut.                  kind of locust. wata irin
                                            fara.
k'pàgò n. (plural c'pago)
   compartment, hiding place,           d'pàktà v.
   crevice. lungu.                         trip sb up. tande.
k'págpágò n. (plural c'pagpago)         paktal = pxktxl.
   niche, crevice, hiding place (esp.   k'pàl gövgæ n.
   in granary or stream). saìo.            pseudo-storm during harvest
pák adv.                                   season with overcast skies but no
   never. dadai. Variant: puk.             rain. holoìo. Variant:
                                           k'palgwxvce.
pàkà v. (past pakka)
   track; hide when pursuing, in        pàlà vt. (past palka, active noun
   readiness to catch sth. faka.           c'pala)
                                           1) appease, persuade. lallasa.
pákdá v. (past pakdka)                     2) fondle. yi tsarance.
   shake off dust. girgiþa. Variant:       3) deceive, slander. ruþa,
   pakta, paktka.                           rikici, yaudara,
ù'pákdó v.                                  zambata. Variant: palga,
    1) swallow. haþiya.                    palgka; palkka.
    2) winnow. bakace.  A: Yxu         palga v. (past palgka) = pala.
    reen nu'emo? B: U el
    nu'pakdo. A: What is he doing? B:   k'palgwxvce = k'pal g[vge.
    He is winnowing.

                                                                            197
c'pàlkà                                                                  panto
c'pàlkà v.                                     sanda.
      sham, pretend. ruþu. See:               2) cut throat, slaughter. yanke
                                              wuya.
   c'lxxmsx.
                                           v'pana1 = v'hyundu.
palkka =
   pala.                                   v'pànà2 n. (plural s'pana)
                                              tribal marks. tsaga. See: pànká
                                              (medicinal cuts).
                                           d'pándá n.
                                              pick-up truck. ìaramin lori.
                                           k'pándá n. (plural c'panda)
                                              large earthenware bowl or pot
                                              used for frying food like g-nuts.
                                              babban kasko.
pàlòo ad.                                  pàngá  n.
   looking absent-mindedly. wani              outskirts - outside the settlement
   irin duba. Variant: lalloo.                area. bayan gari.
pámá1 v. (past pamka)                      pángrám  id.
   understand, find a solution to a           ring - sound of metal striking sth
   problem. ganewa.                           hard. ìara.
pàmá2 n. (plural pamna)                    pànká1  vi. (past pankka)
   kind of honey bee. kuþan zuma              turn round or over. juya.
   wani iri.
                                           pànká2  vi. (past pankka,
d'pàmà n. (plural c'pama)                     active noun c'panko)
   bell, tied to oneself to draw              cut or slit open (a part of the body)
   attention and be honoured.                 to release blood to put a charm or
   ìararrawa.                                 medicine inside. tsaga. See:
d'pàmàskºi n.                                 s'pana (cuts solely for
      freedom, the opportunity to relax.      decoration).
      daidai wani iri.                     pánksá  vt. (past
k'pámpámá n.                                  pànkská, active noun ù'pànksá)
      top of the head. tsakar kai.            1) turn (sth) over. juya.
                                              2) interpret, translate. yi
                                              fassara.
                                           pànsänhwælá n.
                                              branding iron. acuraki.
                                           pàntá v. (past pántkà)
                                              1) bring over, take across. kawo.
                                              Variant: pante, pantke;
                                              panto, pantko.
                                              2) bring sth up for discussion.
                                              tuni.
pámpàmpám id.                              k'pàntà n. (plural c'panta)
      completely finished. famfamfam.         (right) hip throw, a wrestling
pámtà vt.                                     move. dabaran kokawa. See:
   shape to fit.                              k'd[k[.
pànà v. (past panka)                       pante v. (past pantke) = panta.
   1) throw a stick at sth. jefa da        panto v. (past pantko) = panta.

198
pàp                                                                    pàsò
pàp id.                                    pàsänkãkälä
    perspiring profusely.                       
    kashirèan, daddauna.                       adv.
pàpàpà = pxpxpx.                              For no good reason, or without
                                              taking any thought for
pàpàsá v. (past papaska)                      consequences. banzan, wofi.
   tilt over, pour from one vessel into       Variant: pasnukqkqlq.
   another. juye. Variant: pasasa;
   patasa; pataska.                        à'páskà adj. (plural c'paska;
                                              s'paska)
pàpärsà v. (past papqrska)                    much, many, in large numbers. da
   fight with or shout at sb in an            yawa.
   angry manner. santawa.
                                           páskà v.
pàppàa adv.                                    have a tendency to. faye,
   hanging low. rataya kasa-                   fayewa.
   kasa. Variant: pqppqq;
   pqppqppqq; pxppxx;
   pxppxppxx.
páprà v. (past papqrka)
   roast sth hurriedly. soyawa,
   gashi.
pàràs id.
    pierce, break through. soka.
pàrásnæ prep.
    underneath, beneath.
    ìarìashin.
párát id.
    popped (e.g. into burrow),
    entering with speed or by force.
    ìudus, kuþe, bukut.
    Variant: purut; p[r[t; karat.
pás1 id.
    chocked full, full to the brim.
    tatil.
pàs2 id.
    crack - sound of pot or eggs
    breaking. ìarar fasawa.
    Variant: cas.
pàsà v. (past páskà)
    cross over (e.g. road, bridge).
    ìetara.
  d'pàsà n. (plural c'pasa)
    gateway, crossing place, over a
    river or stream. mafita. 
    Hyomso gedk na d'pasa. A
    hippopotamus has blocked the [river]
    crossing.
pasasa = papasa.


                                                                           199
pàsò                                                                     pqgpqgq
pàsò n.                                      c'pátpátò n.
      across, over (there) or the other         porridge-like mixture of flour put
      side, e.g. a new settlement of a          into boiling water to start making
      town across a river. ìetare,              mush food. ruþa. See: d'gaa.
      ìalìashi. See: m'pãsãnnã.              pátrà v. (past patqrka)
pàspásò adv.                                    1) twist together, tangle. gicci.
   on both sides. kowane gefe,                  See: sqblq.
   hagu da dama.                                2) sling across shoulder. saèa.
pástæ v. (past pastke)                       pàvàvà ad.
   1) take across. ìetara,                       looking directly at sb, glaring.
   ìaìaba.  Past i'hon qn rigt                  kafa ido ko haskakawa.
      qn gen. Take the calabash across the   pàzàzzà ad.
      river.                                     with sparks. tartsatsi.  U
      2) transfer, move from one                 bonko cek qn hwela pazazza.
      container to another.                      She threw a burning stick with a cloud
pát id.                                          of sparks. Variant: pyazaza.
   1) 'twang' - sound made by                pãqkä v.
   bowstring or catapult when                    temporarily fix hairstyle, tie slackly
   released. wani irin motsi.                    as temporary measure.
   2) 'crack' - sound of a stick                 lallaèa, kumbuce.
   breaking suddenly. ìarar
   fasawa.                                   pãql id.
   3) sound of passing wind. ìarar              1) shooting up suddenly, legs
   tusa. Variant: pet; p[t; put;                flailing, with a pop! kwado.
   pud; pad; bip.                               2) sudden opening of eyes.
                                                Variant: vqql.
pátá1 n. (plural patana)
   Fork-tailed Bush Katydid, a kind of       päqrã v. (past pqqrkq, active noun
   grasshopper. wata irin                       u'pqqru)
   fara. Scudderia furcata.                     spin thread. kada zare.
pàtà2 v. (past patka, active noun            päqrã v. (past päqrkã)
   u'pato)                                      roll cotton between hand to make
   pour out gently. tsiyaya.                    thread. burunta.
pátàl id.                                    pãqsä v. (past pqqskq)
      1) fallen and looking helpless,           take down, pull off. ciro.
      limp.                                  päqtä päqtä adv.
      2) swinging from side to side.            stagger, (walking) unsteadily,
      lilo, shillo.                             shakily, as if drunk. wata irin
ù'pátàllæ n.                                    tafiya.
   kind of grass. wani irin                  pãdkä vi. (past pqdkkq)
   haki.                                        wake up. falka, farka.
patasa v. (past pataska) =                   pãgãsä v. (past pqgqskq)
   papasa.                                      chip piece off. sassaìa,
pàtàtà = p[t[t[.                                þaiþaye, taya.
pàtärskà v.                                  pãgísî v. (past pqgiski, active noun
      place across, sling across.               d'pqgisi)
      harþa.                                    stumble, stub (foot) against sth.
                                                tuntuèe.
                                             pqgpqgq = pxgpxgx.

200
päkädknäq                                                                  pæcó
päkädknäq ad.                              pãp id.
    1) not balanced, precarious, e.g.         pop! - suddenly burst out (e.g. a
    sth improperly seated on its base.        cork). èilla.
    bai tsaya daidai ba.                  pãpkä v. (past pqkkq)
    T[[sqd ta twxxsx da, d emk                1) blaze up (fire). hangula.
    pqkqdknqq. The load is not balanced,      2) rise up in anger (e.g. to defend
    it is precarious.                         one's ground). tashi da
   2) indecently (describing a way of         fushi.
   sitting exposing oneself). wawan           3) burst out, like a pruned tree.
   zama.                                      fid da dure.
k'pãkämpãkmù n. (plural
   c'pqkqmpqkmu)                           pãpksî v. (past pqpkski)
   hole to hide in (e.g. in bank of            flutter. faffaka.
   river), lair. lungu, lugga.             pqppqq = pappaa.
pãkãmsú v. (past pqkqmsku)                 pãppãsã v. (past pqppqskq)
   throw handfuls. afi. See:                   continue. ci gaba. Variant:
   lqkqmsku.
                                               tqttqsq, tqtqskq.
pãkdä v.
    be careless, act without taking        pqrqmcuu = pqluu.
    care, give an opportunity.             pãräntã v. (past pqrqntkq)
    sakaci.                                    do sth but not quite complete, give
s'päkî n.                                      up when one is close. gaza.
    a person (often a child) who cries
    continuously without a good            pãrpägù n. (plural s'pqrpqgu)
    reason. jinjini.                           kind of shrub. rawaya.
                                               Cochlospernum tintocrium.
pãkpãkã adv.
   with a flapping of wings (seen          k'pãrú n. (plural c'pqru)
   from a distance and almost                  flower. fure.
   inaudible). faffaka,                    pqruu = pqluu.
   fiffika. See: pakpaka.
pãkú n. (plural pqknu)                     pãsãnnä v. (past pqsqnkq)
   Long-tailed Nightjar. yautai.               cross, climb over or pass by force.
   Scotornis climacurus.                       ìetare.
pãlä v. (past pqlkq, active noun             m'pãsãnnã vn.
   u'pqlu)                                     across, over. ìetaren, a kan.
   bloom, blossom, flower. fure ta         pãt id.
   huda, yi fure. Variant:                     lurch, roll suddenly, suddenly slip
   pílä, pilkq.
                                               from sb's grasp. suèul.
pälkã v.
    resurface, flower. sake tashi.         pãtã v. (past pätkã, active noun
                                               c'pãtã)
pãlùu ad.                                      1) be superior to, surpass,
    looking faint, absent-minded.              exceed, be more than. fifita,
    shiru. Variant: pqruu;                     fifice, fifiko, gota,
    pqrqmcuu.                                  þare, gagara.
päm id.                                        2) be older then. gazaguru,
   suddenly. kacièis.                          þara.
pãnkã  = boma.                      pãtãsä vt. (past pãtäskã)
                                               give more than. bayar fiye
                                               da.
                                                                               201
pçckæ                             pæcó
pçckæ adv.
      close. kusa da, a matse.
      See: kyúnksí 'very near'.




202
pæcó                                                                   pçzpçzç
pæcó v. (past pecko)                        pæntà n. (plural pentna)
    put something on the fire to cook           Common Bulbul. wani irin
    or boil it. aza.                            tsuntsu. Pycnonotus barbatus.
                                            pçrämkà v.
                                                meditate, think about. tuna.
                                            pçrçrç adj.
                                               long, narrow, thin and upright
                                               (usu. of trees). firiri. Variant:
                                               perpere.
                                            pæræræ n. (plural s'pæræræ)
                                               kind of grass with hollow stem
                                               which can be used as a straw;
                                               reed. wani irin haki.
                                            pçrmá n.
d'pæcó n. (plural c'peco)                       kind of Sorghum. wata irin
    one stone out of the three which            dawa.
    form a native cooking place.
    murfu.                                  pærmò n.
                                               contemplation, meditation,
pçdç pçdç adv.                                 thought, reflection. zulumi.
    at the side. matso-matso.
                                            perpere = pæræræ.
pæesò n.                                    pæsà v.
    stirring of mush food with a stick.
    tuìa tuwo.                                  flick, chip off, slice off. èalgace,
                                                èagure, gididdiba,
pægá vt. (past pegka; pekka)                    datsa.
    prop up, put close together.            pæsmò n. (plural pesqmno)
    þaura daura da, ajiya                      1) sterility, being unable to
    kusa.  Hav qv pegam i'doro                produce offspring. bakarariya.
    ban hwela. Go and put the pot near         2) eunuch, sexually impotent man
    the fireplace for me. See: bægá 'prop      or woman. marmata, maza-
    up'.                                       mata.
pækà v. (past pekka)                        pet = pat.
    (try to) lift a heavy load.
    þaþþaka, þaga.                          pætà v.
                                               cook by boiling. dafa, girka.
pækãdknæe ad.
    swollen or puffed up, about to          pæzá v. (past pezka)
    burst. èaloèalo, bamban.                   brush off, shake off. kakkaèe.
pækãdsá v. (past pekqdska)                  v'pæzá n. (plural s'peza)
    squeeze. kusa.                             dried pole, rail stuck in the middle
                                               of a compound with hooks or
ù'pæktá n.                                     dried branches used for hanging
    foam, lather. kumfa.                       domestic materials on. jigo,
                                               maratayi.
pælá v. (past pçlkà)
    reappear, become visible again          pçzgà v. (past pezgka)
    having faded or died away (of the          sweep or shake off dust, etc.
    moon). ganin sabo wata.                    kakkaèe.
ù'pçló n.                                   pçzpçzç adj.
    spring gushing out of rock.                 neat and tidy. tsabtace.
    marmaro.

                                                                                203
pê                                                                        pépkê
pê1 v. (past pxxkx)                          pêktãmpê n. (plural pxktqmpxnx)
       open. buþe.
pé adv.
   2

   where. ina. Variant: påx.
pédédé = pididi.
péxkò v.
   1) turn things upside down in
   search of sth. kifa na
   cigita.                                       butterfly. malam-buþe-
   2) reveal secret. tonawa                      littafi, almanani.
   asiri.
                                             pékté n.
pêxré v. (past pxxrkx)                           kind of twining plant used as a
   be stealthy, quiet. yin tsanda.               cure for stomach pain. wasu
v'péxré n. (plural s'pxxrx)                      irin tsire-tsire. Variant:
   long, narrow piece of land. gefe.             pakta.
pêxté n. (plural s'pxxtx)                    péktél adv.
   1) moon. wata (lokaci).                      manner of thin person or animal
   2) month. wata (lokaci).                     falling flat on the ground. wani
                                                irin motsi, ramame.
péxù adv.                                       Variant: paktal (heavier object
       lying flat and straight. miìe.           falling).
pégpégé adv.                                 pélé v. (past pxlkx)
       tied loosely at the base.                rend, tear (off), rip. tsaga,
       sokosoko. Variant: pqgpqgq.              keta, yaga.
péhá pro.                                    k'pêlêtò n. (plural pxlxtno)
       where. ina ne nan. Variant:              Fulani person. filani.
       pxna.
c'péi n.                                     pêmké v.
                                                run away, start off early in the
   traditional ceremony held to                 morning, take to one's heels.
   appease the gods before starting             kalkala.
   g[lm[. wata irin al'ada.
k'pêipêi n. (plural c'pxipxi)                pxna = pxha.
   circular mat used for covering            pêndé v. (past pxndkx, active noun
   vessels. faifai, taitai.                     u'pxndo)
                                                peel off, strip. zaga.
pékãdpékdò adv.
       sickly or stunted (of sth growing).   pêp id.
       tamilo, ìyamo.                            in a snatching manner. fizga,
                                                 shakaf.
pêké vt.
   inspect. duba.                            pépépé id.
                                                1) sound of the wind blowing.
k'péké n. (plural c'pxkx)                       motsin iska.
   hand-woven fan made from frond               2) hanging near to the ground.
   leaves. mahihita, bigimi,                    ìasa-ìasa. Variant: pipipi;
   mafaifaici. Small: d'pxkx.                   papapa.
pxkpxkx                                      pépkê v. (past pxpkkx, active noun
   (specifically for smaller birds). =          s'pxpko)
   pakpaka.                                     talk or scold with loud voice.
pxkrx pxkrx = pakra-pakra.                      kuwwata fada da karfi.

204
péplê                                                                     pînkã
péplê n.                                  pîdù adv.
   Vetiveria zizaniodes - a kind of           (leave) completely, disappear for
   scented grass. jema. Veviteria             a long time or always. fafau,
   zizaniodes.                                daþai.  U giik pidu, u ta
péppå v. (past péppêké)                       sudu han da. She went back
   burn clear an area as a fire               completely, and did not come back
   defence around one's compound              again.
   after the rains have gone. ìuna        pîisù v. (past piisku, active noun
   wuri.                                      u'piisu)
pxppxx = pappaa.                              be fit and healthy, feel well.
                                              lafiya.
pérpéré adj.
   sleek, smooth (of hair or animal's     pílä1 v.
   fur). sumul.                              wipe. yace.
pésê v. (active noun u'pxso)              pílä2 v. (past pilkq, active noun
   shell, peel, skin. èara.                  u'pilu) = pqlq.
pétälké v.                                pílãmmáláká n. (plural
   large (size or amount). yana da           s'pilqmmaka)
   girma. Variant: kxpqlkx.                  kind of grass with sharp seeds
                                             which stick to clothes. wani
pétê v. (past pêtké)                          irin haki, dauþar bayi.
   rush in, burst in. shiga, ìuso,
   shigada sauri wani iri.                pílãmpílmù adj.
                                             scanty, having hardly enough. na
v'pété n. (plural s'pxtx)                    kaþan.
   splinter. sartse.
                                          pillqmmalaka = illqmmalaka.
pêtké v.
   barge in - enter without waiting for   pîm id.
   an invitation. kutsa.                     very swollen. sutu-sutu,
                                             tim.
pî n. (plural píinî)
   weevil, a very small brown grain-      pimqsq v. (past pimqskq) = l[[se.
   eating insect with a long snout.       pîmkã adj.
   maya, kwarin wake.                        deep. yi zurfi.
   Curculionidae.                         pîndã v. (past pindkq, active noun
m'pî n.                                      u'pindu; c'pindu)
   1) black liquid                           wipe up, use finger to clean a
   women use to                              bowl of soup. suþe, kwanþe.
   decorate their                         píndpíndù adj.
   faces. galena.                            messy or scruffy. sudi,
   2) ink. inki.                             barkatai.
v'pî n. (plural s'pi)                     píndù n. (plural pindnu)
   pin, safety pin.                          'stink ant' - smelly black ant.
   fil.                                      gwano.
pícàl = pítàl.                            ù'píndù n.
pídídí id.                                   kind of smell. wani irin
    ponderously (of sth being                wari.
    dragged). giriri. Variant:            pînkã  v. (past pinkkq)
    padada; pududu (also of                  wipe. yace, share.
    diarrhoea); pxdxdx (of small thing
    or diarrhoea).

                                                                                  205
píp                                                                          pòtà
píp id.                                     pizal = pital.
   sound of sth heavy falling from a        pó vi.
   height. tim.                                 tire. gaji.
pipipi = pxpxpx.                            m'pò n.
pîprî adv.                                      fatigue, tiredness. gajiya,
      1) at the same time. a lokaci             kasala.
      þaya.                                 d'pòdçsæ v.
      2) together. tare.                       sustain a bruise. kuje.
      3) bumping into sb you know
      unexpectedly. yi kicièis da.          pòdkò adj. (plural podkno)
                                               immature (of grasshopper) -
pîrît adj.                                     without wings. ìaramin fara
      tiny, very fast and sudden (of            wanda bai isa gashin
      movement). sirit.                         tashi ba.
pîrõ excl.                                  pódmà v.
      'good luck'. wani irin dace,              scrape off or remove bark.
      sa'a.                                     kankare, èulguta,
pîs v.                                          èambara.
   ignore call. funfiris,                   pògà v. (past pogka)
   daìeìe.                                     break a bit off. èulguta.
písä v. (past pîskã)                        d'pòglá n. (plural c'pòglá)
   1) spray or spit out. fesa,                 hat. hulla.  Qm waka
   furza.  Kadav pisq c'txi                   d'pogla. I bought a hat. See:
      lev uhna. Do not spit on this side.      d'zemna.
      2) spread out again (e.g. tree).
      yaþa.                                 pòlà n. (plural polna)
                                               wasp. rina.
d'pískù n.
      libation - offering poured out to a   pómà n. (plural pomna)
      god. rifa.                               blind person. makaho.
d'pîsú v.                                   m'pómà n.
      sprout. toho.                             blindness. makanta.
pît id.                                     pòoká v.
      (slip off) suddenly. sundule,            be tired. gulèe, jakkata.
      sulmiya.                              pòolá v. (past poolka)
pítàl id.                                      1) grind sth for second or third
      falling flat on the ground. wani         time. tisa.
      irin faþuwa, wani irin                   2) do again, redo. tumfusa,
      motsi. Variant: pizal; pícàl.            tishi.
í'pítälkã n.                                pòoyã adj.
   being in a mess. masu wani                  new. sabo.
   iri.                                     poppo = pipri.
pítlä v. (past pítälkã, active noun         d'pórò n. (plural c'poro)
   c'pítlä)                                    swelling, blister. kumburi.
   struggle with lack and feeling
   disturbed or in disorder, not able       pòtà v. (past potka, active noun
   to do what you want/plan to do              d'poto)
   (impersonal). rashin dama.                  sprout, grow. bunìu,
                                                dumèaru, tsira, kumburo.
pítlî pítlî adv.
      muddled up, confused. tauyaye.
206
pòtánkà                                                               põrpõrõ
  c'pòtkà-pótkà n.                         põkrõ põkrõ adv.
   plants or things that sprout in            abundantly (of fruit falling).
   general. tsire.                            raèaèa.
pòtánkà  v.                    pöksõ v. (past p[ksk[)
   press down on sth with the edge            make sth dirty. ìazanta (da).
   or tip of sth. dirtse.                  põktò n.
pótämkà v.                                     thresh unripe guinea corn. gyara
    pinch continuously. muntsuna,              dawa wanda be bushe ba.
    tsungula.                              põlõlõ adv.
pòtämskà v.                                   noiselessly moving, like a snake.
    pester. addaba.                           sululu.
d'pótó n.                                  põndõ n. (plural s'p[nd[)
    illness accompanying teething.            Odina barteri, the resin-bearing
    tamowa.                                   tree. faru. Lannea microcarpa;
d'pöccò n.                                    Lannea fruticosa.
   life. rai. See: põtõ.                     m'põndõ n.
v'põdç n. (plural s'p[ds'pode)                the very small fruit of Odina
   line, strip (of land for farming).         barteri. þiyan faru.
   gargare.                                v'põnî n. (plural s'p[ni)
d'põdæ n.                                     small piece of meat. tsoka.
    small, marked piece of (usu.)          põ[ v. (past p[[k[)
    land. ìaramin fili.                       1) ripen fruit by storing. nuka.
í'põdæ n.                                     2) leave to ferment. ruèa.
   direction, portion or part. shiyya.     pö[c'kàlà greeting.
pödmõ v. (past põdämkõ)                       greetings! sannu. See:
   beat person or animal gently.              h[[c'kala.
   dandaìa.                                põ[cõ n. (plural s'p[[c[)
põdõdõ = p[t[t[.                              hungry rice. acca, intaya.
põgö vi. (past p[gk[, active noun          c'pö[knõ n.
   s'p[g[)                                    early morning rain, starting either
   call. kira.  A caav p[g[                  side of sunrise. ruwan sama
    netav rovo. Later on call your wife.      da safe.
pök1 id.                                   pö[sõ v. (past p[[sk[)
    sleeping soundly. wata irin               greet. sannu.
    ìara.                                    pö[sbàadç greeting.
põk2 id.                                       'well done!'. sannu kadai.
   'plop'. wata irin ìara.                 d'pö[ssõ n. (plural c'p[[ss[)
   Variant: p[kd[.                             greeting, act of greeting.
p[kd[ = p[k2.                                  gaisuwa.
põkönnõ v.                                 í'põpæ n.
    kill by beating. buge.                     whitlow. danìankare.
põkpõkõ adv.                               põppö v.
    with oil marks. shafa.                    grill, toast or singe. babbaka.
pökrö n.                                   p[r[t = parat.
    epidemic that kills large numbers
    of people. amamegi, annoba.

                                                                                 207
põrpõrõ                                                                 d'pùnkù
põrpõrõ adj.                                púkpúknàamná n.
   smooth, without a scratch.                   type of shrub whose leaves are
   sumul-sumul.                                 used for medicine or soup. ganye
p[t = pat.                                      irin na magani ko
                                                namiya.
põtõ adj.
      immature (of fruit), unripe, raw.     púkpúkù n.
      danyu, danye.  U kaaka                   the Sodom apple shrub.
      c'gol c'p[t[. She plucked some            tumfafiya. Calotropis procera.
      immature locust bean pods. Variant:   pùkpùkù ad.
   gqmq; gim[.                                  with difficulty (esp. of cooking, e.g.
põtõ v. (past pötkõ, active noun                lighting fire from wet wood).
   à'põtõ)                                      dawiya.
   give birth, live (hence 'life'). rai,    m'pùkrù n.
   haifuwa. See: d'pöccò.                       moth. fiyaye.
põtõtõ id.                                  pùktî-pùktî ad.
    sound made when squeezing sth              with an effort or struggle.
    out of a tube or pot. motsin               dawiya.
    pita. Variant: patata; p[d[d[.          pùktú1 v. (past puktku)
pú v. (past puuku)
  1
                                               1) try very hard to overcome sth
    boil. tafasa.                              difficult. matsa dai.
pù2 v. (past puuku)                            2) smother (self) in dust. butu-
    wrap. kumsa.                               butu.
pud = pat.                                  pùktù2 n.
                                                1) desire or craving for meat.
pùdùdù = pididi.                                kwaþayi, kwadai.
pùdùt = padat.                                  2) kind of grasshopper. wata
                                                irin fara.
d'pùgé n. (plural c'pugx)
    raised platform of beaten mud -         pùlàa adv.
    for sitting on or storing pots away        in a cloud (e.g. of dust). buya.
    from ground. wani irin daèe.               Variant: pula-pula; pulxx.
pùgù v. (past pugqmku)                      pùlê n. (plural c'pulx)
    chip off. èantale.                         brain. kwanya.
púgút = pagat.                              pulxx = pulaa.
puk1 = pak.                                 d'pulu = d'kulx.
pùk2 id.                                    pùlù v. (past púlkù)
      'thud'. þima, bif.                       take a small amount of sth. þiba
                                               kadan.
pùkàa id.
   1) foaming. tashin kumfa.                ù'pùn n.
   2) cloud of dust or kapok-pollen             dawn, the beginning of day.
   blown by wind. bununin rimi.                 assalatu.
   Variant: puka-puka.                      púngù  v. (past pungku)
d'púkkãmpùrî n. (plural                         glean. kala.
   c'pukkqmpuri)                              c'púngù  n.
   kind of drum. wata irin                      second gleaning (of groundnuts,
   ganga.                                       sweet potatoes, etc.). ìwarce.



208
d'pùnkù                                pùsúkù
d'pùnkù  n. (plural
    c'punku)
    parcel, bundle, package, sth
    wrapped. ìunsa, ìunshi.
m'púpsù n.
    smell of burnt hair. ìauri.
púrtkã v.
    burst. fashe, èarke.
púrtskã v.
   hatched. ìyanìyashe.
púrtù v. (past purtku, active noun
   d'purtu; u'purtu)
   burst. fashe, èarke.
pùrùs adv.
   easily. sauìa.
pùrùsú v. (past purusku)
   burst, break through, e.g. when
   digging a hole or tunnel. kutsa,
   fasa.
purut1 = parat.
purut2 = parat.
pus1 = mus.
pùs2 adv.
   in a puff (of smoke). busar,
   hayaki.
pùsãsä v. (past pusqskq)
   make whiter, whiten; (met.
   brighten). faranta.
î'pùsî adj.
    white. fari.
pùspùsù adj.
    not pure white, off-white. ba
    fari ba sosai.
ù'pùsú n.
    luck, fortune or chance. a'falu,
    gantaka.




                                           209
pùsúkù                                                                         ràdàdà
pùsúkù v.                                       pùzàl id.
      be white. yi fari.                           manner of fall of something which
pùsúu c'débé n.                                    was moving (legs all over the
   rejoicing. hamdala.                             place). wani irin faþuwa.
put = pat.                                      pyàa v. (past pyaaka)
                                                   trim, pare - cut away the outer
pùtämsú v. (past putqmskq, active                  part. yanke, gefe. Variant:
   noun d'putmu)                                   pya.
   gulp, scoff, eat too quickly.
   gumbuþa, handama.                            pyàaz id.
                                                     twinkling of light. haskawa
puttq v. (past putkq) = putti.                       wani iri.
púttí v. (past putki)                           pyál id.
   take back, return. mayar. Variant:              bright and clean in appearance.
   puttq, putkq.                                   kakat.
c'pútú n.                                       pyángás  adj.
   melting of old pieces of metal to               1) empty, vacant. ba kome.
   form into new tools. rambaþe,                   2) clear. See: cadas.
   rawaye.
                                                pyás id.
d'pùtú n. (plural c'putu)                            (washed) clear, spotless.
   bundle. kumshi, dunkule.                          ìwashal.
pùtù v. (past pútkù)                            pyã excl.
   1) return. koma.                                  begging word used during the
   2) fold. naþe.  Hav qv put                       d'Biti celebration. kalmar
      rik-d'lqcu. Go and fold sleeping-              roko, barka.  A: "D'Biti
      mat.                                           pyq." B: "Vola bqr vo pyq".
c'púuknù n.                                          A: "Happy d'biti" B: "Same to you."
      small gift, usually given to sb who       pyãqksä v. (past pyqqkskq)
      has given you a larger one. nuna               finish telling sth, say all that you
      godiya, toshi.                                 want. faþi ko menene.
pùutãq adv.                                     pyõtõ adj.
      unclear, dull - not easy to see               unripe. rashin ìosawa,
      through. dushi-dushi,                         þaita.
      lumshe. See: buutqq. Variant:
      puu.                                        d'pyõtõ adj. (plural c'py[t[)


                                      R     -    r

ràabá n.                                        ràbgsá v. (past rabgska)
      kind of guinea corn. wata irin               lift up heavy load. ciccièa.
      dawa.                                     v'ràbó n. (plural s'rabo)
ràatàa adv.                                        strap used for hanging things.
      swinging, dangling. reto. Variant:           maratayi. Variant: v'rapco.
      raata-raata; rqqtqq; r[[t[[.              ràdá v. (past radka)
ràbàbà adv.                                        grill or toast. babbaka.
      talking angrily, acting roughly and       rádádá1 ad.
      unpleasantly. èaèèaki. Variant:                erect, upright. tsaye.
      radada.

210
ràdàdà                                                                  rãkrãkã
ràdàdà2 = rababa.                           k'ràkkã d'bàtà n. (plural
rádbà v.                                        c'rakkq d'batana)
    toast half-way, roast. ìuna.                old cow, bull or person.
                                                gyatuma, guzma.
ràdbàl adv.                                 ràkràkà ad.
   scalded, raw (of skin which has
   been burnt). bushewar jiki.                  not quite full - 3/4 full. cika.
   Variant: radboo.                         rákráknà n.
radboo = radbal.                               stunted, poor-quality beans.
                                               tsaurare.
rádgà v. (past radgka)
   thrash, beat. buga, daka.                ràktá v. (past raktka)
                                               winnow corn with a calabash or
v'rádó n. (plural s'rado)                      tray. bakace, fetane.
   thunder (a peal of). tsawa,
   aradu. See: k'bagagau. Variant:          ràkúmî n. (plural n/a)
   v'txno. From: Hausa?                        camel. ra'kumi. From: Hausa.
k'ràdó n. (plural s'rado)                   ràn n. (plural ranna)
   long guinea cornstalk flute or              tsetse fly. ìudan tsando,
   horn. karan busawa wani                     barbaje, bobuwa.
   iri.                                     ràngäv-nù'cón
rágà n. (plural c'raga)                           n. (plural
   old cloth. tsofon riga. From:               ràngs-nù'cón)
   English.                                    ear lobe. rafani,
                                               cililliga.
                                             ràngæ  n. (plural
                                               s'range)
                                               vegetable creeper, a twining plant
rágdá adv.                                     (crocodile tears). yaþiya.
   slackly, loosely. mai kasala                Leptadenia lancifolia; Leptadenia
   ko sako-sako. Variant:                      hastata.
   ragdaa; ragda-ragda.                     v'rápcò n. = v'rabo.
rágtà v. (past ragtka)                      rápæ n. (plural rapene)
   attach loosely. sako-sako.                  lunged mud-fish. gawo.
   Variant: r[gt[, r[gtk[.
ràkà v. (past rakka)                        v'ràpó n. (plural s'rapo)
                                               sling. maratayi.
   slap. mara.
ràkàkà ad.                                  ràsá v. (past raska)
                                               step (in dance). taìai.
    1) high-spirited, boisterous
    (negative - implies disturbance).       rãqtãq = raataa.
    maitsima, cashewa.  A                  rãbãm id.
    c'gqi ceka bo rakaka. The                  drooping (of ears). lafi.
    bride and groom arrived boisterously.
   2) haughty. izza.                        k'rägdä n. (plural s'rqgdq;
                                               c'rqgdq)
ràkásà1 n. (plural rakasana)                   dewlap. bambakwali.
   hippopotamus. dorina.
                                            m'rãgdä n. (plural c'rqgdq)
ràkásà2 n.                                     wattle. layun tumaki.
    irrational fear of the unknown.
    abin da wuce ikon þan                   rãkrãkã v.
    Adam.                                       make a very sharp cut in sb's
                                                throat. yankan maìashi.

                                                                                   211
rängkã                                                                     rçmç
rängkã  adv.                    rçdçdç adj.
   breaking, about to break. ya              puffed up in anger. gabanya.
   nuna alaman karewa.                    rægdá v. (past rægädkà)
rqngrqngu = rxngrxngo.                       1) guard, protect. yi gadi. 
rãnkã rãnkã                                   Nokav regdam k'maatu. Come
        adv.                 and guard the car.
      dangling, swinging. ranga-             2) stand somewhere waiting (for
      ranga. See: raataa.                    someone to come back). jira.
räp adv.                                  rægdò n. (plural s'regdo)
      tightly, a good fit (of something      horseradish. zogale.
      closed). daidai-wadaida.            v'rægdò n. (plural s'regdo)
räpräpä adv.                                 black spot on body, which
   blinking. marmadi wani iri.               everyone is supposed to have
                                             somewhere.
rãrmù n. (plural rqrqmnu)
   large kind of cricket, possibly the    k'regrege = k'megmege.
   field cricket. gyare. Grillus          rçgrçgç adv.
   assimilis.                                 glaring, staring, looking directly at
s'rqru n.                                     sb. zura ido.
      beard (sg = 1 hair of beard).       rægsá v.
      gemu. Sg:                               aim at. auna, baraci.
      v'rãrù.                             î'rækç adj.
rãrùv töngnõ                                 small in size. ìarami. Variant:
                                 u'reke, u'reko; i'rweke,
       n.                              u'rweke, u'rweko.
      first part of the                   u'reko = i'reke.
      guinea worm to
      come out.                           ræmàa adv.
      gemun                                   hanging on. rataya. Variant:
      kurkunu.                                rema-rema.
rãtãtã adv.                               rçmän conj.
      in large bunches. itace haihu           because. domin.
      da yawa.                            ræmbá n. (plural s'remba)
ræ v (cop).                                   kind of fig-tree. èaure. Ficus spp.
      be. See: el.                          d'ræmbá n. (plural c'remba)
í'ræbç n.                                     fig. guluba.
   occiput, the back of the head or         ræmbá-bîdõ n. (plural
   skull. kwanya, ìyeya.                      s'remba-bid[)
rçbgà n. (plural rebgna)                      kind of fig-tree. wani irin
   kind of tiger fish. baìin kifi.            itacen èaure. Variant:
   Alestes spp.                               remba-terse.
d'ræbó n.                                   ræmbá-téxsé n. (plural
   1) handicap, deformity (e.g.               s'remba-txxsx)
   blindness, amputated leg or arm).          kind of fig-tree that bears fruit on
   rata, nakassashe.                          all its trunks and branches. wani
   2) insult against sb (or curse).           irin itacen èaure.
   a'ana.                                 rçmç adv.
v'rædç n. (plural s'rede)                     by accident. hasara.
   rough-edged back. ìege.
212
d'rçmç                           rçmtà
d'rçmç n. (plural c'reme)
    1) tongue. harshe.
    2) language. harshe, yare,
    lahaja.
    3) tribe. kabila, ìabila.
s'ræmrçmæ n.
    insolence, complaining or
    whinging. tsiwa.
ù'ræmrçmæ n.
    sweetness. zaìi.




                                    213
rçmtà                                                                   rêdî'õ
rçmtà v. (past remtka)                    ræsá v. (past reska)
   murmur, say sth of complaint, but          stop crying, settle down again
   not as repeatedly as remreme.              after crying. bari kuka.
   guni.                                  m'ræsá n.
rænà v. (past renka)                          pure, clear looking water (in a well
   bate or set trap. haìo, haka.              after sediment has settled).
   See: reno.                                 ruwan da bai, gurbace
v'rændà-rçndà n. (plural                      ba.
   s'renda-renda)                         ræsásà v. (past resaska)
   sign which may warn of sth like           pacify. lallasa.
   rain coming soon. haþari ya            ræsçsæ v. (past reseske)
   shiriyo sosai.  Mxnk emka                be quiet and still (little or no
      v'renda-renda. The rain has given      movement). shiru.
      a (warning) sign.
                                          rçssæ v. (past rçskæ)
rængrængò  ad.                 scoop out all the water from a well
   uneasy, nervous, hesitant. dube-          or container. kwalhe,
   dube. Variant: rensrenso.                 ìwarfata.  U zeka az u
rçnkà  v.                            reske. He said that he has scooped
   swell. tashi, fushi. Variant:              out all the water.
   rengka.                                rætînæ v (aux).
rçnó n.                                   c'rçtó n.
   poison; poisoning. sammu. See:             insinuation, innuendo. hasashe,
   rena.                                      arashi, habaici.
rensrenso = rengrengo.                    rçvkà v.
rærá v.                                       be difficult or hard to sort out, a
      repeat. sake.                           dilemma. èata cewa.
ræræ n.                                   rævkà-rævkà adv.
      'false sesame leaves' herb.             fidgeting - not staying in one
      karkashi. Ceratotheca                   place. rashin nasuwa wuri
      sesamoides.                             þai ya.
  m'rærç n.                               rçvrçvç adj.
      leaves of above. karkashi.              pointed. cini, kaifi,
  ræræ-núcòpó n.                              kakkaifa.
    kind of above. bataìashi.             rçvtkà v.
k'ræræ n.                                     be sharp or creating a mood of
   unusual anthill with holes near the        unsteadiness. mai tsini
   base. jièa. Variant: k'riri                halayya.
   (Pani dialect).                        d'rævtkç n.
v'ræræ n. (plural s'rere)                    unnecessary extra work on sth
   staff of the magaze (clan-leader).        which is already working. kadaka
   kandiri. Variant:                         jawo barna.
   rerev-magaazi.                         rçvtsà v. (past revtska)
rærgò n. (plural s'rergo)                    sharpen. fiìe.
   ululation, high-pitched trilling.      rédêdé ad.
   murya mai karfi, guda.                     cry continuously. jini-jini.
rçs adv.                                  rêdî'õ n.
      to the brim. mankas.                    radio. rediyo. From: English.

214
rêk                                                                    rígãlcù
rêk adv.                                   rézgné n.
    brim-full, full to the brim. tumbul.      necklace of beads worn round
    Variant: rxkrxkx.                         one's neck. sarìa.
m'réksé n.                                 k'rî n. (plural c'rî)
    a reasonable amount, moderate             thing. abu, kaya.
    quantity. daidai wa daida,               rî nà'yòmkò n.
    madaidaici.                                piece of equipment, apparatus,
réksåi adv.                                    tool. kayan aiki, na'ura.
    in the appropriate amount and no       rí pro.
    more. daidaici, defana.                   me, my. ni.
réndî n.                                   rîbgã v. (past ridgkq)
    beauty, fine-looking girl or lady.        set (of sun), fall (of darkness).
    kyakkyawa.                                faþuwar rana.
rêndò n.                                   k'ríbí n. (plural c'ribi)
   beauty (the abstract concept).             mushroom. naman kaza
   kyau.                                      kashin wata.
v'rêngê  n. (plural            m'ríbí n.
   s'rxngx)                                    moss, lichen, fungus. wata
   woven frond sack used for                   irin raèar dutse, rima.
   packing local rock-salt for sale.
   wani irin buhu.                         ríbíbí adv.
                                               trooping in large numbers.
rêngké  v.                           rututu.
   be about to cut off. kusan
   tsinkewa.                               rîcãd'hî n.
                                               traditional gift of food items left by
rêngrêngó  ad.                     sb who has just died. biya
   worn out or chopped out at a                gawa jingur.
   point, and about to snap (e.g.          rîddãhî n.
   rope). kusan katsewa, ko                    handkerchief, headscarf. adiko.
   canyewan abu. Variant:
   rqngrqngu.                              rídídí id.
                                               in a herd, clamour, shout for.
rérésê v. (past rérêské)                       ribibi, cuu. See: ribibi.
   sneak off, stealthily walk away.
   sulale. Variant: lélésê                 rídkù adj.
   (Rikoto).                                   brownish. ìasa-ìasa. Variant:
                                               sidksidku.
c'résé n.
    fornication between young people,      rígä1 n. (plural s'rigq)
    custom where a girl is permitted           shea-nut tree. kaþanya. Vitellaria
    mutual masturbation with a boy             paradoxa.
    provided actual connection does          d'rígä n. (plural c'rigq)
    not occur. tsarance.                       sheanut or sheabutter nut - fruit of
rézé v.                                        above. kaþe. Large: k'rigq.
   weaken, slacken. kasala.                rígã2 v. (past rigkq)
   Variant: rwxzx.                             1) go round, chatter, converse,
rézéngénné  n.                 visit. gewaya, fira, roka.
   kind of tree. wani irin                     2) cycle. See: rigu.
   itace.                                    rígã n.
                                               1) visit. ziyara.
                                               2) discussion. tattaunawa.
                                               3) story. labari.
                                                                                  215
rígãlcù                                                             d'ríndí
rígãlcù n.                               ríkàa adv.
    roving, wandering, restlessness.         upset, agitated, disturbed.
    ìajeniya, gararamba.                     tsirma-tsirma.
rígãmsä v. (past rígämskã)               rîkãd gwædá n.
    work round in a circle. gewaya.          door (shutter). gamdu.
  ù'rígãmsã n. (plural c'rigqmsq)        rîkãv gælà n.
    shaving of heads to leave a circle       an epithet in recognition of
    untouched on top. sariya,                someone. kamislika.
    wani irin aski.
                                         rîkîkî adv.
rîgänã v.                                   with a big puff, billow or cloud
      gyrate, rotate, spin.                 (e.g. of smoke). turnukewa.
      hajijiya'jiri,
      gewaiwainiya, jiwa-jiwa.           rikip = rigip.
rígänkã  v.                  rîknù màcó n.
      went round or made a circuit of        womb, bladder containing water
      the town. zaga.                        during giving birth. bolombolom.
rîgîp adv.                               ríkríkí adj.
      all gathered together. cip.            flaming, flames of fire burning like
      Variant: rikip.                        this. garnaìa.
rígrérígré adv.                          rîkswàakà n.
   walking to and fro, with no              epithet, the honourable. manya.
   purpose, aimlessly. jeka dawo,        rikwqndwq = k'cidi.
   tafiya wani iri.                      à'rímä n.
rîgtã v. (past rigtkq)                       (late) evening. maraice.
   bring round. gewayo. Variant:         rîmãccón n.
   rigti, rigtki.                            earrings. 'yan kunne.
rigti v. (past rigtki) = rigtq.          s'rímcîp adj.
rígtù adv.                                   pitch-black. diþim.
      on the other side. gefen.          rímrímù adj.
c'rîgú v.                                   brown. baìi-baìi.
   spying. ganganima.                    rîmsí v. (past rîmskí)
v'rîgú n. (plural s'rigu)                   1) make black (e.g. by painting).
   line round sth. da'ira.                  shafa baìi.
rígú v. (past rigku)                        2) (hence) put out, extinguish.
   come round. gewayo. See: rigq.           kashe.
k'ríhí n. (plural c'ríhí)                rîmskí v.
   thing. abu.                               become flustered or
                                             flabbergasted. gigice, gaga.
c'ríitã n.                               à'rímtúp n.
      communal farm work done on a
      widowers farm with traditional         very late evening. maraice
      customs performed. wani irin           kwarai.
      noman ganya. Variant:              m'rínã n.
      c'yiiti.                               cinders, burnt rubble, ashes,
rík d'hîi n.                                 charcoal. toka, gawayi.
      fontanelle. maþiga.                ríndí n.
                                             unopened flower of red-flowered
                                             silk cotton tree. baraizai.

216
d'ríndí                                                          róngäncç
d'ríndí n. (past c'rindi)               rócócó adv.
   circumcised penis. kaciya.               1) straight up (into the air),
d'rînkù  n. (plural            vertically. daga sama zuwa
   c'rinku)                                 kasa, kasa zuwa sama.
   smooth-rounded oblong flint-like         2) direct, straight along (the
   stone. ìanìara.                          ground). fangami, mikewa.
rînnánùtùsù n.                          ròfròfò adj.
    animals. baþarai.                       tenderly, not hard, gently, quickly.
                                            þamasa.
rînnáscç n.
   evil spirits. almutsusai.            rògásà v.
                                            share, give out sth to everyone.
k'riri = k'rere.                            kowa ya samu.
rísã v.                                 rògädsà v.
   cook. dafa.                              pick, glean, pluck (e.g. leaves
rísí n. (plural risni)                      from a plant). kalata.
   (West African) hedgehog.             d'rògãncó n.
   bushiya. Erinaceus albiventris.          meeting, get-together, coming
k'rísù n.                                   together, e.g. at a market.
    labour on someone else's farm in        taruwa, kasuwa.
    order to get some food. bàuta.      rógç adj.
rîzgã n.                                    complete, in harmony or
    kind of miraculous black tuberous       understanding with each other.
    growth found under the ground           daidai.
    and used for medicine. wata         rógkà v.
    irin saiwa na magani.                  common, had/possessed by
ròbá v. (past robka)                       everyone in the group. kowa na
    end up with nothing. rasa. See:        da.
    d'robama.                           rògó n. (plural c'rogo)
d'ròbámà n.                                kind of soft, brown stone. wasu
    lack. rashi.                           irin duwatsu.
ròbänkà  v.                   ù'rògó n.
    cover, conceal, wrap up. rufe.      ròknà v. (past rokqnka)
                                            become mature, grow. ìosa.
ròbgò n.
    a teenager, a woman that has        rómrómó adv.
    given birth not more than twice.       1) full to the brim. cika tatil.
    matashiya.                             2) bulging, unevenly rounded.
                                           wata irin siffa.
ròbnà v. (past robqnka)
    play, gather, (form a) band round   v'róngà  n. (plural
    a drum. ìangu.                         s'ronga)
                                           cornstalk sheaf. alkajiya,
c'ròbnò n.                                 kartajiya, tsirgagiya.
    covering of drum with skin. fafe       Variant: v'yonga.
    ganga rufe.
                                        ròngà  n.
ròbó n.                                    rainbow. doguwa, bakan
    pullet (chicken which has not          gizo.
    started laying eggs). sagara.       róngäncç  n.
                                           (plural c'rongqnce)
                                           climber with edible tubers. filo.
                                                                              217
d'róngò                                    rórkà
  d'róngäncç
     n.
   kind of tuber, like yam. sakata.
d'róngò  n. (plural
   c'rongo)
   cassava. rogo.
k'ròngò  n. (plural
   c'rongo)
   the coarse grass pennisetum
   pedicellatum. ìyasuwa.
k'rònhá n. (plural c'ronha)
   stall. rumfa. From: Hausa.
c'ròpó n.
      mud. laka, taèo.
rórç adv.
      in a reserved manner, sitting or
      standing upright with hands folded
      under chin. wani irin zama
      ko tsayuwa.




218
rórkà                                                                          rõsõ
rórkà adj.                                   rõmõ v. (past r[meske)
   many, plenty, huge. yawa,                      break. fasa, karye. Variant:
   babba. Variant: rorkqd kala.                   r[mese.
rorkqd kala = rorka.                         rõmpöm ad.
rota = rotka.                                   1) (a liquid) filling up almost to the
                                                brim. tatil.
ròtká v. (past rotkka)                          2) (hence) poor quality - 'watery'.
   tack, pin sth loosely. lallaèa,              ruwa-ruwa.
   lallage. Variant: rota.
                                             rõmpsõ v. (past r[mpsk[)
róvò pro.                                       cook soup (any method). dafa
    yours, of yours, (2nd person                koyaya.
    possessive). naka.
                                             rön n. (plural s'r[n)
rózgà v.                                        Red-flowered silk cotton tree.
    make a pile of sth very carefully.          gurjiya, kurya. Bombax
    tari, tsibi, tula.                          bounopezense.
rõbõbõ adv.                                  v'rön n.
    carrying lots of different bundles.         bad luck (esp. of sb who seems to
    rudwa.  Laag [mk[ c't[[s                   be unlucky all the time). baìin
    r[b[b[. A mad person is coming              jini.
    along carrying many different bundles.
                                             v'rõngò  n. (plural
röbröbö id.                                     s'r[ngo)
    weak and watery, thin and without           line or row. ma shigi.
    substance (as gruel). ruwa
    ruwa, sarau-sarau,                       rõnköm1  adv.
    sara-sara.                                  tall and strong, grown up quickly.
                                                sangarmeme, san girma.
rödödö adv.                                  rõnkõm2  adv.
    gush, pour in drops. þigawa.
                                                despondently, dejectedly (of an
rögdörögdö adv.                                 animal or person). lagadam.
    wriggling, twisting motion.
    tafiya da motsi wani                     rõ[m id.
    iri.                                          loitering - sitting around in a large
                                                  group doing nothing. zaman
r[g[m = y[g[m.                                    banza, tsuki, birjik,
rõgrõgõ ad.                                       tinjim.
   shaky, loose, loose-fitting (in a         rõ[tõ[ adv.
   socket). lange-lange, sako                   in a hanging manner. rataya.
   sako.                                        See: raataa.
r[gt[ v. (past r[gtk[) = ragta.              rõpõ v. (past röpkõ)
rökmönõ n.                                      pound in a certain way, as when
   4th-7th year age group in joining            pounding fura to make balls of it.
   g[lm[. tsara.                                dandaìa, zurce.
r[ktk[ = kokno.                              à'rõprõpõ n.
                                                wasted time. banna lokaci.
rõktö n. (plural s'r[ktk[)
   physic-nut. ci ni da zugu.                rõsõ v. (past r[sk[)
   Variant: r[ktk[.                             simply break, e.g. by dropping a
                                                load of calabashes or pots from
v'römö n. (plural s'r[m[)                       ones head to the ground. fasa,
   point of hoe or axe protruding               karye.
   from haft (fitted in the handle).
   tsuguwa.
                                                                                   219
rõtõtõ                                                                 rùsmú
rõtõtõ n.                                 rùgúmkù v.
      kind of vine (vitis pallida) that       crush (dried grass, with hands).
      produces slimy sap both from its        rugurguje, murje.
      fruit and stem. loda, dafara.       rùkänbòncò n.
      Rogeria adenophylla.                    fodder-grass, of crab grass.
k'rõzgõ n.                                    harìiya burzu. Digitaria
      bunch. dinshe, ìurshe.                  debilis; D. velutina.
rõzõ[ v.                                  rúkdínä v.
      look very weak, petrified or            notorious, infamous, outstanding.
      become so weak that one cannot          zaìaìuri.
      move his limbs or think.            s'rúkrúkú v.
      galabaita.                             gossip, talk idle rumours and
c'rù pro.                                    slander about others. tsegumi.
      his, hers, its (belonging to        rùktù n. (plural ruktnu)
      him/her/it), him, her, it. nasa,       kind of locust. wata irin
      nata.                                  fara.
  qn c'ru                                 rùkù v.
   absorbed in his own affairs.              shake, mix, disturb. motsa.
   shagala da.
k'rùbä n. (plural c'rubq)                 rùmbù n. (plural rumbnu)
                                             reticulated millipede, snake
   traditional woven cover put over          millipede. ìadandoniya,
   babies and young children to              daidaya.
   protect them from the heat of the
   sun or from rain. kabido.              rùmkù n. (plural s'rumku)
                                             fig-tree special. èaure. Ficus spp.
rúbgù v. (past rubgku)                       Variant: yumku.
   mix ground powder of soup
   ingredients. kaþawa.                   rùmú v. (past rumku)
                                             confiscate, snatch, take by force.
rùcú n. (plural s'rucu)                      amshe, kwace, fizga.
   hunters' rope, for securing bush
   meat. igiyar mafarauci.                v'rùmù n. (plural s'rumu)
                                             clay tiers rising from the ground.
m'rùcú n.                                     dandall, wani irin
   slag from smithy. kashin                   gini, dangarama.
   maìera.
                                          rùn n. (plural runnu)
rùdúdù1 n. (plural rududunu)                  black hooded cobra, or any other
   a kind of edible upland frog, very         deadly black snake or cobra.
   large, brownish with a yellowish           kumurci, gamsheìa,
   stomach. burduddugi.                       gamsheka. Naja.
rùdùdù2 adv.                              m'rúnê n.
   sound of fire burning, roar. ruri.        cooked beans crushed (or
rùgmú n. (plural rugumnu)                    mashed) and turned into a lump of
   ram (male sheep). rago                    mush food, like semovita. ìwama.
   (balu).                                rúptù v. (past ruptku)
rùgù n. (plural c'rugu)                      close one's eyes. ruk ido.
   kind of strong grass grown near        rúrbù v. (past rúräbkã)
   swampy areas. wani irin                   roast, toast, burn sth on the
   haki.                                     surface alone. babbake.


220
rúrù                                                                       ryä
rúrù v. (past rurku)                     rwãqsmãn dínä v.
   sprinkle, throw small bits or drops      defame. gungurtsa.
   into. barbaþa.                        rwqgqp = rwxgxp.
rùsmú n. (plural rusumnu)                rwãmmã d'hwçn n.
   black stinging ant. cinnaka.             east(wards): direction or region.
rútí v. (past rutki ; rutkq ;               gabasciya, gabashi.
   rutku)                                rwãn n. (plural s'rwqn)
   1) remove, extract, take sth out.        black-plum, tree with black plum-
   fitar.                                   like fruit. þinya. Vitex cienkowskii;
   2) catch. kama.                          V. doniana.
rùtùtù id.                               rwãnrwännã n.
    rumbling sound like this. cida.         1) red locust, or possibly the
rwàf adv.                                   migratory locust, which caused
    uselessly, untidily, inactive,          widespread devastation between
    flopping. ba amfani, zama               1929-1940. faran yunwa.
    maras amfani.                           Nomadacris.
rwä vi. (past rúkù)
    1                                       2) epidemic or outburst of sth,
    go out. fita.                           name given to locust infestation.
                                            annoba.
  rwän (past rúkã)
    appear, come out. fito.              i'rweke = i'reke.
rwã n. (plural s'rwq)
    2                                    u'rweko = i'reke.
    kind of tree. wani irin              rwégép id.
    itace.                                   crash, sound of sth falling,
m'rwã n.                                     weakness in one's body. wani
    watery excrement, diarrhoea.             irin faþuwa. Variant: rwqgqp.
    zawayi.                              rwégrwégé adj.
rwäqgã vi.                                  loosely-fixed or attached. sako-
    go out far. tafi da nisa.               sako. Variant: ragraga;
                                            r[gr[g[.
rwãqkù n.
   traditional last burial ceremony      d'rwîn n. (plural c'rwin)
   performed by person officiating.         knee. gwiwa, gursungumi.
   wani irin makoki.                     m'rya = m'yaa.
rwäqsã v. (past rwqqskq)                 ryà v.
   persevere, continue, keep going          1) eat. ci. See: ya.
   to the end. nace, tashi                  2) cost. ci.
   tsaye, dage.                             3) also used in many figures of
d'rwqqsi n. (plural c'rwqqsi)               speech. ci.
   miscarriage, abortion -               c'ryaako = c'yaako.
   unsuccessful pregnancy. tayi,         ryä v. (past ryiikq) = yq.
   þantayi, barin ciki.




                                                                              221
s'-                                                                                sàdämsæ

                                        S       -    s

s'-                                             sàa adj.
      Class-marking prefix for a noun in                 absent-minded. shagalalle.
      the S class. Nouns in the S class             sàaadrínã v.
      are usually plurals of V class                     warn ; sound a warning.
      nouns and may be verbal/active                     gargaþi, faþakar (da).
      nouns. The class-marker s'                    sáalà v. (past saalka)
      should not be confused with the                    cool. hucewa.
      pronoun s or sq which is written
      without an apostrophe and                     sàa-nàn adv.
      replaces a noun.                                   then. san
                                                         nan. From:
                                                         Hausa.
      When an entry has a class-marker
      it is written in italic writing. Class-       k'sáanæ n.
      markers may move to the end of a                 (plural
      word in a sentence. The class-                   c'saane)
      marker is not included in the way                ladder. akwa.
      entries are ordered. For example,                Variant:
      the word s'bakqvto (long-                        k'sánæ.
      distance shooting) is found                   sàarç n. (plural
      between the words bakazowa                       saarene)
      and d'kakce, and the word                        a kind of edible
      s'kwxxnx (shrill song) is found                  frog which can
      between the words kwxxmsx and                    jump long
      kwxxtqmkwx.                                      distances.
                                                         bududdugi - wani irin
c'sá n.                                                  kwaþo.
      the people who are recognised in
      the town or clan. mutanen                     sáasà n.
      kwarai.                                          rust. tsatsa.
                                                    sàawçcæ n. (plural saawecene)
m'sá n. (plural m'sa m'sa)                             kind of (poisonous) snake. wani
      sea, ocean. teku.                                irin maciji.
d'sà n. (plural c'sa)                               sábà v. (past sabka)
      roofing frame, interlocked main                  make a strap for hanging sth. yi
      roof rafters. harþa, haìon                       maratayi.  M sabka d'kwq. I
      þaki.                                              made a strap for the gourd.
sà1 n. (plural s'sa)                                m'sábó n.
      log fence around a house or                      deride sth you really like.
      compound. darnin itace,                       sàbó n. (plural s'sabo)
      darni ìiraren itace.                             strap for hanging sth. maratayi.
                                                        M emaka sabo u sabt
sà2 v. (past sàaká)                                      d'kwq. I made a strap for hanging the
      1) scratch, draw, arrange, scrape.                 gourd. See picture for: k'bai.
      zana.
      2) arrange (agree). yarda.




222
sàdämsæ                                                              d'sàkó
sàdämsæ v. (past sadqmske)              sàkãm d'gá n.
    act of stretching out one's legs.       fortune-telling. dibi.
    shura, harba.                       sákãn táabà n.
  s'sàdãmsæ n.                             act to appease gods or spirits.
    death-throes. gargara.                 al'ada.
sàgà v. (past sagka, active noun        v'sàkcà n. (plural s'sakca)
    c'sàgó)                                pot for channeling air from bellows
    bury. binne, biso,                     into heart of fire. bakin wuta.
    kusheyi.                               Variant: qvsaktasa.
  ù'sàgó n. (plural c'sago)
    grave. kabari.
sái part.
    then, only, nevertheless. sai.
    From: Hausa.
                                        d'sákcò n.
                                            extra lump of mush food stuck on
                                            top because not enough was
                                            made. þibi.
                                        sákd'gáa n.
                                           placatory offering to the gods or
                                           spirits. al'ada.
                                        sàkçsæ v. (past sakeske)
                                           ride. gwama, jaèa.
                                        sákkù cón n.
                                           had hope, relied. bege, sa
                                           rai.
                                        sákó n. (plural s'sako)
                                           1) sticking money on someone's
sàkà v. (past sákkà)                       forehead, a way of expressing
    ride. hawa.                            appreciation. kari.
                                           2) a present to a eulogizing
c'sàkà n.                                  beggar. makari.
   elders, the most elderly men in a
   clan. kusoshi gari.                  d'sàkó n. (plural c'sako)
                                           net made from woven leaves or
d'sàkà n. (plural c'saka)                  ropes for hanging a calabash from
   tree with stones underneath             roof beams. ragaya,
   where important people may sit          maratayi.
   and where usually the heads of
   the clan are buried. wani irin
   kabari.
sàkàsá1 v. (past sakáska)
   place sth on top of sth. aza
   bisan, aza. See: sqkqsq.
sàkàsà2 n. (plural sakasana)
   locust, grasshopper. wata irin
   fara.
v'sàkàtá n. (plural s'sakata)
   bolt; metal bar used to fasten a
   door or window. sakata.
                                                                          223
m'sákó                                                          sàngàm
  k'sàkó n. (plural c'sako)         sàlgá v. (past salgka)
    well bucket. guga.                  pass excrement. yi kashi.
m'sákó n.                           sàlsàlà adv.
      money left over, remainder.       behaviour of water when it boils.
      akwai ragowa.                     tafasa.
                                    sám id.
                                        very (hot or painful). ranþi,
                                        ramfai.
                                    c'sàmà n.
                                       the three stones which form a
                                       native cooking place. murfu,
                                       sa sauwa. See: kùrk s'tõ
                                       'kitchen'. Sg: ù'sama.
                                    k'sàmbcó = k'sãmbcú.
                                    sámk s'còtà n.
                                        colic; severe pain in stomach and
                                        bowels without diarrhoea. ciwon
                                        ciki, jarbu, tsanki.
                                    sámkníhwçn n.
                                        haematuria; bilharzia in boy.
sàkrà n. (plural sakrana)               tsagiya, fyanka.
   eagle. miki, maiki.              sámkò n.
ù'sáksæ (plural c'sakse) =              stomach pains. ciwon ciki.
   d'sakco.                         d'sámkò n.
sàksç v. (past sákskæ)                  sweat. gumi.
   put blame on sb else. laìa.      sàn v2t.
v'sàktà n.                             bring ; bring out. kawo.
    a cover for a beehive. murfin   sàná v. (past sanka)
    amya.                              bury a charm for protection.
sàktásà = hwàhwàhwà.                   kafin gari.
k'sàlá n. (plural c'sàlá)           d'sànbò n. (plural c'sanbo)
    low stone wall (between            charm that is buried for protection.
    buildings). garu.                  kafi.
  sàlá n. (plural s'sala)           sánç adv.
    ramparts, wall round town.         attentively, paying attention.
    ganuwa.                            saurare.
                                    k'sánæ = k'sáanæ.
                                    m'sàngà  n.
                                       throbbing pain. zogi, raþaþi.
                                    sàngà sángà
                                         n.
                                       kind of medicinal herb. rai
                                       þore.
                                    sàngàm  adj.
                                       tall and large. rantaèeèe.




224
v'sàngàmõ[rç                            sàpà
v'sàngàmõ[rç
     n.
   (plural s'sangam[[re)
   specially decorated rod carried at
   a certain rite of passage. sanda.
   Variant: v'sangam[[ri.
v'sangam[[ri = v'sangam[[re.




                                          225
sàpà                                                                 sädkã
sàpà1 v.                                 c'sàsæ n.
      cut down bushes and allow them        empty pods of locust bean tree.
      to dry for firewood. shaftare.        makuba.
sàpà2 v.                                 m'sassa = m'sasa.
   prop up. tokare, takara.              sássà1 adv.
sàpmênké  n.                   slowly, gradually, at a snail's
   (plural s'sapmxnkx)                      pace. alkinta, hankalta,
   kind of foul-smelling wild lily.         tunkus-tunkus. Variant:
   albasar kuru.                            sassaa (emphatic).
sàpó n. (plural s'sapo)                  sàssá2 v. (past saska)
   spear for hunting or given as a          scramble, finish quickly.
   mark of honour.                          wasashe.
   mashi.                                sàssàsà adv.
sáptà vt. (past                             in a swarm, in large numbers.
   saptka)                                  tururu.
   wash parts of the                     sàtá v. (past satka)
   human body.                              become split, tear. tsaga,
   wanke. See:                              kece.
   c'sapto.
k'sàpùlàgó n.                            sávà vt. (past savka)
                                            take to. kai.
   curved iron
   ornament given                        sã pro.
   as a prize to the                         them. su.
   best wrestler in                      sãqd adv.
   the tribe.                                stopped dead. cik.
   feluwa.                               säqtämbàtà n.
sárgà v. (past                              (plural
   sargka)                                  c'sqqtqmbata)
   descend, go                              craw-craw, scabies.
   down. gangara.                           ìazwa. Variant:
    Qm vxcxkx o                            swqqtqmbata.
      az u sarga. I
      told him to come
                                         sãbä v. (past sqbkq)
                                            find. nema. Variant:
      down.
                                            sqbu.
sàrmà n. (plural                         sãbgù n.
      sarqmna)
      tsetse fly. kuþan                     witchcraft. maita.
      tsando.                            sãblä v. (past sqbqlkq)
m'sàsà n.                                   sling sth across shoulder.
   local beer at a certain early stage      giciya, gifta. Variant:
   of brewing. wani irin                    patra, patqrka.
   burkutu. Variant: m'sassa.            sãbtä v. (past sqbtkq)
sàsãmbîndí n. (plural                       hook on to, catch on sth.
   sasqmbindni)                             sargafa, sarìafa. Variant:
   acne - spots on skin of (usually)        k[lt[, k[ltk[.
   teenager. kuraje ìanana a             sädkã v. (past sqdkkq)
   jikin mutum.                             become caught in branches.
m'sásç n.                                   þage.
      scrambling for something,
      squabbling. wasoso.

226
sãdk-sãdkù                            sãkãsä
sãdk-sãdkù ad.
   in a jerky manner, not passing
   through easily. da kyar.  U
   s[[k m'ho sqdk-sqdku. He had
   difficulty drinking the water.
sãkänkã  v.
   1) become entangled. sarìe.
   2) misunderstand one another. yi
   gardama, jayayya, faþa.




                                          227
sãkãsä                                                                sçmbàræ
sãkãsä v. (past sqkäskq)                 sänklã  v. (past
   take off sth which has been               sqnkqlkq)
   placed high. cira. See: sàkàsá.           become caught in branches. See:
säkî n. (plural s'sqki)                      kagla.
   stack of firewood. kiraga.            sänsän pro.
m'säkî n.                                    only (these), exclusively one
   stakeout; act of lying in wait for        article or group. su kadai.
   prey. bago.                           k'sãpknã n. (plural c'sqpknq)
sãknã v. (past sqkqnkq) Variant:             kind of fish trap for catching fish in
   sqkqnsi, sqkqnski.                        running water. ragan kamun
   1) prepare. wani irin shiri.              kifi.
   2) entangle. cukwikwiye.              m'sãtknã n.
   3) set about. kausa.                      confluence; a place where two
sãksãkä v.                                   rivers or roads join. mahada.
   walk with difficulty, hobble. kata-   sædá v. (past sçdkà, active noun
   kata.                                     m'sædá)
sãmänsã v. (past sqmqnskq)                   scoop out water from well which is
   mix well; do thoroughly.                  almost dry. ìwarface.
   gauraya, kwaèa. Variant:
   sqmqnnq, sqmqnkq.                       m'sædá n.
                                             time of water shortage at the end
sämbã v. (past sqmbkq)                       of the dry season. ìwarfata.
   brush. cefe.
                                         sçdçdç adj.
k'sãmbcú n. (plural c'sqmbcu)                bulging, stomach filled with food
   comb. matsefi. Variant:                   and puffed out. wani irin
   k'sàmbcó.                                 kumburi.
sämbí sãmbí n.                           sækãmsæ v. (past sekqmske)
      1) slapdash work,                      rub with hand. cuþa.
      not properly
      done. jiìa-                        sçlkà v.
      jiìa.                                  be stiff, find it painful to bend.
      2) act of brushing                     sanìame.
      hair. share.
                                         sæm àvà n.
sãmbsãmbù n.                                 an oily substance which oozes out
      lack of hair,                          of the ground in marshy places
      almost baldness.                       during the wet season. wuri
      sanìo.                                 mai naso.
sän pro.                                 sçmà n. (plural semana)
      this, these;                           kind of small, fat bird. yar
      referring to                           tsuntsuwa wani iri.
      uncountable
      things. su.                        m'sæmá n.
                                             fatty, oily meat. kitse.
sãnkãlsãnkãl
         adv.          sçmbàræ n. (plural sembarne)
      floundering about in work.             Common or Glossy-backed
      fadam-fadama.                          Drongo; a kind of small, black and
                                             very clever bird that fights crows.
                                             ìaramar bakar tsuntsuwa
                                             wani iri, þan baki.
                                             Dicrurus adsimilis.
228
sæmbàríitõ                    c'sæn
sæmbàríitõ n.
   medicinal tree. rawaiya.
sæmmãn dúnkù
     n.
   fat in meat. wajiya.




                                 229
c'sæn                                                                    sêlké
c'sæn n.                               sédé v. (past sxdkx)
   honey. ruwan zuma. Variant:             scratch or brush hard on the side
   c'swen.                                 of sth. gugawa.
sæná v. (past senka)                   sédòo id.
   express surprise, investigate for      haggard-looking. sayuwar
   oneself. ìara mamakin abu.             marar duwaiyu.
sendse v. (past sendske) =             d'sêx = d'zwx.
   swendse.                            séx v. (past sxxkx)
senge = swenge.                           wrestle, combat. yi kokawa.
sçngkà  v.                   sêxgæ n. (plural n/a)
   pour out, flow. kalwa.                 good wrestler. gwanin kokawa.
í'sængnæ                               m'séxkãntç n.
                               in turn. juye-juye,
      n. (plural                           karèaèèeniya, mayayya,
      m'sengne)                            karèa-karèa, karèayya,
      handle-less                          karèe.
      knife. wuìa                      séxné n.
      ba mariìi.                          kind of bee. wani irin ìudan
sçnó n.                                   zuma. Variant:
      act of                              sxpnx; sxxpno.
      expressing sth                   sêxpé v. (past sxxpkx)
      with emphasis.                      arrange, usually in a
      mamakin abu.                        pile or row. jera.
sæpà v. (past sçpkà)                      Variant: sxxpsx,
    sing. yi waìa, rera waìa.             sxxpskx.
  ù'sæpà n. (plural c'sepa)            sxxpno = sxxnx.
    a song. waìa.                      sxxpsx (past sxxpskx)
særämsà v. (past serqmska)                = sxxpx.
    load heavily. dafke.               sêxté v. (past sxxtkx)
c'sætà n.                                 help. agaza.
   1) old age. tsufa.                    d'sêxté n.
   2) middle-age spread.                   help. agaji.
   sumèwita.
                                       séxù adv.
sætàsá v. (past setaska)                  slow movement away, gliding
   thicken. kaurara.                      slowly away. sannu-sannu.
k'sævà n. (plural c'seva)              sêksé v. (past sxkskx)
   marshy ground. fadama.                 shift blame onto sth or sb else.
m'sævç n.                                 laìa.
      communal farming labour.         ù'séksêké n.
      gayya.                               restlessness. mutsu-mutsu.
sé vt.                                 sékséké adv.
   wrestle. yi kokawa. See: m'sx.          with an effort, struggling.
sébé v. (past sxbkx)                       þamaniya.
   carve, shape. sassaìa.              sêlké v.
sêbgæ n. (plural sxbgne)                   kicked. harba, shura yin
   carpenter. masassaìi,                   hauri.
   basakkare.
230
sémé                           séménsê
sémé n. (plural s'sxmx)
    hill, mountain. sauni.
  d'sémé n.
    hill, high ground. tudu.




                                    231
séménsê                                                                 m'sídí
séménsê v. (past sxmxnskx)                  sérép v.
   mix. gauraya, haþa. Variant:                 alight, descend; ... suka,
   duvinsi, duvinski.                           sauka. Variant: swxrxt.
v'sén n. (plural s'sxn)                     sérgné n.
   iron band with barbs on the end of           kind of tree with edible leaves.
   a spear or arrow. daga-daga.                 hudau, guþai. Crateva
   See: swen.                                   religiosa.
sêndé v. (past sxndkx, active noun            s'sérgné n.
   ù'sêndó)                                    leaves of this tree. ganyen
   strip, take off leaves from the             hudau.
   stalk. zaga, þebe, sale.                 sérpsê v. (past sêrpské)
í'séndé n. (plural m'sxndx)                    keep sth neatly arranged, to one
   small earthenware bowl or dish.             side. jera da kawo.
   kasko.  A ibikim s't[                   sésé v. (past sêské)
      ni'sxndx. They have put soup for me      1) answer. amsa.
      in a bowl. Large: k'sxndx. Large         2) (hence) agree. yarda.
      Plural: c'sxndx.                         3) barter, trade, exchange (e.g.
  í'séndé v'nà                                 money). musaya.
      bowl with a stand or foot, used       sêsó v.
      only by                                  exchange, swap. furfure,
      men.                                     musaya.
      kasko.
  í'séndé
                                            sétê v. (past sxtkx)
                                               move at appointed time. wucewa
    mîrmîrí                                    wani iri.
      simple                                sêtêp adv.
      bowl                                     tilted to one side. jirgai.
      without a                             sétêsé v. (past sxtxskx)
      foot, used                               release (e.g. a trap for animals).
      by                                       kwancewa wani iri.
      women. kasko.
                                            sévê v. (past sxvxkx)
séndî zòmkç n. (plural sxndqm                  take (sth to sb). kai abu ga
      zomke)                                   wani.
      bowl made of fired clay. kasko.
                                            sî kç nán excl.
séndséndò adv.                                 okay, that's all. shi ke nan.
   1) scratched or marked all over.            From: Hausa.
   samba re, mai karcewa.
   2) (of plant) missing most of its        síbã n. (plural sibnq)
   leaves. ban da ganye.                       Gambian orbi. batsiya.
sénké  n. (plural sxnknx)          v'síbí n. (plural s'sibi)
   brownish mouse that lives in the            grass seed. irin haki.
   bush. wani irin èera.                    k'sîbîllî n. (plural c'sibilli)
sépé v. (past sxpkx)                           grass mat woven from Rhytachne
   1) slash, slice. sara, yanka.               congoensis. asabari.
   2) take a shortcut. yanke.               m'sídí n.
sépênké  v.                         sharpness of taste. èaure.
   slash with a sword, axe, etc.
   sare.
sxpnx = sxxnx.
232
sídksídkù                                                                   sîpkã
sídksídkù adj.                              k'sîn n. (plural c'sin)
    1) speckled. dabbare-                     a large calabash specially
    dabbare, rodi-rodi.                       prepared for storing shea-butter
    2) See: ridku 'brownish'.                 nut oil. ìwarya, ajiyar man
sîirí adj.                                    kade.
    fat. ìiba.                            sín excl.
ù'síisî n. (plural c'siisi)                   exclamation of frustration; 'for
    time between April and May.               goodness' sake!'. wai.
    kakan shuka.                          sîndím id.
síkä vi. (past sikkq)                         1) stagnant, motionless body of
    1) sigh. ajiyar zuciya.                   water. ba ya gudu.
    Variant: siku.                            2) uncomfortable feeling of one's
    2) recover (e.g. from faint).             stomach pain, sticking out,
    farfaþe, farfaþo.                         bulging. kumburi.
  síkäsã v. (past sikqskq)                sîp id.
    rest after hard work. huta.              sleeping deeply. kwashe shi
                                             da yawa.
síktä v. (past siktkq)
    winnow; separate fine from coarse     sípä1 n. (plural sipnq)
    flour. tankaþe. Variant: ziktq,          West African hartebeest. kanki.
    ziktkq.                               sípã2 vt. (past sipkq)
sîkú n. (plural s'siku)                      catch, seize or hold, grip, handle.
    making or becoming well again.           riìe, kama.
    maida. See: sikq.                       sípärskí v.
m'sîn n.                                      grabbed. rumbace.
    the bark of trees that are believed     sípînkí v.
    to produce a bitter taste if put in      come to grips (in wrestling or
    water. èauri.                            fighting). arangama,
í'sîn n.                                     harìuma, daduma.
    kind of specially-prepared            sípärskí = sipq2.
    calabash. wata irin ìwarya.           d'sípí n. (plural c'sipi)
                                             removable top of a round thatched
                                             grass roof. sarke, wuyan
                                             þaki, boto.  A sipid
                                              kwqqsq kurkk qn wqqk m'h[.
                                              If the sipi blows away water leaks into
                                              the room.  Sipik el kan hol
                                              a'bxm c'wqqku. Large roof mats
                                              help to prevent leakage. Large:
                                             k'sípí.
                                          sípînkí = sipq2.
                                          sipirski = sipinki.
                                          sîpkã v. (past sipkkq)
                                             conceal, cover up. rufa.




                                                                                  233
d'sípkcú                                                                  d'sòocò
d'sípkcú n. (plural c'sipkcu)                  sòkà v. (past sokka, active noun
      mud cooking                                  u'soko)
      pot. murfun                                  scrape, scrub; clean sth by
      da aka                                       rubbing it hard. jeji, karta.
      gina.                                        See: sopa.
      Variant:                                 sòkàd-sòkàd id.
      d'peco.                                      shuffling. budiri,
m'sípknù adv.                                      musanniya.
      inside out.                              sòkämkã v.
      ta ciki                                     grown large. gingace.
      ìasa.
                                               sòkämsà v. (past sokomska)
sípsîpä n.
      (plural sipsipnq)                        sòkãm-tõrö n. (plural
      large tortoise, able to kill sb in the      sòkãmtörnõ)
      water by grabbing them, hence               kingfisher (the whole family).
      the name. kiffiya. Testudinidae.            cinawuya, cibilbilo.
      See: sípã2 'grab'. Variant: cæcæ            Alcedinidae.
      (Ribah).                                 soksoko = s[gs[g[.
sírî v.                                        sòlà v. (past solka)
   cover up. bice, rufe. Variant:                 tell a secret. tsegunta asiri.
   siriki.                                        Variant: s[l[, s[lk[.
sírîàvà n. (plural siriavna)                   sòlàsá v. (past solaska)
   a kind of water bird. wani irin                loosen. sassauta, èalle,
   tsuntsun ruwa. Variant:                        þaiþaye.
   ziriava; zwiriava.
                                               d'sòlàsà n. (plural c'solasa)
v'sírîwà n. (plural s'siriwa)                     loosely tied loop. hancin
   cornstalk or bamboo flute.                     þaurin igiya.
   bushara, firisa.
                                               sòlãmsà v. (past solqmska)
síssã v.                                          1) tear off or take part of sth.
   repeat, do sth again. sake yi                  taya, ciccira.
   maimaita. Variant: siskq;                      2) eat greedily.
   sisu.
                                               sòmá1 vi.
k'só n. (plural c'so)                              run. gudu. See: a'soma.
   cave. kogon dutse.
                                               sòmà2 n.
sògãdsá v. (past sogqdska)                        gift, in particular to aid someone in
   balance sth well on its base.                  need (trad.). gudumawa.
   kurda, marmatsa. Variant:
   togqdsa.                                    sòmksá v. (past somkska)
                                                  hold sth with hand surrounding it
sògdá n. (plural sogdana)                         completely, grip. riìe kam.
   Senegal bush shrike. suda.
   Tchagra sengala.                            sòmsòmò adj.
                                                  unevenly shaped. makudaþþe.
sògmá v. (past sògämkà)
   poke. sakata.                               sóngsóngó  adj.
                                                  jemo. Variant: pongpongo.
sògmò vn.
   tease, annoy. sokana.                       d'sòocò n. (plural c'sooco)
                                                  living or sitting. zama. Variant:
sògsògò = s[gs[g[.                                d'sooto.
ù'sòká n. (plural c'soka)
   chest. ìirji.
234
sóodà                                                              sõgsõgõ
sóodà v. (past soodka)                   k'sóplá n. (plural c'sopla)
    slide, descend. gangara,                 the skin that snakes or
    tizga.                                   grasshoppers shed as they grow.
sóodó n.                                     salan maciji, fatà.
   herb of marjoram family (Senchi           Variant: fyakda.
   name). þaþþoyar kare.                 sópskà v.
   Ocimum basilicum; Hyptis spicigera;       slipped out of hand. kutta,
   Leucas martinicensis. See: jqu            ìubuce.
   (Zuru).                               sòsái adv.
sóodsà v. (past soodska)                    very. sosai. From: Hausa.
   cause sth to slide. gangaradda.       d'sòsó n. (plural c'soso)
sòolá v. (past sóolkà, active noun          sponge. soso. See: suusu. From:
   u'soola; c'soola)                        Hausa.
   wet and thresh well to remove the     sòvàsá v. (past sovaska)
   husk (of first threshing). ribþi,        to add a little. ìara yawan
    casa, cashi, dankaro,                   abu. Variant: sovka.
    daki duka.
                                         í'sóvkà n. (plural m'sovka)
sòotá vi.                                   much. yawa.
    sit, stay. zauna. Variant: sógta.
c'sòotá n.                               d'sòvnò n. (plural c'sovno)
                                            nickname for penis. mazakuta.
    empty pods, husks with few
    grains. shefe.                       sòvó n. (plural sovno)
                                            baby mouse. jaririn kusu.
í'sòotá n.
    hand-perforated sieve made from      sóvsóvó adv.
    a calabash, used for fermenting          a moderate increase. dadama.
    daddawa. mararaki,                   sõ v.
    raraka, manuki, manukin                 drink. sha.
    kalwa.
                                         sõbõ n. (plural s[bn[)
sòotádãs n.                                 (African) Civet. magen tantal.
   kind of grass. wani irin                 Viverra civetta.
   haki.
                                         sõdõ v. (past s[dk[)
sòotò n. (plural c'sooto)                   exceed. fiyayya, þara. Alt:
   immature groundnuts. hansari,            s[d[s[.
   bangi. Variant: s[[tqm h[.
                                         k'sögcò n. (plural c's[gco)
sòpà v. (past sopka, active noun            1) cotton material of black and
   u'sopo)                                  blue strands woven into a pattern;
   1) scrub; wash thoroughly. goge,         a piece of hand-woven cotton
   cuþa jiki. See: soka.                    cloth used with the loincloth
   2) remove oneself from sb's grip.        especially for wrestling. saìi.
   kuèuce wa.                               2) apron or wrestling garment.
sòpánnà v. (past sopanka)                   wandon kokawa gaba-gaba.
   thrash with whip. kacawaiwai,         sõgö v. (past s[gk[)
   carkwaþa.                                insert, put in place. sa ciki.
sòpásà v. (past sopaska)                 sögöp v.
   peel, rub the surface off. sale.          gore, pierce, insert by hooking in.
   Variant: sopese, sopeske.                 soka.
sopese = sopasa.                         sõgsõgõ adv.
                                             loosely. lako-lako.

                                                                             235
sök                                                                         sùc
sök adv.                                 sö[gæ n.
      deep at sleep,                         unceasing, considerable
      fallen down in                         inveterate smoker, drunkard.
      this state. lis.                       buha.
söksökö id.                              sõ[kö v.
      rustling sound                        become mature. gauri,
      made by                               gausasa. See: k[gqrk[.
      something                          sõ[rö n. (plural s[[r[n[)
      unseen. wani                          Lesser Kestrel. ci fara. Falco
      irin motsi.                           neumanni.
                                         sö[sæ n. (plural s[[sene)
                                            soldier. soja.
                                         sö[tämhõ n. (plural s[[tqmh[[n[)
                                            immature g-nuts. hansari.
sõmõ n.                                  í'sö[tæ adj.
   a tuberous plant. tumuìu.                 thirsty. ìishirwa.
   Solenostemon rotundifolius; Coleus    sõsõsõ v.
   dysentericus; Plectranthus.              swarm out, troop or march out in
k'sön n. (plural c's[n)                     large numbers, e.g. flying ants
   large pot, for storing water, or         coming out from an anthill.
   making, boiling and storing beer.        ìungiya. Variant: sasasa.
   bilu.                                 sõtõ v. (past s[tk[)
sönkõ  v.                          take over, replace/substitute
   be painful, cause pain. zafi.            another person, levirate marriage.
                                            cika gurbi.
sõnõ v. (past s[nk[)
   light a fire to burn grass,             c's[t[ n.
   cornstalks, etc. cunna.                   levirate marriage, traditional act of
                                             replacing one's dead brother by
m'sõnõ n.                                    marrying his widow. þikata
      1) an ache or a wound, hurt or         cika gurbi.
      injury to the body. ciwo.
      2) gonorrhea. ciwon sanyi.         sõtõsö v.
                                             repay, retaliate, get revenge or
sönúndébé v.                                 recompense. saka, fanshe,
      remonstrate (with). nuna               sakamako.
      haushi.
                                           sõtõsõ n.
sõ[ vt.                                     quid pro quo, act of revenge,
   drink, take. sha. See: m's[[.            recompense. ramuwa.
sõ[cæetá n. (plural s[[ceetana)          sõtyàagcó n. (plural s[tyaagcno)
   the blue long-tailed pepper eater.       kind of snake. kanannaþa.
   wawan kurmi.
sõ[csæn n. (plural s[[csenne)            sövkõ v.
                                            be full. zinìir.
   sugar-ant. shazumami. 
      S[[csen el tu t[n                  sövõ v. (past s[vk[)
      u'remreme. The sugar-ant likes        pack, stuff sth somewhere.
      sweet things. Variant: s[[cswen.      cinkisa, cusa.
                                         sùc id.
                                             puff out, release air suddenly.
                                             busa.

236
sùdú                                                             swàiswài
sùdú v. (past sudkq; sudku)              v'súpú n. (plural s'supu)
    add more, increase. ìaru.                the corner of the farm (usu.
sùksùkù adj.                                 triangular). ìarshen gona.
   rough, scruffy. abu wani iri.         sùt v.
suktq v. (past suktkq) = suktu.             hiss, pass wind, slow release of
                                            bad air or an arrow from the bow.
sùktú v. (past suktku)                      swacewa wani iri.
   rub. shafa. See: suku. Variant:       sútù v. (past sutku)
   suktq.                                   contract, withdraw, pull in, draw
sùkú1 v.                                    in. noìe.
    wipe, rub. shafa.                    sùu v.
sùkù v.
     2
                                            glide, swoop. dira.
   daub, apply, put on. shafa.           sùudé n. (plural suudxnx)
sul = sulsulu.                              kind of small edible grasshopper.
                                            wata irin fara.
sùlgsú v.
    push or thrust in sth. tura.         sùusú n. (plural s'suusu)
                                            loofah-gourd, sponge. soso. Luffa
sùlsùlù n.                                  aegyptiaca. See: soso.
   cold or heat felt gradually in a
   person's body. shigan sanyi           sùvú v. (past súvkù)
   ko zafi a jiki. Variant: sul;            catch fish using a net in each
   sumsumu.                                 hand. darzaje.
sumsumu = sulsulu.                       v'swá n. (plural s'swa)
                                            young female animal. dabba
v'súmú n. (plural s'sumu)                   tamata da yarinya.
   shoot, new leaf of a plant. toho,
   tsira, yi toho.                       v'swáa n. (plural s'swana)
                                            young, virgin (calf, goat, sheep
ù'sùmù n.                                   etc.). burguma duìusa.
    dampness of ground. laima.
                                         swàa v.
sùmùmù v.                                    disperse, scatter immediately or
    glide, move along smoothly and           suddenly. watsewa gaba
    continuously. tafiya shiru-              daya.
    shiru.
                                         swàayä adj.
                                             massive, huge, very large.
                                             gibzai-gibzai.
                                         swàd v.
                                             finished completely. ìare duka.
                                         swàgàp v.
                                             poke, one stroke pushed inside
                                             sth. turawa wani iri.
 sùngúmî  n. (plural         swàin v.
    c'sungumi)                               slither, moving the way a snake or
    long-handled wooden hoe used             an earthworm moves. wani
    for sowing guinea corn.                  irin motsi. Variant:
    sungumi.                                 swainswain; swxin.
sùntêx adv.                              swàiswài adv.
    (sitting) despondently, unhappily.       with a zigzag movement (e.g. by
    sukuku.                                  snake). malau-malau.


                                                                            237
swàlàm                                   swàtà
swàlàm adv.
      (standing) tall and fat. soìoìo.
      Variant: swalamswalam.
ù'swánswányç n.
      roaming about. kai da
      kawowa.
swáp id.
      lashing sound. ìarar bugu da
      bulala.
swàp adv.
      well-washed. suèul.
swàplàam adv.
      facial looks of a dull person.
      tsawo sama. See: swalam.
      Variant: swapraam.
swàràp id.
      quick stripping of sth. þaiþaye,
      sassaìe, swala, swalewa.
      Variant: swérép.
swàrktàp v.
      strip off sth, peel. sale. See:
      swap. Variant: swxrktxp.
swàt v.
      sudden release of bad air.
      motsin tusa.




238
swàtà                                                                      swî
swàtà n.                                 swæpá v. (past swepaka)
    shaving the face round the               plaster off, cover up by sewing in
    forehead. wani irin aski.                or build around sth. lulluèe.
swàtàp v.                                swé n. (plural swxxnx) = cwé2.
   peel down. sale wani iri.
   See: swalam. Variant: swxtxp.         swêx v. (past swxxkx)
                                             join together, unite, connect two
swãq v. (past swqqkq)                        points. haþa, gama haþu.
   suck. tsotsa. Variant: swqqtq.
                                           d'swêx n.
swäqlíswäqlí v.                              work on a pauper's farm,
    wander - walk with no aim or             communal farming done by a
    direction. wata irin tafiya.             group of villagers for sb who has
    Variant: swqqnswqqn.                     had a misfortune.
swäqn v.
   gaze, look longingly at sth.          swêxn adj.
   gwalam ìalailaice.                        quiet, with little or no movement.
                                             dankam, kasirit.
swqqtq v. (past swqqtkq) = swqq.
                                         swéxnsç v. (past swxxnske)
swqqtqmbata = sqqtqmbata.                    combine, mix up together, join.
swãp v.                                      game wuri þaya.
    fork-in, simple entry of an object   swêxv adv.
    into a hole, direct in. shiga            slowly, simply piercing into
    wani iri.                                something. sokawa wani iri.
swç excl.                                    Variant: swxxvswxxv.
   splendid! swell! it's good that!
   exclamation of agreement with or      swégê v. (past swxgxkx)
   happiness about a happening.              replace. maye gurbin,
   madalla.                                  maimakon, cika gurbi.
                                             Variant: swxtxkx; swxgxsx.
swæemà n. (plural sweemna)
   bee. rudan zuma.                        c'swégê n.
                                             replacement of a seed which
swçenà n. (plural sweenna)                   failed to grow. mayewa, ìamfa.
   bandicoot, a marsupial with a long
   nose, strong hind legs, and a long    c'swégé an.
   tail, (they eat mainly insects and        sow seed before the rains set in
   plants and are found in                   fully. birne.
   Australasia). burgu, gafiya.          swxgxsx v. (past swxgxskx) =
   Peramelidae.                              swxgx.
swægãlsá v. (past swægälskã)
   force-in, squeeze-in. ìwafa,          swxin = swain. Variant:
   karþaþa.                                  swxinswxin.
v'swæn n. (plural s'swen)                swép adj.
   barb on an arrow. ìallemu. See:           hairy, too much hair on someone.
   v'sxn.                                    buzurwa, cakasam
                                             dindiris.
swçndsæ v. (past swendske)
   choke. shaìe. Variant: sendse.        swérép = swàràp.
swçngç  n.                     swêrêt id.
   kind of grasshopper. wata irin            fall down into a hole. faþi a
   fara. Variant: senge.                     rami.
                                         swxrktxp = swarktap.
                                                                             239
swî                                                                            d'tàaræ
swî v.                                              swírî v. (past swiriki)
      accompany, escort a person.                        clog up with dirt, cover a hole up
      raka.                                              with sand or earth. jice.
  d'swî n.                                          swírktíp n.
   act of escorting sb. rakiya.                          sudden attack, downward swoop.
swídî v. (past swidiki)                                  dira, wura.
   add, give more to. ìari.                         swítãrkníi adj.
swîicädgá = suudx.                                       lying curled up, crumpled,
                                                         screwed into a small ball.
                                                         ìudundune.

                                         T      -    t

tá1 pro.                                            táagsà v. (past taagska)
    they (indefinite or future). zasu,                 end of the matter. zuwa
    suwa.                                              karkarewa. Variant: taagse.
tá v. (past táakà)
  2
                                                    taagse v. (past taagske) =
    finish, end, be over. ake, ya                      taagsa.
    kare.  Lag m'h[s[, kada hii                    táakà v.
      ta. Stop giving out so that your guinea            be finished, over. ìare.
      corn does not finish.  Qv naask qm
      c'dxbx, amma i taaka. You                     tàakàtáaká excl.
      have wronged me, but it is finished.               'Guess what?'. ka san, ka
                                                         san.
tà3 part.                                           táakkwê v.
      not. ba.
                                                       completely finish. tsintsirit.
c'tà n.
      ultimate, exactly, last attempt,              tàamá v. (past taamka)
      unrepeated, only. rak, daidi.                    stroke, pass the hand over/along
                                                       a surface repeatedly, perhaps
táa adv.                                               searching for concealed weapons.
      in full view, openly. gaigai.                    shafawa wani iri.
s'tàa v.                                            táanló adv.
      fire at, shoot. halbi.                             like that, that way, so. shiya,
táabà n.                                                 ta haka nan.
      tobacco, cigarette. taba. From:               táanzó adv.
      Hausa.                                           there (often accompanied by an
c'tàabö n.                                             indication of direction). can.
      (that is) the end of the matter.              d'tàaræ n. (plural c'taare)
      fakat, tamat.                                    stone, rock. dutse.
d'tàagcó n.
   the end of an event. ganin
   ìarshe.
táagæ n. (plural taagne)
   archer, expert in the art of
   shooting person who shoots with
   a bow and arrow. kas-bauna,
   mahalbi.



240
tàaró                                                                   tàká
tàaró n. (plural taarono)                                         tàdêxdá
   kind of fish. wani irin kifi.                                     adv.
tàarú'nàzõ n. (plural                                             perhaps,
   taarc'nazo)                                                    thinking.
   anvil. uwar maìera.                                            tsammani
tàarvän hwælá n. (plural                                          ,
   taarsqn hwela)                                                 watakila
   flint. ìanìara.                                                , shakka.
táasà vt. (past taaska)                                           tado v.
   finish. gamawa. Variant: taase,                                (past tadko)
   taaske.                                                        = tada.
ù'tàasà n.                                                        tàdòtàdò = ta
    uplands, level land. jigawa,
    ìasa fili wani iri.                  m'tàdtádà n.
tàasãmlã adv.                               spur, rising ground, steep place.
   having done one's best. anita.           matizgi, mahaura. Variant:
táase v. (past taaske) = taasa.             m'tattada.
tàatá v. (past taatka)                   tàdtàdà = tadetade.
   support with hand. dafa.              tàgàsá v. (past tagaska)
c'tàbà an.                                  hide. èoye, buya. Variant:
    pull up grass by hand (to weed an       tagese, tageske.
    area). ciran haki.                   tàgæ n.
tàbgá v.                                    hunter. maharbi.
   1) cajole. lallama.                   tagese v. (past tageske) =
   2) grope. fafaka.                        tagasa.
d'tàcó n. (plural c'taco)                tàgtàgà adv.
   1) bundle of thatching grass.             in a shaky manner. rawa wani
   bata.                                     iri. See: txgtxgx.
   2) woven tie which holds the          táhà adv.
   bundle together. þaura (v).              here, near at hand. nan. Variant:
   See: v'gwê (Zuru dialect). Variant:      tahqna; tana.
   d'tato.
tàdá v. (past tádkà)                     tahqna = taha.
   bend over. duìa. Variant: tadba;      tàin adv.
   tadqbka; tado; tadko.                     stretched out, made longer by
                                             pulling. ja.
tádás adv.
   clear; so that you can see a long     ták adv.
   way. haske wani iri.                     completely finished. kacokan.
                                            Variant: taktaka.
tàdásà vt. (past tadaska)
   lean or place against sth, prop.      tàká1 vt. (past takka)
   dangana, jingina.                        start, begin. soma.
tadba v. (past tadqbka) = tada.
tàdætàdæ adv.
    1) moving backwards and
    forwards in fear of sth. gaba-
    baya.
    2) holding sth back. toge.
    Variant: tadtada; tadotado.


                                                                              241
tàká                                       tàkämmálãnkù
  d'tàkà n.
      beginning, start, cause. awwali,
      mafari, masomi, asali,
      asani.
tàká2 n. (plural takna)
   kind of very smelly insect. wani
   irin ìwaro.
k'tàkà n. (plural c'taka)
   metal shafted spear. asigiri.
s'tàkà n.
      act of provoking or irritating sb.
      cokana, tsokana.
k'tákãllá n.
      book. littafi.




242
tàkämmálãnkù                                                              tàná
tàkämmálãnkù                                tálálá adj.
       n.                    tall, long. tsawo sama. See:
    (plural takqmmalqnkunu)                     t[l[l[.
    larva beetle, white dung-hill grub.     tálàm adj.
    gwazarma, dole-dole.                        clear, empty. wayam.
tàkämmálãnkúnù                              táló n.
      n.                 a contribution. tarbace juce.
    mumps (a disease). hangu.                  See: tala.
tákãndá n.                                  tàmà v. (past tamka)
    kind of sugar                              collide with, butt (fighting
    cane. takanþa.                             animals). gwabsa, gwabza.
tàkcò n.                                    ù'tàmà n.
    mush food which                             special place made for melting
    has already been                            iron-stones. mazuga wani
    moulded into                                iri.
    shape.
    malmala.                                tàmçskæ v.
                                               crash into sth. dauza.
  d'tàkcò n.
    (plural c'takco)                        tàmpò n. (plural s'tampo)
    lump of above.                             tree whose strong wood is used
    gudar                                      for making bows. wani irin
    malmala.                                   itace.
tàkæsæ v.                                   c'tàmpò n.
    start as early as                          upper arm or lower leg. dantse.
    possible. soma, fara.                   tàmskwãqrí n. (plural
táksæ v.                                       tamskwqqrni)
   test sb to see if they will keep their      the tree locust. farar ice.
   promise. gwaji.                             Anacridium.
tàktá v. (past taktka, active noun          v'tàmsùwá = v'tamswa.
   takto)                                   v'tàmswá n. (plural s'tamswa)
   1) rub. goge, goga, shafa.                  (sewing) needle. allura.
   2) mould a cake of food using a             Variant:
   calabash.                                   v'tampaasuwa
taktaka = tak.                                 (Ribah).
tàktçtàktç ad.                              tàmtàmà ad.
    in a clumsy, fumbling manner.               1) three-quarters
    rashin gane wa ko                           full (of grain).
    rashin iya yin abu.  U el                  daidai wani iri, mai
    b[ taktetakte nu'emo. He is                 dushi.
    doing it clumsily.                          2) (of woman) plump. mai 'yar
                                                ìiba.
takto = takta.
                                            tán num.
tàl adv.                                        5 (five). biyar.
    very fast, at lightning speed.
    kyaftar ido.                            tàn îllã num.
                                               7 (seven). bakwai.
tàlà n.
    tax. harayi. Variant: talo.             tánà1 = taha.
                                            tàná2 v. (past tanka)
                                               mention. ambato.

                                                                                 243
tàná                                                               m'tàttádà
tàná3 n. (plural tanna)                    tàsà vt. (past táskà)
      reed-buck. kaji.                        collide with from the side, (e.g. a
tàndæ n.                                      dog knocking into sth it is
   snow, ice, hail. ìanìara.                  chasing). gwafsa, gwabje.
tàndæmõlö n. (plural                       tàtá v. (past tatka)
   s'tandem[l[)                               prepare grass for thatching.
   kind of tree. wani irin
                                              yanta.
   itace.                                  tàtàsç n. (plural c'tatase)
                                              pepper. barkono.
tànglà  n. (plural
   tangqlna)                               tàtàtà id.
   bush cat. magen daji.                      (standing) in rows. jere. Variant:
                                              tqtqtq (Ribah); txtxtx.
à'tántáabò n.
   kind of small white frog poisonous      d'tato = d'taco.
   to grass-eating animals. þata.
tántábàrà n. (plural n/a)
   pigeon. tantabara. From:
   Hausa.
tántángwírî
        n.
      kind of black insect with special
      odour. wani irin ìwaro.
      Variant: kantasgwiri.
tàntràm adj.
      huge. sundumeme,
      kasundula.
táp s'nwä
      giving worries. damuwa.
tàpá1 v.
   1) stretch out (usually hand), act
   of putting ones hand or poking a
   stick into a hole. sawa wani
   iri.
   2) the act of putting fingers in a
   girl's vagina to find out if she is a
   virgin. gwaji.
tàpá2 v. (past tapka, active noun
   ù'tápó)
   1) put in, apply sth. algasa.
   Variant: tapo, tapko.
   2) collecting honey. dubi.
tapo v. (past tapko) = tapa.
tarbas = txrbxs.
à'tárgú n.
      kind of pepper. wani irin
      barkono.
tàrîhí n.
      history. tarihi. From: Hausa.


244
m'tàttádà                                                                   tägù
m'tàttádà n.                              c'tãqgù n.
    sloping ground, hillside.                 grazing, e.g. animals biting the top
    gangara. Variant: m'tadtada.              of the grass. kiwo.  Naamqn el
                                              qn c'tqqgu. Cattle are grazing.
                                          täqlã v. (past tqqlkq)
                                              walk away and become lost,
                                              wander off. èace.
                                          à'täqltäqlã n.
                                              renegade. battatan.
                                          tãqmä v. (past tqqmkq, active noun
                                              c'tqqmu)
                                              chew (continuously). taune.
                                          tãqtäqnà n.
                                              nickname for Igbo meaning 'man-
k'táu n. (plural c'tau)                       eaters'. ma ci mutum.
    bow. baka.                            í'tãbî n.
tºuníkùtù n.                                  craving for meat. ìanwa.
    part of animal leg between the        k'tãbrí n.
    knee and the hip. cinya. Variant:         swollen glands (esp. in groin).
    tausqmkutu.                               jiki inda kaluluwa take.
távtává adv.                              tqccu = tqqcu.
    vertically, stretching upward. car.
    See: txvtxvx; cavcava.                täd excl.
                                              bother! tir. Variant: tqdda.
k'taya n. (plural c'taya)
    tyre. taya. From: English.            tãdãdã adv.
                                              in a row. jere.
tázà v. (past tazka)
    kick or knock sth over.               tãdbä v. (past tqdqbkq)
    hambaradda. Variant:                      get set, ready. shiri.
    tqzqnnq, tqzqnkq.                     k'tãdí adj. (plural c'tqdini)
tázàl id.                                     young, tender, easily hurt if
    on one's back. wani irin                  touched. sabon abu ko
    faþuwa, riginginta.                       jaririn abu.
    Variant: tazgal; txzgxl;              tädtädä adv.
    txzgrxm; txzxm; txzxl.                    in the manner of a child walking
tàzgná n.                                     for the first time. kata-kata.
    stunted bean seeds. tamu.             tãgãp adv.
täq vt. (past tãqkä)                          slowly (of motion), with lethargy,
    chew (once). tauna.                       sluggishly, slow to act. sannu-
                                              sannu, cikin sannu.
täqcù num.                                K'Täglã n. (plural Tqgqlnq)
    3 (three). uku. Variant: tqccu.
                                              of the clan Tqglq. Variant:
  k'tãccù n.                                  D'tqglq.
    'three seeds of play draught in
    ones hand or in the hole of           tägù n. (plural s'tqgu)
    draughts'. 'ya'yan dara uku               man's gown or coat. taguwa.
    a hannu, ko a komi.                       Variant: m'tqgu (plural).


                                                                                245
í'tägù                                                                 tqsqmsq
í'tägù n. (plural m'tqgu)                   tänãnlú pro.
      dress, (usu. men's shirt). taguwa.       those (over there). waþancan.
tãk id.                                        Variant: tqnqnzu.
      1) thick (of liquid). (mai)           tqnqnzu = tqnqnlu.
      kauri. See: dqk.                      tãnbã n. (plural s'tqnbq)
      2) sluggishly (moving very slowly).      kind of tree. wani irin
      mai nawa.                                itace.
täkã pro.                                   tändàa v.
      this big one. wannan babban.              hop, esp. of frog or toad.
d'tãkä adj.                                     tsallen kwaþo. Variant:
      part full. cika wani iri                  hqnda.
      faffago.                              tãndãm id.
tãkäskã v.                                     plop, sound made by heavy object
   lifted up, took up, picked up.              being dropped into water.
   þauke.                                      tsilum.
tãkbä v. (past tqkqbkq)                     d'tãndí n. (plural c'tqndi)
   go down (of level of liquid, grain,         nest. gije, sheka.
   etc.). raguwa wani iri.                  tãngãm  adv.
täkkädbàtá n.                                  with a limp. þingishi.
   overgrown slut. buþuma.                  tänglã  v. (past
d'tqkrq = d'gurgu.                             tqngqlkq)
täkrä n.                                       limp. þingishi.
      container, receptacle. ma'aji.        tãnktãnkù  adv.
tãktãk adv.                                    tenderly (of sth growing). mai
      walking with heavy steps.                taushi.
      jimèurèur, jinìim.                    tãntrãm adv.
täm pro.                                        looking dull, foolish. soìoìo.
      I will. zan.                          tärbá adv.
tämä adv.
       1                                        when the ground is hard and very
   again, also. kuma.                           difficult to weed. kasa mai ya
                                                noma.
tämã2 = timi.                               täs adv.
tämbã v. (past tqmbkq)                          floating, or otherwise at the
   miss the way. èata.                          surface. a sama, bisa.
tämbítämbí adv.                             d'täsä adj.
      travelling in the dark. dukum-            shallow. rashin zurfi.
      dukum.                                    Variant: d'tasa; d'tqsbq.
tän pro.                                    täsä1 n.
   you pl. in indefinite future. zasu,          lamp made of mud. fitila.
   suwa. Variant: tqv; ta; tu; cqn.
                                            täsã2 pro.
k'tãn n. (plural c'tqn)                        these. waþannan.
   tendon. agara.
                                            tãsãbsä v. (past tqsqbskq)
tänã pro.                                      dig and widen hole. gina da
   these. waþannan.                            fadi wani iri, haìa.
tãnäkî n. (plural s'tqnqki)                    Variant: tqsqmsq.
   slow walking gait of horse.              tqsqmsq = tqsqbsq.
   batarnaìa.
246
täsämsã                                                              à'téké
täsämsã adv.                            tçrgà v.
    regardless of advice. jeka ka          cause to go in opposite direction,
    gane.                                  reverse. tafiya baya, baya.
m'tãsí n.                               tevteve = txvtxvx.
   cheekbones. tsaurin ido,             tébtébé1 n. (plural s'txbtxbx)
   ìunci kumatu. See:                      kind of shrub that grows on the
   m'gongono.                              fadama. wasu irin tsire-
täsmã v. (past täsämkã)                    tsire.
   shove, push over, knock over,        tébtébé2 id.
   especially in a crowd. tutture.          full (to the brim). maìil.
tãtäskã v.                              tédép
   continue, go on doing sth.               low level. ìasa-ìasa.
   cigaba.
tãtãtã = tatata.                        s'têx n.
                                            lankiness. tsiriri.
tqttqsq v. (past tqtqskq) =
   pqppqsq.                             têx adv.
                                            1

                                            squashed. danna wa.
täv pro.
   you sg. in indefinite future.        téx2 n. (plural têxné)
   zashi, zata.                             White-bellied Crombee. wani
                                            irin ìaramin tsuntsu.
täwã Other forms: tqwi,                     Sylvietta flaviventris.
   tqwqhqna, tqwqna,
   tqwqnlu. pro.                        téxz adv.
   this one, or that one (if near).         supine; flat on one's back.
   wannan. Variant: tqyq,                   ringingine.
   tqyqhqna, tqyqna,                    tégdê v. (past tégädké)
   tqyqnlu; tqyqnzu.                        1) strive hard, exert oneself.
tãwãnlú pro.                                taìarìare.
   that one. waþancan.                      2) balance well. daidaitawa.
tqzqnnq v. (past tqzqnkq) = taza.       tégê v. (past txgxkx)
k'tçbùr n.                                  close loosely, put lid on.
    desk. From: English.                    rufewa, sakayawa.
c'tçi n.                                tégtégé id.
    saliva, spit. yau.                      shivering, shaking.
                                            makyarkyata. See: tagtaga.
                                        têicãnkwédê
                                              n.
                                            excess saliva or spittle.
                                            tsartuwa.
                                        têk adv.
tçmó n.                                     silently and pensively. cirkaka,
    a hard flat hammer, used as an          dugum. See: wxt.
    anvil: hot metal is hammered into   d'txkbo = d'txkx.
    shape on it. guduma, hama.
    Variant: têmcò.                     à'téké n.
                                            1) centre. tsakiya.
tæp n.                                      2) island. tsibiri.
    tape recorder. rakoda. From:
    Hausa.

                                                                          247
c'téké                                                                         tês
  d'téké n.                                txmo1 = txmco.
      be in the middle. tsakà. Variant:    témó2 vt.
      d'txkbo.                                 hit. buga.
c'téké n.                                  téndéxm ad.
      the third year of g[lm[. tsara.          stagger forward when pulled. yi
téksé v. (past txkskx)                         tangaþi.  Qm sipk koma ru
      shake a container to make its            qm fumku u emk txndxxm. I
      contents level with the surface.         grabbed his hand and stepped forward
      girgije. Variant: txktskx                pulling him. Continuous:
      (past).                                  txndxmtxndxm. Variant:
                                               txngxxm.
téktê v. (past têktké)
      flee, run away. sheìa.  Wa          ténê v. (past txnkx)
      hxnkx laago, u txktkx qn                 1) bark. aradu.
      kwxxvx. A lad saw a mad person and       2) thunder. aradu.
      ran away quickly.                      tênó n. (plural s'txno)
téktêkê1 n. (plural txktxknx)                  bark. haushi.
      ant, large termite. gara.             v'tênó n. (plural s'txno)
      Txktxknx an yaan m u'bada.               thunderclap. abassama.
      Termites ate my loincloth.
                                           txngxxm = txndxxm.
téktéké2 adv.                              têngtêngó  id.
    so many, a lot of, in abundance.
    tinjim.                                    lanky and tall. jololo.
k'télé n. (plural c'txlx)                  v'tênó n. (plural s'txno)
    bone. ìashi.                               peal (of thunder). amon tsawa,
                                               aradu. See: v'rado;
télkäd cínã n. (plural                         k'bagagau.
    telcqdcinq)
    backbone, spine. ìashin baya.          tênté1 v. (past txntkx)
                                               lean against sth. jingina,
télkän ænà n. (plural txlcqn                   kashingiþa.
    s'ena)
    shin bone. ìashin ìwauri.              ténté2 adv.
                                               today. yau.
télkê v. (active noun m'txlkx)             ténté î ténté excl.
    eke out, use resources carefully.
    tsimi.                                     now! it's time! yau-yaune.
k'têllê n. (plural c'txllx)                têp id.
    plate. faranti.                            abundantly. maìil.
têmcò n. (plural s'txmco)                  térbés adj.
    anvil. uwar maìera. Variant:              flattened on top. Reversal: faþi.
    txmo; tçmò.                               Variant: tarbas.
témé v. (past txmkx)                       térê v. (past txrxkx)
    pound between two stones to               grow and spread branches over.
    break into small pieces.                  yaþa.
    dandaìa.                               têrsæ v. (past txrske, active noun
  témésê v. (past txmxskx)                    m'txtx)
    1) add to sth you have already            be unable to make a decision.
    pounded. daþa.                             daidaita shawara,
    2) hit heads with sb. gware,               kataèalèal.
    kara.                                  txrskx = txtx.

248
tês                                                              d'tòofç
tês id.                               txzgxl = tazal.
    astride, with one leg on either
    side. a ware.                     txzgrxm = tazal.
téstésé id.                           tî pro.
   busy. yi þawainiya, yi                 they will be, they are ever. za
   hidima.                                su.
têté v. (past txtkx)                  tîi adv.
   be hard to decide on, difficult.      following after sth to catch it.
    gagari ta cewa, rasa                 biye.
    tacewa, rasa ta yi ce.            tíitîikù n. (plural tiitiikunu)
   Variant: txrskx.                      kind of bird that prefers running to
txtxtx = tatata.                         flying. wani irin tsuntsu.
têvtêvê id.                           tîmí pro.
   standing on tiptoe. car, þage.         these. waþannan. Variant: tqmq.
   Variant: tevteve; tavtava.         tîndîl adv.
txzxl = tazal.                            like a balloon. kumburi.
txzxm = tazal.                        títêk id.
                                          stopping suddenly, at once. cik.
                                      tògdá v. (past togqdka)
                                          stand firm, be balanced. tsaya
                                          daidai.
                                        tògãdsá v. (past togqdska)
                                          even up, balance sth well so that
                                          it does not fall over. ajiye
                                          daidai. See: hyogqdsa.
                                      tòká v. (past tokka)
                                          burn. ìone.
                                      tòkãrkònnò n.
                                         ash remains of sth edible, burnt
                                         when being cooked. ìono.
                                      tòkçsæ v. (past tokeske)
                                         burn oneself. ìone kai. Variant:
                                         twekeske (past).
                                      tòkór tòkór id.
                                          said at the start of a fable. ga
                                          tan, ga tanku.
                                      tókskæ v.
                                          burn up all (of a large quantity).
                                          razga.
                                      tòló vt.
                                         swallow. haþiya.
                                      tòlónkò  v.
                                         overeat. zaìa.




                                                                             249
d'tòofç                                                                   tõngnõ
d'tòofç n. (plural c'toofe)                 tõlóskò v.
      small drum shaped like a bowl on          eat up everything. zaìire.
      a stand and played with both
      hands. wata irin ganga.
k'tóoká n.
    sore place. mangoso, miki.
tòolsá v. (past toolska)
    waste time. èata lokaci.
    Variant: novka, novaska.
tòosó v. (past tóoskò)
    proceed, get on with sth. þaure
    ka isa.
tórkmá n. (plural c'torkma)
    kind of bead. agagu.
tòrkòmá n. (plural s'torkoma)
    kind of necklace. wani irin
    abin wuya.
tö1 v. (past tö[kõ)
    leave, go (away from) sb. tashi.
    See: tön 'follow'.
  î'tõ[kç n.
      sth that has gone; the past, ago.     tõlõ v. (past t[lk[, active noun
      da.                                       d't[lbe)
                                                swallow. haþiya, harge.
tõ2 excl.
      expression of agreement, 'yes',         d'tölcò vn. (plural c't[lco)
      'OK'. e.                                  swallow. haþiya.
s'tõ n.                                     tölölö id.
      soup. miya.                              tall and thin. tsawo sama. See:
                                               talala.
tõdtõdõ ad.
   with fresh, new shoots. toho             tön v. (past tö[kõ)
   sabo. Variant: t[kt[k[;                     go, following or coming with sb.
   tuktuku.                                    taho, wuto. See: tö 'go away'.
tõhämhõ n. (plural c't[hqmh[)               m'tön n.
   spinach. alayyaho.                           ashes. toka.
tõhö n.                                     tõndömõ n.
      ingredients for soup (i.e. leaves).       balls of cooked flour. datsan
      kayan miya. Variant: t[p[.                fura.  T[nd[m[ i h[dan
                                                fura, anan soola hii na emt
t÷in adv.                                       o da. Tondomo are just like fura, the
   slowly. sannu-sannu.                         guinea corn bran is not removed before
tõkõ v. (past t[kk[)                            it is made.
   pluck feathers from bird; scrape         tönçsæ v. (past t[neske, active noun
   hair from hide of animal, tear off          d't[nese)
   chunk of meat. tuje,                        re-open a wound by mistake.
   cungula. See: ky[t[.                        fama, fami.
t[kt[k[ = t[dt[d[.                          tõngnõ  n.
                                               guinea worm. kurkunu.

250
tõngtõngò                                                               túdsí
tõngtõngò  id.             d'tõ[sò n. (plural c'tö[sò)
   growing up fresh and dangling.            load. kaya.
   yin reto. Variant: d[ngd[ngo.           k'tõ[sò n. (plural c't[[so)
d'tõnkç  n.                     big, large load. adila.
   wish, desire. don son rai.            c'tõ[sõ n.
tõnõ vt. (past tónkõ, active noun           heresy, sin. saèo.
   c'tõnõ)                               tõpämhõ n. (plural s't[pqmh[)
   want, like, love, 'be keen on'. so,      spinach. allayaho. Amaranthus
   kallafa, bukata, nema.                   caudatus.
   See: m't[n[.
tö[1 vi.                                 t[p[1 = t[h[.
   go, pass, leave. tafi, jeka.          tõpö2 v. (past t[pk[)
                                            wear, put on. sa. Variant: twxpx,
tõ[2 = tõ.                                  twxpxkx; twxpqlkx.
tö[gò n. (plural s't[[go)                törämkõ v.
   special rope for lowering a               gulp, swallow, gobble.
   calabash full of honey to the             maìwarwa, hadiye.
   ground from the bee's nest high
   up in the tree. wata irin             törhögò n.
   igiya.                                    ravenous (person or animal),
                                             glutton. mai jin yunwa
tõ[n adv.                                    ìwarai, bamburun. 
    slowly, with slow motion. sannu-         T[rh[go a tu cig kqgrq da.
    sannu.                                   A ravenous person is not satisfied
tõ[s c'nàamángædæ                            quickly.
     n.         törmõ v. (past t[rqmk[)
   soup made with fresh leaves of           gulp, gobble; eat or swallow
   the baobab tree. kirèe.                  rapidly. zarin cin abu. See:
tõ[sæ v. (past t[[ske)                      t[rh[go.
   stack, put one thing on another.      tõrö n. (plural s't[r[)
   aza.                                     neck, throat. wuya.
tö[skõ adv.                              c'tösó n.
    with great eagerness. zallim             token gift, kind of help or aid from
    mazallakì.                               people individually giving out cash
                                             or materials in kind. gudummuwa.
                                         tõssõ v.
                                            redeem, ransom, buy sth which
                                            wasn't for sale by asking for it
                                            specifically. fansa. Variant:
                                            t[sk[.
                                         tõvõ v. (past t[vk[)
                                            redeem, ransom, buy sth before
                                            seller offers to sell it. fansa. See:
                                            t[ss[.
                                         tú pro.
                                            he will, he habitually does (2nd
                                            person future). zai, ya kan.
                                         túdsí v. (past tudski)
                                            cool. bansanyi. Variant: tudu.

                                                                              251
tudu                                     tùkéx
tudu v. (past tudku) = tudsi.
ù'túdú n.
      1) Harmattan. hunturu,
      lokacin þari.
      2) cold. sanyi. Variant: k'tudu;
      tudk-tup.




252
tùkéx                                                                  twxpx
tùkéx adj.                                tùsù v. (past tusku)
   describing poor hair growth, e.g.          break sth by plunging or piercing
   newly-grown feathers on the head           it. fasa.
   of a baby bird. Variant: hulbxx.       ù'tùsù n.
tuktuku1 = t[dt[d[.                           animal, beast. dabba.
tùktùkù adv.
           2
                                          túu pro.
   prolifically, widely, in a fertile        3 sg. (he, she, it) in indefinite
   manner. bazo-bazo.                        future. zai, zata.
d'tùmátù n. (plural c'tumatu)             twekeske = tokese.
   tomato. tumatir. From: English.        twækræ n. (plural twekrene)
c'túntú n.                                   earthworm. tana.
    pleated leather dog-collar.           twæplá v. (past twepqlka)
    dagumi.                                  squeeze, crawl through. kurþa.
túp adv.                                     Variant: twepqlska; tweplee.
    very cold, ice-cold, freezing.
    ìalau, kau. Variant: tuptupu.
ù'tùptùpù n.
   coolness. sanyi-sanyi.
tùràrç n. (plural s'turare)
   eucalyptus. turare. From: Hausa.
tùrùs v. (past turusku)
   pierce in, plunge (foot etc.) into a
   hole, cave in. burma, èurme.
turusku = durusku.
tús id.                                   twærç n. (plural s'twere)
    bent suddenly with buttocks wide         tail. bindi, wutsiya.
    open. kwanciya, ko dukawa.
                                          d'twærç n. (plural c'twere)
tùs id.                                      fag end of sugarcane. cile.
    break a pot or calabash
    containing sth. fasa.                 twékê v. (past twxkxkx)
                                             snap, break a piece of sth hard.
túskã adv.                                   èantara, èantare.
    too much, abundance, excess of
    sth. arala.                           twxpx v. (past twxpxkx) = t[p[.




                                                                            253
u'-                                                                               úncùvù

                                        U       -    u

u'-                                             ùbú adv.
      Class-marking prefix for an                        shouting at the top of one's voice,
      inanimate singular noun in the U                   loudly raising one's voice.
      class. The U class contains towns                  rakaþi, kuwa. Variant: uvu.
      and a variety of other things as              d'ùbú n.
      well as many active/verbal nouns.                  pregnancy. ciki.
      Plurals of U class nouns often use
      the c' class-marker. The class-               ùcòpúcòpó n.
      marker u' should not be confused                   low down, ground level. ìarìas.
      with the pronoun u which is                   úkù v.
      written without an apostrophe and                died. mutu.
      replaces a noun.
                                                    ùlú v. (past ulku)
      When an entry has a class-marker                 become over-ripe or full-grown.
      it is written in italic writing. Class-          ìosa.
      markers may move to the end of a              k'ùmù n.
      word in a sentence. The class-                     loam. wata irin ìasa.
      marker is not included in the way             ún pro.
      entries are ordered. For example,                  he, she, it. shi, ita.
      the word u'gqmbq (shaved patch
      on head) is found between the                 úncùbù n.
      words gqmb dawake and gqmbkq,                     Senegal Coucal, a type of cuckoo.
      and the word u'kela (piercing) is                 èeru, þan raguwa. Centropus
      found as an active noun between                   senegalensis.
      the words kekse and v'kelco.                    úncùb-rîmúnî n. (plural
ù     pro.                                              úncùbãn-rîmánç)
      he/she/it (3s). shi, ita.                         Scarlet-breasted Shrike or
                                                        Gonolek. wani irin
ùbándáakç n.                                            tsuntsu. Laniarius barbarus.
   title, kind of leadership.
   ubandawaki. From: Hausa.                         úncùvù n. (plural uncuvunu)
                                                        warbler bird. tsigi.
ùbärsí v. (past ubqrski)
   impregnate, make pregnant. yi
   wa ciki.
úbgädbê n. (plural ubgqdbxnx)
   kind of destructive insect.
   ìwaron dawa.
d'ùbgcú n. (plural c'ubgcu)
   cover, lid. barima,
      afangali, cilmi, babban
      murfi. Large: k'ùbgcú.
ùbgnù n.
   bee species. kuþan zuma
   wani iri.
úbgù v. (past ubgku)
   close, shut sth. doþe, rufe.

254
úntù                                                                      ùvù
úntù v. (past untku)                   ùtù adj.
   groan. nisà.                            obsolete, old, used, left-over (of
ùnú vi. (past unuku, active noun
    1                                      things, not usu. of people).
   d'unu)                                  tsofon, abu tsofo, taba
   stand, rise. tashi.                     jiki.
ùnù n. (plural unnu)
   2                                     á'ùtù n.
   land-monitor (lizard). damo.            ancestors, people of ancient
                                           times. tsofo, mai daþewa.
ùnwá pro.
   he, she, it. shi, ita.              úu excl.
                                           'yes' - in answer to a call
ùrú n. (plural s'uru)                      (women). amshin kira irin
   wall. bango.                            na mata. See: y[.
ús id.                                 ùvä vi. (past uvka)
   sound made to chase birds away.         come in, enter. shiga.
   korar sunsaye.
                                         ùvú n. See: m'uvq.
ùsä v. (past úskã)
   rub. goge. Variant: usu.            ùvãúvä n. (plural uvquvqnq)
                                           person who is in their first year of
usu v. (past usku) = usq.
   1
                                           joining the g[lm[, newly
ùsù2 n. (plural usnu)                      admitted. yan bana, sabon
   puff adder, a kind of (harmless)        shiga golmo.
   snake. kasa, tandara,               úvsí v. (past uvski)
   sha-nono.                               stick, force in, press in. soka,
k'úsú n. (plural c'usu)                    tsire.
   virgin land. saura. See: k'kxngx.   ùvù vi.
                                           go in. shiga.




                                                                            255
v'-                                                                                vàtá

                                        V       -    v

 v'-                                          vaakto = vaakta.
      Class-marking prefix for a singular           d'váasîp n.
      noun in the V class. Nouns in this               short while. þan jimawa.
      class are inanimate objects of
      small-medium size, usually long               váawà n. (plural s'vaawa)
      and fairly thin, like a stick, finger            terminalia tree with long leaves.
      or pipe. Plurals of V class nouns                  baushe, baushi, kandare.
      use the s' class-marker. The                       Terminalia macroptera.
      class-marker V should not be                  vàdvàdæ adj.
      confused with the pronoun v or                   smooth. mai sumul.
      qv which is written without an
      apostrophe and replaces a noun.               vagat = vat.
                                                    vàlá v. (past valka)
                                                       wait, expect. dakata.
      When an entry has a class-marker              vàlãdbê n. (plural valqdbxxnx)
      it is written in italic writing. Class-          kind of weevil. kwarin dawa.
      markers may move to the end of a
      word in a sentence. The class-                vàlnátàkávò = cenga.
      marker is not included in the way             vàm adv.
      entries are ordered. For example,                  balanced. daidai tsayawar
      the word v'kwxmbx (fishing hook)                   abu.
      is found between the words
      kwxlxji and kwxmbxxm, and the
      word v'hwen (length of rope) is
      found between the words d'hwen
      and hwendo.
-v adv.
      there.
vá vt.
   collect. tara.
k'vá n. (plural c'va)                               k'vàná n. (plural c'vana)
   1) leaf. ganye.                                     1) saw - a strip of metal with
   2) paper. takarda.                                  serrated edges and a wooden
d'váa n.                                               handle. zarto.
   short period of time. þan                           2) sword. takobi.
   guntum lokaci.                                   í'vàná n. (plural m'vana)
váakà vi. (past vaakka)                                knife, for cutting meat or
   return, go back. koma. Variant:                     vegetables. badagela, wuìa,
   dooga, doogka; deega,                               almosa.
   deegka.                                          vát adv.
váaktà v. (past vaaktka)                               wide (of eyes), wide-open. turu-
   return sth, take sth back. mayad                    turu. Variant: vagat.
   da. Variant: vaakte, vaaktke;                    vàtá v. (past vátkà, active noun
   vaakto, vaaktko.                                    s'vàtà)
vaakte = vaakta.                                       say, tell, describe, explain. faþa,
                                                       faþi.
256
u'vàtò                                                               védvédé
u'vàtò an.                                vçdvçdç adj.
   1) (having) a vision, seeing sth or        feckless, scatterbrained.
   sb strange in a dream and                  bijibiji.
   speaking with it, as if it were real   vækà v.
   life. fade a malfalki.                     lift. daga.
   2) a person who does not hide
   any secrets.                           vçkçe v.
vàvà v. (past vavka)                          fall when walking or riding an
   shrivel. yanìwana.                         animal. wani irin faþuwa.
k'vàvæ n. (plural c'vave)                 væktá v.
   leaf of grass, guinea corn or              dig sth up. tona.
   millet, etc. ganyen dawa. See:         væná v. (past venka)
   k'va.                                      discipline, punish. hora. Variant:
vàvvàvà adv.                                  veno.
    with the ends sticking out.           veno = vena.
    kwasan karan
    mahaukaciya, yamsai.                  værãnvç adj.
    Variant: v[vv[v[.                         wise. wayau, cai.
vã pro.                                   s'væræ n.
   place. wuri.                               cleverness, cunning, craftiness,
vãql = pqql.                                  wisdom. fasaha, azanci,
                                              wayo.
vqqn = vqql.
                                          d'vçrgá n.
väc adv.                                      1) worry, anxiety. èacin rai.
    popping out. èilla wani iri.              2) curiosity, inquisitiveness,
väf adv.                                      nosiness. ìwa-ìwa.
    swiftly crossing in front of sb.      vçrmà v. (past verqmka)
    gilma.                                    train through experience. horo.
vãgtãm adv.                               vætá v. (past vetka)
    looking plump or dull. mai yar            to be a habit. saba.
    ìiba.
vãk adv.                                    í'vçtkà n.
    pulsing. kaþawa wani iri.                 habit, custom. a'ada, hali.
vän pro.                                    d'vætámà n.
   it. shi.                                   custom, habit. saba.
vänksã  v. (past                  vætàsà v. (past vetaska)
   vqnkskq)                                   be accustomed to, be in the habit
   chase away. wani irin kora.                of. saba.
vqvqvq = vavvava.                           d'vætkç n.
                                              be accustomed to doing sth.
vävkã v.                                      saba.
    be mostly husk with little grain.
    shefe, èuntu yanìwane.                vécê vt. (past vxcxkx)
væcç adj.                                     tell, warn. gaya, furta.
    chronic. na kullum.                   véd adv.
vædsá v.                                      compact, packed in, stuck.
    verify, confirm. hakikanta,               cushe.
    tabbata.

                                                                             257
védvédé                                                                         vòdà
védvédé adv.                                 vígãmsî v.
      in the manner of a bird flapping its       move. motsa.
      wings. faffaka.                        vígím adv.
végé n. (plural c'vxgnx)
       1
                                                 swinging loosely, dangling.
      kind of large, black scorpion.             jingim. Variant: vigimvigim.
      duwu.  Vxgx i damra k'cwec            d'vîivî n.
      k'rimkq. Vege is a large black             near, close by, close up to.
      scorpion.                                  daura da, kusa da,
végé n. (plural vxgnx)
       2
                                                 jingina, jika da jika.
   earth centipede, large and black.            Variant: i'viivi.
   shanshani. See: bxgx.                     vílä v. (past vîlkã)
vxgtxm = bxgtxm.                                faint, become dazed. suma.
vélgsê v. (past vêlgské)                     vîlkkã v.
   spread out, scatter. warwatse.                descended, came down.
                                                 gangara.
véntévénté n.
      restlessness. kusunniya.               vílksä v.
                                                 turn upside down. juye,
d'véró n.                                        karkata.
   loaf (of bread). burodi.
k'véró n. (plural c'vxro)                    c'vîlú n.
                                                state of being unconscious or
   pulp of gourd, calabash.                     knocked out. suma.
   kututu, totuwa.
vês adj.                                     vínä v. (past vînkã)
                                                1) squeeze out. face, fyato.
   straight, usually straight up.               2) blow nose. butari.
   þoþar.
vésó n. (plural s'vxso)                      vîndò n.
                                                sling for throwing stones.
   broom.                                       majajjawa.
   tsintsiya.
  vésó                                       vîntã v. (past vintkq)
                                                swing, cause to move forward and
      type of grass.                            backwards. yi reto.
      wani irin
      haki.                                  vîrksã v. (past virkskq)
                                                turn upside down. jirga.
vxvx v. (past
      vxvkx) = vxvo.                         vîrvîrî v.
                                                fall with speed downwards,
vêvêvê adv.                                     smelling horrible. saram.
      buzzing, noise made by flying
      insect. motsin ìwaro. Variant:         vîsã v. (past viskq)
      v[v[v[.                                   dodge away. kau da.
d'vévkê n.                                     vîs n.
   bad habit that is always displayed.           dodge aside quickly, in a flicker.
   irin hali.                                    kau ciya. Variant: visvis.
vévlòsóo n. (plural vévlòsóonò)              d'vîvî n.
   Harrier Hawk, or the Black Kite.              vicinity. kusanci.
   bura kogo, hura kogo.                     vò pro.
   Milvus migrans.                              you (sg.). kai (2s).
vévó v. (past vêvkò)                         vòdà vi. (past vódkà)
   peep. leìa. Variant: vxvx,                   change (self), go elsewhere, do
   vxvkx.                                       sth different. sake.
258
vògà                                                                   vùkvùk
  vòdàsá vt. (past vòdáskà)               võ[tõnî n.
   change, move (sth/sb, not self).           inner seed of baobab nut. irin
   baddala kau da.                            þiyan kuka na cikin
vògà vt. (past vogka)                         kwasfa.
   drive away, pursue. kora,              vöt v. (past v[tk[)
   burgaga. Variant: vokka.                  scrape, abrade, rub away with
vògäkù n.                                    friction. èultse, kamtsa.
    lotus tree - a tree with mysterious      Variant: v[t[.
    properties. wani irin itace.          v[v[v[ = vxvxvx.
vògdàabæ n.                               v[vv[v[ = vavvava.
   kind of lotus. wani irin               vú v. (past vuuku)
   itace.                                    turn or stir over or around. juya,
vógò n. (plural s'vogo)                      mosa abu.
   nape of neck. ìeya.  Na vosk          vúc adv.
    [m vogo. We hit the dog on the nape       suddenly (popping out), as if
    of its neck.                              forced out all of a sudden.
vògsîndí n. (plural s'vògsîndí)               kwaram.  Lqg ruk qn wqq
   medicinal shrub which grows                vuc. A mouse popped out of the
   during the rainy season and                burrow suddenly. Variant: vucvucu.
   produces small yellow flowers.         vùd adv.
   wani irin ganye.                           sound of hitting sth soft (e.g. a
vokka = voga.                                 pillow). rim. Variant: v[d.
vòsà vt. (past vóskà)                     vùgù v.
   1) hit, beat. buga, þuma,                  uproot. tuge, tumèuke.
   buge, raþa.
   2) plaster. yaèa, shafa. See:
   c'vosa.
   3) affect, have an influence on.
   shafa, yi wa tasiri.
c'vòsà n.
   plaster. ìara-ìara, yaèa.
vòsó n. (plural s'voso)
   kind of fig. wani irin itacen
   èaure.
vöd adv.                                  k'vùkcù n. (plural c'vukcu)
   easily (of pulling out). wani             (a set of) bellows, a device used
   irin cirewa.                              to blow air onto fire. zugazugi.
võdönkõ  v.                   vùkù1 n. (plural s'vuku)
   shoot and kill a small bird with a        kind of tree. wani irin
   boy's tama rind arrow or catapult.        itace.
   fyaþadda.
                                          vùkù2 n. (plural s'vuku)
võgvõgõ adj.                                 bouncing motion of e.g. a donkey
   rumble, slack sound, low sound.           when running. tuma.
   cida, gunji. Variant: v[gtk[.
                                          vùkvùk id.
vönvö n. (plural vönvönõ)                     heart-beat, palpitating motion.
   wasp (esp. mud-dauber).                    èalli-èalli.
   zanzaro. Sphecidae. Variant:
   bqbrindu (Pani dialect).
                                                                                  259
vùrú                                                                       wádká
vùrú n.                                      vyàvlàam ad.
      a type of cereal grass. antaya,             looking absent-minded.
      intaya, makari, wata                        shagalalle.
      irin acca. Digitaria exilis.
vyàdà v. (past vyadanka)
      knock over. fyada.

                                     W   -    w

wá1 v (cop).                                 c'wáalà n.
      are.                                        stalks of hungry rice. bunu,
wà vt. (past waka)
  2                                               raunon acca.
      buy. saye.                             ù'wàamà n.
                                                  1) aphid eggs - found near the
wà n. (plural àknº)
  3
                                                  honey, but making it taste sour.
      child. yaro, yarinya.                       2) sour beer (due to bad brewing).
  wà ärmã n. (plural yà ärämnã)                   tsamin giya.
      boy, young man, lad, whether                3) kind of sour porridge which is
      married or not. yaro.                       drunk. tsamin ruwa.
  wà kçmpà n. (plural yà kçmpánà)            wàanáamà n.
    boy, unmarried man. saurayi,                kind of grass. wani irin
    matashi.                                    haki.
  wà wántá n. (plural yà yántánà)            wàarúsù n. (plural yaarusnu)
      unmarried girl, daughter.                 twin. tagwaye.
      yarinya, budurwa.  Wa                 wàatàwàatà adv.
      wanta heveke wa kempa. A girl               unsteadily, changeably, swinging
      went to a young man.                        from side to side. tangaþi.
wà- adj.                                          Variant: watewate.
      little. ìanìane.                       wád v.
c'wà n.                                         wrench, one quick turn around.
      youth, youthfulness. ìuruciya.
                                                walkata.
                                             wàdà v. (past wadka)
k'wà n. (plural s'wa)                           chip, cut off (a slice). èagura.
      bin. bola.
                                             wádàn excl.
wàac'kwêxté n. (plural                          expression of dislike or
      wac'kwxxtnx) = danbare.                   disapproval.
wáagà vt. (past wagka, active noun           wàdánkà  v.
      u'wàagò; c'wàagò)                         broke off much and gave out.
      sweep, gather up. share.                  gaftara.
wàagyòzò n. (plural yaagyozno)               wàdçedá excl.
      baby. jariri.                             never! expression of
wàakörörö n. (plural                            disagreement. ba haka ba.
      yaak[r[r[n[) = danbare.                   Variant: wade; wadxxda.
                                             wádká n. (plural c'wadka)
wáalà n. (plural s'waala)                       buttocks. þuwai,
      plot of cereal grass                      kwatangwalo. Variant: k'wáná;
      (sc:Digitaria_exilis). gonar              ù'wáná; c'wáná.
      acca.
260
wàdmàl                                wàgdá
wàdmàl adj.
    wrinkled with age. fake-fake,
    gurayan dandi, ala
    gammana. Variant: wxdmxl.
v'wàgà n. (plural s'wàgà)
    a parasitic plant that grows on
    trees. kauci. Loranthus
    pentagona.




                                         261
wàgdá                                                                 wàrwàrà
wàgdá v. (past wagqdka)                      c'wàlgò n.
      1) be over-cooked. nuna da                 adornment, decoration of person.
      yawa.                                      ado.
      2) become rotten. ruèe.                wàlwàlà adv.
                                                 with a shine. haskawa wani
wágdá wágdá adv.                                 iri.
      rolling from side to side, wiggling.
      busur-busur, butur-                    wándá n.
      butur. Variant:                            kind of song sung by women
      wagdap-wagdap; watap-watap.                when working on the farm. waìar
                                                 noma.
wàgdàp id.
      fall with a sound. wani irin           c'wàndæ n.
      faþuwa. Variant: watap.                    common soup-making ingredient:
                                                 dried chunks of fermented red
wagdap wagdap = wagda-wagda.                     sorrel or hemp. daddawar
wàgwàgà id.                                      batso.
      swaying motion of grass. wani          wángrî wángrî
      irin motsi.                                  id.
wáklà v. (past wakqlka)
         1                                       walking crookedly. kalmaþai-
      weaken or rot completely. arafo.           kalmaþai.
wàklà2 n.                                    wánî det.
      good-for-nothing, useless person,         a certain. wani. From: Hausa.
      wastrel. karma.                        wànká  v. (active noun
                                                d'wànkò)
wàktá v. (past wáktkà)                          divide, share. ìawwama, raba
      (immediately) leave, turn back            tsaka, raba.
      and go away. juya da baya. 
      U lak u nokka, au hxntxxn              wànksç  v. (past
      me u waktka u doogka. He was              wankske)
      going to come but when he saw me he       divide. raba.
      immediately turned and went back.      wàntá n. (plural yantana)
wàl n.                                          girl, female. yarinya.
      flash. walìiya, aradu.                 c'wàntá n.
      Variant: hyal.                             beauty (the abstract concept).
wàlà v.                                          kyau.
      churn, turn sideways, (e.g. when a     wáp1
      fish turns and surfaces to gasp            sth inserted at once. shigewa
      air). juyawa wani iri.                     wani iri. Variant: wxp.
      Variant: wxlx; walam; wxlxm.           wàp2 id.
walam = wala.                                   1) sound made by a wet wall
                                                falling on sth or sb. shafa.
wàlãmsá v. (past wàlämskà)                      Variant: wqp; wxp.
      snatch at selfishly, fight or scrap       2) dirt. butsutsu, datti.
      over sth without sharing.                 Variant: watap.
      wasashe.
                                             wàrkª n. (plural ya ákna)
wàlgá v. (past walgka, active noun              child. yaro.
      c'walgo)
      prepare, make (self) ready.            wàrwàrà n. (plural s'warwara)
      shirya.                                   spondias; a tree with plum-like
                                                fruit. danya, ludde, ku'e,
                                                nunu. Sclerocarya birrea.
262
wàs                                                              wãlwãlã
  d'wàrwàrà n. (plural c'warwara)       à'wä n.
    fruit of spondias tree. ludde.        death. mutuwa.
wàs id.                                 d'wä n. (plural c'wq)
   crack - sound of sth breaking.         corpse, dead body. gawa.
   ìarar tsagewa.                       wä n. (plural s'wq)
wase n. (plural wasene) = lege.           second mourning ceremony, one
wàskká vi.                                year after sb's death. makoki.
   become scattered. watse.             án wä n.
wássæ v. (past wásskæ)                   mourners (lit. people of death).
   care for, be concerned about.         masu makoki.
   kula.                              d'wã n. (plural c'wq)
wàswàsà id.                              hole, pit. rami.
   oozing out. naso. Variant:         wãqgsí v. (past wäqgskí, active noun
   wxswxsx; u'wxswxsx.                   u'wqqgsi)
watap = wagdap.                          finish dying. shure-shure
                                         mutuwa.
watap watap = wagda-wagda.            wäqgstã v. (past wqqgski)
wátärskà v.                              deaden, take away force, dull.
    mix up, reshuffle. hausuna,          kusa tsayawa.
    gauraya.
                                      wäqkã v. (past wqqkkq, active noun
wàtãrwàtrò adj.                          u'wqqku)
   not well mixed, not easy to mix.      leak. yoyo.
watewate = watawata.                  wäqkã v. (past wäqkkã, active noun
wºu id.                                  c'wäqkù)
    'woof' - sound made by dog.          leak. yayyo, tarara þiga.
    haushi.                           Wãqkîbõ n.
wºu conj.                                kind of mysterious hole found in
    if (conditional). idan.              Senchi valley. ramin kibo.
wºun adv.                             wäqrã v. (past wäqrkã, active noun
    slowly opening wide. buþewa.         ù'wäqrú)
                                         come off thread (e.g. of beads).
wàv c'råsé n.                            zare.
    illegitimate child. giriptu.
                                      wqqwqwq = wii.
wàzàl adv.
   broken and in pieces. kauþa,       wälämkã v.
   balgace. Variant: wazgal.             disintegrate, disappear gradually.
                                         warwatse.
wàzãrwàzrò = gàzãrgàzrò.
                                      wãlkä v. (past wqlkkq)
wazgal = wazal.                          look up.
wázgkà v.                             wãlkã-d'hwçn n. (plural
    disperse, shatter. watsa,            wãlkã-d'hwçnnæ)
    baje, fasa, farfashe.                smallest kind of scorpion.
wä pro.                                  ìaramin kunama.  Cots
   1) he, she, it. ya, ta, ya.            wqlkq-d'hwen zatta m's[n
   2) spouse. miji, mata.                 hwxdi da. The sting of the little
                                          scorpion is not very painful.
wä v. (past uku)
   die. mutu.

                                                                              263
wãlwãlã                                                                  wxdmxl
wãlwãlã id.                                  d'wçn n. (plural c'wen)
      squirming, twisting, writhing.            nose. hanci.
      watsalniya, musuniya.                  k'wæn n. (plural c'wen)
v'wãmã n. (plural s'wqmq)                       stalk (esp cornstalk). kara.
   land that has not yet been                wæncæ wæncæ id.
   weeded this year.                             restlessness; the movement of
wqnkql = wxnkxl.                                 worms in rotten carcass. Variant:
wänkälwänkäl                                     winci-winci.
        id.                wærá vi. (past weraka)
      1) going hither and thither, with no       gather, come together. haþuwa
      direction. jalainiya.                      wani iri.
      2) slinking along. laèe-laèe,            d'wera See: mera. = d'mera.
      èunture.
wäp1 n.                                      wærànsá v. (past weranska)
                                                 gather together in one place.
      waft of intense smell. gumuzun             haþa wuri daya.
      wari.
wãp2                                         ù'wærç n.
                                                 1) flood, over-flowing of a river.
   1) = wap2.                                    haþami, cikan gulbi.
   2) flickering of bush lamp. wani              2) flotsam and jetsam, rubbish on
   irin faþuwa.                                  river. butaci, tukan gulbi.
wqrgwenta = gwergwenta.                      v'weya n.
wärí n.                                         wire. waya. From: English.
      my husband. miji na.                   wçyàwçyà n. (plural weyaweyana)
wärù n.                                         Purple Glossy Starling, similar in
   her husband. mijinta.                        appearance to a Drongo. wani
k'wärwä n. (plural c'wqrwq)                     irin tsuntsu. Lamprocolius
   a vegetable that looks like a                purpureus.
   potato, and comes out during the          wé n. (plural s'wx)
   first rains.                                 year. shekara.
wätwätä1 adj.                                  wé déùnç adv.
      the only one of a kind, lonely.            previous, last year. bara. See:
      kaþaita.                                   honune.
wãtwãtã2 id.                                 c'wébê n.
   alone, on one's own. kaþai.                  bluff, bluster. burga.
k'wæcç n. (plural c'wece)                    d'wécké n. (plural c'wxckx)
   (rain) cloud. gilgije.                       wild custard apple fruit. gwandar
wçckà v. (past weccqkka)                        dawa. Annona senegalensis. See:
   grasp at, grab.                              lqndq.
wçemà n. (plural weemna)                     wédän táu n. (plural wxdsqn tau)
   female goat, she-goat. akwiya.               bow string. tsarkiyan baka.
                                                Variant: wédê.
wçenà n.
      fishing, esp. during dry season.       k'wédê n. (plural c'wxdx)
      kamun kifi.                               skin, hide, leather. ìirgi,
                                                fatà.
wægá vt.
      point out. nuna. See: s'wegá.          ù'wédê n. (plural c'wxdx)
                                                body. jiki.
                                             wédê = wédän táú.
264
wxdmxl                                                                   wêné
wxdmxl1 = wadmal.                       wxlxm = wala.
wédmél2 v.                              wémwémé id.
    shrivel. tamoji.                       full of oil and nice to eat. an
wédwédänádúut n.                           sulala mai.
    must, compelled, required. dole.
wédwédé adv.
    1) with quick, short steps.
    2) necessary, must, required, the
    sound of quick running steps of
    forced action. tilas.
wêdwédêx excl.
    what can I do? (a pause for
    thought). o o ni.
wéx n. (plural s'wxx)
    year. shekara.
wéx wê n.
    kind of thatching grass. jan
    bauje, þusa, butuku.
wêxké v. (past wxxkkx)
    mix up. gauraya.
wêxksé v. (past wxxkskx)
    1) interrupt. katse.
    2) hinder, prevent. katse.
wxxrdqku n. (plural s'wxxrdqku)
    wild hemp, undershrub.
    ramaniya.
k'wéxré n. (plural c'wxxrx)
    sorrel stalk. yakuwa.
  wéxré n.
    sorrel seed. 'ya'yan yakuwa.
wéxwê n. (plural c'wxxwx)
    kind of grass. wani irin
    haki.
wégälké v. (active noun c'wxglo)
    mix into paste. kwaèa.
wékdê v. (past wxkqdkx, active noun
    u'wxkdo)
    1) chisel. yi amfani da
    cisur, maìanìarin.
    2) drill. ìwaìule, yi rami,
    èagure.
wêkêd wêkêd id.
    sound made by mice eating or
    scratching something dry.
wxlx = wala.
                                                                             265
wêné                                                                                 yà
wêné n. (plural wxnnx)                        wídí
   drummer. makaþi.                             c'wídí n.
wênkêl  adv.                            buttocks. gindi, þuwawu.
   somebody thin and frail falling                 Variant: v'widi; k'widi;
   down (needing support to stay                   s'widi.
   upright). wani irin faþuwa.                  d'wídí n.
   Variant: wqnkql.                                lower part of sth, bottom, base.
wênwéré n. (plural wxnwxrnx)                       gindin ko kasan abu.
   special edible mushroom.                   wígrí wígrí adv.
   burarjaki. See: cukna.                          walking on the ground like a dove.
wxp = wap2.                                        wata irin tafiya.
wêrämké v.                                    wîi excl.
   turn out differently from what was            cry expressing surprise. wata
   hoped. ìare ba kai.                           irin kuwwa. Variant: wiiwiwi;
                                                 wiwiwii; wqqwqwq; wqqwqwqi.
wéré n. (plural s'wxrx)
   kind of leaf. wani irin ganye.             wiimi n. (plural s'wiimi)
                                                 the tree Eugenia Owariensis.
wérgé n. (plural n/a)                            malmo.
   kind of bird. wani irin
   tsuntsu.                                   c'wîn n.
                                                   excrement. artai, kashi,
wêrwêrê id.                                        najasa.
      far up in the sky. can can
      sama.                                   wîn pêxté n.
                                                   very strong glass-like stone.
m'wésé n.                                          marmara.  Win pxxtx i taar
   strength, power. ìarfi.                         qm wxsnx. These are very strong
wxswxsx = waswasa. Variant:                        stones.
   u'wxswxsx.                                 winci-winci = wence-wence.
wêt id.                                       wîndä adv.
      suddenly stopping (of noise).                alone. kaþaita.
      cit, git, shiu, kasirit.
      Variant: cwxt; txk.                     d'wîndkã n.
                                                   loneliness. kaþaita.
wêtrî wêtrî n.                                d'wind[ n.
      petty worries of life. ciriniya.
                                                   window. taga, wundo. From:
wêzwêzê adj.                                       English.
      in very small pieces. guntu-
      guntu, ìanana-ìanana.                   wîp id.
                                                   flickered away, moved swiftly.
wîcîcî id.                                         wauri wani iri.
      in great numbers. cunkus.

                                      Y   -    y

m'yá n.                                       d'yà n. (plural c'ya)
      sharpness. kaifi. Variant:                   vagina. farji, èakwato,
      m'ryaifi.                                    duri.



266
yà                                                                       yákká
yà1 pro.                                  yáatkà v.
     which. wanda (m), wadda                  go your own way (separate from
     (f), waþanda (pl).                       the crowd).
yà2 vt.                                   yàaù adv.
     eat. ci. See: rya; k'ya.                 in a dense mass. daèaèa.
yàa döknõ n.                              yàawîndä n. (plural yaawindqnq)
     g[lm[ age group. tsara.                  kind of small rodent. tsere
yàadàató n.                                   maigona.
     unmarried young man or woman         yábkkº v. (active noun s'yàbkò)
     of marriageable age. budurwa             lightning. waiìa.
     ko saurayi.                            v'yàbkò n. (plural s'yabko)
v'yaadi n.                                    a flash of lightning. walìiya.
   yard. yadi. From: English.                 See: s'[b[.
yáagãmyá n. (plural yaagqmyaana)          yábkskæ v.
   kind of insect. afurguma.                  sprain or twist. gurþe.
yàagcó n.                                   d'yábksæ n.
   kind of snake. wani irin                   sprain. targaþe.
   sago.                                  yaccæ v.
í'yàagcó n. (plural m'yaagco)                acknowledge, accept. amince.
   large calabash for serving mush        yàdúdú n. (plural c'yadudu)
   food. ìwaryan sa tuwo ma                  wild custard apple. gwandar
   daidai ci.                                daji.
k'yàagò n. (plural c'yaago)               yàdyàdà id.
   crop or gizzard of chicken.                spurting out.
   ìundu, baroro. Variant:
   k'ryàagò.                              yàgà v.
                                              relax, be relaxed. Variant: yagte.
yáagsà v.
     pretend to do sth, tease.            yágskà v.
     lallashi wani iri.                       dilute. tsarma.
c'yàakò n.                                yàgssá v.
     food, a meal. abinci,                   loosen, slacken. sassauta.
     aþþa'ami. Variant: c'ryaako.         yagte = yaga.
m'yàamä n.                                yágyágá id.
   offering, act of offering sth to sb.       loosely. sako-sako, laèo-
   dangoli, galulu.                           laèo.
v'yàanà n. (plural yaana)                 ù'yàhò n.
   pip (e.g. of lemon or orange).             kind of sandstone.
yàanän kùbù n.                            yàkàkà adj.
     baobab seed. guntsu.                     protruding (esp. teeth).
yàanän nàagò n.                               kacakaura, ganyau-
     testicles. ìwalatai.                     ganyau, gayau.
yáarà v.                                  yàkãmsç v.
     spread out, stand apart. baza.           chew. tantauna.
d'yàasà ad.                               yákká adv.
     untucked. sako-sako. Variant:            with best effort. wata irin
     fyaataa.                                 fama. Variant: yakka-s'wadi.

                                                                             267
yàkræ yàkræ                                                            yátämkà
yàkræ yàkræ adv.                             yàngävníhwçn
      walking crookedly. wata irin                n.
      tafiya.                                   dry season. rani.
yàksà yàksà adv.                             yángkà  v.
      walking with difficulty, feeling the      become lost. èata.
      weight of your body. wata irin         s'yàngò  v.
      tafiya.                                   stray. èata, yi makuwa.  C
yàktá v.                                        el qn s'yango, kwesa co
      make a start of running or                lxvk nu'gabo. We are straying;
      dancing. girgiza, motza.                  show us the way to follow.
yàkyàkà id.                                  yángòrkó  n.
   glittering. ìwalkyali. See:                  kind of sorghum. wata irin
   yalyala.                                     dawa.
v'yál näqmä n. (plural s'yal                 yángskæ  vt.
   nqqmq)                                       have lost. kaladam èatar da.
   kind of twining herb. wasu irin           d'yánká  n.
   tsire-tsire.                                 small head tie. kallabi,
v'yálà n. (plural yala)                         þankwali, adiko.
   bean. wake.
                                             yàntánpänní n.
yàlyàlà id.                                     1) drizzle, wet autumn mist.
   glossy, shiny. sheìi walkiya.                þaþaþa, yayyafi,
   See: yakyaka.                                ìasashi.
ù'yámá n. (plural s'yama)                       2) kind of mushroom.
   jaw, side of face. muìamuìi.              ù'yáo n.
yàmàmà adv.                                     eating. cin abinci.
      broad. faski.                          yáp id.
yàmbàs adv.                                     snapping movement/noise made
      abundantly, in abundance.                 by dog's mouth shutting. cizga.
      hamama.
                                             yàpãrknçe adj.
ù'yàmbásà n.                                    rough, not smooth.
      better off, rich. mai isa.
                                             yás adj.
v'yàmprà n.                                     e.g. dog's lips pulled open leaving
   millet. maiwa.                               the front upper and lower teeth
d'yán  n.                             open. buþe haìora. Variant:
   1) light, shining. haske.  Hwela            hyas (Ribah).
      emka d'yan mi nu'bu. The fire          yàtàsá v.
      has lit up the compound.                  make wide or broad. faþaþa.
      2) world. duniya.  Yand hqnq
      dqn taas cinna kwe. This world         yàtàtà adj.
      will pass away along with us all.         with wide mouth, spreading,
v'yànà n. (plural plant)                        fanned out, broadened out.
   seed. iri.                                   fafunga, fankankan,
                                                faski, fankami.
m'yángá  n.
   stalks. karare.                           yátämkà v.
                                                become larger (esp. by breaking
ù'yàngá  n.                          the edges of a hole into pieces),
   badly made beer. burkutu.                    spread. gumfare, fafa,
                                                fafake, wage.
268
s'yátkà                                                              k'yãnã
s'yátkà v.                               k'yãqpã n. (plural c'yqqpq)
    be no longer a secret.                 covering cloth. mayafi.
    yalwatacce, ya du.                  yãqr yäqrní n.
m'yátrá n.                                 kind of thrill that one experiences
    (small) pieces, crumbs, fragments      while on a swing.
    of sth. èalgazu, èarèashi,          yäqrù num.
    èaraèusai.                             eight, 8. takwas.
yáu d'kòbà n.                           k'yãqtáyã n.
    suffering. shan wuya,                  feeling of faintness. mai
    haguguwa, jigata.                      gyangyaþi, gyangyare.
yàwágç adv.                             ù'yãqtã1 n.
    although, even though, on              time between sunset and
    occasions (at times expressing         midnight. hutturu.
    concern). damuwa.                   ù'yãqtã2 n.
yàzàzà id.                                 dusk, before dark. almuru,
    sticking out, protruding teeth.        maraice.
    cakaura, garandiya. See:            í'yäqtkã n.
    yqzqzq (similar).                      dusk, twilight. almuru.
yä1 v. (past yiikq)                     yãbyãbà n.
    go, command to leave. mu               earliest dawn. dungu-dungu.
    tafi, umurmni. Variant: ryq,
    ryiikq.                             yägämkã v.
                                           crush. rugurguje, marmasa.
yã v. (past yiikq)
  2

    1) sink. nutse, dulmuya.            yãgãsä v.
    2) return home. dawo gida.             melt. narkad da.
k'yãq n. (plural c'yqq)                 yqgyqgq = mqgmqgq.
    fishing net. homa.                  yäk yäk id.
yäqbã v.                                   nodding from tiredness.
    mingle, try to associate deeply        gyangyaþa.
    with sb. ma'amala, shige wa         yãkãkã id.
    mutum, zama da mutum.                  heavily, emphasizing weight.
yãqkî yãqkî ad.                            kariìiìi.
    clumsy, lacking even average        yãkälkã v.
    intelligence. daìiìi,                  get out of hand, out of control;
    wawanci.                               become insubordinate. kangara.
à'yãqkù n.                              yãmãmã id.
    act without intelligence, be           movement of sth large through
    incredibly stupid. wawanci.            water. banìwalìwal,
yãqmsä vt.                                 þokarin þokoko,
    soak in water. saka cikin              karièiìi.
    ruwa.                               yãmpàa v.
yãqn adv.                                  float. saman ruwa.
    stagger. fyu, hamuìi. Variant:      v'yãn n. (plural s'yqn)
    yqntaa.                                storm. hadari.
yäqpã v.                                k'yãnã n. (plural c'yqnq)
    wrap, throw cloth over shoulder        mud-made bed. gadon ìasa.
    and around the body. yafa.

                                                                           269
yängà yängà                                                    yònkänménké
yängà yängà                                 yòn3 n. (plural c'yon)
     adv.                      womb, afterbirth, umbilical cord.
   1) drunken stagger. tangaþi.                 mahaifa, mabiyi.
   2) toiling away at sth. dautu.
                                            d'yòn n.
yängkã  v.                            miserliness. rowa.
   brandish; raise hand or stick in
   readiness to hit. þaga hannu.            yóndç n.
                                                miser. marowaci.
yqntaa = yqqn.
                                            v'yóngà  n. (plural
yãpävkã v.                                      s'yonga)
      relapse, resume, return. tashi.           hard part of a stalk surrounding
yät id.                                         the pulp. kartajiya,
      in one go, immediately. guntum            tsirgagiya. Variant: v'ronga.
      abu.                                  yòngäd nùcón
yãzãzã adv.                                       n.
      with the ends pointing in every           ear lobe. leèatu.
      direction, describing the carrying
      of a load. ka yan ga basu             yóngyóngó  adv.
      dau ruba.                                 confusedly. cirma-cirma,
                                                farangaitu.
yé pro.
      what. me.
yêddé vt.
      relinquish, leave sth for sb. yafe.
yên pro (question).
      what have you in common with...?
      mig.
ù'yòbó n. (plural c'yobo)
      share, part, piece. rabo.
yògò n. (plural yogno)
      guinea fowl. zabo.
yòkná v.
      cling. þafe, lanìale.
à'yòmkò n.
      1) work, activity, job. abin da
    aka aikatawa, aiki,
    sana'a.
    2) chore, duty. aiki.
  c'yòmkò
      deed, act, special service (e.g.
      introductory farming work by the
      golmo group). aikataiya.
  rî nà'yòmkò
      (tool). See: ri.
yón1 n. (plural s'yon)
      charcoal. gawayi.
yón n. (plural m'yon)
      2

      milk. madara.
270
yònkänménké                                                                 yùbù
yònkänménké n. (plural                   yõgò n.
    yoncqnmxnkx)                             Pied Crow. hankaka. Corvus
    cobweb-like substance whose              albus.
    appearance marks the end of the      yõgõm adj.
    rainy season. alawar karin              having a plump or fat face.
    ruwan sama na damana.                   suntum. Variant: r[g[m.
s'yóodò n.                               k'yõgõmbî n. (plural c'y[g[mbi)
    kind of grass used for brooms.          old-fashioned bead of wood or
    wata irin tsintsiya.                    seed. karamba.
yòomsò v.                                k'yõgõ[bî n. (plural c'y[g[[bi)
    put whole piece of food into            kind of beads which women used
    mouth. laìume. Variant: yooso.          to wear. aladigo.
c'yòonò n.                               yõgõ[m id.
   centenarian. mutum wanda ya               plump, with fat cheeks.
   wuce 100 yrs.
                                         yõin adj.
ù'yòoró n. (plural c'yòoró)                  dirty.
   algae - green slime on water.
    dansakuka, algashi,                  k'yõ[mò n. (plural c'y[[mo)
    þamba, gansakuka.                        unbaked pot. þamaþanye.
yòoró adj.                               yõ[yö n.
    blue, green etc. used to refer to        Harmattan. hunturu.
    many colours except red, white       s'yõpó n.
    and black. shuþi, kore.                  trading, burying or selling.
  yòoró-c'vá adj.                            cinikkai.
   leaf green, to specify green rather   yõró n.
   than blue. kore, tsanwa,                  kind of fish with red tail. wani
   þanye.                                    irin kifi.
yooso = yoomso.                          ù'yõró n.
yõ excl.                                     condition of good health. ba
    'yes' - in answer to call (men).         haþari, mai lafiya.
    na'am. See: uu. Variant: y[u; yu.    yõrõm adj.
yõbó n.                                      emerald-green. kwarra.
    laziness, lethargy. ìyuya,           yõtõ v.
    amaja.                                  take a small amount of sth.
yõbyöbó adv.                                kwantale.
    doubtfully, hesitant to act.         y[u = y[.
    kiwuya.
                                         yõzõzõ adv.
yõdõ v.                                     (of sores) angry, red. gyambo
    clip, cut off. yanka, katse.            mai tsananin ciwo.
yõdõdõ adv.                              yu = y[.
   profusely (of sprouting).
   batsatsa.                             à'yù n.
                                            length. tsawo.
k'yögdö n. (plural c'y[gd[)
   kind of bead. wani irin               k'yù n. (plural c'yu)
   jigida.                                  smut-fungus (which affects guinea
                                            corn). burtuntuna.
yõgdõ adj.
    ugly. muni. Variant: y[gd[p.         yùbù n. (plural s'yubu)
                                            abdomen. ciki.
                                                                                271
yùdú                                                                          d'zàgó
yùdú n.                                          yumku n. (plural s'yumku) = rumku.
       kind of tuberous black fruit or           yuud = yududu.
       grass of the tigernut family.
                                                 yúyúyúyúyùu
yúdúdú adv.                                           sound of a lullaby. waìar sa
   protruding in large numbers.                       jariri kwana.
   turowa. Variant: yuud.
yùgù n. (plural yugnu)
   (crested) porcupine. begwa.
   Hystrix cristata.

                                         Z   -    z

zá1 part.
       it's not.
zá adj.
   2

       scarlet, deep red. jawa, ja.
       Variant: zau; zazzaza.
zà3 v.
   sweep away. share.
zaaga = zaga.
v'zàagcó n. (plural s'zaagco)
   rake, forked stick used as a rake,
   winnowing fork for clearing dirty
   places. manjagara, mayayi,
   dirka.                                        zàgà2 v. (active noun c'zàgà)
zàamskà v.                                            Variant: zaaga.
       come by sth valuable                           1) pick up weeds or stalks to clear
       unexpectedly. cintuwa.                         the ground for planting.
m'zàbá n.                                             sassabe.
                                                      2) wake up or get up. farka,
       broth, soup in which meat has                  tashi.
       been boiled. romo, dabge.                      3) pick sb up (esp. when they are
zàbà v.                                               sick).
   dip. sa lauma a miya.                         í'zàgç n.
k'zàbà n. (plural c'zaba)                             sourness or sharpness of taste,
   groundnut stalk. gindin                            having a taste of fermentation.
   gyaþa.                                             tsami.
zábé v.                                          ù'zàgmò n.
       'it was not'. da.                            row of cut corn laid out for cutting
zádá v.                                             off heads. jeni, sankace.
   be absent, not be, 'there is not'.            d'zàgó n. (plural c'zago)
   babu. Variant: ada.                              small, short broom used for
zade = ade.                                         driving off flies. ìaramar
                                                    tsintsiya.
zágá1 n. (plural c'zaga)
   canine tooth. fiìa.



272
zàgzàgà                                                           v'zázázá
zàgzàgà adj.                            ù'zángæ  n.
   trembling. makyarkyata.                 bed made of mud. gado.
   Variant: zxgzxgx; zigzigi;           zàngkî  n. (plural
   gazgaza.                                zangkni)
zàgzágç n. (plural s'zagzage)              mad person. balkwatoji.
   kind of tree. tawatsa. Entada        zàngzàngò  adv.
   abyssinica; E. africana.                taste of nothing special. rashin
zàkà v.                                    þanþano.
   1) grasp at sth. ìwace.              zánkà  v.
   2) take a small amount of sth.          be dawn or morning. safiya ta
   þiba kadan. Variant: zxkx1.             yi.
zàmánæ n. (plural s'zamane)             zánskæ v.
   a particular period of time (its         it is morning. wayewar gari.
   people and their customs).
   zamani. From: Hausa.                 m'zàntáa n.
                                            clear morning. waye.
zàmsà n.
    widow who does not remarry.         záp id.
    wata irin bazawara.                     firm, hard, serious, unsmiling.
                                            midir.
  c'zàmsà an.
    act of remaining unmarried after    s'zàpà n.
    being widowed.                          trembling. kar-kar-kar.
zàmtà n.                                zàpkká v.
    kind of guinea corn. wata irin          flinch – move swiftly away.
    dawa.                                   zabura.  Qm lxvk obql twer,
                                            m zapkka. I stepped on a snake's tail
c'zán n.                                    and flinched.
    fodder. harawa.
                                        u'zapska = d'gudgu.
m'zànà n.
    morning. safe.                      zapzapa1 = lqglqgq.
  zànäm-hõ[mnç n.                       zàpzàpà2 adj.
    late morning. da sauran                 1) fearful, looking hither and
    safiya.                                 thither. fatutuka, marmarwa.
                                            2) trembling. èarèarwa.
zànáwá n. (plural s'zanawa)
    kind of shrub. wasu irin            c'zàrà n.
    tsire-tsire.                            1) small portions of meat
zànäm nàcú adv.                             distributed to neighbours. lange.
    on the fourth day ahead. citta.         2) fee given to a skinner. bakin
                                            tumbi.
zànãm nç n.
   day-after-tomorrow. jibi.            zátdá v.
                                            have not, not possess. banda.
zàngái  n. (plural
   zangaine)                            zau = za.
   Martial Eagle, bird of prey with a   v'záu n. (plural s'zau)
   pronounced crest. wani irin              iron band or pointed ferrule at end
   tsuntsu. Polemaetus bellicosus.          of spear shaft. daddaga.
   Variant: zxkx2.
zángánç  n.                 záwà n.
   pepper. barkono.                         kind of guinea corn. wata irin
                                            dawa.

                                                                              273
v'zázázá                                                                c'zärí
v'zázázá n.
      hold grudge against sb. shama        m'zãmã n.
      wani kai.                                smell. ambo.
zázkà v. (active noun ù'zàzó)              zämbãr num.
      1) fade. koþe, cima,                     (plural
      koþewa, dushe.                           s'zqmbqr)
      2) ferment. ruèa.                        1,000 (one
                                               thousand).
zazzaza = za.                                  zambar. From:
zäqd id.                                       Hausa.
      nude, (standing) naked. tsayuwa
      ba komai saye ga jiki.               zämkã v.
zãqdzãqd id.                                   be rotten and smelly. yayi
      vibration or shaking of chest or         doyi.
      breasts when in motion. motsin       d'zãn n.
      mama idan ana tafiya.                    glow. hasken wuta.
zäqgã v. (past zqqgkq, active noun           zãnãskã ;
      u'zqqgu)                                  v.
      clear up, rake (an area).                light up, brighten, glow, emit
      yayewa, share.                           brightness without a flame.
zãbgä v. (past zqbgkq, active noun             hasken zafi.
      u'zqbgu)                             í'zängä  n. (plural
      dip, put hand into soup causing it       m'zqngq)
      to be spoiled. tsoma.                    musical rattle, gourd filled with
                                               stones for rattling, played by older
ù'zãdã n.                                      women. kacau-kacau, caki.
      'two seeds of play draughts held
      only in the player's hand'.          zãngä  v. (past zqngkq)
      'ya'yan dara 2 a hannu.                  1) rebel (against). bore.
                                               2) be vicious. abore.
zãgädkã vi.
      recover from illness, fainting or    zängrãm  adj.
      poverty. farfaþo.                        clear, cleared away. tas.
zãgísî v.                                  zãngtä v. (active noun c'zängtã)
   hurry, be quick, buck up, mind              excite. ìayatar, ba w.
   what one is doing. hanzarta.                sha'awa.
zäglä n. (plural s'zqglq)                  zãngú  num. (plural
   horseradish. zogale. Variant:               s'zqngu)
   zwqgrq.                                     100 (one hundred). zangu,
                                               þari. Variant: v'zängù. From:
zägrä n. (plural s'zqgrq)                      Hausa.
   kind of tree. wani irin
   itace.                                  c'zäntkä an.
                                               rejoice, be glad, happy, animated
k'zãgtä n. (plural c'zqgtq)                    or lively. murna, murnace-
   bunch (e.g. of fruit). dunje,               murnace.
   dinshe.
                                           c'zärí n.
m'zqi vn.                                      (sound of) drumming. amon
      pity. tausayi.                           ganguna.
s'zäkî n.
      enthusiasm, gladness. murna.

274
zärí                                                                      zémé
zärí n. (plural s'zqri)                  zêbêl adv.
   circular iron gong. gwarjen              manner of walking with a painful
   shela.                                   leg. tangal. Variant: zxbxt;
v'zãtã n. (plural s'zqtq)                   z[b[t.
   branch. reshe.                        zxbxt = zxbxl.
z¿u n. (plural s'zqu)                    zébòo adv.
   vegetable, medicinal shrub. wasu          poised to act. biye da
    irin tsire-tsire,                        lamari.
    þaþþoyar kare. Variant: jqu.         zéx v.
zäzgí adj.                                   dodge aside, move out of the way.
    unbefitting dress, scruffy. sa           kauce, janye.
    riga wani iri.                       zêxd adv.
zç v.                                        standing out shamelessly. tsaye
   say, think, intend. ce, faþa.             tal.
zægá v. (past zegka)                     c'zêgó n.
   get set or ready to act. shirya,         name of a game played with split
   yi shiri.                                cornstalks in pairs - one wins a
                                            point depending on how the
                            k'zægà          cornstalks fall. caca wani iri.
                               n.
                            (plural      zxgzxgx = zagzaga.
                            c'zega)      m'zêi n.
                            bed. wani        kindness, mercy. afuwa,
                            irin             tausayi. Variant: m'zei.
                            gado.        zêk zêk adv.
                            m'zçi =         stealthily. takawa kamar
                            m'zxi.          tsanda.
zæmná n.                                 zxkx1 = zaka.
   insect which is reddish in colour.    zxkx2 = zangai.
   wani irin ìwaro. Variant:
   bature.                               zêkré1 adv.
                                             1) (walk) with care.
d'zæmná n. (plural c'zemna)                  2) (walk) silently to avoid notice.
   cap, usu. red or brownish in              tsanda.
   colour. dara. Variant: d'pogla.
m'zæmsná n.                              zékré2 n.
                                             respectful form of address
    beer which is still being brewed         between contemporaries.
    but not ready for drinking.              siffa, kama, amali.
    burkutu dabai ni naba
    kutun.                               zéktê v.
                                             sieve (usu. flour). tankaþe.
zçngà  v.
   raise up. tashi sama.                 zélê v.
                                            display - for everyone to see.
zçngám  adv.                      þaga.
   up high. can bisa.
s'zé n.                                  zémé n. (plural s'zxmx)
                                            clove or meni oil tree. kujeme,
    feeling of disgust, fastidiousness       kanumfuri, kade, mijin
    or fussiness. ìyama.                     kaþanya. Eugenea caryophyllus;
zébé v.                                      Lophira alata.
    start. farà aikatawa.

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zémgtç                                                                   zísäsã
zémgtç n. (active noun s'zxmgte)           zím id.
      fondle. lallasa.                        (hit) with all one's strength.
zêmkã m'gílã n.                            zímîná n. (plural ziminana)
      swearing by a cult. rantsuwa            ostrich. jimina. Struthio camelus.
      da magiro.                           zín n.
zémzémé adv.                                   kind of valley, gorge or narrow
      jog. gudu.                               pass between hills.
zéndél adv.                                    kwazazzabo, kwari,
   raised up. dage abu sama.                   kufaþa. Variant: zwin.
zénkrém  ad.                    zîngã v. (past zîngkã)
   disrespectfully. ìerere,                    tighten, become tight or held fast.
   zeìeìe.                                     tanke.  Qm gagk o a'koma a
                                               zingkq. I tied his hand and it has
zêrké v.                                       tightened.
   mix, stir up. zakuþa, jirkice.
                                           zíngö  n. (plural
zésê v. (active noun m'zxsx)                  zing[n[)
   hide. èoye.  {m kindi nlu qv              kind of small bird with long tail.
      hav qv zxsx. Take this money and        wani irin tsuntsu.
      hide it.
                                           zîngskí  v.
zéskê v.                                      tie firmly, secure. tsantsan.
      pour one thing into another.
      juye.                                zínkdî  v.
                                              hold fast to, stick to. maìe.
zêtkò v.                                   m'zínkî  v.
      run down into hole (e.g., of loose
      soil). zurara.                          delay. jinkiri.
í'zîbkã adv.                               zînzînyá n. (plural s'zinzinya)
      perchance. sa'a, kaddara.               cock's eye; a twining plant which
                                              produces round red seeds with a
zîbtî adj.                                    central black spot. idon
      occasional, chance. nalokaci.           zakara. Erythrina senegalensis;
zîbtkí v.                                     Abrus precatorius.
   happen by chance. gamo                  zîp adv.
   katar.                                     tight, squeezed hard. matsewa.
k'zígdá n. (plural c'zigda)                zípãrmà n. (plural zipqrmana)
   waist band, 'woman's hip-girdle'.          kind of kite. gaggafa.
   jigida.
                                           k'zîrgî n. (plural c'zirgi)
zîgdíp adv.                                   canoe, boat, aeroplane, train or
   1) appropriate, just right. mai            any other large vehicle. jirgi. 
   dacewa, þos, jigib.                         Na pastka m k'gen qn
   2) (stand) firm, firmly unmoved.            k'zirgi. I was taken across the river
   tunkur.                                     in a canoe. From: Hausa.
zigzigi = zagzaga.                         zírî àvà n. (plural ziri avna)
zíikämzí adj.                                  African little grebe, a freshwater
   most respected. babban                      diving bird with lobed toes. kazar
   amali.                                      ruwa. Podicipedidae.
ziktq (past ziktkq) = siktq.               m'zísä n.
                                               length, height. tsawo, tsayi,
zílã vt. (active noun s'zilu)                  dogo. Variant: v'zisq.
   sew. þinki.

276
zísäsã                                                                 zöm gwígbî
zísäsã v.                                       k'zòngá2  n. (plural
   lengthen. ìara tsawon sa.                       c'zonga)
í'zíssî v. (past ziskq)                            a game like draughts, playing this
   be long. da tsawo.                              game, or the board on which it is
                                                   played. komin dara. Variant:
k'zítí n. (plural s'ziti) =                        u'ce .
   k'dutu.
                                                v'zòngá  n. (plural
zítíkò n.                                          zóngá)
   a kind of spinach used for making               seed found in a round pod.
   soup. wani irin alayyaho.                       'ya'ya 1shakala. See:
   Amaranthus caudatus.                            k'zóngá (rattle containing these
zîzgã v. (past zizgkq, active noun                 seeds); k'zòngá2 (game played
   u'zizgu)                                        with these seeds).
   shake. gargada, girgiza.                     zòngá bàtúræ
zízízí id.                                            n. (plural
    shaking the body as animals do to              zongas bature)
    shake off the dust.                            flame tree. barakaci, cika
                                                   saura.
zóbssà v.
   move or shake. motsa.                        d'zope = d'z[he.
zògà vt. (active noun ù'zògá)                   zõbgö v.
   pack, move loads from one place                 rinse. þauraya.
   to another. jida, kwasa                      zõbõ v. (past zöbkõ)
   wani iri.                                       prick, dab, touch lightly.  A na
zògáskà v.                                          z[b[ m'h[, na suku a na la
    lift, take off fire sth (e.g. a pot) that       nu'olo. You dab on water and rub it
    is being heated, cooked or                      on the shaving area.
    roasted. saukar wa, saukad                  z[b[t = zxbxl.
    da, shiþad da. See: citkq.
                                                zõdbõl zõdbõl adv.
zògó n.                                             vibration of buttocks or breasts.
    method of catching fish.                        motsin þuwaiwai.
    dubaran kamun kifi.
                                                d'zõhæ n.
zòlá v. (past zolka)                                lid, cover for a gourd. datsiya. 
    take a bath. yi wanka.                          Lqgqn tqqk d'z[he a uvk qn
  ù'zòló n.                                         d'kwq. Rats have eaten the closed
   act of taking a bath. wanka.                     holes and got into the gourd. Variant:
                                                    d'zope.
zòmà v. (active noun a'zomo)
   bake pots. gasa tukunya.                     zökkõ v.
                                                   bud; start to grow new flowers.
k'zóngá1  n. (plural                    tuhuwa.
   c'zonga)
   (children's) rattle, made from the           d'zögó n. (plural c'z[ko)
   pod of a certain creeper.                       buds or flowers of okra.
    lalajo, shakala,                               kumbali.
    takkyate.                                   zõkõ v. (past zökkõ)
                                                   take a small amount of sth
                                                   (powder or grain). yabuþa,
                                                   yafa.



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zõlksç                                                                       zúgkù
zõlksç v.                                    zö[ v. (past z[[ka, active noun a'z[)
      scoot, run quickly, hurry. wani            1) forge. ìera.
      irin gaggauta.                             2) roast, grill, fry, bake. gasa.
s'zõlksæ n.                                  zõ[b id.
   gallop. ìwakura. Variant:                    squat (v). tsuguno.
   s'z[l[.                                   zö[gæ n. (plural z[[gne)
zöm gwígbî n. (plural c'z[m                     smith. maìeri.
   gwigqbni)                                 zõ[ræ n. (plural z[[rne)
   large dark caterpillar. gamatoro.            antelope. mazo. Bovidae.
zömnác'kúnkú                                   zõ[r gyözó n.
      n.
   insect - potato pest. ìaìo.                   Red-flanked Deeka, a small red-
                                                 tinted antelope. mazo.
zömõ1 n. (plural z[mn[)
   worm. tsutsa.                             zõpãrsç v. (past z[pqrske)
                                                 attack suddenly. farmaki.
zõmõ v. (active noun m'zõmõ;
   c'zõmõ)                                   d'zöpcò n. (plural c'z[pco)
   whisper, gossip, rumour. raþa,                stopper for gourd-bottle.
      hadida, raþeraþi,                          marufin gora.
      guþiþi.                                zõpö v.
zõmõ n. (plural z[mn[)
       2                                         block. toshe.
   rabbit, hare. zomo. From: Hausa.          zõrksç v. (past z[rkske, active noun
zömvãn vùkù n. (plural zömnán                    s'z[rkse)
   vùkù)                                         move with jerks, bounce up and
   silkworm; a worm which lives on               down. wata irin tafiya.
   the vuku tree and makes a strong          c'zõrmõ îsã n.
   thread. wata irin tsutsa.                     greed. ìalawa, handama.
zömvãnbàró n. (plural                        zõt id.
   z[mnasbaro)                                   big vibrating bottom. cièi-
   large dark caterpillar with rows of           cièi, katabur.
   whitish spikes found on the kurna
   tree. gamatoro.                           k'zõzgò n. (plural c'z[zgo)
                                                 fin. fila filan kifi ìege.
zön n.
   copper, brass, gold or any other          zõzó n.
   shiny and maleable metal. jan                 ailment suffered by children who
   ìarfe, gaci, tagulla.                         feed from a pregnant mother.
zõndæ n. (plural z[ndne)                         shan mama da ciki.
   small kind of ant. kiyashi.  Qm          c'zùbú n.
      hok rusmu qm lagk z[nde. I                 the sweet, less alcoholic part of
      killed the stinging ant and left the       locally brewed beer.
      smaller ant.
                                             m'zùbú n.
zõngzõngò adv.                                  pap. kunu.
      rushing,
      flabbergasted,                         zúgdá n. (plural zugdana)
      flustered, perhaps                        large buttocks. atumurmur.
      frightened. gigice,                    zúgkù v.
      firgigi.  U                               rot, be rotten, decayed. ruèe,
      cekaco z[ngz[ngo.                          lalace, raèagwano,
      She came to us [looking]                   zagwanya. Variant: zugtku.
      flustered.
278
k'zùgtá                                                                           zwépê
k'zùgtá n. (plural c'zugta)                     zùzzùzzù id.
    rotten thing. ruèe.                             sound of shaking sth.  Dapt
                                                    zuzgk ce zuzzuzzu. A monkey
zúgtù v. (past zugtku, active noun                  shook the tree with a 'zuzzuzzu' sound.
    c'zugtu)
    1) rinse, as in rinsing out one's           zwagap = zugup.
    mouth. kurkura.                             zwagrap = zugup.
    2) rot or boil to shreds.
    zaèaèèake. See: zugku.                      zwàlàm id.
                                                    stretched out straight and tall.
k'zùgú n.                                           tsawo.  Raakum unuku, a es
    forest. kurmi.                                  zwalam. A camel stood up and is
zùgùp id.                                           standing tall.
    sound of falling. þuriyan                   zwäqkã v.
    faduwa. Variant: zwagap;                        be impossible. faskara.
    zwagrap; zwqgrqp; zwxgrxp.
                                                zwäqskí v.
zúm adv.                                            behave rebelliously. gagara.
    seated silently and despondently.
    rim.                                        zwäbã n.
                                                   active ingredient. makari,
zùmzùmù adj.                                       katala.
    at a crisis point in an illness. babu
    lafiya sosai.                               zwqgrq = zqglq.
zùnkrùm id.                                     zwqgrqp = zugup.
   huddled up, from cold or illness.            zwãklî
   cokoko, dauþe.                                  wear one or two heavy gowns.
                                                   jibga.
zùrù n. (plural zurnu)
   lion. zaki.                                  zwçgç n. (plural s'zwege)
                                                   collection or packing of guinea
zùskã v. (past zuskku)                             corn. tarawa.
   pour. þura, kwarara,
   zuba, bunduma.                               zwein = zwxxn.
zùsksä v.                                       d'zwê n.
    wear. sanyawa.                                  small portion of gift given as a
                                                    tradition to someone who has
zùtäsã v.                                           inherited that privilege. rabo,
    break down building, pluck fruit.               ko kyauta wani iri.
    kayar.
                                                zwéxn adv.
zútkù v.                                            unsteadily, with difficulty; in the
    fall off, collapse. faþuwar                     manner of movement of a thin
    bango.                                          person.  U unuku zwxxn u
c'zútú v.                                           havka. She stood up unsteadily and
    cast metal. zubi.                               went away. Variant: zwein.
zùtùtù id.                                      zwxgrxp = zugup.
    crumble, fall down.  Ur emka               zwékê v.
    zututu u hekqn nas ru. The                      give small amount of sth.
    wall has crumbled and fallen on his feet.       yabuþa.
zúzgù v.                                        zwémêké v.
    shake. bunda, gilgiza,
    kaèa, kakkaba.                                  give a quiet hint to sb. dona.



                                                                                        279
zwépê                                                                zwín
zwépê v.                                zwín n. (plural s'zwin) = zín.
      seal up, stop up the mouth.
      toshe, daþe.
zwíkälsã v.
      put on a lot of clothes. jitta,
      þibga, jitama, damèara,
      dafke.




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