ENGLISH PAPER BATIK _ by RyezaManchunian

VIEWS: 33 PAGES: 11

									          ENGLISH PAPER
UNDERSTANDING BATIK, BATIK TYPE, AND
          HOW TO MAKE BATIK




  TEACHER ADVISOR   : Dra. Khoirul Huda

  NAME              : 1. Noviatus Sholiha (23)

                     2. Oktalia Rosdiana (27)

  CLASS             : XI IPA 1




    SMA NEGERI 1 BAURENO
    BAURENO-BOJONEGORO
 TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013
                                     INTRODUCTION


      Thanks to the presence of the Divine Rabbi who has provided an abundance of Taufik
and hidayahnya, prayers and peace be poured upon us Junjunan Muhammad, his family, his
companions and his followers until the end yaumil.


      Finally, the authors have created a paper titled UNDERSTANDING BATIK, BATIK
TYPE, AND HOW TO MAKE BATIK.


      Criticism and advice is always disposed to support the writers associated with the
literary content of the writing. Finally, just a step that we surrender to God, I hope this writing
for education in general and particularly in language learning.




                                                                    Baureno, 04 December 2012


                                                                                          Author
          UNDERSTANDING BATIK, BATIK TYPE, AND
                             HOW TO MAKE BATIK


      Now this word batik is already widely known abroad. Both women and men of
berbagian tribe Indonesia fond of wearing fabric pattern decorated with batik or batik fabric
itself, which was made and cut according to their respective tastes. The foreign tourists or
foreign officials living in Indonesia is very fond of batik and often take it home as a by-
oleh.Batik is one of the arts that has become a culture in Indonesia, particularly in Java. Batik
has been recognized by the people of Indonesia since the days of Majapahit. Therefore Batik
certainly has an interesting history, both of the meaning, use, until the weave.


      "The meaning of the word batik: art expert scholars, both Indonesian nationals and the
foreigners, not to agree on what exactly the word batik. Some say that the name is derived
from the tick batik contained in the said period. Point means also drops. Indeed, in the making
of batik cloth done also hatching candle on a white cloth. There is also a search for the origin
of the word batik in the ancient written sources. According to this opinion, the word batik is
associated with the word writing or painting. Thus, the origin is also linked with batik
painting and drawing in general.


       "The origin of Batik is still unclear. Batik can be found in many Asian countries such
as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. Besides batik is found in several countries in
Africa. But Still Batik most famous in the world is batik from Indonesia.
"Besides Asia, batik is also very popular in some countries on the African continent.
However, batik, which is very famous in the world is batik from Indonesia, mainly from Java.
Batik variety of shades and colors are influenced by various foreign influences. Initially, batik
has a variety of shades and colors are limited, and some patterns may only be used by certain
circles. However, coastal batik absorb various external influences, such as foreign traders and
also in the end, the invaders. Bright colors like red popularized by the Chinese, who also
popularized the style phoenix. European colonial nations are also taking interest in batik, and
the result is a style previously unknown flowers (like tulips) and also objects brought by the
colonizers (the building or horse-drawn carriage), including their favorite colors like blue.
Retain traditional batik s type, and is still used in traditional ceremonies, because usually each
style has a representation of each.


      Batik in Indonesia is already on Majapahit kingdom. Batik previously only intended for
a family of kings only. Along with the times, too, batik in Indonesia developed into art almost
in all parts of Indonesia.
      Art of batik is an art image on the fabric for clothing that becomes one of the family
culture of Indonesian kings of old. Initially batik is done only limited in the palace alone and
proceeds to dress the king and family and his followers. Because many of the followers of the
king who lived outside the palace, the art of batik was brought by them out palace and worked
in place of each.


      History of batik in Indonesia is related to the development of the Majapahit kingdom
and the kingdom afterwards. In some records, the development of batik is mostly done in
times of Mataram kingdom, and in the kingdom of Solo and Yogyakarta.


      In the development of batik art gradually imitated by the people nearest and
subsequently expanded into the work of women in the household to fill his spare time.
Furthermore, batik clothes that used only the royal family, then became a popular folk clothes,
both women and men. White fabric that is used when it is the result of homespun. Medium
coloring materials used consist of plants native to Indonesia who made himself among others
of: noni tree, tall, Soga, indigo, and materials made from soda ash soda, as well as salts made
from mud.


2.2.1 Components of Batik
1. Color


      Color is a certain spectrum contained in a perfect light (white). The identity of a color
specified wavelength of the light. For example, the color blue has a wavelength of 460
nanometers.
      The wavelength of the colors the human eye can still be caught ranged between 380-780
nanometers.
In the optical equipment, the color can also mean interpretation of the brain to mix the three
primary colors of light: red, green, blue are combined in a particular composition. For
example, mixing 100% red, 0% green, 100% blue will produce a magenta color interpretation.


      In art, the colors can mean a certain reflection of light is affected by the pigment located
in the surface of the object. For example, mixing magenta and cyan pigment with proper
proportions and perfect white light illuminated will produce a sensation similar to a red color.
Each color can give the impression of particular identities corresponding social observer. For
example, the white color will give the impression of pure and cold in the West because it is
associated with snow. While in most countries of Eastern white color suggests death and very
scary because it is associated with a shroud (although theoretically true color is not white).
In the science of color, black is considered as the absence of all types of waves of color.
While white is considered as a representation of the presence of all color waves with balanced
proportions. Scientifically, they are not the color, although it can be presented in the form of
pigment.


Grouping Color


      Neutral colors, are colors that no longer has a purity of color or in other words, is not a
primary or secondary color. This color is a mixture of all three color components at once, but
not in exactly the same composition.


      Contrasting colors, are the colors opposite one another memorable. Color contrast can
be obtained from the opposite color (cut midpoint triangle) consists of primary colors and
secondary colors. But it did not rule out forming a contrast color to reject the value or color
purity. Examples of contrasting color is red with green, yellow with purple and blue with
orange.
Hot colors, is the range of colors in a semi-circle in the circle of colors ranging from red to
yellow. This color is a symbol, joy, passion, anger and so on. Color impressive heat
proximity.
Cool colors, are the colors in the range of half a circle within a circle of colors ranging from
green to purple. This color is a symbol of tenderness, cool, comfortable and so on. Cool colors
impressive distances.


Substance Dyes
      Judging from earned sources of textile dyes can be divided into 2, namely:
natural dyes, derived from nature that rise from animals (lac dyes) or can be derived from
plant roots, stems, leaves, fruit, bark and flowers.


      Synthetic dyes are artificial dyes (chemical dyes.) Since a lot of these synthetic dyes for
dyeing batik then be selected dyes are:
           a. Its use in cold conditions or if the temperature of the process does not require
              heat to melelehlan candle.
           b. Medication did not help him destroy the candle and not cause hardship hardship
              on the next process.
      Batik craftsmen have many familiar plants to coloring textile materials some of which
are: indigo leaves (indofera), bark soga Cleaner (Ceriops candolleana arn), wood tegeran
(cudraina javanensis), turmeric (curcuma), tea ( the), roots of noni (Morinda Citrifelia), skin
soga jambal (pelthophorum ferruginum), kesumba (bixa orelana), leaves of guava (Psidium
guajava). (Sewan Susanto, 1973)
       According R.H.MJ. Lemmens and N Wulijarni-Soetjipto in his Vegetable Resources of
Southeast Asia Nn.3 (dye-producing plants and tannin, 1999), most of the colors can be
obtained from plant products, in the plants are plant pigments of different colors depending
penimbul by structure chemical. In general olongan plant pigments are chlorophyll,
carotenoids, and quinones flovonoid. Vegetable dyes are used to color textiles can be
classified into 4 types according to their nature:
            1. Direct Dyes of hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups of fibers; dye is easily
                 smudged example (curcumin)
            2.   Dyes acids and bases, each of which combines with the asambasa wool and silk,
                 while cotton can not be eternal color when stained; examples are flavonoid
                 pigments.
            3. Dyes fat back in the fibers caused by redox processes, dyes often show special
                 immortality to light and washing (eg Tarum).
            4. Mordant dyes to color textiles that have been given a compound Mordant et al
                 polyvalent; dyes can be highly conserved example alizarin and Morindin.
                 In dyeing with natural dyes are generally required workmanship mordanting on
                 the material to be dyed / stamped mordanting process which is done by
                 immersing the material into metal salts, such as aluminum, iron, tin or chrome.
                 Mordant substances serves to establish a bridge between the chemistry of natural
                 dyes to dye the fiber so that the increased affinity of the fibers. This is consistent
                 with the results of changes in physical and chemical properties due to dye silk
                 fabric skin's natural noni roots performed Tiani and Dasep sincere Hamid (2005)
                 showed that the use of Mordant kelunturan fabric colors can reduce the influence
                 of leaching. This shows Mordant compound capable of binding color so it does
                 not easily fade.


2. Line
The line is a result of scratches on the surface of the object / image area. According to the line
shape can be distinguished as follows:
         The straight line (perpendicular, horizontal, and inclined)
         curved lines
         The dotted lines
         Outline the wave
         Zig-Zag Lines
         imaginary line
2.2.2 Batik Supplies
   Supplies the batik is not much changed from the first until now. Judging from the
equipment and how to do batik can be classified as a work that is traditional.
   1. Gawangan
       Gawangan is a tool to hook and unfurled during dibatik mori. Gawangan made of
       wood, or bamboo. Gawangan should be made in such a way that easily removable, but
       must be strong and lightweight.
   2. Pendulum
       The pendulum is made of tin, or wood, or stone bagged. Pendulum principal function
       is to hold the new mori dibatik that are not easily tergesar wind, or pull the pembantik
       inadvertently.
   3. Pan
       Pans and utensils is to dilute the "night". Steel pans are made of metal, or clay. Pans
       should be stemmed so easily raised and lowered from the fireplace without using other
       tools.
   4. Stove.
       Stove is a tool for making fire. Stoves are used digunakanadalah stove with fuel oil.
   5. Table cloth
       Cloth is a cloth to cover the pembantik thigh so as not to hit droplet "nightly" hot as
       canting blown, or the time to make.
   6. Sieve "night"
       Sieve is a tool to filter out "night" a lot of hot feces. If the "night" is filtered, then the
       dirt can be removed so it does not disrupt the "night" on the front line when used for
       batik
   7. Canting
       Canting is a tool that is used to move or take fluids. Canting for batik is a small tool
       made of copper and a bamboo handle. Canting is used to write patterns with liquid
       wax batik. Before plastic materials widely used as household supplies, canting made
       of coconut shell is widely used as one of the kitchen equipment as a bailer. Today
       canting shells are rarely seen anymore because replaced other materials such as
       plastic. Canting for batik was slowly being replaced with teflon.
   8. Mori
       Mori is the raw material of cotton batik. Kwalitet mori assortment and determine the
       good or bad kind of batik cloth produced.
       Mori required in accordance with the short length of the desired fabric. Mori short
       length usually are certainly not by the standards, but with the traditional size. The
       traditional size is called "Handkerchief". Handkerchief is a handkerchief, usually
       square. So-called "sekacu" square size is mori, mori widths taken from them. So long
       sekacu of a different kind will mori length mori sekacu of other types.
   9. Candles ("Night")
       Candles or "night" is a material that is used for batik. Actually "night" is not empty
       (missing), because eventually taken back to the mbabar, the workmanship of batik to
       batikan into cloth. "Evening" is used for different batik or wax regular night. Night for
       batik is rapidly absorbed in the fabric but can be easily separated when the pelorotan.
   10. Pattern
       The pattern is a motif in a certain size, for example mori motif that will be created.
       There are two kinds of pattern size. A pattern is a pattern whose length width mori.
       Pattern B is the pattern length mori-third, or one-third the length pattern of A. if the
       pattern of A 1/4 Handkerchief, ola B 1/12 Handkerchief; Pattern A ½ Handkerchief,
       pattern B 1/6 Handkerchief. The definition of the pattern of ¼, ½ or 1/3 the width of
       the pattern Handkerchief is 1/4, ½, or 1/3 the size of a side sekacu mori. But the size
       of the patterns A and B are not as said above, because each piece is not used in
       memory, or because the size is not always the same width mori.




1.1.2 Types of Batik


A. Batik Chinatown / Chinese
       The Chinese have long been recognized as the nation nomads. They are also known
steadfast in preserving the cultural customs of their ancestors. Usually in those overseas
countries integrate their culture with local culture as a form of acculturation. The same thing
happened in Indonesia, especially in Batik. Descendants of the Chinese immigrants in
Indonesia usually produce Batik for yourself or also trading community. Batik Batik
production called Chinatown has a characteristic color is quite varied and bright, in a piece of
cloth many colorful displays. Motif used many incorporate elements of Chinese culture such
as Hong or peacock bird motif, and the Dragon. Usually Chinatown batik patterns are more
complex and subtle. In antiquity shaped Chinatown batik sarong kebaya combined with
typical fashion Encim as Chinese women in Indonesia. In the famous Pekalongan Batik
Chinatown produce one of them is Tan Tjie Hou.


B. Batik Netherlands
       In the Dutch colonial era certainly many Dutch citizens who live in Indonesia. They
apparently are also interested in the local culture. Just like the citizens of Chinese descent,
many residents of Dutch descent who create and produce batik. Produced batik ethnic Dutch
has its own characteristics. Motif is used mostly flowers numerous in Europe such as Tulip
and motifs of fairy tales figures known there. Batik model is very popular in Europe. Famous
figures make the Pekalongan Batik Dutch Van Zuylen and J.Jans. Their works dominated the
20th century ago.


C. Batik Rifa'iyah
       This type of batik got a strong Islamic influence. In Islamic culture motif - motif
associated with inanimate objects can not be represented exactly in the original. Appropriate
that the batik pattern rifa'iyah primarily on animal motif seen his head cut off. Because in
Islam, all forms of animal slaughter is lawful to be cut off his head. Usually people of Arab
descent batik producing this type.


D. Kraton Batik Effect
       Pekalongan batik makers often make batik motif is characteristic of Batik Kraton
Yogyakarta or Surakarta. Motif style palace which is usually in use, namely cement, cuwiri,
machetes etc. Although patterned effect palace but making techniques and style pewarnaanya
Pekalongan. So the more unique and interesting. Please note Pekalongan style is the style of
coastal become more free and a lot of different influences from outside.


E. Batik Jawa New
In the era of Javanese batik production after Hokokay. In the New Java Batik motifs and
colors that exist in the era of Javanese batik Hokokay more simplified, but still distinctively
early afternoon without tumpal. Most use a motif of flowers and lung – lungan


F. Batik Jlamprang
       Motives - motives Jlamprang or in Yogyakarta with Nitik name is one that is quite
popular batik produced in the Krapyak Pekalongan. Batik is a development of the motif fabric
from India Potola sometimes geometric shaped or star-shaped eyes and a breeze to use with
its top branches quadrangular. Batik is immortalized Jlamprang be one way in Pekalongan.


G. Batik Light of the Moon
         A batik designs where only ornaments on the bottom of it whether it is lung - or as
ornamental scrolls stocks it blank or be the point - the point. Batik is also called the Light of
the Moon Gedong or Ram - raman.


H. Batik Cap Combination Write
         Batik Batik is actually a combination of writing in which the second or before disoga
direntes or dirining by batik batik writes that looks like it was written. This is done to speed
up the production of batik and uniformity.


I. Three State Pekalongan Batik
         As well as batik - batik in other countries where there is a single red blue cloth soga
are all made in Pekalongan sometimes replaced purple blue and green.


J. Sogan Pekalongan
         Batik is a process in which the first two times there coletan a white background, and
for the second process batik plataran ditanahi full or ornaments in the form of a subtle point
just after it disoga. Batik Soga classic look


K. Tribusana
         Batik is a new style in which the way of making the process both direntas or riningan
and most motive - his motive lung - lanjuran scrolls. Batik Tribusana There are annual and
plain.


L. Batik Food / Farmers
         Batik is created as a distraction activity housewife at home where they have not gone
into the fields or during leisure time. Usually batik was rude and clumsy and not smooth.
Motive hereditary suit each area and batik is done not only as professional as a sideline. For
staining were included into the merchant.


M. Coletan
         Where in a batik cloth dyeing in some places using a brush and dab system for dyeing
only once except soga colors, other colors using a dab.


N. Batik Kemodelan
Is batik - be it classical batik of Yogya and Solo style, made with a new composition by
staining Pekalongan and modern look. It is very popular in the era of Sukarno to Yogya and
Solo batik making for added color.
O. Batik Osdekan
         In a batik cloth of one color will arise again dibatik continue overwritten with another
color whether it be young or old color other colors, it makes the colors more vibrant batik and
as there are shadows.


P. Modern Batik
         Batik is in the process, especially in the staining using a new system that is usually
present in dyeing using other systems either tu form gradation, grain and broklat hurdles.
These motifs are a new motif associated with aesthetics. The composition of this batik
freestyle popular in the era of the 80's.


Q. Batik Contemporary
         An unusual batik batik look, but still uses the same manufacturing process as making
batik.


R. Batik Cap.
         Batik is making use tool beebentuk either seal or stamp or keliran coletan process.

								
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