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									 VISUAL & THEORETICAL
      PRESENTATION
           OF
      THE MAKING &
     TECHNOLOGY OF
    LOW COST LATRINES

{ BAMBOO LEACH PIT TYPE }
INTRODUCTION :
 The old practice of defecating in the open on road side,
   bank of rivers, canals, tanks etc. is unhygienic in the
 extreme. This is the cause of more than 50 diseases like
  diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, more
                       infection etc.



   There are now several options open to users to improve
sanitation and dispose of human excreta, bearing in mind the
 socio-economic and financial constraints of people in rural
areas. These have been developed using low cost technology
         and locally available material and resources.
 Not only will these innovative approaches cut down the
    morbidity rate but it will put the waste matter to
   productive use e.g. making compost manure and gas
                      domestic purpose.


The low cost waterseal latrines provide a solution in dry
              latrines and sewage system.


Sewage and Septic Tank, generally regarded as the ideal
   solution for disposal of human excreta. However the
  sewage system involves a huge investment and is both
   expensive and time consuming. It also consumes more
    water which developing countries cannot afford. It
 further depends on factors like electricity, machine and
trained labour, which are difficult to access in rural areas.
                                                      Contd.
     Septic tank is another alternative, but is again
  beyond the reach of people, for it is very expensive.
   Moreover, it has additional problems like, periodic
   cleaning and disposal of liquid sludge which in turn
      breeds mosquitoes, creating health hazards.


The double pit latrine [ low cost water sealed latrines ] is
an economical, long lasting and an appropriate technology
  for safe disposal of human excreta until a time when
provision of a sewage system can be offered to the user.
      Construction of this type of latrines involves a
 technology which can easily be taught to masons. After
    a short training period these masons would be well
      equipped to construct this latrine on their own.

                                                       Contd.
The low cost sanitation programme has been given
   considerable importance by the Government ,
  Voluntary Agencies and International Agencies
 because of its immense potential in improving the
existing unsanitary conditions. The low cost water
sealed latrines is the most frequently used type of
       model in low cost sanitation schemes.




                                                  Contd.
LOW COST SANITARY LATRINES FOR
        RURAL AREAS.



   AFPRO Task Force launched a program to develop
 innovative Low Cost technology for improvement for
  rural sanitation. An initiative to promote Low Cost
  Appropriate Technology for promotion of Sanitary
  Latrines very needed and wanted by women in rural
 and tribal villages of the North Eastern States, has
  been undertaken by ATF in collaboration with EED
                        Partners.
       The aim of the program entitled “Health &
   Sanitation” is to make available simple Low Cost
  Technologies to promote sanitary latrines in which
      rural women are involved. Use of Alternate
  construction material, bamboo strips together and
   folded in a circular fashion and plastering small
   quantity of cement on both the inner and outer
 surfaces of the structure are then lowered into the
pits. This technology further reduces the cost of the
   unit. Women of the house hold can be involved in
                knitting the structure.




                                                  Contd.
     The double leach pit latrines with leach pits made of
 bamboo knitted structure instead of conventional bricks is
 an economical, long lasting and appropriate technology for
  safe disposal of human excreta. Construction of this type
of latrines involves a technology which can easily be taught
 to masons. After a short on the job training these masons
 could be well equipped to construct these latrines on their
  own. The involvement of Voluntary Agencies in motivating
  and promoting the acceptance of this innovation was very
    essential. As a strategy for the promotion of low cost
     technology ATFG with the help of PIO’s undertook
   construction of demonstration latrines near community
Halls, Schools, Churches and Vocational Training Centres in
      six districts of Manipur, one each in the states of
     Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland , Mizoram and Tripura.

                                                     Contd.
    AFPRO Task Force till date conducted on the job
training courses for masons involved in dissemination
of technology on the techniques for construction and
  demonstration of low cost sanitation. It is for the
 first time that such demonstration cum trainings on
   low cost sanitation for promotion of water sealed
    latrines with leach pits made of bamboo knitted
structure was conducted in the remotest rural areas
    of North Eastern States of Arunachal Pradesh,
   Manipur, Nagaland , Mizoram and Tripura. During
  these demonstration cum trainings 29 nos. of low
cost water sealed Units were constructed and 54 nos
   local masons [ Meteis, Kukis, Nagas and Bengalis ]
  were imparted the techniques of Low Cost Bamboo
  Leach Pit type latrines. 400 nos Low Cost Latrines
  have been constructed by 16 Voluntary Agencies.


                                                 Contd.
STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR
       CONSTRUCTION
             OF
     LOW COST LATRINES
 [ BAMBOO LEACH PIT TYPE ]

CONSTRUCTION OF SEPTIC TANK

   The double leach pit latrines with leach pits made of
bamboo knitted structure instead of conventional bricks
is an economical, long lasting and appropriate technology
for safe disposal of human excreta. Construction of this
 type of latrines involves a technology which can easily
 be taught to masons. After a short on the job training
these masons could be well equipped to construct these
                   latrines on their own.
                           10 cms



                            7.5
             8.75 cms       cms
                                         11.25 cms

                                  9”




 PVC Pipes                                 135 cms
 PIT DIA                                             PIT DIA
 120 cms       100 cms                               120 cms
                         50 cm   50 cm   100 cms




PLAN OF LOW COST LATRINE –
  BAMBOO LEACH PIT TYPE
STEP 1 : Selection of Site

Select the site for the construction of Low Cost Latrine -
Bamboo Leach Pit types based on the following criteria :
  Site should not be selected in low lying areas ( area
  where runoff water collects during rainy season ).

  Low lying areas for construction of leach pits to be
  avoided as the decomposition process would get
  disturbed and possibility of collapsing the pit.

  Site should be close to the house to avoid inconvenience
  for users.
Site should be away from the Drinking water sources.
Normally the distance should be 9 m to 10 m away
from leach pits i.e 9 times the depth of the leach pit.


Water table should not be shallow, atleast 3 times more
than the depth of the leach pit.


Measured from bed level of the pit. Site should be away
from trees to prevent structured disturbances to the
leach pit by root propagation.



                                                     Contd.
STEP 1 : Selection of Site

 Select the site for the construction of Low Cost Latrine – Bamboo Leach Pit types
 based on the following criteria :

 Site should not be selected in low lying areas ( area where runoff water collects during
 rainy season ).

 Low lying areas for construction of leach pits to be avoided as the decomposition
 process would get disturbed and possibility of collapsing the pit.

 Site should be close to the house to avoid inconvenience for users.

 Site should be away from the Drinking water sources. Normally the distance should be
 9 m to 10 m away from leach pits i.e 9 times the depth of the leach pit.

 Water table should not be shallow, atleast 3 times more than the depth of the leach
 pit.

 Measured from bed level of the pit. Site should be away from trees to prevent
 structured disturbances to the leach pit by root propagation.
LAYOUT OF SQUATING PLATFORM
 Step 2 : Marking of Squatting Platform.

 Clear the vegetation & top loose soil at the construction
site.

Level the cleaned site


Mark an outer rectangle on the ground using a rope
for the squatting platform where Length = 4’ 6”
[ 11.25 cms ] and Breadth = 4” [ 10 cms ]


Mark an inner rectangle on the ground using a rope
where Length = 3’ ½” [8.75 cms] Width = 3” [ 7.5 cms]
as shown in the figure.
  Step 2 : Marking of Squatting Platform.

Clear the vegetation & top loose soil at the construction
site.

Level the cleaned site.

Mark an outer rectangle on the ground using a rope for the
squatting platform where Length = 4’ 6” [ 11.25 cms ] and
Breadth = 4” [ 10 cms ]

Mark an inner rectangle on the ground using a rope
where Length = 3’ ½” [ 8.75 cms ] Width = 3” [ 7.5 cms ]
as shown in the figure.
Step 3 :    Marking for Junction Chamber.



  Mark a rectangle on the ground using a rope for the
  Junction chamber where Length = 20” [ 50 cms ] and
  Breadth = 25” [ 62.5 cms.]
Step 4 :      Marking for the Leach Pit.

 Measure 54” [ 4 ft.6 inches or 135 cms ] from the
centre of the back face of the squatting platform.

Measure 50 cm on either side.


Mark circles of 120 cms diameter on the ground using
a rope and peg for leach pit such that the periphery
of the circle touches the 50 cms mark.
   Step 4 : Marking for the Leach Pit.


Measure 54” [ 4 ft.6 inches or 135 cms ] from the
centre of the back face of the squatting platform.

Measure 50 cm on either side.

 Mark circles of 120 cms diameter on the ground using a
 rope and peg for leach pit such that the periphery of
the circle touches the 50 cms mark.
Step 5 :     Excavation for Foundation of
             Squating Platform

 Excavate the soil on the marked area [ between the
 outer & inner rectangles of 6 ” width ] to a depth
 of 4 inches for foundation.
PREPARATION OF SQUATING PLATFORM
Step 6 : Compacting the Excavated Pit /
 Placing stones / bricks in Foundation.

 Sprinkle water on the excavated pit and place stones
 into the excavated portion up to Ground Level for
 foundation base.


 Use excavated soil as binding material.


 Compact the stone packing by using rammer.
Step 6 : Compacting the Excavated Pit /
  Placing stones / bricks in Foundation.

Sprinkle water on the excavated pit and places stones
into the excavated portion up to Ground Level for
foundation base.


 Use excavated soil as binding material.


 Compact the stone packing by using rammer.
  CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK WALL
              FOR
SQUATTING PLATFORM IN PROGRESS
 Step 7 : Erection of Walls for Squatting
                 Platform

  Place bricks for construction of squatting platform.

  The walls to be raised to 15” - 18” [ 5 rows of bricks ]
above the foundation base.

  Use Cement Mortar of 1 : 5.

  Provide an opening of 4” [ 10 cms ] towards the junction
Box [ Back face ] of the squatting platform as shown in
the figure.

  This provision is made for the inserting the trap
  [ water seal ]
Step 7 : Erection of Walls for Squatting
                Platform

Place bricks for construction of squatting platform.

The walls to be raised to 15” - 18” [ 5 rows of bricks ]
above the foundation base.

Use Cement Mortar of 1 : 5.

Provide an opening of 4” [ 10 cms ] towards the junction
Box [ Back face ] of the squatting platform as shown in
the figure.

This provision is made for the inserting the trap
[ water seal ].
CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK WALL FOR
    SQUATTING PLATFORM IN
           PROGRESS
  CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK WALL
              FOR
SQUATTING PLATFORM IN PROGRESS
 CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK WALL
             FOR
SQUATTING PLATFORM IN PROGRESS
 Step 8 : Placement of Pan & Trap
             [ Water seal ]

  Measure & Mark 9” [ 22.5 cms ] from the wall of the
Squatting Platform


  Place the pan in the centre of the squatting platform
9” away from the wall of the squatting platform in such a
way that the trap fits into the space provided [ 4” space ]
and ensure that it is horizontal.


   Cut & Attach a piece of pipe to the trap so that it
reaches to the edge of the brick wall.
  With the help of spirit level ensure again of proper
leveling of Pan and trap.


  The pan to be supported by placing bricks under it.




  Pack the empty space between the trap / pipe by
packing with broken bricks / stone or by applying
Cement Concrete 1 : 3 : 6.




                                                    Contd.
PLACEMENT OF THE PAN & TRAP
        [ WATERSEAL ]
    Step 8 : Placement of Pan & Trap [ Water seal ]

 Measure & Mark 9” [ 22.5 cms ] from the wall of the Squatting
Platform

 Place the pan in the centre of the squatting platform 9” away from
the wall of the squatting platform in such a way that the trap fits into
the space provided [ 4” space ] and ensure that it is horizontal.

 Cut & Attach a piece of pipe to the trap so that it reaches to the edge
of the brick wall.

 With the help of spirit level ensure again of proper leveling of Pan
and trap.

 The pan to be supported by placing bricks under it.

 Pack the empty space between the trap / pipe by packing with
broken bricks / stone or by applying Cement Concrete 1 : 3 : 6.
          EARTH FILLING
[ INNER PORTION OF THE SQUATTING
            PLATFORM ]
Step 9 : Earth Filling \ Packing of
         Squatting Platform.

  Pack the empty space between the pan and the platform
wall firmly by filling the inside of the squatting platform
with soil ensuring that the Pan and trap remain in position.


  Sprinkle water and allow it to set overnight.


   Place a layer of rubbles mixed with sand and level up
to the top by compacting .
 Step 9 :  Earth Filling \ Packing
      of Squatting Platform.

 Pack the empty space between the pan and the
platform wall firmly by filling the inside of the
squatting platform with soil ensuring that the Pan and
trap remain in position.

 Sprinkle water and allow it to set overnight.


 Place a layer of rubbles mixed with sand and level
up to the top by compacting .
  FINISHING TOUCHES TO
SQUATTING PLATFORM FLOOR
Step 10 : Plastering of Squatting Platform

   Prepare Plain Cement Concrete 1 : 3 : 6 and pour it over
the top of the basement and compact it to a thickness of 3
inches [ 75 mm ].


   Place two bricks on either side of the pan for foot rest.


   Finish the floor base using cement mortar keeping the
slope towards the pan from all the sides.
Step 10 : Plastering of Squatting Platform.

 Prepare Plain Cement Concrete 1 : 3 : 6 and pour it over
 the top of the basement and compact it to a thickness
 of 3 inches [ 75 mm ].


 Place two bricks on either side of the pan for foot rest.


 Finish the floor base using cement mortar keeping the
 slope towards the pan from all the sides.
             CONSTRUCTION
                  OF
        JUNCTION BOX [ CHAMBER ]

  Junction Box chamber is constructed , surrounding the
     opening provided for placement of pan with trap
          [ water seal ] in the squatting platform

  Construction Procedure :

 Step : 1 Excavation of the Foundation for
             Junction Chamber [ Box ]

   Excavate the soil on the marked area [ Length = 25” &
width = 20” ] to a depth of 2” to 3” for foundation.
    Step : 2 Compacting the Excavated
     portion – placing stones / bricks
              in foundation.
  Sprinkle water on the excavated pit and place stones into
the excavated portion up to Ground Level for foundation
base.


  Use excavated soil as binding material.



   Compact the stone packing by using hammer.
 Step : 2 Compacting the Excavated
  portion – placing stones / bricks
           in foundation.
 Sprinkle water on the excavated pit and place
  stones into the excavated portion up to Ground
  Level for foundation base.


 Use excavated soil as binding material.


 Compact the stone packing by using hammer.
    Step 3 :       Connecting PVC Pipes

   Two pieces of 3 ” dia PVC Pipes of equal lengths [ 5 m
length] are placed and fixed from the bottom of the
Junction box [ from the two edges ( corners ) ] to the
Bamboo leach pits.

   The pipes to be inserted into the leach pits in opening
provided for pipe space.

  The pipe should be atleast 6 inches inside the leach pit.
   The pipe should be imbedded into the ground and covered
with earth.



   Opening of one of the PVC pipes inside the Junction Box
is closed temporarily with a wooden peg to render the leach
pit non functional.



  The wooden peg can be removed as and when required




                                                      Contd.
    Step 3 :          Connecting PVC Pipes
    Two pieces of 3 ” dia PVC Pipes of equal lengths [5 meters
length] are placed and fixed from the bottom of the Junction box
[ from the two edges (corners) ] to the Bamboo leach pits.

   The pipes to be inserted into the leach pits in opening provided
for pipe space.

   The pipe should be atleast 6 inches inside the leach pit.

   The pipe should be imbedded into the ground and covered with
earth.

    Opening of one of the PVC pipes inside the Junction Box is
closed temporarily with a wooden peg to render the leach pit non
functional.

   The wooden peg can be removed as and when required .
       Step 4 : Erection of walls for
          Junction Box [ Chamber ]

  Place bricks for construction of Junction Box [ Chamber ].



   The walls to be raised to 10” to 12” [ 3 rows of bricks ]
above the foundation base on three sides of the Junction
Chamber [ the fourth side being the common wall of squatting
platform ].


  Use Cement Mortar of 1 : 5.
Step 4 :         Erection of walls for Junction
                  Box [ Chamber ]


 Place bricks for construction of Junction Box [ Chamber ].


 The walls to be raised to 10” to 12” [3 rows of bricks]
above the foundation base on three sides of the Junction
Chamber [ the fourth side being the common wall of
squatting platform].


 Use Cement Mortar of 1 : 5.
 Step 5 :        Placing Cement Concrete in
                    Foundation

   Prepare Plain Cement Concrete of 1 : 3 : 6 for floor
foundation [cement concrete base] and compact to a
thickness of 2 inches [50 mm] to 3 inches [75 mm].


   Finish the floor base using cement mortar keeping the
slope towards the drain pipes.

  Plaster the inner walls of the Junction Box with cement
mortar.
  Step 5 :        Placing Cement Concrete in
                     Foundation

 Prepare Plain Cement Concrete of 1:3:6 for floor foundation
[cement concrete base] and compact to a thickness of 2
inches [50 mm] to 3 inches [75 mm].


 Finish the floor base using cement mortar keeping the
slope towards the drain pipes.


 Plaster the inner walls of the Junction Box with cement
mortar.
                        Step 6 :

Pre - fabricated lid is provided to cover the Junction Box.
 This lid is cast in Ferro cement using 6 mm dia ms rod.
 Mild steel rods of 20” length and 25” width are cut and
   assembled using binding wires to mould the shape of
  Junction Box cover and then plastered with cement
                          concrete.
PREPARATION OF BAMBOO STRIPS
   FOR KNITTING LEACH PITS
  PREPARATION OF BAMBOO STRUCTURE
      FOR KNITTING OF LEACH PIT
Step : 1

  Collect 14 nos. of Bamboos of approximately 35 ft length
and 2 inches dia each.


   Cut the Bamboos & Prepare bamboo strips for
knitting of Leach Pits. ¾th inches width for Vertical
Strips & ½” width for Horizontal Strips.


  Mark a circle of 100 cms dia on the ground .
  Divide the Circle into 18 equal parts.

  Erect the Vertical bamboo strips on each part.

   Knit Circular Leach Pits of 1 meter dia & 1 meter depth
[height] with the strips.

   While knitting provisions are kept for opening \ holes,
15 to 18 nos. of 1” [25 mm] dia. to enhance the leaching
effect.

  Prepare two such Bamboo skeletal

  Provide a 3 inches dia opening 3 inches from the top of
the bamboo structure for inserting drain pipes.

                                                       Contd.
Step : 1
 Collect 14 nos. of Bamboos of approximately 35 ft length
and 2 inches dia each.
 Cut the Bamboos & Prepare bamboo strips for
knitting of Leach Pits. ¾th inches width for Vertical
Strips & ½” width for Horizontal Strips.
 Mark a circle of 100 cms dia on the ground .
 Divide the Circle into 18 equal parts.
 Erect the Vertical bamboo strips on each part.
 Knit Circular Leach Pits of 1 meter dia & 1 meter depth
[height] with the strips.
 While knitting provisions are kept for opening \
holes, 15 to 18 nos. of 1” [25 mm] dia. to enhance the
leaching effect.
 Prepare two such Bamboo skeletal.
 Provide a 3 inches dia opening 3 inches from the top of
the bamboo structure for inserting drain pipes.
KNITTING OF LEACH PITS WITH
       BAMBOO STRIPS
PREPARATION OF CEMENT
    MORTAR [ 1 : 5 ]
      Step : 2 Plastering of the Outer
      Surface of the Bamboo Leach Pit.

  Prepare Cement Slurry [Cement mixed with water].

   Apply one coat of Cement Slurry over the bamboo Skeletal
using a Paint brush.

  Prepare Cement mortar of 1 : 4 mix [ 1 Cement & 4
Sand]
  Apply Cement mortar on the outer surface to a thickness
of half [ ½ ] an inch.

   Fine plaster the Bamboo leach pits outer surface
PLASTERING THE OUTER SURFACE OF
THE BAMBOO KNITTED LEACH PIT IN
            PROGRESS
COMPLETED BAMBOO KNITTED
LEACH PIT FULLY PLASTERED
     [ OUTER SURFACE ]
    Step : 2 Plastering of the Outer
    Surface of the Bamboo Leach Pit.

 Prepare Cement Slurry [Cement mixed with water].

 Apply one coat of Cement Slurry over the bamboo
Skeletal using a Paint brush.

 Prepare Cement mortar of 1 : 4 mix [1 Cement & 4
Sand]

 Apply Cement mortar on the outer surface to a thickness
of half [ ½ ] an inch.

 Fine plaster the Bamboo leach pits outer surface
    Step : 3       Excavation of the Pit.




  Excavate the soil on the marked circular area to a
depth of 1 m with a diameter of 1.20 meter [120 cms].
DIGGING OF PIT
Step : 4     Placing of Bamboo Leach Pits.


   Lower the plastered Bamboo Leach Pits into the pits.




   Check the levels & alignments of Bamboo Pit.




   Connect the piece of PVC Pipes from Junction
 Chamber to the leach pit.
 PLASTERED BAMBOO STRUCTURE
LOWERED AND FITTED INSIDE THE
         DUGGED PIT
Step : 4 Placing of Bamboo Leach Pits.


 Lower the plastered Bamboo Leach Pits into the pits.


 Check the levels & alignments of Bamboo Pit.


 Connect the piece of PVC Pipes from Junction
Chamber to the leach pit.
CHECKING ALIGNMENT OF BAMBOO
          STRUCTURE
LEVELLING OF STRUCTURE
CONNECTION OF PVC PIPE FROM THE
    JUNCTION CHAMBER TO THE
           LEACH PIT
PLASTERING THE INNER SURFACE OF
 THE BAMBOO KNITTED LEACH PITS
Step : 5      Plastering of Inner Surface
           of Bamboo Leach Pit.

 Apply Cement mortar of 1 : 4 mix on the
 inner surface to a thickness of ½” inch.


Step : 6       Filling of Annular Space.


The Annular space between the leach pit & wall
 be filled \ packed by using sand or earth.
  CASTING OF THE LEACH PIT LID
            [ COVER ]

   A lid to the leach pit is provided to cover the pit. This lid
is cast in Ferro cement using 6 mm dia Mild Steel Rods. Mild
Steel rods are cut into specified lengths and assembled
[placed] using binding wires to mould the shape of the lid, and
then plastered in plain cement concrete.



  The detailed procedure for casting the leach pit lid cover is
                    given below in steps.
     Step : 1               Fabrication of elements of
                             Leach Pit Cover
 The following table gives the details of each elements for the Leach Pit Cover :

       Vertical Element            Dimensions    Nos.    Length
               L0                      LO         1      110 cms
                                       L1         2      110 cms
                                       L2         2       95 cms
                                       L3         2       83 cms
                                       L4         2       63 cms


                             • Use 6 mm dia rods for preparing the elements
                             • Cut the mild steel rods at the requisite length as
       Horizontal Element    indicated to form these elements

                                   Dimensions    Nos.    Length
                                       LO         1     110 cms
Lo                                     L1         2      98 cms
                                       L2         2      82 cms
                                       L3         2      47 cms
PREAPARATION OF REINFORVEMENT
         FOR PIT COVER
CASTING OF PIT COVER [ BEGINNING ]
CASTING OF PIT COVER [ LAST STAGE ]
       ASSEMBLING OF ELEMENTS OF
            LEACH PIT COVER.

   Select a plain ground for preparing the lid skeletal.


   Mark a circle of 1.10m [ 110 cms ] on the ground by using a
rope & peg.

  Place the central rod of dimension Lo [ 110 cms ] in a
Horizontal position coinciding with the centre of the circle.

   Place the rods [ Elements ] L1 , L2 & L3 to the top and
bottom of the Central Horizontal Elements Lo at a uniform
spacing of 15 cms each elements extending to the ring.
   Place the other Central rod of dimension L0 [ 110 cms ] in
Vertical position coinciding with the centre of the circle and
tie the interactions of Horizontal & Verticals rods with the
binding wires.




    Place and tie the rods [ Elements ] L1 , L2 , L3 & L4
 to the right & left of the central vertical elements L0
 at a uniform spacing of 10 cms. Each elements extending
 to the ring.



                                                        Contd.
                 ASSEMBLING OF ELEMENTS OF
                      LEACH PIT COVER.

 Select a plain ground for preparing the lid skeletal.

 Mark a circle of 1.10m [ 110 cms ] on the ground by using a rope & peg.

 Place the central rod of dimension Lo [ 110 cms ] in a Horizontal
position coinciding with the centre of the circle.

 Place the rods [ Elements ] L1 , L2 & L3 to the top and bottom of the
Central Horizontal Elements Lo at a uniform spacing of 15 cms each
elements extending to the ring.

 Place the other Central rod of dimension L0 [ 110 cms ] in Vertical
position coinciding with the centre of the circle and tie the interactions of
Horizontal & Verticals rods with the binding wires.

 Place and tie the rods [ Elements ] L1 , L2 , L3 & L4 to the right &
left of the central vertical elements L0 at a uniform spacing of 10 cms. Each
elements extending to the ring.
     CASTING OF LEACH PIT COVER

   Place stone pieces of uniform sizes [ ½` ] under each
intersection before application of cement concrete.


    Prepare plain cement concrete 1:2:4 [1 cement :
2 sand : 4 stone aggregate of ½` to ¾` dia and pour it
over the assembly & compact to a thickness of 1 ½` inches
[ 37.5 mm ]


  Cure the lid by sprinkling water or by covering with a
wet gunny bag for7 days.
Lift and place the lid [ cover ] over the leach pit.




Provide handles to lid covers [ using 6 mm dia bars ].




                                                       Contd.
       CASTING OF LEACH PIT COVER
 Place stone pieces of uniform sizes [ ½` ] under each
intersection before application of cement concrete.

 Prepare plain cement concrete 1:2:4 [1 cement : 2 sand : 4
stone aggregate of ½` to ¾` dia and pour it over the assembly
& compact to a thickness of 1 ½` inches [ 37.5 mm ]

 Cure the lid by sprinkling water or by covering with a wet
gunny bag for7 days.

 Lift and place the lid [ cover ] over the leach pit.

 Provide handles to lid covers [ using 6 mm dia bars ].
 PICTURE SHOWING SQUATTING
PLATFORM, JUNCTION CHAMBER &
          LEACH PITS
FRONT VIEW OF LOW COST LATRINE
      WITH BAMBOO KNITTED
       LEACH PIT STRUCTURE
    DEVELOPED
       AND
    PRESENTED
        BY

AFPRO TASK FORCE –
    GUWAHATI

								
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