ENGLISH PAPER UNDERSTANDING BATIK, BATIK TYPE, AND HOW TO MAKE BATIK TEACHER ADVISOR : Dra. Khoirul Huda NAME : 1. Noviatus Sholiha (23) 2. Oktalia Rosdiana (27) CLASS : XI IPA 1 SMA NEGERI 1 BAURENO BAURENO-BOJONEGORO TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013 INTRODUCTION Thanks to the presence of the Divine Rabbi who has provided an abundance of Taufik and hidayahnya, prayers and peace be poured upon us Junjunan Muhammad, his family, his companions and his followers until the end yaumil. Finally, the authors have created a paper titled UNDERSTANDING BATIK, BATIK TYPE, AND HOW TO MAKE BATIK. Criticism and advice is always disposed to support the writers associated with the literary content of the writing. Finally, just a step that we surrender to God, I hope this writing for education in general and particularly in language learning. Baureno, 04 December 2012 Author UNDERSTANDING BATIK, BATIK TYPE, AND HOW TO MAKE BATIK Now this word batik is already widely known abroad. Both women and men of berbagian tribe Indonesia fond of wearing fabric pattern decorated with batik or batik fabric itself, which was made and cut according to their respective tastes. The foreign tourists or foreign officials living in Indonesia is very fond of batik and often take it home as a by- oleh.Batik is one of the arts that has become a culture in Indonesia, particularly in Java. Batik has been recognized by the people of Indonesia since the days of Majapahit. Therefore Batik certainly has an interesting history, both of the meaning, use, until the weave. "The meaning of the word batik: art expert scholars, both Indonesian nationals and the foreigners, not to agree on what exactly the word batik. Some say that the name is derived from the tick batik contained in the said period. Point means also drops. Indeed, in the making of batik cloth done also hatching candle on a white cloth. There is also a search for the origin of the word batik in the ancient written sources. According to this opinion, the word batik is associated with the word writing or painting. Thus, the origin is also linked with batik painting and drawing in general. "The origin of Batik is still unclear. Batik can be found in many Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. Besides batik is found in several countries in Africa. But Still Batik most famous in the world is batik from Indonesia. "Besides Asia, batik is also very popular in some countries on the African continent. However, batik, which is very famous in the world is batik from Indonesia, mainly from Java. Batik variety of shades and colors are influenced by various foreign influences. Initially, batik has a variety of shades and colors are limited, and some patterns may only be used by certain circles. However, coastal batik absorb various external influences, such as foreign traders and also in the end, the invaders. Bright colors like red popularized by the Chinese, who also popularized the style phoenix. European colonial nations are also taking interest in batik, and the result is a style previously unknown flowers (like tulips) and also objects brought by the colonizers (the building or horse-drawn carriage), including their favorite colors like blue. Retain traditional batik s type, and is still used in traditional ceremonies, because usually each style has a representation of each. Batik in Indonesia is already on Majapahit kingdom. Batik previously only intended for a family of kings only. Along with the times, too, batik in Indonesia developed into art almost in all parts of Indonesia. Art of batik is an art image on the fabric for clothing that becomes one of the family culture of Indonesian kings of old. Initially batik is done only limited in the palace alone and proceeds to dress the king and family and his followers. Because many of the followers of the king who lived outside the palace, the art of batik was brought by them out palace and worked in place of each. History of batik in Indonesia is related to the development of the Majapahit kingdom and the kingdom afterwards. In some records, the development of batik is mostly done in times of Mataram kingdom, and in the kingdom of Solo and Yogyakarta. In the development of batik art gradually imitated by the people nearest and subsequently expanded into the work of women in the household to fill his spare time. Furthermore, batik clothes that used only the royal family, then became a popular folk clothes, both women and men. White fabric that is used when it is the result of homespun. Medium coloring materials used consist of plants native to Indonesia who made himself among others of: noni tree, tall, Soga, indigo, and materials made from soda ash soda, as well as salts made from mud. 2.2.1 Components of Batik 1. Color Color is a certain spectrum contained in a perfect light (white). The identity of a color specified wavelength of the light. For example, the color blue has a wavelength of 460 nanometers. The wavelength of the colors the human eye can still be caught ranged between 380-780 nanometers. In the optical equipment, the color can also mean interpretation of the brain to mix the three primary colors of light: red, green, blue are combined in a particular composition. For example, mixing 100% red, 0% green, 100% blue will produce a magenta color interpretation. In art, the colors can mean a certain reflection of light is affected by the pigment located in the surface of the object. For example, mixing magenta and cyan pigment with proper proportions and perfect white light illuminated will produce a sensation similar to a red color. Each color can give the impression of particular identities corresponding social observer. For example, the white color will give the impression of pure and cold in the West because it is associated with snow. While in most countries of Eastern white color suggests death and very scary because it is associated with a shroud (although theoretically true color is not white). In the science of color, black is considered as the absence of all types of waves of color. While white is considered as a representation of the presence of all color waves with balanced proportions. Scientifically, they are not the color, although it can be presented in the form of pigment. Grouping Color Neutral colors, are colors that no longer has a purity of color or in other words, is not a primary or secondary color. This color is a mixture of all three color components at once, but not in exactly the same composition. Contrasting colors, are the colors opposite one another memorable. Color contrast can be obtained from the opposite color (cut midpoint triangle) consists of primary colors and secondary colors. But it did not rule out forming a contrast color to reject the value or color purity. Examples of contrasting color is red with green, yellow with purple and blue with orange. Hot colors, is the range of colors in a semi-circle in the circle of colors ranging from red to yellow. This color is a symbol, joy, passion, anger and so on. Color impressive heat proximity. Cool colors, are the colors in the range of half a circle within a circle of colors ranging from green to purple. This color is a symbol of tenderness, cool, comfortable and so on. Cool colors impressive distances. Substance Dyes Judging from earned sources of textile dyes can be divided into 2, namely: natural dyes, derived from nature that rise from animals (lac dyes) or can be derived from plant roots, stems, leaves, fruit, bark and flowers. Synthetic dyes are artificial dyes (chemical dyes.) Since a lot of these synthetic dyes for dyeing batik then be selected dyes are: a. Its use in cold conditions or if the temperature of the process does not require heat to melelehlan candle. b. Medication did not help him destroy the candle and not cause hardship hardship on the next process. Batik craftsmen have many familiar plants to coloring textile materials some of which are: indigo leaves (indofera), bark soga Cleaner (Ceriops candolleana arn), wood tegeran (cudraina javanensis), turmeric (curcuma), tea ( the), roots of noni (Morinda Citrifelia), skin soga jambal (pelthophorum ferruginum), kesumba (bixa orelana), leaves of guava (Psidium guajava). (Sewan Susanto, 1973) According R.H.MJ. Lemmens and N Wulijarni-Soetjipto in his Vegetable Resources of Southeast Asia Nn.3 (dye-producing plants and tannin, 1999), most of the colors can be obtained from plant products, in the plants are plant pigments of different colors depending penimbul by structure chemical. In general olongan plant pigments are chlorophyll, carotenoids, and quinones flovonoid. Vegetable dyes are used to color textiles can be classified into 4 types according to their nature: 1. Direct Dyes of hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups of fibers; dye is easily smudged example (curcumin) 2. Dyes acids and bases, each of which combines with the asambasa wool and silk, while cotton can not be eternal color when stained; examples are flavonoid pigments. 3. Dyes fat back in the fibers caused by redox processes, dyes often show special immortality to light and washing (eg Tarum). 4. Mordant dyes to color textiles that have been given a compound Mordant et al polyvalent; dyes can be highly conserved example alizarin and Morindin. In dyeing with natural dyes are generally required workmanship mordanting on the material to be dyed / stamped mordanting process which is done by immersing the material into metal salts, such as aluminum, iron, tin or chrome. Mordant substances serves to establish a bridge between the chemistry of natural dyes to dye the fiber so that the increased affinity of the fibers. This is consistent with the results of changes in physical and chemical properties due to dye silk fabric skin's natural noni roots performed Tiani and Dasep sincere Hamid (2005) showed that the use of Mordant kelunturan fabric colors can reduce the influence of leaching. This shows Mordant compound capable of binding color so it does not easily fade. 2. Line The line is a result of scratches on the surface of the object / image area. According to the line shape can be distinguished as follows: The straight line (perpendicular, horizontal, and inclined) curved lines The dotted lines Outline the wave Zig-Zag Lines imaginary line 2.2.2 Batik Supplies Supplies the batik is not much changed from the first until now. Judging from the equipment and how to do batik can be classified as a work that is traditional. 1. Gawangan Gawangan is a tool to hook and unfurled during dibatik mori. Gawangan made of wood, or bamboo. Gawangan should be made in such a way that easily removable, but must be strong and lightweight. 2. Pendulum The pendulum is made of tin, or wood, or stone bagged. Pendulum principal function is to hold the new mori dibatik that are not easily tergesar wind, or pull the pembantik inadvertently. 3. Pan Pans and utensils is to dilute the "night". Steel pans are made of metal, or clay. Pans should be stemmed so easily raised and lowered from the fireplace without using other tools. 4. Stove. Stove is a tool for making fire. Stoves are used digunakanadalah stove with fuel oil. 5. Table cloth Cloth is a cloth to cover the pembantik thigh so as not to hit droplet "nightly" hot as canting blown, or the time to make. 6. Sieve "night" Sieve is a tool to filter out "night" a lot of hot feces. If the "night" is filtered, then the dirt can be removed so it does not disrupt the "night" on the front line when used for batik 7. Canting Canting is a tool that is used to move or take fluids. Canting for batik is a small tool made of copper and a bamboo handle. Canting is used to write patterns with liquid wax batik. Before plastic materials widely used as household supplies, canting made of coconut shell is widely used as one of the kitchen equipment as a bailer. Today canting shells are rarely seen anymore because replaced other materials such as plastic. Canting for batik was slowly being replaced with teflon. 8. Mori Mori is the raw material of cotton batik. Kwalitet mori assortment and determine the good or bad kind of batik cloth produced. Mori required in accordance with the short length of the desired fabric. Mori short length usually are certainly not by the standards, but with the traditional size. The traditional size is called "Handkerchief". Handkerchief is a handkerchief, usually square. So-called "sekacu" square size is mori, mori widths taken from them. So long sekacu of a different kind will mori length mori sekacu of other types. 9. Candles ("Night") Candles or "night" is a material that is used for batik. Actually "night" is not empty (missing), because eventually taken back to the mbabar, the workmanship of batik to batikan into cloth. "Evening" is used for different batik or wax regular night. Night for batik is rapidly absorbed in the fabric but can be easily separated when the pelorotan. 10. Pattern The pattern is a motif in a certain size, for example mori motif that will be created. There are two kinds of pattern size. A pattern is a pattern whose length width mori. Pattern B is the pattern length mori-third, or one-third the length pattern of A. if the pattern of A 1/4 Handkerchief, ola B 1/12 Handkerchief; Pattern A ½ Handkerchief, pattern B 1/6 Handkerchief. The definition of the pattern of ¼, ½ or 1/3 the width of the pattern Handkerchief is 1/4, ½, or 1/3 the size of a side sekacu mori. But the size of the patterns A and B are not as said above, because each piece is not used in memory, or because the size is not always the same width mori. 1.1.2 Types of Batik A. Batik Chinatown / Chinese The Chinese have long been recognized as the nation nomads. They are also known steadfast in preserving the cultural customs of their ancestors. Usually in those overseas countries integrate their culture with local culture as a form of acculturation. The same thing happened in Indonesia, especially in Batik. Descendants of the Chinese immigrants in Indonesia usually produce Batik for yourself or also trading community. Batik Batik production called Chinatown has a characteristic color is quite varied and bright, in a piece of cloth many colorful displays. Motif used many incorporate elements of Chinese culture such as Hong or peacock bird motif, and the Dragon. Usually Chinatown batik patterns are more complex and subtle. In antiquity shaped Chinatown batik sarong kebaya combined with typical fashion Encim as Chinese women in Indonesia. In the famous Pekalongan Batik Chinatown produce one of them is Tan Tjie Hou. B. Batik Netherlands In the Dutch colonial era certainly many Dutch citizens who live in Indonesia. They apparently are also interested in the local culture. Just like the citizens of Chinese descent, many residents of Dutch descent who create and produce batik. Produced batik ethnic Dutch has its own characteristics. Motif is used mostly flowers numerous in Europe such as Tulip and motifs of fairy tales figures known there. Batik model is very popular in Europe. Famous figures make the Pekalongan Batik Dutch Van Zuylen and J.Jans. Their works dominated the 20th century ago. C. Batik Rifa'iyah This type of batik got a strong Islamic influence. In Islamic culture motif - motif associated with inanimate objects can not be represented exactly in the original. Appropriate that the batik pattern rifa'iyah primarily on animal motif seen his head cut off. Because in Islam, all forms of animal slaughter is lawful to be cut off his head. Usually people of Arab descent batik producing this type. D. Kraton Batik Effect Pekalongan batik makers often make batik motif is characteristic of Batik Kraton Yogyakarta or Surakarta. Motif style palace which is usually in use, namely cement, cuwiri, machetes etc. Although patterned effect palace but making techniques and style pewarnaanya Pekalongan. So the more unique and interesting. Please note Pekalongan style is the style of coastal become more free and a lot of different influences from outside. E. Batik Jawa New In the era of Javanese batik production after Hokokay. In the New Java Batik motifs and colors that exist in the era of Javanese batik Hokokay more simplified, but still distinctively early afternoon without tumpal. Most use a motif of flowers and lung – lungan F. Batik Jlamprang Motives - motives Jlamprang or in Yogyakarta with Nitik name is one that is quite popular batik produced in the Krapyak Pekalongan. Batik is a development of the motif fabric from India Potola sometimes geometric shaped or star-shaped eyes and a breeze to use with its top branches quadrangular. Batik is immortalized Jlamprang be one way in Pekalongan. G. Batik Light of the Moon A batik designs where only ornaments on the bottom of it whether it is lung - or as ornamental scrolls stocks it blank or be the point - the point. Batik is also called the Light of the Moon Gedong or Ram - raman. H. Batik Cap Combination Write Batik Batik is actually a combination of writing in which the second or before disoga direntes or dirining by batik batik writes that looks like it was written. This is done to speed up the production of batik and uniformity. I. Three State Pekalongan Batik As well as batik - batik in other countries where there is a single red blue cloth soga are all made in Pekalongan sometimes replaced purple blue and green. J. Sogan Pekalongan Batik is a process in which the first two times there coletan a white background, and for the second process batik plataran ditanahi full or ornaments in the form of a subtle point just after it disoga. Batik Soga classic look K. Tribusana Batik is a new style in which the way of making the process both direntas or riningan and most motive - his motive lung - lanjuran scrolls. Batik Tribusana There are annual and plain. L. Batik Food / Farmers Batik is created as a distraction activity housewife at home where they have not gone into the fields or during leisure time. Usually batik was rude and clumsy and not smooth. Motive hereditary suit each area and batik is done not only as professional as a sideline. For staining were included into the merchant. M. Coletan Where in a batik cloth dyeing in some places using a brush and dab system for dyeing only once except soga colors, other colors using a dab. N. Batik Kemodelan Is batik - be it classical batik of Yogya and Solo style, made with a new composition by staining Pekalongan and modern look. It is very popular in the era of Sukarno to Yogya and Solo batik making for added color. O. Batik Osdekan In a batik cloth of one color will arise again dibatik continue overwritten with another color whether it be young or old color other colors, it makes the colors more vibrant batik and as there are shadows. P. Modern Batik Batik is in the process, especially in the staining using a new system that is usually present in dyeing using other systems either tu form gradation, grain and broklat hurdles. These motifs are a new motif associated with aesthetics. The composition of this batik freestyle popular in the era of the 80's. Q. Batik Contemporary An unusual batik batik look, but still uses the same manufacturing process as making batik. R. Batik Cap. Batik is making use tool beebentuk either seal or stamp or keliran coletan process.
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