Common Core Helping Students Master Text Structure

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					Common Core: Helping Students
    Master Text Structure

      Presented by TCI



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Text Structure                Purpose                        Signal
                                                             Words
        Description                                    to begin with, for example,
                                                       for instance, most important,
                           just to describe            in front, beside, near, sensory
                                                       words: looks like, sounds like,
                                                       etc.



 Sequence or Timeline
                                                       first, second, third, before,
                          to convey events or          on (date), not long after,
                                                       after that, next, at the same
                          steps that must be
                                                       time, finally, then, following
                          presented in order



 Compare and Contrast
                                                       like, unlike, but, in contrast,
                           to present
                                                       on the other hand, however,
                           likenesses and              both, also, too, as well as
                           differences



   Causes and Effects                                  so, therefore, consequently,
                                                       this led to, as a result,
                          to explain evidence of       because, if…then
                          causes and effects



Problem and Solution      to describe a problem        because, one part of, as a
   P.                     (and possibly the            result, consequently, this
                          causes/effects of it),       led to, if…then, remedy,
                  Steps
                          the desired solution,        one step of the solution
                                                       is….
                          and the steps taken to
   Desired Solution       solve it

Argument and Evidence
                                                       therefore, accordingly, as
                          to convince the reader to    you can see, in addition to,
                          do or believe something by   another reason, finally, In
                          making a strong claim and    conclusion
                          providing evidence for it
Beach Ball Strategy
Sequence: to convey events or steps that must be presented in order



                                   Have students write a paragraph describing the
                                   sequence of how to blow up a beach ball.


                                   Be sure to:
                                   • Have them include all of the steps in order.
                                   • Model the steps as they describe them.
                                   • Insert signal words like “first, before, next, etc.”
Sequence and Timeline Example




 Before playing with the beach ball, the sequence of preparing it must be
 followed. First, the ball is taken out of the package and unfolded. Next, the thumb
 and index finger pinch the nozzle of the beach ball. After that, a deep breath is
 taken and air is blown through the nozzle into the ball. Remember to stop every
 so often and take a deep breath. Once the ball is blown up, put the plug into the
 nozzle and then push the nozzle down into the ball. Finally, the ball is ready to
 toss around and play with!
Description: just to describe



                                Have students describe the characteristics of
                                the beach ball.


                                Be sure to:
                                • Have an extra ball ready if your class is large.
                                • Have students toss it GENTLY and then
                                  explore it.
                                • Encourage students to use their senses.
                                • Discuss the signal words that should be used,
                                  and have students rehearse with a partner out
                                  loud.
Description Example




    A beach ball is a three dimensional circle, or a sphere. It contains a plastic
    smell, and it is very light, despite its size. Beach balls can vary in design,
    but this one has large stripes of bright color. Beach balls can be easily
    tossed, caught, kicked, and passed. Because of their large size once
    blown up, they are easy to handle. Do be careful, because the light plastic
    can snag on something sharp and pop.
Cause and Effect: to explain evidence of cause and effect




                                    Have students write about the positive effects
                                    of playing with the beach ball as a class.


                                    Be sure to:
                                    • Discuss as a class what it was like to play.
                                    • Focus on the positive effects.
                                    • Rehearse with a partner.
Cause and Effect Example



   Playing with the beach ball as a group can cause positive effects. Just
   doing something a little different creates positive feelings for the
   participants. Everyone feels more awake with the movement, and happy to
   be part of a group. Tossing and catching provide an opportunity to
   experience many characteristics of the ball, such as what it feels like, how
   it sounds, and how easy it is to pass back and forth. Finally, playing with
   the ball is a fun experience that causes many students to enjoy the class
   more than usual.
Problem and Solution: describe a problem, the solution and the steps to get there



                                    Have students consider a possible problem
                                    they might encounter with a beach ball and the
                                    steps they would take to solve it.


                                    Be sure to:
                                    • Have students consider problems that could
                                      happen.
                                    • Brainstorm problems as a class.
                                    • Have students write about one problem, steps
                                      to solve it and a desired solution.
Problem and Solution Example




     “Pop!” Imagine playing catch with a beach ball when out of nowhere a
     dog runs up and catches it in his mouth. The ball now has a hole in it.
     Some possible steps to solve this problem would be to get some duct
     tape and cover the hole. If that doesn’t work, another possible solution
     would be to use some liquid rubber and fill the hole. If all else fails, go to
     the store and get another ball. After all, the desired solution is to
     continue playing with the ball!
Compare and Contrast: to present likenesses and differences



                                   Have students write a paragraph comparing a
                                   beach ball to a hacky sack.



                                   Be sure to:
                                   • Explain how a hacky sack is traditional passed
                                     from person to person.
                                   • Allow students time to explore the hacky sack
                                     with their senses.
                                   • Give students the chance to process
                                     information with a Venn diagram.
                                   • Have students rehearse with a partner.
Compare and Contrast Example



     While both the beach ball and the hacky sacks are spheres that people
     play with, there are several differences. The beach ball is large, filled
     with air, and very lightweight. On the other hand, the hacky sack is
     small enough to fit inside a fist, it’s filled with beads, and it’s fairly
     heavy for its size. It has a lot of mass. Both can be played in groups.
     But the beach ball is usually tossed by hand, while the hacky sack is
     generally kicked.
Argument & Evidence: to convince the reader to do or believe something
based on evidence


                                   Have students rite a paragraph that argues
                                   their position on which is better: a beach ball or
                                   a hacky sack. They should support their
                                   argument with evidence.


                                   Be sure to:
                                   • Brainstorm pros and cons as a class.
                                   • Show examples of counter arguments.
Argument & Evidence Example



      It is true that both a beach ball and a hacky sack are fun to play
      with. But the beach ball is better because of its versatility and
      ease. It can be folded up into a very small package and it’s
      easy to transport in a pocket, backpack or purse. It’s easy to
      blow up, so it can be used at the beach, at a park, inside or
      outside. A hacky sack requires skill to catch and pass with a
      foot, so a beach ball is much easier to play with. It can be
      tossed, kicked, and it’s easy to catch. Some say that a hacky
      sack provides more of a challenge. But the beauty of the beach
      ball is that it can be played at all different levels, from simple to
      advanced. As you can see, a beach ball is far superior to a
      hacky sack.
Introduction to text structure




   Other topics for paragraphs:

   • riding a bike (vs. skate boarding)

   • playing an instrument

   • making cookies

   • taking a trip to a location

   • doing a chore

   • walking a dog
                  Reading Non-fiction Text



1. Preview the text.
        Read the title
        Read the introduction
        Read the headings

2. Notice the special features/illustrations.

3. Predict what you’re going to read about.

4. Identify the text structure (based on author’s purpose).

5. Activate your schema.

6. Read –pay attention to:
        Special font styles
        Pronunciations
        Special Features

  7. Re-check text structure.

  8. Summarize/Retell important information (on paper or in your head).

				
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posted:12/15/2012
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