The Specialists for Pectin Herbstreith Fox

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					              Herbstreith&Fox


                 The Specialists
                   for Pectin




Edition 2/8
    Contents




    Introduction and Fundamentals

    The Corporate Group Herbstreith & Fox                                    3

    Pectin – A Product of Nature                                             4

    Raw Materials and Pectin Varieties                                       5

    Degree of Esterification and Gelling Properties                          8

    Standardization Methods                                                  9

    Packaging – Standardized & Customized                                   10

    Quality Management ISO 9001                                             11

    Regulations for Purity Requirements                                     12

    Representations – worldwide                                             13

    Gelling Mechanisms of Pectin                                            14

    Rheological Properties                                                  16

    Incorporation into the Product Batch                                    17

    Classic, Combi, Amid and Instant-Pectins                                18



    Fields of Application

    Jams, Jellies, Marmalades and Fruit Preparations                        20

    Baked Products                                                          24

    Confectionery Articles                                                  26

    Dairy Products                                                          28

    Beverages and Sherbets                                                  30

    Delicatessen, Crème fraîche and Margarine                               31

    Dietetic, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products, Non Food Applications   32




2
                 The Specialists for Pectin –
                 A Product of Nature.




                 T   he Corporate Group Herbstreith & Fox            1

                     is today worldwide a byword for mak-
                 ers of high quality pectins used in the food
                 and non-food industry.

                 Decades of experience with perspectives
                 in research and development, in produc-
                 tion and sales are certainly the foundation
                 for the present success in the world
                 market.

                           However, tradition
                           and experience alone
     Ideas can only be will not be
    successfully trans- enough to be successful
   formed by modern in today’s markets. Only
        management, with a modern manage-
promoting innovative ment, promoting innovative
             thinking. thinking and not wishing to be
                           merely copycats but pioneers,
                           listening to the market de-
                mands, will it be possible to transform ide-
                as into promising action. Herbstreith & Fox
                have always consistently followed this cor-
                porate philosophy.

                 In this way, convincing innovative pro-
                 ducts at the highest quality level were
                 created in the most advanced production
                 processes.
                                                                         2

                 Generally speaking, the Corporate Group
                 Herbstreith & Fox provides users of pectins
                 with a sophisticated
                 high-quality     product
                 range of all types of
                 pectins, which meet the
                 most demanding require-
                 ments in the most varied
                 areas of application.
                 ➀ The pectin works at Neuenbürg
                 are cradle and headquarters of the
                 whole corporate group.

                 ➁ The production location at Werder was
                 acquired in 1990. It is at the same time
                 headquarters of Herbafood Ingredients GmbH.

                 ➂ Rotenbach, raw materials and finished goods   3
                 warehouse with an area of 15.000 m 2.

                                                                             3
                    Taken from Nature.




                    P    ectin is a natural substance, existing in
                         the primary cell of all higher terrestrial
                    plants as an important structural element.
                    The pectin content is highest in the midd-
                    le lamella which forms a supportive layer
                    between the cell formations in fruit and
                    vegetables. It acts, so to speak, as a bon-
                    ding substance with supporting and sta-
                    bilizing functions and controls, due to its
                    great swelling ability and colloidal nature,
                    the plant’s water balance system.

                               Chemically speaking, pectin is a
    Natural Food Additives     macro molecular compound
     are absolutely in line    belonging to the heteropoly-
    with consumer wishes.      saccharides. The main compo-
                               nent is polygalacturonic acid,
                               which is partially esterified with
                    methanol. Pectin with a degree of esteri-
                    fication of more than 50 % is called high-
                    methoxyl pectin, with less than 50 % low-
                    methoxyl.

                    Pectin is produced from vegetable raw
                    material with a high natural pectin con-
                    tent, such as Pomace, peels chips, in a
                    technologically complicated process.

                                                                      Photomacrography of a tissue of an apple slice
                    The different raw materials will yield va-
                    rious amounts of pectin. These pectin ex-
                    tracts are now specifically processed in va-
                    rious processes to achieve a number of
                    different types of pectin with specific pro-
                    perties.

                    Which pectin or type of pectin will finally
                    be employed by the user depends largely
                    on the specific criteria to be met by the
                    finished product.

                    Pectin is today an indispensable compo-
                    nent in many products, mainly in the food
                    sector, but also in the non-food sector,
                    since it is a universally applicable, natural-
                    ly gelling and stabilizing substance.



4
Raw Materials which are a Source of Pectin.


             Pectin content

             pomace:             10-15%

             sugar beet chips:   10-20%

             sunflower-
             infructescence:      15-25%

             citrus peels:           20-35%




                                              5
                   Our Product Variety is
                   the Answer to Market
                   Requirements.



                   O      ur corporate group has for
                          decades enjoyed an enormous
                              worldwide reputation for
                              the production of high
    The apple has always      quality apple pectins.
     been of outstanding      These universally appli-
      importance for the      cable apple pectins,
    production of pectin.     which can be used
                              with a reliable result
                   in all areas of application, will
                   also in future be the focus of
                   our product range.


                   Raw material no. 1 in our
                   company is and always will
                   be pomace for the manufacturing of our
                   high, medium and low methoxyl Classic
                    Apple Pectins.

                     High gel strength and excellent
                     thickening properties provide prod-
                        ucts with an extraordinary consisten-
                         cy achieved with a small amount of
                        pectin. Apple pectin has a neutral
                       taste and enhances the existing nat-
                      ural flavour of the processed fruit.

                   In reply to a frequently expressed wish of
                   customers and for strategic consider-
                   ations, our company decided in 1990 to
                   cover other areas of pectin production as
                   well. Based on our knowhow in the pro-
                   duction of Classic Apple Pectins,
                   which we have accumulated over
                   decades, we produce also Classic
                   Citrus Pectins, Classic Grapefruit
                   Pectins and Classic Beet Pectins of
                   the same high quality.

                   Thus the Herbstreith & Fox product
                   range supplies today the full scope of
                   commercially available pectins for all
                   areas of application, such as:
                           • Classic Apple Pectins
                           • Classic Citrus Pectins
                           • Classic Grapefruit Pectins
6                          • Classic Beet Pectins
A      side from Classic Pectins, we
       also supply for special applica-
tions and for achieving specific prop-
erties tailored Combi Pectins, made by
blending various classic raw mate-
rials.


The group of Amid Pectins presents
a meaningful technological sup-
plement and alternative to our
Classic Pectins. The specific properties of
Amid Pectins lead to different gel struc-
tures and will provide techno-
logical benefits in certain areas
of application.                     Such a comprehensive
                                    product range
For direct blending into the        covers all texture
product batch and thus easier
and quicker handling, we offer
users Instant Pectins, which
permit a lump-free dispersion.

And last but not least, we offer Pectin à
la carte, specially designed to meet your
requirements and specifications.

This extraordinary variety in pec-
tins is our answer to market de-
mands.

Even though pectin is a low
volume additive, its effect on
the quality of the fin-
ished product is all the
greater.

The Corporate Group Herb-
streith & Fox, the pectin
specialists, will meet all re-
quirements existing in
practical work with a comprehensive
product range to your own and your
customers satisfaction.




                                                           7
                    All Important: Degree of Esterification
                    and Gelling Properties.




                   P   ectins are divided into three groups on       Decisive for the gel strength are: pectin
                       the basis of their different gelling          concentration, type of pectin, soluble so-
                    properties.                                      lids, pH range and the concentration of
                                                                     buffer salts and calcium ions contained in
                    High Ester Pectins                               the formulation. A well matched balance
                                                                     between pec-
                    (HM Pectins)
                                                                     tin and cal-
                   These pectins have usually a more than
                                                                     cium concen-
                   50 % share of esterified polygalacturonic
                                                                     tration will
                   acid units (DE°), thus practically no
                                                                     lead to an
                   reaction with Ca-ions. The gel strength
                                                                     optimal tex-
                             depends, among others, on
                                                                     ture.
                             acid content, type of pectin,
    Your texture require- concentration and soluble so-
        ments determine lids, which generally has to be              Exceeding the calcium optimum, on the
     the choice of pectin. more than 55 %.                           other hand, will produce a brittle gel with
                                                                     tendency towards syneresis or, in the end,
                                                                     to a calcium-pectinate formation.
                    The degree of esterification correlates
                    with the gel setting rate and gel texture
                                                                     Since gel setting with LM pectins is also
                    under otherwise similar conditions, which
                                                                     possible with a low soluble solids content
                    means that very high esterified pectins jel-
                                                                     and at a high pH-value, this opens up
                    lify quicker i.e. at higher temperatures
                                                                     numerous application possibilities in
                    than less high esterified pectins. They will
                                                                     dietetic and dairy products.
                    also form more elastic and brittle gel tex-
                                                 tures.
                                                                     Amidated Pectins
                                                  This accurate      (HM and LM Amidated
                                                  correlation re-    Pectins)
                                                  quires a very      Amidated pectins are pectins which have
                                                  homogeneous        been deesterified with ammonia instead
                                                  inter and intra    of acids. During deesterification, part of
                                                  molecular car-     the ester groups have been replaced by
                    boxyl group distribution, as is especially gi-   amide groups, which modify the gelling
                    ven in Classic Apple Pectins from Herb-          properties in comparison to acid deesteri-
                    streith & Fox. Classic Citrus Pectins with       fied pectins.
                    the same degree of esterification will ha-
                    ve a slightly higher setting temperature         LM amidated pectins, just like non-amida-
                    and a somewhat more elastic texture.             ted pectins, require calcium ions for
                                                                     gelling, however, they will already set suf-
                    Low Ester Pectins                                ficiently with
                    (LM Pectins)                                     only minor
                    Pectins with less than 50 % share of este-       amounts pre-
                    rified polygalacturonic acid units (DE°) can     sent. Further-
                    jellify with Ca-ions. LM pectins thus do not     more, the gel
                    only form gels with sugar and acids, but at      setting tem-
                    less soluble solids mainly with calcium ions.    perature of
                                                                     amidated
                                                                     pectins is much less influenced by the cal-
                                                                     cium dosage.
8
                Sophisticated Methods for Standardization
                Guarantee Reproducible Results.




               S   ince pectin is extracted from natural        strength. To determine the breaking
                   vegetable raw materials, its properties      strength, a standard gel’s internal gel
                may differ depending on the quality of the      stability of 65 % SS and a pH of 3.0 is
                raw material.                                   measured by way of the Herbstreith
                                                                Pectinometer by pulling a
              However, as pectin specialists, we must           central share insert out of
              supply users with a product for large-scale       the gel at constant veloci-
                        industrial production that guar-        ty. The force necessary for
                        antees reliable and reproducible        this purpose is measured
 Standardized pectin results on the basis of a stan-            by a strain gauge.
  quality guarantees dardized pectin grade.
reproducible product                                            The force variation can be
          properties. Depending on the use of pec-              additionally recorded as a
                          tin, different methods of stan-       force-displacement diagram
                dardization are being employed. These are       with an analog plotter. This provides
                the three most important ones:                  information on the gel tex-
                                                                ture.
                USA-Sag Method
                The standardization of high methoxyl pec-       Standardization of
                tins to constant grades is internationally      setting temperature
                done by way of a Ridgelimeter according         and setting time
                   to the “USA-Sag Method”.                     Standardization is done in an abso-
                                                                lute measurement with a shear-stress
                     In this method, a sugar-water gel is       controlled, oscillating Rheometer. The
                      produced at 65 % SS and a pH of ap-       setting temperature and setting rate
                       proximately 2.2; after a defined cool-   specified by the user are the standard-
                      ing period and cooling temperature,       ization index. Rheological measurements
                      the percentage of sagging under its       are supplemented by texture analysis.
                       specific weight is measured and con-     Thus the dynamic Weissenberg index
                           verted to USA-Sag. A frequent        provides values which correlate well with
                                 standard is 150° USA-Sag.      sensory impressions.
                                      However, the method
                                       is controversial; the    To measure and describe the thicken-
                                       low pH range of the      ing properties and e. g. the yield
                               test gel does not recommend      points of pectins, further analytical
                itself for practical work and it does not       and control methods are available,
                provide any information on the gel tex-         as for example the rotation viscos-
                ture. On the other hand, the method is          imeter.
                simple and well reproducible.
                                                                In penetration measurements with the
                Measuring breaking strength with the            Texture Analyser, the force of resis-
                Pectinometer Mark IV                            tance is measured which acts on
                The “inner strength” of a gel, called           a test plunger penetrating a gel
                “breaking strength”, gives a better corre-      over a defined path or cutting
                lation with the sensory perception of           into it, resp.
                stability than the USA-Sag value. Thus
                high methoxyl pectins have lately increas-
                ingly been assessed also for their breaking
                                                                                                            9
                     Packaged to Customer
                     Specifications and
                     sent around the World.



                     O     nce the pectin has passed through
                           all stages of the production process
                     and quality control, it is suitably packaged
                     to start its journey to various industries.

                     As a rule, it will be filled into 25 kg card-
                     board boxes with an inside polyethylene
                     bag or a corresponding paper bag. During
                                filling and in the composition of
                                packages, we take in any case
         Specific customer
                                specific customer wishes into
     requirements will be
                                account.
        considered during
       filling and package
                                In this way, pectin may be
              combination.
                                stored cool and dry for up to 18
                                months.

                     A worldwide distribution network assures
                     reliable delivery of the products to our
                     international customers.

                     Standard Packaging Sizes:*


                       Boxes:                   25        kg


                       Big Bag:                500        kg
                                               800        kg




10
Certified Product Quality.




T   he reliably high quality of our valuable   The certificate awarded to us is proof of
    pectins has decisively contributed to      the fact that our quality management
our success in the world market. Only with     system complies with the strict
a continuous system of in-process tests ac-    German and international stan-
cording to DIN EN ISO 9001 through all         dards DIN EN ISO 9001.            Uniformly
stages of production, from suppliers of                                          high level of quality
raw materials to the finished product, we      It is testimony of the quality is guaranteed.
are able to guarantee a uniformly high         awareness in all areas of our
quality level of our products.                 company.




                                                                                                         11
     Regulations for Purity Requirements of Pectins.
                                                           EU                  EU               FAO/WHO       FDA/FCC                   USP
     International                                      E 440 (i)           E 440 (ii)            JECFA        Pectins                 Pectin
     Specification                                       Pectin          amidated Pectin         Pectins

     1. Loss on drying                                  max. 12%             max. 12%           max. 12%       max. 12%            max. 10%

     2. Acid-insoluble ash (3 n HCL)                    max. 1%              max. 1%            max. 1%        max. 1%             –

     3. Total insolubles                                –                    –                  max. 3%        max. 3%             –

     4. Sodium methylsulfate                            –                    –                  –              max. 0.1%           –

     5. Free methyl-, ethyl- or                         max. 1%              max. 1%            max. 1%        max. 1%             –
        isopropyl alcohol (in d.b.)

     6. Methyl alcohol                                  –                    –                  –              –                   max. 0,3%
        Ethyl alcohol                                   –                    –                  –              –                   max. 0,5%
        Isopropyl alcohol                               –                    –                  –              –                   max. 0,5%

     7. Sulphurdioxide (in d.b.)                        max. 50 ppm          max. 50 ppm        max. 50 ppm    max. 50 ppm         –

     8. Nitrogen content (pectins)                      max. 1%              –                  max. 2.5%      –                   –
        (ash-free and dried basis)

     9. Nitrogen content (amidated pectins)             –                    max. 2.5%          max. 2.5%      –                   –
        (ash-free and dried basis)

     10. Galacturonic acid                              min. 65%             min. 65%           min. 65%       –                   min. 74%
         (ash-free and dried basis)

     11. Methoxyl content                               –                    –                  –              –                   min. 6.7%
         (in d.b., unstandardized pectin)

     12. Degree of amidation                            –                    max. 25%           max. 25%       max. 25%            –

     13. Sugar and organic acids                        –                    –                  –              –                   max. 160 mg/g

     14. Arsenic                                        max. 3 ppm           max. 3 ppm         -              –                   max. 3 ppm

     15. Lead                                           max. 5 ppm           max. 5 ppm         max. 5 ppm     max. 5 ppm          max. 5 ppm

     16. Cadmium                                        max. 1 ppm           max. 1 ppm         –              –                   –

     17. Mercury                                        max. 1 ppm           max. 1 ppm         –              –                   –

     18. Heavy metals (as lead)                         max. 20 ppm          max. 20 ppm        –              –                   –

     19. Pesticides                                     according to general food regulations

     20. Pathogenous germs                              according to general food regulations                                      absence of
                                                                                                                                   salmonella species

     21. Volatile organic impurities                    according to general food regulations                                      defined limits


– = no specifications                         EU      = European Union                                             USP = United States Pharmacopeia
d.b. = dried basis                            FAO/WHO = Food & Agriculture Organisation/World Health Org.          FDA = Food and Drug Administration
                                              JECFA   = Joint Expert Commitee on Food Additives                    FCC = Food Chemical Codex



12
                      The different Properties of Pectins.




                      Gelling mechanisms
                      The association of pectin chains leads to           Low ester pectins,
                      the formation of three-dimensional net-             too, jellify in a sugar-acid gelling mech-
                      works, that is to gel formation.                    anism. Pectin molecules with a low ester
                                                                          content, however, may form bonding
                      These are long segments of regular                  zones with bivalent cations, but they may
                      sequence, ruptured by the incorporation             also additionally form gels in relative inde-
                      of rhamnose and branching of the chain.             pendence from soluble solids content and
                                                                          pH range in the presence of multivalent
                      Two or more chain segments bond                     cations, e.g. calcium ions.
                      together and start to interact.
                                                                          The calcium concentration required for
                       High ester pectins                                 gelling depends here on such parameters
                       jellify predominantly in the so-called             as pH of the product, soluble solids con-
                       “sugar-acid gelling mechanism”, that is a          tent and buffer system.
                       certain amount of acid is required to sup-
                                  press the dissociation of the           With smaller additions of calcium, pectin
                                  free carboxyl groups. In this           chains will start to cluster over calcium
              The degree of way, negative charging of the                 bonds. With increased calcium concentra-
     esterification is deter- molecules is prevented and                  tion, a gel will form. Overdosage of cal-
      mined by the type of their mutual repulsion reduced.                cium ions will lead to calcium pectinate
         chain association.                                               precipitation under the given gel forma-
                                  A high sugar concentration              tion conditions, this is also called “pre-
                                  lowers the water activity of the        gelling”.
                       system, the pectin molecules are sub-
                       sequently dehydrated and cluster more              The gel structure will be less elastic, rather
                       easily in bonding zones.                           pasty with lower breaking strength.
                                                                          Precipitation of calcium pectinate is only
                                                                          reversible to a limited extent, even when
                                                     galactan             the gel is once more heated above its set-
                                                        O                 ting temperature and cooled down with-
                                                                          out destruction.
                                                         RHA
                            GUS O          GUS O            O
                              O              O            O
                                                 O GUS                                                           galactan
                                                                                                                     O
                                                   O
                                                                                                                    RHA
                                              RHA O             GUS O   GUS O    GUS O            GUS O   GUS O        O
                                                O                 O       O        O                O       O        O
                                                                                              4
                                                                                                              O GUS

                                                                                                               O

                                                                                                           RHA O         GUS O   GUS
                                                                                                             O             O       O

                                                                           GUS = galacturonic acid
                       Pectin chain with galactan side chains              RHA = rhamnose
14
Gelling Mechanism of High and
Low Ester Pectins.




                                                                   H
                                                                O       H
                                                           H           H O
                                                       O
                                             H
                                          H O
                                              H
                                         O H




Gelling mechanism of HM pectins (hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds)



                             HO
                                           O       O
                                                           HO               O
                    HO                     O-                                   COO-
              O                        O                                               O
                                                                       OH
                                                 Ca2+
                                 HO
              O                                                    O                   O
               - OOC                                       -O                   OH

                             O            OH
                                                   O           O
                                                                        OH



Gelling mechanism of LM pectins (complexing of calcium ions)

                                                                                           15
                     Rheological Properties.




                                                                   influenced by the choice of pectin.

                                                                   The term structure or “formation” de-
                                                                   scribes bonding, the gel structure and
                                                                   homogenousness of a sample. The gel
                                                                   structure can be noticed on the surface of
                                                                   a destroyed gel. A rough and brittle
                                                                   structure points to an inhomogeneous gel
                                                                   structure, while a smooth and elastic sur-
                                                                   face indicates a homogeneous structure.

                                                                   The ratio of rigid bonds to shifting bonds
                     T   he application potential of pectin is
                         manifold and textural requirements of
                     users vary greatly; one of the most import-
                                                                   within a gel formation determines the gel
                                                                   structure. The greater the elastic phases
                                                                   within a gel, the more brittle and fragile
                     ant of these requirements manufacturers
                                                                   the gel structure will be; with an increas-
                     of gelling agents should meet is therefore
                                                                   ing of the viscous phase, the gel structure
                     to develop products, which in a targeted
                                                                   will also become increasingly smoother.
                     and reproducible way reliably control the
                     rheological-sensory characteristics.
                                                                   Consistency and structure, jointly experi-
                                                                   enced, will provide the so-called texture.
                     Rheological and sensory                       The texture is the overall im-
                     definitions                                   pression given by the sensory
                    In the sensory evaluation of jellified and     perception and describes what Texture is the decisive
                              viscous products we distinguish      is experienced in the mouth, influence on the taste
                              between the consistency of the       the mouth feel, such as soft- experience.
     Specifically designed gel and the construction of the
                                                                   ness of bite, the way in which
     pectins to control the gel formation, that is the gel
                                                                   broken pieces disintegrate, ten-
           rheological and structure. When sampling, both
                                                                   derness and coating of the tongue while
       sensory properties. criteria are jointly considered to
                                                                   chewing.
                              reach an overall impression of
                              the gel.                             An important aspect for the sensory evalu-
                                                                   ation of gels is the release of flavours and
                     The term consistency describes compact-       aromas during eating. Texture has a deci-
                     ness, firmness and viscosity of the sample.   sive influence on the release of these sub-
                     These properties are perceived sensorially    stances. Smooth gels, due to their higher
                     by pressing and spreading and are gen-        share of viscosity, are more aromatic than
                     erally described as firmness. The behaviour   gels with a lower content.
                     during deformation (pressing) can be
                     rheologically determined, for example, in
                     penetration and compression measuring.
                     Together with the composition of in-
                     gredients, such as type of fruit, fruit
                     volume and type of sugar, the pa-
                     rameter consistency, all important
                     for sensory acceptance, is also



16
Solubility/Dispersibility and Incorporation
into the Product Batch.




T   he best way to add standardized pec-     However, pectin may also be blended
    tin during the cooking process is the    directily into the product batch.
production of a pectin solution with suit-
able devices.



 Production of a pectin solution




 Incorporation of pectin directly into the product batch




                                                                                   17
                  Classic, Combi, Amid,
                  Instant and Instant-
                  Plus Pectins.
                  Clearly Defined Areas
                  of Application.

                  W      e differentiate between a total of
                         five main groups of pectins:

                  Classic     = high, medium and low
                  Pectins       ester apple, citrus,
                                beet and grapefruit pectins
                  Combi       = high ester co-extracted
                  Pectins       pectins based on apple and
                                citrus pomace
                  Amid        = high and low ester
                  Pectins       amidated pectins
                  Instant     = high, medium and low
                  Pectins       ester instantized
                                apple and citrus pectins




                  The pectins within the different groups
                  will form quite typical gel structures, de-
                  pending on the production process, raw
                  materials and degree of esterification.
                  These are the most important chief
                  characteristics of the various groups:

                  Classic Pectins:
                  Our Classic Apple and Citrus Pectins are,
                  due to their consistency, in the majority
                  used in the food industry. Classic Beet
                            Pectins contain acetyl groups
            We help you and thus will not gel. They are
     to choose the right mostly used for dietary fibre
          type of pectin. enhancement due to their low
                            viscosity or in pharmaceutical
                            products.

                  Combi Pectins:
                  Combi Pectins with highly specific prop-
                  erties are the result of special extraction
                  conditions. These pectins are, in their gell-
                  ing properties, situated somewhat
                  between Classic Apple and Classic Citrus
                  Pectins. The more pronounced viscous
                  properties of apple pectins are supple-

18
mented by the greater elasticity of citrus
pectins. The result are pectins which form
gels of great elasticity but remain spread-
able at the same time and show a relative-
ly low tendency to syneresis.

Instant Pectins:
Instant Pectins are technologically opti-
mized pectins with technological, econ-
omic but also qualitative benefits for the
user.

Instant Pectins are made in a granulation
process, in which powdery standardized
particles of pectin conglomerate to par-
ticles of a bigger size. This effects a porous
structure in the individual pectin particles.
The space created in this pro-
cess inside the pectin granulate Reliable and quick
permits a faster penetration of solubility as well as
liquid and – compared to tradi- shorter cooking times,
tional pectins – the wetting of a these are convincing
far larger surface area. This arguments for the use
makes lumpfree dispersion in a of Instant Pectin.
cold product batch possible and
results in a safe solution.

Amid Pectins:
Amid Pectins are produced by suspending
dried pectin in alcohol and deesterified
with ammonia. Amid Pectins are used
to create specific gel textures in certain
products.

Three major requirements postulated by
the user basically determine what pectin
grade or what type of pectin will finally be
used:


      • requirements to texture
      • exact formulation
      • production technology




                                                     19
                     Pectins by H&F and
                     their Use in the Fruit
                     Processing Industry.



                     T   he appealing properties of jams, mar-
                         malades and jellies postulated by the
                     fruit processing industry are to a large
                     degree owing to the benefits of pectin:
                     smooth gel, low syneresis, glossy surface,
                     good spreadability, regular fruit distribu-
                     tion, clear cut and natural, fruit specific
                     flavour.


                     The incomparable textural properties of
                     Classic Apple Pectins enjoy a worldwide
                     reputation, Classic Citrus Pectins are a
                     meaningful and economic completion of
                     the product range.

                            Precise balancing of the individual
     The variety of our formulation parameters and precise
        types of pectin choice of the exactly right Classic,
 guarantee the realiz- Combi or Amid Pectin will bring
ation of every textural about the desired product features.
          requirement. For the fruit processing industry, it
                            is of major importance to have pec-
                            tins at their disposal which settle
                    fruit pieces regularly already during pro-
                    duction and filling and start forming a gel
                    structure at low temperatures.

                            Jams, jellies and marmalades are
                            made from fruits or fruit juices, sugar,
                            edible acids and pectin as gelling
                            agent. With their sugar content of
                            more than 60 percent and a pH
                            value of about 3.0, high ester pec-
                            tins at a dosage of approx. 0.2 to
                            0.4 percent are recommended,
                     since these are optimal gelling conditions.

                     On the other hand, low ester or LM-ami-
                     dated pectins with an addition of calcium
                     salt are recommended for use in products
                     with a low sugar content.

                     The structure providing properties as well
                     as enhancing of the fruit specific flavour
                     have made the natural product pectin an
                     indispensable substance in the production
                     of jams, jellies and marmalades for many
 20
                     decades now.
 Jams, Jellies, Marmalades and Fruit Preparations
1. Jams, Jellies, Marmalades and Fruit Preparations, SS > 55 °Bx
 Type of Pectin       DE°         DA°       Standardization            Characteristics +               Main Area of
                                            with Neutral Sugars        Properties                      Application
                                            + Composition
 Classic AF 101       >77 %       –         const. breaking strength   Apple Pectin,                   •   jams, marmalades and
                                            E 440                      extra rapid set                     fruit preparations
                                                                                                           (SS _ 58 %, pH 3.0-3.3)
                                                                                                               >
                                                                                                       •   dietetic products
                                                                                                           e.g. with sorbitol
                                                                                                               _
                                                                                                           (SS > 55 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)

 Classic AF 201       72-76 %     –         const. breaking strength   Apple Pectin,                   •   jams, marmalades and fruit
                                            E 440                      extra rapid set                     preparations
                                                                                                               _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)

 Classic AF 202       70 -72 %    –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Apple Pectin,                   •   jams, marmalades and fruit
                                            const. breaking strength   rapid set,                          preparations
                                            E 440                      firm gel structure                  (SS _ 58 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)
                                                                                                               >

 Classic AF 401       59 - 64 %   –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Apple Pectin,                   •   jams and marmalades filled
                                            const. breaking strength   medium rapid set,                   in glass jars or large-size
                                            E 440                      smooth gel structure                containers
                                                                                                       •   fruit preparations and fruit
                                                                                                           spreads, e.g. sweetened
                                                                                                           with concentrate
                                                                                                               _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)

 Classic AF 501       56 - 63 %   –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Apple Pectin,                   •   jams, marmalades and fruit
                                            const. breaking strength   slow set,                           preparations for large-size
                                            E 440                      spreadable gel texture              containers
                                                                                                                _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)
                                                                                                       •   jellies
                                                                                                                _
                                                                                                           (SS > 60 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)

 Classic AF 504       54 -58 %    –         const. breaking strength   Apple Pectin,                   •   jams, marmalades and fruit
                                            E 440                      optimal fruit distribution,         preparations
                                                                       even at high filling temp.,             _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)
                                                                       smooth gel structure

 Classic AF 601       48 -54 %    –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Apple Pectin,                   •   jams, marmalades and fruit
                                            const. breaking strength   smooth gel structure,               preparations
                                            E 440                      spreadable texture                  (SS > 55 %, pH 2.8 -3.2)

 Classic AF 605       48 -54 %    –         const. breaking strength   Apple Pectin,                   •   gelling agent for household
                                            E 440                      very good solubility,               use system 1 + 1 (one part
                                                                       even with high soluble solids       sugar/one part fruit)


 Classic CF 201       68 -72 %    –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Citrus Pectin,                  •   jams, marmalades and
                                            const. breaking strength   rapid set                           fruit preparations
                                            const. setting time                                                _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.9 -3.3)
                                            E 440

 Classic CF 301       65 -70 %    –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Citrus Pectin,                  •   jams, marmalades and
                                            const. breaking strength   medium rapid set                    fruit preparations
                                            const. setting time                                                _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.9 -3.3)
                                            E 440

 Classic CF 401       60 - 64 %   –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Citrus Pectin,                  •   jams, marmalades and
                                            const. breaking strength   slow set                            fruit preparations
                                            const. setting time                                                _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.9 -3.3)
                                            E 440

 Classic CF 501       56 - 62 %   –         150° +/- 5° USA-Sag        Citrus Pectin,                  •   jams, marmalades and
                                            const. breaking strength   extra slow set                      fruit preparations
                                            const. setting time                                                _
                                                                                                           (SS > 58 %, pH 2.9 -3.3)
                                            E 440



DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation                                                                                21
       1. Jams, Jellies, Marmalades and Fruit Preparations, SS > 55 °Bx
        Type of Pectin      DE°         DA°        Standardization              Characteristics +              Main Area of
                                                   with Neutral Sugars          Properties                     Application
                                                   + Composition
        Amid AF 005         32-40 %     10 -16 % const. gelling strength        amidated Apple Pectin,         •   jams, marmalades and
                                                 E 440                          low calcium sensitivity            fruit preparations
                                                                                                                   (SS 50-65%, pH 3.0 -3.5)


       2. Jams, Jellies, Marmalades and Fruit Preparations, SS < 55 °Bx
        Type of Pectin      DE°         DA°        Standardization              Characteristics +              Main Area of
                                                   with Neutral Sugars          Properties                     Application
                                                   + Composition

        Classic AF 702      38 - 44 %   –          const. calcium               Apple Pectin,                  •   dietetic jams, marmalades
                                                   sensitivity                  low calcium sensitivity            and jellies
                                                   const. breaking strength                                        (SS < 55%, pH 3.0 - 3.4)
                                                   E 440

        Classic AF 703      38 - 44 %   –          const. calcium               Apple Pectin,                  •   jams and
                                                   sensitivity                  medium calcium sensitivity         fruit preparations
                                                   const. breaking strength                                        (SS < 55%, pH 3.0 - 3.4)
                                                   E 440                                                       •   fruit purées
                                                                                                                   (SS 15 - 25%, pH 3.3 - 3.8)
                                                                                                               •   fruit toppings
                                                                                                                   (SS < 55%, pH 3.0 - 3.8)

        Classic AF 802      38 - 44 %   –          const. calcium               Apple Pectin,                  •   dietetic jams, marmalades
                                                   sensitivity                  smooth gel structure,              and fruit preparations
                                                   const. breaking strength     spreadable texture                 (SS 35 - 60 %, pH 3.0 -3.4)
                                                   E 440, E 450, E 341          no addition of calcium salts   •   fruit and dessert toppings
                                                                                                                   (SS 15 - 45 %, pH 2.8 -3.8)

        Classic AF 803      38 - 44 %   –          const. calcium               Apple Pectin,                  •   jams, marmalades,
                                                   sensitivity                  smooth gel structure,              fruit preparations
                                                   const. breaking strength     spreadable texture                 (SS 25 -50 %, pH 3.0 -3.4)
                                                   E 440, E 341, E 450          no addition of calcium salts   •   fruit desserts
                                                                                                                   (SS 10 -25 %, pH 3.0 -3.8)

        Classic AF 813      37 - 42 %   –          const. calcium               Apple Pectin,                  •   fruit preparations
                                                   sensitivity                  smooth gel structure               (SS 45 -55 %, pH 3.0 -3.4)
                                                   const. breaking strength     optimal fruit distribution
                                                   E 440, E 333                 no addition of calcium salts

        Classic AF 901      38 - 44 %   –          const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin                   •   cowberries/cranberries
                                                   const. breaking strength     gelling at reduced SS              (SS approx. 50%,
                                                   E 440, E 333                 no addition of calcium salts       pH 2.8 -3.3)

        Classic AF 903      38 - 44 %   –          const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                  •   fruit preparations
                                                   const. breaking strength     gelling at reduced SS              (SS 35 - 45 %, pH 3.2-3.5)
                                                   E 440                        no addition of calcium salts   •   fruit and dessert toppings
                                                                                                                   (SS 35 - 45 %, pH 3.3 -3.6)
                                                                                                               •   gelling agent
                                                                                                                   for household use 2 + 1
                                                                                                                   (2 parts fruit/1 part sugar)


     DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation




22
  2. Jams, Jellies, Marmalades and Fruit Preparations, SS < 55 °Bx
   Type of Pectin      DE°         DA°        Standardization        Characteristics +            Main Area of
                                              with Neutral Sugars    Properties                   Application
                                              + Composition
   Amid AF 005-A       30 -38 % 70 -14 % const. gelling strength     amidated Apple Pectin,       •   jams and marmalades,
                                         E 440, E 333, E 452         buffered,                        low-calorie fruit preparations
                                                                     low calcium sensitivity          and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS < 55 %, pH 3.0 -3.5)

   Amid AF 010         30 -36 % 14 -20 % const. gelling strength     amidated Apple Pectin,       •   jams and marmalades,
                                         E 440                       medium calcium sensitivity       low-calorie fruit preparations
                                                                                                      and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS 30 -55 %, pH 3.0 -3.5)

   Amid AF 015-A       28 -34 % 16 - 22 % const. gelling strength    amidated Apple Pectin,       •   jams and marmalades,
                                          E 440, E 340, E 341        buffered,                        low-calorie fruit preparations
                                                                     high calcium sensitivity         and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS 20 -50 %, pH 3.0 -3.5)

   Amid AF 020         27 -32 % 19 - 23 % const. gelling strength    amidated Apple Pectin,       •   jams and marmalades
                                          E 440                      high calcium sensitivity         low calorie fruit preparations
                                                                                                      and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS 10 - 40 %, pH 3.0 - 4.0)

   Amid AF 025         24 - 29 % 21 - 25 % const. gelling strength   amidated Citrus Pectin,      •   jams and marmalades
                                           E 440                     high calcium sensitivity         low calorie fruit preparations
                                                                                                      and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (TS 10-30 %, pH 3.0 - 4.5)

   Amid CF 005         32-40 % 11 - 17 % const. gelling strength     amidated Citrus Pectin,      •   jams and marmalades
                                         E 440                       low calcium sensitivity          low calorie fruit preparations
                                                                                                      and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS > 55 %, pH 3.0 - 3.5)

   Amid CF 010         30 - 36 % 14 - 20 % const. gelling strength   amidated Citrus Pectin,      •   jams and marmalades
                                           E 440                     medium calcium sensitivity       low calorie fruit preparations
                                                                                                      and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS 30-55 %, pH 3.0 - 3.5)

   Amid CF 020         27 - 32 % 18 - 23% const. gelling strength    amidated Citrus Pectin,      •   jams and marmalades
                                          E 440                      high calcium sensitivity         low calorie fruit preparations
                                                                                                      and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS 10-40 %, pH 3.0 - 4.5)

   Amid CF 025         24 - 29 % 21 - 25 % const. gelling strength   amidated Citrus Pectin,      •   jams and marmalades
                                           E 440                     high calcium sensitivity         low calorie fruit preparations
                                                                                                      and fruit spreads
                                                                                                      (SS 10-30 %, pH 3.0 - 4.5)

DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation




                                                                                                                                       23
                   Pectins by H&F
                   and their Use in the
                   Baking Industry.


                   Baked products
                   Classic Apple Pectins prove their indis-
                   pensable characteristics especially in baked
                           products. They show their true
                               worth most of all in baking
                                   stable fruit preparations.

                                     Whether in doughnut
                            fillings, on pies, in gingerbread,
                           on yeast dough or biscuits, in
                        Danish or puff pastry – it is largely
                     owing to pectin that perfect processing
                   can be guaranteed.

                   Centre fillings, which are mostly supplied
                   in large-size containers for large-scale
                   production, must show a smooth pump-
                   able, pasty consistency and problemfree
                   metering.

                  Mechanical stressing, as e.g. is sometimes
                  generated during filling, must not have a
                  negative effect on the gel structure. Fur-
                  thermore, a high melting temperature and
                  good stability of shape during baking is of
                            highest importance to prevent
      High melting tem- deformation or leakage of the
      perature and good fruit filling.
     stability of form are
     of basic importance.    The baked product will be of
                             delicious appearance and will
                             keep its typical fruit flavour.

                   Cake glazings
                   Cake glazings or “nappage” or glossing
                   prevents fruit from drying out and
                   provides cakes and biscuits with a glossy
                   surface. The textural requirements for
                   these products are extremely demanding
                   and may be specifically designed for this
                   application by using standardized Amid
                   Pectins.




24
  Baked Products
   1. Baking Stable Fruit Preparations
   Type of Pectin      DE°         DA°        Standardization              Characteristics +               Main Area of
                                              with Neutral Sugars          Properties                      Application
                                              + Composition
   Classic AB 401      59-64 %                150 ° +/- 5 °USA-Sag.        Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              const. breaking strength     baking stable,                      preparation
                                              E 440                        gelled texture                      (TS > 60 %, pH 2.9-3.2)

   Classic AB 701      36 - 44 %    –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              E 440                        very high baking stability,         preparations
                                                                           short, dry texture                  (SS 40 -72 %, pH 3.2-3.8)

   Classic AB 702      33 - 39 %    –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              const. breaking strength     high baking stability,              preparations
                                              E 440                        pasty, smooth texture               (SS 50 -72 %, pH 3.2-3.8)

   Classic AB 802      35-42%       –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              const. breaking strength     medium baking stability,            preparations
                                              E 440, E 341, E 450          smooth, pasty texture,              (SS 40 -72 %, pH 3.0 -3.8)

   Classic AB 901      35 - 42 %    –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              const. breaking strength     very high baking stability          preparations
                                              E 440                        pasty, smooth texture               (SS 40 -72 %, pH 3.0 -3.8)

   Classic AB 902      36 - 44 %    –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              const. breaking strength     baking stable, pasty,               preparations
                                              E 440, E 341                 pumpable texture                    (SS 50 -72 %, pH 2.8 -3.8)

   Classic AB 903      37 - 44 %    –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              const. breaking strength     baking stable, pasty, smooth,       preparations
                                              E 440, E 331, E 341          pumpable texture                    (SS 50 -72 %, pH 2.8 -3.8)

   Classic AB 908      32-36%       –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   baking stable fruit
                                              const. breaking strength     very high baking stability          preparations
                                              E 440                        smooth, pasty texture               (SS 40 -72 %, pH 3.0 -3.8)


   2. Fruit Fillings
   Classic AB 902      36 - 44 %    –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   fruit fillings for baked
                                              const. breaking strength     pumpable, reversible                products
                                              E 440, E 341                                                     (SS 40 -72 %, pH 3.0 -3.8)

   Classic AB 903      37 - 44 %    –         const. calcium sensitivity   Apple Pectin,                   •   fruit fillings for baked
                                              const. breaking strength     pumpable, reversible,               products
                                              E 440, E 331, E 341          smooth texture                      (SS 40 -72 %, pH 3.0 -3.8)


   3. Cake Glazings (Nappage)
   Amid CB 025         23 -28 % 22 -25%       const. calcium sensivity     amidated Citrus Pectin          •   nappage concentrate
                                              const. gelling strength                                          (dilutable 0-100 %)
                                              E 440                                                            ready to use spray nappage
                                                                                                               (40 - 45 % TS, pH 3.2-3.6)

   Amid CB 025-A       23 -28 % 22 -25%       const. calcium sensivity     amidated Citrus Pectin          •   nappage concentrate
                                              const. gelling strength      with buffer substance               (dilutable 0-100 %)
                                              E 440, E 333, E 425                                              ready to use spray nappage
                                                                                                               (40 - 45 % TS, pH 3.2-3.6)

   Amid CB 025-B       23 -28 % 22 -25%       const. calcium sensivity     amidated Citrus Pectin          •   ready to use spray nappage
                                              const. gelling strength      with buffer substance               (40 - 45 % TS, pH 3.2-3.6)
                                              E 440, E 331

DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation




                                                                                                                                            25
                    Pectins by H&F
                    and their Use in the
                    Confectionery
                    Industry.

                    Sweets
                   Producers and consumers of confection-
                   ery articles have a very clear idea as to
                   what fruit jellies and jelly fillings should
                   taste like. Pectins provide the appealing,
                               elastic structure and enhance
                               naturally the fruit inherent fla-
         Our Classic and vour and allow a smooth, bril-
     Instant Pectins pro- liant cut.
     mote uninterrupted
              processing. The confectionery industry,
                               moreover, greatly appreciates
                   the good solubility and the accurate set-
                   ting temperature as well as setting time of
                   pectins. Classic Pectins are standardized to
                   a constant gelling behaviour, dissolve rap-
                   idly, are heat stable and thus promote un-
                            interrupted processing.

                            Pectins have a great application
                            potential in the confectionery
                            field: fruit jellies, fruit gums,
                            gummi bears without gelatine,
                            delicate fruit rolls, tasty dessert
                            toppings, tender fillings for choc-
                            olates and high boilings, jellies in
                            domino ginger bread, delicious
                            coatings…




26
  Confectionery Articles
  Fruit Jellies, Jelly Fillings, Domino Ginger Bread Jellies
  Type of Pectin       DE°         DA°        Standardization              Characteristics +               Main Area of
                                              with Neutral Sugars          Properties                      Application
                                              + Composition
  Classic AS 501       56 - 60 %   –          150° +/- 5° USA-Sag          Apple Pectin,                   •   fruit jellies, jelly fillings,
                                              const. breaking strength     slow set,                           domino ginger
                                              const. setting time          as a rule addition                  bread jellies
                                              E 440                        of buffer salts required            (SS 68 - 80 %, pH 2.8 -3.4)

  Classic AS 502       56 - 60 %   –          const. gelling strength      Apple Pectin,                   •   fruit jellies, jelly fillings,
                                              const. setting temperature   slow set                            domino ginger
                                              E 440, E 331                                                     bread jellies
                                                                                                               (SS 68 - 80 %, pH 2.8 -3.4)

  Classic AS 507       58 - 65 %   –          const. gelling strength      Apple Pectin,                   •   fruit jellies, jelly fillings,
                                              const. setting temperature   medium rapid set,                   domino ginger
                                              E 440, E 337, E 452          short, elastic texture              bread jellies
                                                                                                               (SS 68 - 80 %, pH 2.8 -3.4)

  Classic AS 509       56 - 62 %   –          const. gelling strength      Apple Pectin,                   •   fruit jellies, jelly fillings,
                                              const. setting temperature   extra slow set                      domino ginger
                                              E 440, E 337, E 331                                              bread jellies
                                                                                                               (SS 68 - 80 %, pH 2.8 -3.4)

  Classic AS 511       58- 65 %    –          const. gelling strength      Apple Pectin,                   •   fruit jellies,
                                              const. setting temperature   extra slow set,                     jelly fillings
                                              E 440, E 337, E 452          brillant, elastic texture           (SS 68 - 80 %, pH 2.8-3.7)


  Classic CS 501       56 - 62 %   –          150° +/- 5° USA-Sag          Citrus Pectin,                  •   fruit jellies, jelly fillings,
                                              const. breaking strength     slow set,                           (SS 68- 80%, pH 3.0-3.6)
                                              const. setting time          as a rule addition
                                              E 440                        of buffer salts required

  Classic CS 502       58 - 65 %   –          const. gelling strength      Citrus Pectin,                  •   fruit jellies, jelly fillings,
                                              const. setting temperature   medium rapid set                    (SS 68-80 %, pH 3.0 -3.6)
                                              E 440, E 337, E 452          short, elastic texture

  Classic CS 509       59 - 63%    –          const. gelling strength      Citrus Pectin,                  •   fruit jellies, jelly fillings,
                                              const. setting temperature   extra slow set                      (SS 68 - 80 %, pH 3,0 -3,6)
                                              E 440, E 337, E 452


  Amid CS 005          51- 59%     4-9%       const. gelling strength      Citrus Pectin, amidated         •   jelly fruits, gum products,
                                              const. setting time          extra slow set                      pastilles
                                              E 440                        addition of buffer salts            (SS 68-85%, pH 2.8-3.6)
                                                                           not necessary, low viscosity
                                                                           during boiling process,
                                                                           suitable for high SS contents

DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation




                                                                                                                                                27
                      Pectins by H&F
                      and their Use in the
                      Dairy Industry.


                      Fruit preparations for
                      sour milk products
                     Fruit preparations in dairy products call for
                     pectins, since they provide the required
                     rheological properties and guarantee
                     good dosing, a regular fruit distribution in
                                the container due to their yield
                                point, a homogeneous mixing
      Pectins of the Classic with the fermented milk prod-
         AY line have been uct and a good shelf life of the
      especially developed finished product.
     for these applications
                and specific In fruit yoghurts, pectins will
             requirements. provide the fruit preparations
                                with a smooth and creamy
                     structure and fruit specific flavour. They
                     also help in a regular distribution of the
                     fruit particles and in achieving a smooth
                     surface. In layered products they have a
                     stabilizing effect and keep the fruit prep-
                     aration separated from the yoghurt.

                      Acidified milk drinks
                      High ester Classic Citrus and Apple Pectins
                      in yoghurt drinks protect the protein at a
                      low pH range against heat denaturation
                      during the pasteurization process, thus
                      preventing sedimentation and floccula-
                      tion. This guarantees a stable product with
                      optimal sensory properties and without
                      loss of quality even over longer storage
                      times.

                      Yoghurts, milk desserts
                      Special Classic and Amid Pectins which are
                      able to react with calcium in yoghurt im-
                      prove the texture of yoghurt. This reduces
                      whey syneresis and enhances stability.

                      Milk-fruit desserts
                      Classic Pectins are also used in this area of
                      application. A semi-finished product made
                      of sugar, buffer substance, fruit and water
                      is mixed e.g. with the equal amount of
                      cold milk. The result is a gel which forms
                      within minutes after mixing.

28
  Dairy Products
   1. Fruit Preparations for Sour Milk Products
  Type of Pectin       DE°        DA°       Standardization                  Characteristics +                     Main Area of
                                            with Neutral Sugars              Properties                            Application
                                            + Composition
  Classic AY 601       52-57%     –         assessing of viscosity           Apple Pectin,                         •   fruit preparations
                                            behaviour                        medium calcium sensitivity,               for yoghurts
                                            E 440, E 333                     addition of calcium salts                 (SS 30 - 45 %, pH 3.2- 4.0)
                                                                             required at low SS
  Classic AY 801       43-48%     –         const. calcium sensitivity       Apple Pectin,                         •   fruit preparations
                                            assessing of viscosity           medium calcium sensitivity,               for yoghurts
                                            behaviour                        addition of calcium salts                 (SS 30 - 60 %, pH 3.5 - 4.2)
                                            E 440, E 331                     required at low SS
  Classic AY 802       38-44%     –         const. calcium sensitivity       Apple Pectin,                         •   fruit preparations
                                            assessing of viscosity           medium calcium sensitivity,               for yoghurts
                                            behaviour                        addition of calcium salts                 (SS 40 - 65 %, pH 3.5 - 4.2)
                                            E 440, E 331                     required at low SS
  Classic AY 901       42-47%     –         const. calcium sensitivity       Apple Pectin,                         •   fruit preparations
                                            assessing of viscosity           low calcium sensitivity,                  for yoghurts
                                            behaviour                        addition of calcium salts                 (SS 45 - 65 %, pH 3.5 - 4.2)
                                            E 440, E 341                     required at low SS
  Classic AY 905       35-42%     –         const. calcium sensitivity       Apple Pectin,                         •   fruit preparations
                                            assessing of                     highly viscous, reversible texture,       for yoghurts
                                            viscosity behaviour              addition of calcium salts                 (SS 20 - 50 %, pH 3.6 - 4.0)
                                            E 440                            required at low SS
  Classic AM 901       38-44%     –         const. calcium sensitivity       Apple Pectin,                         •   fruit preparations for
                                            assessing of gelling             low calcium sensitivity                   multi-purpose functions
                                            behaviour constant breaking                                                (viscosity increase of
                                            strength, E 440                                                            fruit yoghurt by the
                                                                                                                       yoghurt fruit preparation)
  Amid AY 005-C        34-39%     6-10%     const. gelling strength          amidated Apple Pectin,                •   fruit preparations for
                                            E 440, E 340, E 331              low calcium sensitivity                   yoghurts
                                                                                                                       (SS 25- 50 %, pH 3.5- 4.5)


   2. Yoghurt Drinks
  Classic AM 201       72-78 %    –         function as protective colloid   Apple Pectin,                         •   stabilization of
                                            for protein in thermally         protective colloid                        fermented milk drinks
                                            treated fermented milk drinks                                              (pH 3.6 - 4.2)
                                            E 440                                                                      (Dosage: 0.3 - 0.6 %)
  Classic CM 201       68 -76 %   –         function as protective colloid   Citrus Pectin,                        •   stabilization of
                                            for protein in thermally         protective colloid                        fermented milk drinks
                                            treated fermented milk drinks                                              (pH 3.6 - 4.2)
                                            E 440                                                                      (Dosage: 0.3 - 0.5 %)
  Classic CM 203       68 -76 %   –         function as protective colloid   Citrus Pectin,                        •   stabilization of fermented
                                            for protein in thermally         protective colloid                         milk drinks of low viscosity
                                            treated fermented milk drinks                                              (pH 3.6 - 4.2)
                                            E 440                                                                      (Dosage: 0.2- 0.5 %)
  Instant CM 203       68 -76 %   –         function as protective colloid   instantized Citrus Pectin,            •   stabilization of fermented
                                            for protein in thermally         protective colloid                        milk drinks of low viscosity
                                            treated fermented milk drinks                                              (pH 3.6 - 4.2)
                                            E 440                                                                      (Dosage: 0.3 - 0.6 %)

   3. Yoghurt, Fruit-Milk Desserts, Aerated Sour Milk Products and
      Household Desserts
  Classic AM 901       38 - 44 % –          const. calcium sensitivity       Apple Pectin,                         •   yoghurt and fresh cheese
                                            assessing of gelling             jellifies with calcium of milk            with creamy structure
                                            behaviour                                                                  (pH 3.9-4.2)
                                            const. breaking strength                                               •   fruit-milk desserts jellification
                                            E 440                                                                      by mixing with cold milk
                                                                                                                       (SS 25 - 40 %, pH 3,9 - 4,1)
                                                                                                                   •   semi-finished products
                                                                                                                       for milk shakes
  Amid CM 020          27-32 % 18-23% const. gelling strength                amidated Citrus Pectin                •   yoghurt preparations
                                      E 440                                  high calcium sensitivity                  (stirred, unstirred)

DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation


                                                                                                                                                           29
                    Pectins by H&F
                    and their Use in the
                    Beverage Industry.


                    Soft Drinks
                    Pectins are highly suitable components in
                    soft drinks due to their low-calorie carbo-
                    hydrate nature and turbidity stabilizing
                    and viscosity increasing properties.

                              Low-calorie soft drinks are be-
                              coming ever more popular.
        Instant Pectins to They are defined as non-alco-
     enhance mouth-feel holic beverages in which sugar
       in low-calorie soft has been partially or totally sub-
                   drinks. stituted by a sweetener or a
                              combination of sweeteners.
                   The resulting loss in full mouth-feel may
                   be improved ideally by the use of Instant
                   Pectins or Classic Pectins.




                      Beverages and Sherbets
                      Soft Drinks and Sherbets
                      Type of Pectin   DE°        DA°    Standardization       Characteristics +                 Main Area of
                                                         with Neutral Sugars   Properties                        Application
                                                         + Composition
                      Classic AJ 201   72-78 %    –      const. viscosity      Apple Pectin,                     •   stabilizing turbidity
                                                         E 440                 turbidity stabilizing,                in soft drinks
                                                                               viscosity increase                    (pH 2.7- 4.5)
                                                                                                                 •   water ice, sherbets
                                                                                                                     (Dosage: 0.05 - 0.30 %)


                      Classic CJ 201   68 -76 %   –      const. viscosity      Citrus Pectin,                    •   stabilizing turbidity
                                                         E 440                 turbidity stabilizing,                in soft drinks
                                                                               viscosity increase                    (pH 2,7- 4,5)
                                                                                                                 •   water ice, sherbets
                                                                                                                     (Dosage: 0.05 - 0.30 %)


                      Instant CJ 204   68 -76 %   –      const. viscosity      instantized Citrus Pectin,        •   stabilizing turbidity
                                                         E 440                 turbidity stabilizing,                in soft drinks
                                                                               viscosity increase                    (pH 2.7- 4.5)


                      Combi AC 10      60 -65 %   –      const. viscosity      Pectin on the basis of apple      •   water ice, sherbets
                                                         E 440                 and citrus raw matrerials,            (Dosage: 0.1- 0.3%)
                                                                               improves melting behaviour
                                                                               and crystallization

                                                                                     DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation
30
                                                                                    Pectins by H&F
                                                                                    and their Use in the
                                                                                    Delicatessen Sector.

                                                                                    Sauces and Ketchup
                                                                                    A high-quality tomato ketchup will have
                                                                                    to meet very strict rheological specifica-
                                                                                    tions. The addition of a suitable H&F Pec-
                                                                                    tin will compensate the shortcomings of
                                                                                    the native pectin in view to defined yield
                                                                                    point and structural viscous behaviour.
                                                                                    Furthermore, rheological properties of
                                                                                    dips, chutneys and barbecue sauces can
                                                                                    be controlled by the use of pectin.

                                                                                    Crème fraîche, Mayonnaise
                                                                                    and Margarine
                                                                                    With the addition of H&F Pectins the wa-
                                                                                    ter binding capacity and texture of crème
                                                                                    fraîche and mayonnaise are improved.
                                                                                    Besides a good water binding capacity
                                                                                    low-fat margarine shows an excellent
                                                                                    spreadability by the addition of H&F
                                                                                    Classic Pectins.




  Delicatessen
  Ketchup, Sauces, Crème fraîche, Mayonnaise and Margarine
   Type of Pectin      DE°         DA°        Standardization           Characteristics +            Main Area of
                                              with Neutral Sugars       Properties                   Application
                                              + Composition
   Classic AD 501      48 - 56 %   –          const. flow behaviour     Apple Pectin,                •   ketchup, sauces
                                              E 440, E 333              thickening and                   and chutneys
                                                                        definition of                    (SS 20- 40 %, pH 3.0 -3.8)
                                                                        yield point

   Classic CM 201      68-76%      -          const. viscosity          Citrus Pectin,               •   crème fraîche,
                                              E 440                     increase of water                salad cream, mayonnaise
                                                                        binding capacity
                                                                        improvement of texture
   Classic CJ 205      68-76%      -          const. viscosity          Citrus Pectin,               •   low fat margarine
                                              E 440                     increase of water                (40-60% fat)
                                                                        binding capacity
                                                                        spreadability

   Amid AD 015-A       28-34%      16-22%     const. gelling strength   Apple Pectin, amidated       •   crème fraîche,
                                              E 440, E 340, E 341,      high calcium sensitivity         mayonnaise
                                              E 332
   Amid CM 020         27-32%      18-23%     const. gelling strength   Citrus Pectin, amidated      •   ketchup, sauces,
                                              E 440                     high calcium sensitivity         chutneys (SS 10-60%,
                                                                                                         pH 3,1-4,0)




DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation                                                                            31
                     Pectins by H&F and
                     their Use in Pharma-
                     ceuticals, Cosmetics
                     and the Non-Food
                     Sector.
                     Pharmaceuticals
                     and cosmetic products
                     Due to the exploration and the utilization
                     of the natural properties of pectins, their
                     applications tend to become more and
                     more varied and sophisticated. This is con-
                     vincingly shown in the fields of pharma-
                     ceuticals and cosmetics.

                     The styptic and curing effects of natural
                                pectins are fully developed in
                                healing ointments. Further-
             The application more, pectins will help to delay
      potential of pectin in a rise in the glucose blood level
       the non-food sector and bring down serum choles-
     is far from being fully terol. Drugs are encapsulated
                  exploited. with a pectin film to protect the
                                gastric mucosa and to allow
                     sustained release of the active substance
                     into the blood circulation.

                     In the cosmetics industry, pectin is being
                     used as a natural structure provider on
                     plant basis for pastes, ointments, oils and
                     creams. In deodorants and tooth pastes,
                     pectin coats special flavour substances,
                     but it is also used as a thickener and sta-
                     bilizer in hair tonics, body lotions and
                     shampoos.

                     Non-food products
                     In the tobacco industry, especially beet
                     pectin is used as a natural adhesive for the
                     wrappers of cigars and cigarillos.

                     With pectins, ceramic filters with a homo-
                     gennous pore-structure can be produced.
                     Even in the production of plastics pectins
                     become more and more important.

                     This list of very different and varied appli-
                     cations of pectins could be continued at
                     great length. However, these examples
                     prove the development potential of pectin
                     and the chances and opportunities wait-
                     ing in the future.


32
  Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics and Non-Food Products
   Dietetic, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products and
   Dietary Fibre Enrichment
  Type of Pectin       DE°         DA°        Standardization         Characteristics          Main Area of
                                              + Composition           + Properties             Application

  Classic AU 201       68 -78 %    –          No sugars added,        Apple Pectin,        • dietetic and pharmaceutical
  USP                                         therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             products, e.g.
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized,          – positive effect on
                                              posed to the natural    USP standard               serum cholesterol level
                                              variations of pectin.                        •   cosmetic products
                                              E 440                                        •   dietary fibre enrichment

  Classic CU 201       68 -76 %    –          No sugars added,        Citrus Pectin,       • dietetic and
                                              therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             pharmaceutical products
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized       • cosmetic products
                                              posed to the natural
                                              variations of pectin.
                                              E 440

  Classic AU 202       68 -76 %    –          No sugars added,        Apple Pectin,        • dietetic and pharmaceutical
                                              therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             products, e.g.
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized           – positive effect on
                                              posed to the natural                               serum cholesterol level
                                              variations of pectin.                        •   dietary fibre enrichment
                                              E 440


  Classic AU 701       36 - 44 %   –          No sugars added,        Apple Pectin,        • dietetic and pharmaceutical
                                              therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             products, e.g.
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized           – positive effect on
                                              posed to the natural                               serum cholesterol level
                                              variations of pectin.                            – heavy-metal and
                                              E 440                                              radionuclide catching
                                                                                           •   cosmetic products

  Classic CU 701       34-38 %     –          No sugars added,        Citrus Pectin,       • dietetic and
                                              therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             pharmaceutical products
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized       • cosmetic products
                                              posed to the natural
                                              variations of pectin.
                                              E 440


  Classic CU 401       > 60 %      –          No sugars added,        Citrus Pectin,       • dietetic and pharmaceutical
  USP                                         therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             products, e.g.
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized,          – positive effect on
                                              posed to the natural    USP standard               serum cholesterol level
                                              variations of pectin.                        •   cosmetic products
                                              E 440                                        •   dietary fibre enrichment

  Classic GU 401       > 60 %      –          No sugars added,        Grapefruit Pectin,   • dietetic and
  USP                                         therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             pharmaceutical
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized,          products
                                              posed to the natural    USP standard         •   cosmetic products
                                              variations of pectin.                        •   dietary fibre enrichment
                                              E 440

  Classic RU 301       > 50 %      –          No sugars added,        Beet Pectin,         • dietetic and pharmaceutical
                                              therefore the gelling   pure pectin,             products, e.g.
                                              properties are ex-      unstandardized           – positive effect on
                                              posed to the natural                               serum cholesterol level
                                              variations of pectin.                        •   cosmetic products
                                              E 440                                        •   dietary fibre enrichment


DE° = degree of esterification / DA° = degree of amidation




                                                                                                                           33
                     Herbstreith&Fox

                         Corporate Group

Herbstreith & Fox · Turnstraße 37 · D-75305 Neuenbürg/Württ. · Germany
          Phone: +49 (0) 7082 7913-0 · Fax: +49 (0) 7082 202 81
 email: info@herbstreith-fox.de · Internet: www.herbstreith-fox.com

				
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