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					                                                                 :
                                 TCP/IP   OSI   :


                                                                 :




                                                                               .


                                                                           :
        OSI

                                                              TCP/IP



                                                                       :
                                                    :
                                                                               •

                                                                               •
                                                                               •
                                                                               •
                                                                               •
                                                        OSI                    •

                                                    TCP/IP                     •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                1
                                                                            •
                                                                            •
                                                                            •


                  .                                                         •
                                                    :                       •
                                                                        o
                                                                        o
                                                                        o
                                                                        o
                                                                        o
                                                                        o
                                                                        o
                                .
                                                        .
                                        .
                      (1970s)




                                                            :
              .                                                 :
                                    .


                                                                :
                                            .
                                                .


                                                                    :
        .                                           .
              .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                             2
                                                                                                  :
                                                         .


                                                                 .                                    :
                                                             .


                                                                                                          .


                                                                                                              :
                    .
   .


                                                                             .


                                                                                        :
                                                                                                          .
                                                             .




                                      :

                                                                                 LAN                          •


                                                                                 WAN                          •


                                      :

                                                                                       :LAN
                                          .Local Area Network                               LAN
                                                     .
                                                                     .
                                                .(                                      )
                                                                         .
                                                     .                                        .


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                               3
      WAN                                         :WAN
               .                                  .Wide Area Networks
  (                                   )
           .




       .                                                        •
               .(                         )

                        .                                       •


                                              :                 •
                                                          o
                                                          o
                                                          o




                                                                •


                                                                •


                                                                •
                                                                •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                     4
                                                                  :
                                                  .




                                              .               .



                                                          .




 .                             "      "               .
                                          .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                   5
                                                      :


                                                                   .
                                                               .
                                              .
                                                                                               .
                                                          .


                                                                                       .


                                                                               :




                                                                                   :
                                                                                                   •

    (                                 )                                                            •
                           "          "   (                                            )
                                                  (                    )                           •
                                                          .(               )               (   )
                                                                                                   •


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                    6
                                                                                              •




     •   ISO (International Standardization Organization)
                                                                                     o
                                                                :                    o
                                                                       ANSI – USA
                                                                    AFNOR – France
                                                                     DIN – Germany
                                                                          BSI – UK
                                                                       HSC – Japan

     •   IUT-T (International Union of Telecommunication)
                                                                                     o



                                            (1)             :


                                    :

                                                                                         .1
                                                                                         .2
                                                                                         .3

                         System B                                         System A

                           2              ‫ت‬       ‫ا‬     ‫1-2: ی‬      ‫ا ا‬    2
                                          ‫ه‬           ‫وا ﻡ ت ا‬        ‫ا‬
                           1                             2     1      ‫ا‬    1

                                                      ‫ی‬         ‫و‬
                                                                                         .4



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               7
                               ‫‪System B‬‬                                                        ‫‪System A‬‬
                                                   ‫2‬                    ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                   ‫2‬                                                               ‫2‬
                                           ‫ت‬                   ‫وا‬        ‫ﺏ و آ ل: ا‬
                                                                                  ‫ا‬
                                   ‫1‬                                                               ‫1‬
                                                       ‫1‬                ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                                                   ‫ی‬             ‫و‬


                                                                                                                   ‫5.‬




                         ‫‪System B‬‬                                                             ‫‪System A‬‬
                                               ‫2‬                       ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                               ‫2‬                                                               ‫2‬
                                           ‫ت‬           ‫ا‬                ‫ی ا ي‬        ‫ا‬
                               ‫1‬                                                               ‫1‬
                                                   ‫1‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                                               ‫ی‬             ‫و‬


                                ‫‪System A‬‬       ‫7‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬              ‫‪System B‬‬
                                 ‫7‬                                                         ‫7‬
                   ‫6-7‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                           ‫6-7‬   ‫ا ا‬
                                               ‫6‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                   ‫6‬                                                      ‫6‬
                   ‫5-6‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                           ‫5-6‬   ‫ا ا‬
                                               ‫5‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                   ‫5‬                                                      ‫5‬
                   ‫4-5‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                           ‫4-5‬   ‫ا ا‬
                                               ‫4‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                   ‫4‬                                                      ‫4‬
                   ‫3-4‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                           ‫3-4‬   ‫ا ا‬
                                               ‫3‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                   ‫3‬                                                      ‫3‬
                   ‫2-3‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                           ‫2-3‬   ‫ا ا‬
                                               ‫2‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                   ‫2‬                                                      ‫2‬
                   ‫1-2‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                           ‫1-2‬   ‫ا ا‬
                                               ‫1‬                   ‫ﺏ و آ لا‬
                                   ‫1‬                                                      ‫1‬

                                                           ‫ی‬             ‫و‬




‫‪Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l‬‬                                                                                     ‫8‬
                                                                   :


                             Station A                                       Station B
                                 ‫إدارة ا‬                  P1                           ‫إدارة ا‬




                               ‫إ ا تا‬                     P2                          ‫إ ا تا‬




                                                     ‫ی‬         ‫ا‬       ‫و‬


           ‫إر ل‬                                                                                                ‫ل‬       ‫ا‬
            A                                                                                                      B
                                                          P7
        m         ‫ر‬                                                                                            m           ‫ر‬
                                                                                  :
                  6-7   ‫وا‬                                                                       6-7      ‫وا‬
                                                         P6        (                                 )                         •
        M         ‫ر‬                                       .                                                    M           ‫ر‬   •
                  5-6   ‫وا‬                                                                       5-6      ‫وا‬
                                                         P5
        M         ‫ر‬                                                                              :             M           ‫ر‬
                                                 .       P4                                                                    •

       H4 M                 H4 M                                   .                     H4 M                  H4 M•
 .                                                                                                                             •
                                                              P3
       H3 H4 M                 H3 H4 M                                     . H3 H4        M              H3 H4 M
                                      .                                                                                        •
                                                              P2
     H H H M T                      .
                             H H H M T                                 H H H M T                         H H H M T
                        .                                P1                                                                    •



       ‫ر‬                                   OSI                         1.1-2.10                                            ‫هف‬




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                9
                                                                                  ‫ا‬
                                         ‫إدارة ا‬
                                                                          ‫ض‬       ‫ا‬
                                                                                  ‫ا‬


                                                                              ‫ا‬
                                   ‫إ ا تا‬                                         ‫ا‬
                                                                      ‫ت‬       ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                                                          ‫ی‬           ‫ا‬


                                     ‫اُ ِ‬                                   ‫ا ُ َِ‬
                                   ‫ت‬    ‫ا‬                                 ‫ت‬     ‫ا‬
                   ‫6-7‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                      ‫6-7‬       ‫ا ا‬

                                   ‫ض‬              ‫ا‬                       ‫ض‬                   ‫ا‬
                   ‫5-6‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                      ‫5-6‬       ‫ا ا‬
                                              ‫ا‬                                           ‫ا‬
                   ‫4-5‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                      ‫4-5‬       ‫ا ا‬

                                          ‫ا‬                                           ‫ا‬
                   ‫3-4‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                      ‫3-4‬       ‫ا ا‬

                                              ‫ا‬                                           ‫ا‬
                   ‫2-3‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                      ‫2-3‬       ‫ا ا‬

                                       ‫رﺏ‬                                         ‫رﺏ‬
                   ‫1-2‬   ‫ا ا‬                                                                      ‫1-2‬       ‫ا ا‬

                                     ‫ی‬            ‫ا‬                           ‫ی‬               ‫ا‬

                                                              ‫ی‬   ‫و‬




                                                                                                        ‫.‬
                                                      ‫.‬

  ‫‪Interconnection) (Open System‬‬                                                                    ‫‪OSI‬‬
                                                          ‫.‬

                               ‫.‬
                                                                                                                  ‫.‬


‫‪Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l‬‬                                                                                   ‫01‬
                                      .


                                          :
                                                                         Application      -
                                                                     Presentation layer   -
                                                                         Session layer    -
                                                                        Transport layer   -
                                                                        Network layer     -
                                                                  Data link layer         -
                                                                      Physical layer      -

                                              :OSI


                                                          ‫ا‬
                                              ‫ض‬           ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                                      ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                      ‫ت‬               ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                                  ‫ی‬           ‫ا‬

                                                                                              •
                                          X.211       UIT                ISO-10022            •
                                                                                              •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               11
                                                                              :          •
                                                                                     o
                                          (Modulators)                (encoders)     o
                                                          (Multiplexers)             o
                                                                                         •
                                                                                         •
                  (211     ) X.211    (       ) UIT               (    ) ISO-10022       •


                                                                                         •


                                                                              :          •
                                                                                     o
                                          (Modulators)                (encoders)     o
                                                          (Multiplexers)             o



                                                :OSI


                                                          ‫ا‬
                                              ‫ض‬           ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                                      ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                          ‫ت‬           ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                                 ‫ی‬            ‫ا‬

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                          12
                                                                                 •
                                          X.212           UIT     ISO-8886       •
                                                                                 •
                                                                                 •

                                           :OSI




                                                          ‫ا‬
                                          ‫ض‬               ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                                      ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                      ‫ت‬               ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                              ‫ی‬               ‫ا‬

                        .                                                        •
                                                                             :
                                                                             o
                                                                             o
                                                                             o
                                                                             o
                                                  (                      )   o
                                                                                 •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                  13
                                          :OSI




                                                     ‫ا‬
                                          ‫ض‬          ‫ا‬
                                                     ‫ا‬
                                                 ‫ا‬
                                                     ‫ا‬
                                      ‫ت‬          ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                             ‫ی‬           ‫ا‬

                                                                 •
                                                                 •
                                                             o
                                                             o
                                                                 •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                  14
                                          :OSI




                                                     ‫ا‬
                                          ‫ض‬          ‫ا‬
                                                     ‫ا‬
                                                 ‫ا‬
                                                     ‫ا‬
                                      ‫ت‬          ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                            ‫ی‬            ‫ا‬

                                                             •
                                                             •
                                                             •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                              15
                                                  :OSI




                                                              ‫ا‬
                                              ‫ض‬               ‫ا‬
                                                              ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                                              ‫ا‬
                                          ‫ت‬               ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                                    ‫ی‬             ‫ا‬

                                                                                                  •
                                                                                          .1
                                                                                          .2
                                          EBCDIC         ASCII                            .3
                                                                                          .4
 UIT     ISO 8824)              ASN.1                                                             •
                                                                            ISO          (X.208


                                              :                                                   •
                                                                                          .1
                                                                                          .2
                                          EBCDIC         ASCII                            .3
                                                                                          .4
 ISO )            (             ) ASN.1                                                           •
                                                                      ISO   (UIT X.208    8824

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                   16
                                               :OSI




                                                          ‫ا‬
                                               ‫ض‬          ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                                      ‫ا‬
                                                          ‫ا‬
                                           ‫ت‬          ‫رﺏ ا‬
                                                 ‫ی‬            ‫ا‬

                                                                                                   •
             Telnet                    FTP                        :                                •
                                                                              ... Email


                                           :     TCP/IP

                       (Interconnection)                                                           •

              1969        ARPANET                                     DARPA                        •

                                                                                                   •
                                                                                          TCP/IP

                                                                          1980                     •


                                                Peering Points



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                    17
                               (slow start)                    /                                                     •
 (fast                     (fast retransmit)                                      (congestion avoidance)
                                                                                               recovery)

                                                                                                                     •
                                                          .

                              (Interconnection)
                                                    .
 (Defense Advanced Research Project DARPA
                                                                                                                .Agency)


                   1969          ARPANET                                          DARPA
                                                                                        NSF-NET
                                                                                                           .
                                               TCP/IP
                                                                                      .IP       TCP


                                                                                            1980
                 NSF-NET              .                                                              .
                                                                                                          .1994
                                               .Peering Points


                                                      ARPANET
                 10Mb/s                    Ethernet                Berkeley UNIX                         (DEC      ) VAX
                                                                   .56Kb/s
 Lawrence                   Van Jacobson
                                  .                                                                               Berkeley


  (congestion avoidance)                                (slow start)              /


                             Moore                             .(fast recovery)                          (fast retransmit)
                                                          .                                     18
   .     50000                             12000                                            .     1000




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                          18
                                                        Ethernet            Bob Metcaffe         1996
                                                                                                  .
                                                             .


        25                      TCP/IP


 Bob                                             .
                                                          Van Jacobson Jon Postel Vint Cerf Kahn
                                                                                                      .




                                                                            :


                     www.icann.org (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) ICANN            •


                                                                 www.isoc.org :(Internet Society) ISOC    •


                                              .www.ietf.org (Internet Engineering Task Force) IETF        •


                                                         .


                                         .


                                                 :


                                  (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) ICANN             •
                            (www.icann.org)                                                .


                     (www.isoc.org)                                             (Internet Society) ISOC   •


                 .                                               (Internet Engineering Task Force) IETF   •
                                                                                (www.ietf.org)



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                       19
                                    TCP/IP

                                                                                           •
                                                                                           •
                                                                                           •
                                                                                           •
                                                                               :




                                    ‫ﺵ‬                              ‫ﺵ‬




                                                     ‫ﺵ‬
                                                                   ‫ا ﺏ ا‬




 (Request for RFC                           TCP/IP
               .RFC                                                                       .Comments)


                                                                                         RFC
                                                                       .       RFC
                                                               .


 Algorithms for Synchronizing Network   )                RFC               .       RFC
                                                 .                                             (Clocks


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                      20
                   .                                                   .                             RFC
             .                   (          )



                                                                                                     .


                                          www.rfc-editor.org                                     RFC
                                                                                                 .


                                           TCP/IP



                                                                                      X Widget
                                                                                  X-Windows                ‫ت‬           ‫ا‬
                   Telnet REXEC FTP LPR SMTP Talk TFTP NFS DNS SNMP RouteD Kerberos     RPC
                                    LPD




                                  TCP                          UDP                                             ‫ا‬

                                             IP & ICMP                      RIP ARP RARP
                                                                                                           ‫ا ﺏ‬

                                 Token Ring, Ethernet, PC Network, Serial Line                                     ‫ا‬
                                                                                                               ‫ی‬       ‫ا‬




                                                :RFC
           (RFC791)                                                              (Internet Protocol) IP                          •
              IP                                        (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP                                 •


                                                                                                  (RFC792)
       (RFC823)                      IP                          (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP         •
 TCP     (User              Datagram                  Protocol) UDP                                                              •
   .                                                                         (Transmission Control Protocol)
                                          TCP                                                                              UDP
         (RFC793 RFC768)



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                  21
                                          TCP/IP




                                                                              (           )




                        arp           SSH, FTP, HTTP          DNS, Quake                traceroute




                                           TCP                    UDP




                                                 IP                       ICMP



                                             ARP ,‫ات‬       ‫ا تا‬




                                         Copper ,      ‫أﻡ اج رادی ی , أ ف‬




         "                                                            :
                                                                          .(Application Protocol) "




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                   22
                                      ‫ﺕ‬                                            ‫ﺕ‬
                                  ‫زﺏ ن‬                       ‫رد‬               ‫ِم‬




                                          TCP            :

                                                         (Connected Mode)                                  •
                                                                                                           •


                                                                                                           •
                                                              (Virtual Circuit)                            •
                                                                                        TCP                •


                                          UDP            :


                                                (Connectionless Mode)                                      •
          TCP                                                                                              •
                                                                                                           •
                                                                                       UDP                 •


                                      (              )


                                                                                             IP            •
                                                                                       Internet Protocol


                                                                                      ARP                  •
                                                                         Address Resolution Protocol

                                                                                      ICMP                 •
                                                                    Internet Control Message Protocol



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                            23
         •   Ethernet
         •   Token Ring
         •   Fiber Optic
         •   ATM


                                        TCP

                                                                                  •
     (synchronization flag) SYN                                                   •
                                                                                  •
                                                   (SYN Acknowledgment) SYN-ACK
                                       ACK                                        •


                                        TCP

                                             FIN                                  •
                                      ACK            :                            •
                                                                         FIN
                                            ACK                                   •




                                                                     :



                                                                           :



                                                                                      –
                                        .           BRI PRI ADSL ISDN


                                                                                      :
             .

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                       24
                                                                                                                         :
                                                                                                 :
                                                                                                                                 •
                                                                                                                                 •

                                                                                                                                 •
                                                                                                                                 •
                                                                                                                                 •




                   f(t)                                                                      .
                       .



     (             )                T           g(t)
                                                                                                             .


                                                     :


                                        :                            .                   T                              g(t)     •
                                             ∞                      ∞
                                       1
                               g( t ) = c + ∑ a n sin(2π n f t ) + ∑ a n cos(2π n f t ) (1)
                                       2    n =1                   n =1
                                                                                                                    :
                                                                                                                    1
                                                                                                              f=             •
                                                                                                                    T
                           .            n                (sin)           (cos)                               a n , bn        •
                                                                                     "                   "


           )                                     (                               )                                               •
                                                         (2T     T                                   T           0




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                  25
      :               t           T    0                                sin(2π k f t )       (1)                        •
                                                        T
                                                      2
                                                      T∫
                                               an =      g( t ) sin(2π n f t ) dt (2)
                                                        0


      :               t            T   0                                cos(2π k f t )        (1)                       •
                                                        T
                                                      2
                                                      T∫
                                               bn =      g( t ) cos(2π n f t ) dt (3)
                                                        0

                                                                        T
                                                                   2
                                                                c = ∫ g( t ) dt :                   (3)   (2)   (1)     •
                                                                   T
                                                                        0




                                                        :


 :(                       )                                                 ASCII                  b                        •
                                       :                                                                   .0110 0010




                                                                                             ‫ا ﻡ‬

                                           0     1     1        0   0        0      1    0

                                                            :                                                               •
               1   πn         3πn      6πn      7πn 
  an =           cos 4  − cos 4  + cos 4  − cos 4 
              πn                                    
               1   3πn         πn       7πn      6πn 
  bn =           sin 4  − sin  4  + sin 4  − sin 4 
              πn                                     
          3
  c=
          8



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                             26
                                       n                           a 2 + b2
                                                                     n    n                   •
                                                  .
                                                                              :




                                                                       n



                                                                                              •
                                                                                  .


                                       )                                                      •
        .(                                                 )           fc                 (
                        .


                                                                   :




                                                                                      n



                                 (                    )T                                      •



                            :                                                                 •
                                                               :
                                Time
                                Harmonics
                                Harmonic Number




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               27
                                                                              •
                                             .(                           )
           (                 )                       1   0
                  \.                      (bits/s)

       8
 .                                                           b                •
       b
                                             b
                                      .
                                             8
                                      3400                         3000
                                                         24000   3000
                                                           b      b8


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                               28
                      :           (1   0            )                                     •
                                           :
                                       T




                                                                                          •

                              .



                                               .(                                             )
                                                    (                )1       0
                                                                          .




      .
                                                            .(Bits by Second)


                 )                                      .
                                                                                      (
                                                                                  .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               29
                                                          :
                                                                  •
                                                      :       o

                                                              o
                                                                  •
                                                                  •




                                          .




        :


                    .                                             •
                                      (           )

                                              .                   •


                                                              .




        :


                    .                                             •
                                      (           )

                                              .                   •


                                                              .

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                   30
                                                              :


                                                 :

                                                                                             :               .1
                                                                                                         o
                                                     150          120         100                        o
                                                                                                         o
                                                                                             :               .2
                                                                          :                              o




                                                                                         :       .
                                                                                                     :       •
                                                                                                 :           •


                                                                                         :
              Alcatel   ATT Cat 5               U.T.P                                                        •
                                      INTERCO        ACOME          INRA+           F.T.P                    •
                                                                    ITT       S.F.T.P :                      •
                                                           IBM Type 1          S.T.P :                       •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                               31
                                         :

                                                                                                   :                   .3
                                                                                                                   o
                                                     150           120       100                                   o
                                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                   :                   .4
                                                                         :                                         o




                                                                                       :                   .
                                                                                                               :       •
                                                                                                           :           •


                                                                                       :
       ) ATT Cat 5             (               ) U.T.P                                                                 •
                                                                             Alcatel       (
                     INTERCO       ACOME           INRA+       (                 ) F.T.P                               •
                                             ITT     (                       ) S.F.T.P :                               •
                                      IBM Type 1           (             ) S.T.P :                                     •


                                                                   :


                                         :


                                                                                                       :               •
                                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                                   o
                                                                                               :                       •
                                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                                   o


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                         32
                                          3.5




                                 .

                                      .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l             33
                                      500        150       100
                                        3000




                                10000/1000/100       10   1000/100




                                                 :


                     .


                         .


                                                                     .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                      34
                   .
                                                                       :

                                                  (64 48 24 16 12 8)               •
                                                         LED                       •
                                                                                   •
                                                                                   •




                                                                           :


                                                                       .
                                              .

                       .


                                      .




                               (              )
                                          .
                                                                                   .
                                                     .



                                                                               :


                               .                                   RJ45



       ISO 11801
                           :                                   –


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                    35
                                                                        •
                                                                        •



                                                                    :
                                                                        •
                                                                        •
                                                                        •
                                                                        •
                                                                        •
                                                                        •
                                 RJ45           )                       •
                                                                (
                             (                      )                   •
                                                                        •




               (                        )


                                                            .


                                                            .

                                            :
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                                                                            •
                                                                        o
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                                                        :
                                                                            •
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                                                                            •

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                         36
                   )
                                                                                           (
                                               .



                                                                                   .

                                       :


                                                           :                                       •
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                                                   .
                       .                                       :                                   •
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                                                                   :                           o
                                                           .
 .                                         .


                                           :


                                   .
                                                                           :
      3                                                                                    o
                                                                       .       5
                                                                                           o
                           .
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      .1                                       .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                37
                                               :
                    :                 .                                                •
                                                                       :           o

                                                                           :       o
                                                                                       •
                                                                                   o

                                                                                   o
                                                                                       •
                                                               .




        P                                          ‫ﺏ‬                           P
                        ‫ﻡ زع‬                                       ‫ﻡ زع‬
        P                                                                      P

        P                                  ‫ﻥ‬       ‫ﺏ‬                           P
                        ‫ﻡ زع‬                                       ‫ﻡ زع‬
        P                                                                      P
        P                                 ‫ﺏ أول‬                                P
                        ‫ﻡ زع‬                                       ‫ﻡ زع‬
        P                                                                      P

                                      ‫م‬   ‫ﻡ زع‬                     ‫ﻡ زع‬
                ‫ﺏ أر‬



                                                       :           .

     :                   (                                 )
     www.3M.com
     www.dlink.com




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                        38
                                              :        •




                                                  .a
                                                  .b
                                                  .c

                                :                      •

                                                  o


                                                  o
                                                  o


                                          :            •
                                      :




                                              :        •
                                                  .d
                                                  .e
                                                  .f

                                :                      •
                                                  o




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                        39
                                                                           o
                                                                           o


                                Telephone

                                Local Loop

                                End Office

                                Toll Office

                                Intermediate Switching Office

                                Toll Connecting Trunk

                                Very High bandwidth Intertoll Trunck




                                      ADSL ISDN              :


  :




                                Computer

                                Local Loop (analog twisted pair)
                                                                       (       )
                                Modem

                                Codec
                                                                           /
                                End Office

                                Toll Office



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                40
                                 Medium-bandwidth trunk (digital, fiber)
                                                                                 (             )
                                 Medium-bandwidth trunk (digital, fiber)
                                                                                     (             )
                                 ISP

                                 Digital Line

                                 Up to 10000 Local Loop
                                                                                                           10000
                                 Modem Bank




                Modem :                    .
                                                       .DEModulate                           MOdulate



                                                                                                       .
                                                                                                                   .



 .
                                       .


                                                                    .
            .                                                                            .




 33.600)        /    33                                         .       /   56                                         •
                                                                                                       (      /


                                       V.34                                                                            •
                                                                                                   /          35


                          V.34                 "                        "                V.90                          •


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                        41
                                         /       56


                                                                                                                                        •
                      V.90                                                                                  V.34


     .       /             56                                      .
                                                          .(           /   33.600)       /        33
                 .(        /        128)                                                                                      ISDN



                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                 .(Control-S)
                                                                                                                              .(Control-Q)
                                             .                                                                                    .




                                                      (                     33600    )       /          33.6
         .             /            35                                                                                                  V.34


                                                                                                        V.34           V.90
         .       /             56


                               ."                              "             V.90                      .(                                    )




                                                                                                                   .      /           33.6
                                                                                                                   V.34
                                                                                                                                  .V.90




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                              42
 56.000)           /          56
                                                                                                                                                      .(          /
                                                                                                                      .(       /           )          /


              )                                             "                  "
          .                                                                                    :                                                              (


                                  10BaseT                Ethernet
                                                                                                                                                   Categoty-5
                                                                                                                           .       /          10


                                                                "                                        "
                                                                                                                               .

                                                                    ISDN

      )                                                                    /                   144                                         ISDN
                                                                                                                .                              (Telco


                                  :                             /          144
 16                                                   .(Bearer) B                                                     /            64
                                                                                                                    .(Data) D                                 /

              .Directory Number                        DN                                                                                         B
                           .Bonding   "           "                                            /          128                                 B

 NT1) Network Terminator                                                                                                               ISDN
              B              .D                   B                                        /             144                                              (
                       .                                            ISDN                                             D

                                              "                                        "           BRI         D           B
 64 D             B          23 :             ISDN                                                       .2B+D
                                          "                                        "               PRI                                                        /
                                                                                                                                        .BRI


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                                                   43
                                                                     (           )
                 .RS-232                                                                              /        64
                                                 /     64            ISDN
                           .     /           38.4                                                              ISDN


                                         ISDN                                                     ISDN
                                                                                                  .
                                                         .AppleTalk                  IPX          TCP/IP
    ISDN                                                                                   ISDN
                                                                         .


                                ISDN
                                                                 "       "                            .
                                                                                                               ISDN
                                                                                                               .


                                                            ADSL


                                     .                                          ADSL
                                                                                                           :
                    /          8 1.5                         Downstream                                            •
                                             /        640 16                                                       •
                                                                                 POTS                              •


                                                             :               Downstream
                                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                                   •


             .
                                         :           ADSL




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                    44
                                            5.5                      0.5                          /        2 1.5
                                            4.6                      0.4                          /        2 1.5
                                            3.7                      0.5                              /      6.1
                                            2.7                      0.4                              /      6.1



                                                                                                                 .
                                   .                                                          ADSL
                                                                                                                                :
                        /       8 1.5                    Downstream                                                                     •
                                        /         640 16                                                                                •
                                                                                                          POTS                          •
                            POTS                                                     ADSL                            POTS
                                                                                                                                .ADSL


 2        1.5                                                                                               ADSL
                                                                 .         /             16                                         /
      /         9                                    .       /                 640                                          /               6.1
                                                                                     .        /            640


                                                         :                           Downstream
                                                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                                                        •
                .


                    .




                                                                                              .
                            .

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                               45
                                              .




                                                                                               .



                                                                             .

                                    .
                                                      .
        .                                         .




                            ‘
               ) DSL       Digital Subscriber Line
                                                                        .(


                                                          :
                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                   •



                                    .                               :




                                         Microwave                                   .
   .                   /            56                                           /       1.5


                                "                         :MMDS –                                  •


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                    46
             .                                                                                      "


                          "                                  :LMDS                                          •
             .                                                              MMDS                        "




             :
                                                             .
                                                                 :                              .


                                  GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit)
                                                                     22238 :                o
                                                   0.5           0.25       :               o
                                                                                    :       o
                                                         155Mbps                        :   o


                                       MEO (Middle Earth Orbit)
                                                                      8000 :                o
                                                                       0.1 :                o
                                                         (              )           :       o
                                                         38.4Mbps                       :   o


                                          LEO (Low Earth Orbit)
                                                1000                 400        :           o
                                                                      0.05 :                o
                                                         (              )           :       o
                                                         155Mbps                        :   o




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             47
                                                                          :



                                                                          :
                                                  OSI
                                      Fire Wire CompactFlash USB PCMCIA
   IRQ
                                        /
                               .


                                                                                      :

                                        .


                                                                              :
                                                               :
                                                                                          •
                                                                                          •
                                                                                  o
                                                                                  o
                                                                                  o


                                                            PCMCIA
                                                                USB
                                                        CompactFlash
                                                            Fire Wire
                                                                                  o
                                                                                  o

                                                                                          •
                                                                                  o
                                                                                  o
                                                                                  o
                                                                        IRQ o


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                           48
                                                                                               o
                                                                                   /           o
                                                                                               o
                                                                                                       •
                                                                                                       •
                                                                                               o
                                                                                                       •
                                                                                                       •
                                                                                                       •
                                                                                                       •


                                                ‫ا‬    ‫ﺏ ت وا‬
                                      Network Interface Cards NICs


           .                                                               :NICs                       •


                      OSI                                                                              •

                                            (                          ) NICs                          •
                            .
   .


           (Data Link)                          (Physical)                                             •
                                                                                               OSI
                                                                                       .


                                                                                           .

                                                    ‫ا‬   ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ ت وا‬
                                                            -1

                                        :                              :NICs                           •
                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                   o


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                        49
                                                                                                                             o
                                                                                                                             o

         :                                                                                                                        •
                                                                            (                                )               o
                                                            (                           100        )                         o
                                                                                    (SC        RJ-45         )               o
                                                                (PCI            )                                            o
     Intel IBM D-Link Adapter 3Com :                                                                                 )       o
                                                  (Western Digital                  SMC Netgear Linksys SMC

                                          .

                                                    ‫ا‬  ‫ت وا‬            ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ‬
                                   (Internal Bus Standards)            ‫ر ا اﺥ‬            ‫ی ا‬        -2

                           .                                                                                         :            •

                                                            :                                                            :        •
                                                                           :(       )                                        .1
                                                                                               (                 )           .2

 .                                                                                                       :                        •
                                                        (Expansion Slots)
                                                    .
                                                                                          .(Expansion Cards – Boards)

                                                                                                                     :            •
                               )
                                                                                                   .(

                                                                                                                         :        •
                      .(              )             (                  )
                  8
              .       32       16
                                              .   128                       64
                                                        .
 .                                                                                                       :                        •


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                   50
                                                  (Expansion Slots)
 .
                              (Expansion Cards - Boards)


                                                                       .


                                               ‫ا‬   ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ ت وا‬
                              (Peripheral Bus Standards)     ‫را‬       ‫ی ا‬        -3
                                                       -1

                                                                                          :               •
                                                                                    :
                                                                                     PCMCIA           o
                                                                                          USB         o
                                                                                 CompactFlash         o
                                                                                      Fire Wire       o

  .                                                                                                       •

                                                                                                          •
               ) PCMCIA
      (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
                 .Fire Wire      CompactFlash    (Universal Serial Bus                            ) USB

                                                                                                          •



                                                        .


                                              ‫ا‬    ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ ت وا‬
                              (3Peripheral Bus Standards)       ‫را‬         ‫ی ا‬     -
                                              PCMCIA -2

 Personal Computer Memory Card )                                                              PCMCIA      •
                                                                       :(International Association
                                                                                                  .

                                          1989                                                            •
               PCMCIA         (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                           51
                   PCMCIA


             PCMCIA


                                                                                                 .


                                              ‫ا‬   ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ ت وا‬
                             (Peripheral Bus Standards)     ‫را‬            ‫ی ا‬   -3
                                                USB -3

                                                   :(Universal Serial Bus)                           USB    •
                                  .

                                                (Universal Serial Bus)                        USB           •
                     USB               .
                                                                                                     1995
                     .
                         .                                                             1998

                                              ‫ا‬   ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ ت وا‬
                             (Peripheral Bus Standards)     ‫را‬            ‫ی ا‬   -3
                                              Fire Wire- 4

                                                           :                                  :Fire Wire    •
                                                                                                     o
                   (Bus Topology)                                                                    o
 IEEE                                                              Fire Wire             apple              •
                         Macintosh                                       .IEEE 1394       1995
                                            .
                                                                           Fire Wire                 o
                         .
 Bus )                                                                                               o
      Fire Wire              .daisy chain                                          – (Topology
             4.5                                     63
                                            .72
                                              ‫ا‬   ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ ت وا‬
                             (Peripheral Bus Standards)     ‫را‬            ‫ی ا‬   -3


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             52
                                      CompactFlash -5

                                                                                     :CompactFlash   •
                                                                                    :
                                                                                               o
                                                                                CompactFlash
                                                           CompactFlash                        o

  (CFA            ) CompactFlash                                                                     •
                                                                                   CompactFlash


                                                                                               o
                                                                             CompactFlash
                                                           CompactFlash                        o


                                                                                    PCMCIA

                                              ‫ا‬   ‫ت وا‬    ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ‬
                            (On-board NICs)        ‫ا‬          ‫ا‬   ‫ت وا‬       ‫4-ﺏ‬

                                                                         :                           •
              .                                                     (on-board ports)

                                                                                                     •



                                                                                                     •


                                                                                                     •
         (on-board ports)


                                                                                                     •



                                                                                                     •


                                            ‫ا‬     ‫ت وا‬    ‫أﻥ اع ﺏ‬
                              (Wireless NICs)         ‫ا‬      ‫ا‬    ‫ت وا‬       ‫5-ﺏ‬

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                      53
                                           (                      )                                        •
                                                                                  .



                                                ‫ا‬       ‫وا‬        ‫ﺏ‬   ‫ﺕ‬
                                                             -1

                                                                          :                                •
                                                                                                       o
                                                                                                       o
                                                                                                       o
                                               ROM
                                                         .

                                                                                                           •
                                                                                                       .
  (                                   )(                ) ROM


               )
                                      EEPROM            ROM                                   (
                       .(Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

                                               ‫ا‬        ‫وا‬      ‫ﺏ‬     ‫ﺕ‬
                                               ‫د‬    ‫ا‬        ‫2-ﺕ آ‬

                                :                                                         :                •
                                                                              :                        o
                                                                                                  .1
                                                                                                  .2
                                                                                                  .3
                                                    .                                             .4


                                                                      :                                o
                                                                              .


                       .                                                              :                    •

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                            54
                                          :                                                     •
                                                                 :                          o
                                                                           :
                                                                                   .1
                                                                                   .2
                                                                                   .3
                                                                                   .4


                                                             :                              o
     CompactFlash USB PCMCIA
                                                                       Fire Wire


                                                                                                •




                                      ‫ا‬        ‫وا‬   ‫ﺏ‬     ‫ﺕ‬
                                              ‫ی ا‬    ‫3- ا‬

                                                        :(Device Driver)                        •
                                                                                        .


                                                                                                •
                                                        .


                               RAM                                                              •
                                               .

                                                    (Device Driver)                             •
                                                                               .
                                                         .


                                                                                                •
                                                        .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                 55
                               RAM                                                                      •
                                                       .

                                              ‫ا‬   ‫وا‬       ‫ﺏ‬        ‫ﺕ‬
                                 (Interrupt Request)            ‫ا‬           IRQ -4


                                                                                                        •
                                                                                              IRQ

                                                                                  (Interrupt)           •



                    (IRQ Number)                                            IRQ                         •



                                                           15       0                         .
                                           11   10 9


                                                                                           BIOS         •


                                                                                       .
                                                                                   :
                                                                                                    o
                                                                                                    o
                                       (                   USB          )                           o
                                                                                                    o


                                                                                                    o
                                                                                                    o




                                             ‫ا‬   ‫وا‬  ‫ﺏ‬              ‫ﺕ‬
                                      (Memory Range)                         5


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                         56
 (NIC)                (CPU)                                                  :(Memory Range)                           •
                                                                                             .


                          (High Memory Area)                                                                           •
                                                                                    .A000-FFFF

                                                                            :(Memory Range)                            •
                               .                        (NIC)                   (CPU)
                           .
                                                        .


                          (High Memory Area)                                                                           •
                                                                                    .A000-FFFF
                                          .3Com PC                                                       C8000-C9FFF


                                                ‫ا‬  ‫وا‬               ‫ﺏ‬    ‫ﺕ‬
                                   (Base I/O Port)                ‫6- ﺏ اﺏ ا ﺥ /ﺥ ج ا‬

                                                                                             /                         •
       /
                                                                                                              .


               /                                                                                                       •
                                                                                                          .

                                                ‫ا‬       ‫وا‬         ‫ﺏ‬       ‫ﺕ‬
                                            ‫ا‬       ‫ا‬        ‫وا‬        ‫7 - اﺥ ر ﺏ‬

                                                                                         :                             •
                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                     .


  .                                                                                 (2               )                 •
                                                                                                                       •


                                      .


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                        57
                                      .




                                                                 On-board CPU


                                                                    DMA
                                                                              LED
                                                                                  )
                                                                          (


                                                                (dual channels)


                                                                (load balancing)




                                                                Look Ahead




                                                                       (SNMP)
                                                       .




                                                                    RAM


                                                                RAM Buffering
                                                                    ROM


                                          (Repeaters) ‫رات‬   ‫ا‬

                                                                              •


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                   58
                                                                                                     OSI




                               .                                                           .


                                                                                                            •
 Data )
                                                                                   .           (Stream
                                                                              .(Bus Topology)


                                                                                                            •
    .                                  .
                                               ( Hubs)
                                                                                  (Hub)                     •
        .OSI                                                              .
                    .
                                                         uplink
                                                     Ethernet                                    .
 Multistation )                                                               .
                                                                  .MAUs                (Access Points


                                                                                                            •
                                       .
               .        (Collision Domain)          (Bandwidth)


                   Ethernet                                (Collision Domain)                               •
                                           .

                                   :                                                                        •
                           .                                                                           .1
                                                                                                       .2
                                                                     .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             59
                                              (Hubs)


                                                                                          :
                                                            :
      .                                                           :(Passive Hubs)                      .1
                                                            :(Intelligent Hubs)                        .2
                                          .
                                      .                                        (Managed Hubs)
                                                         :(Standalone Hubs)                            .3
                                                 .
                 .
                                               .(Workgroup Hubs)
          .                                                       (Single Point of Failure)
                                                     :(Stackable Hubs)                                 .4


                        .


                                                                           .

                                          (Bridges)
                                                                                   :(Bridges)               •
                MAC
                                  .OSI          (Data Link)                                       .


                                                                                              .

                                                                               :                            •
                                                                                                      .1
                                                                          .
                                                 .



                              .
 .                                                     Ethernet                                       .2


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             60
         .
     )                                                                                                .3
                                                                           .(

                             MAC                                                                           •
                                                       :
                                                                                                      o
                                                                                           .
                                                                                                      o
                                                                   .            (          )


 (Filtering Database)                                                                                      •
                                                                                         MAC
                                                               .

                                                 (Switches) ‫ت‬          ‫ا‬


 .                                                                                                         •
                                   OSI           (Data Link)
             MAC                                           .
                                             .
                               .


                                                                                                           •


                                         .


                                                                                                           •
                                                                                        (LANs)
                                                                                    .
                                                                                                 .1
                                                                       .
                                                                                                 .2
                                                      .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                            61
                                             .


       (Buffer)                                                               •


                    .

                                      (Routers) ‫ت‬     ‫ا‬

                                  .                                           •
                                                              WAN       LAN
                                                                    .


                                                                              •


                                                 .


                        OSI                 (Network Layer)                   •
                         .


                                                                              •


                              .


                                                                        .




                                      (Gateways) ‫ا اﺏ ت‬

                                                                              •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                               62
                                                        .OSI
                                       .


                                                                                                       •


                                           .

     _________________________________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                          :
                                                                                              TCP/IP


                                                                                          :
                                                                              .


                                                                                                  :
                             TCP/IP
                                                                                  .


                                                                                              :
                                                                          :
                                                                                                       •
                                                                      TCP/IP                           •
                                                               IP       MAC           :                •
                                                                                                       •
                                                                                                       •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                        63
                                                                                                                RFC            •


          TCP/IP                      "               ARPANET                                "          RFC 871                •



      Windows Mac-OS Linux/Unix                                                                  TCP/IP                        •


                                                                                    (Internet Protocol) IP                     •


 IP                                                                    UDP                        TCP                          •



                                              "                             "                                     RFC
             "(DOD)                       "   "TCP/IP              "                                                  .



                 TCP/IP                           "           ARPANET                                   "       RFC 871
                   ARPANET                                    1982                                                        .
                                                          .
      .                       "           ARPANET              "                                    ARPANET
                                  :                                                  TCP/IP
                                                                                "        "                                     •
                                                                                                    "       "                  •


                                          TCP/IP                                                   TCP/IP
             .                                                                        Windows Mac-OS Linux/Unix


 IP                       .                                             TCP/IP
                                                                                                                 (Internet Protocol)
  (User Datagram Protocol) UDP                          (Transmission Control Protocol) TCP
                      .                                                IP


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                    64
                                                          TCP/IP



                                                                                 X Widget
                                                                             X-Windows             ‫ت‬           ‫ا‬
              Telnet REXEC FTP LPR SMTP Talk TFTP NFS DNS SNMP RouteD Kerberos     RPC
                               LPD




                                TCP                      UDP                                           ‫ا‬

                                           IP & ICMP                   RIP ARP RARP
                                                                                                   ‫ا ﺏ‬

                                Token Ring, Ethernet, PC Network, Serial Line                              ‫ا‬
                                                                                                       ‫ی‬       ‫ا‬



                                              .                                                            TCP/IP
 .                                                                  TCP/IP
                                 .                                               TCP/IP

                                                  .                                      TCP/IP
                                                                                            :RFC
      (Transmission Control Protocol) TCP                       (User Datagram Protocol) UDP                        •
                                     UDP
                                                                           TCP
                       (               RFC793 RFC768)
              (RFC791)                                                      (Internet Protocol) IP                  •
         IP                                           (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP                      •


                                                                                             (RFC792)
                           IP                               (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP                       •
                                                                                             (RFC823)

                                                  (OSI                             ) ISO                   TCP/IP
                                                                     OSI


                                                                                             .

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                     65
                            UDP                TCP                       :


                            .
                       .
                                                            :                                           UDP TCP


                                                UDP                                            TCP
                                      (User Datagram Protocol)                    (Transmission Control Protocol)
                                                UDP                                            TCP
                                          .
                                                                                                                   .
                                                                UDP                 :
                                                                    .


                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                  TCP
                                                                                    .
                                                    .
                                                UDP                                                      TCP
                                                                .
                                                                                        .


                                      .                                                             .




                                                                        5%                               TCP
                                              UDP                                           .
                                2000-                       7% 1997-1998
                                                                          .1999




                                                                        UDP                             UDP             TCP
                                                        .                                                .TCP


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                           66
                     :       TCP


                                                                            FTP                   21
                                                                            Telnet                23
                                                                            SMTP                  25
                                                                            Web                   80
                                                                            POP-3                110


                                                                            NNTP                 119


    .                                  .
                                      ."          "           IP                UDP TCP


                         .                                         16
                                      (web)           (FTP)                     (email)
                                           1024
                .(                                                                   ).




            .                                                                 Windows                  .1


                                                                        :                              .2
                                                                                      TFTP     .i
                                                                                     IMAP4     .ii
                                                                                      Finger   .iii
                                                                                      Telnet   .iv




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                         67
                                                                                                                                              :
                                                                                                                      TFTP (69)        .i
                                                                                                                    IMAP4 (110)        .ii
                                                                                                                     Finger (79)       .iii
                                                                                                                      Telnet (23)      .iv




              .                                                                     "         "                                                   •
                                                                                                                    .
                                                                     "      "                                                          o
                                                          "              " IP                                                          o
                                                              "    " TCP                                                               o
                                                                                "                  "                                   o


                                                                                                                                                  •
                               ."       "                                               "                  "                          .




          Ethernet                              IP                       UDP                                                       (CRC)
               14 bytes                         20 bytes                   8 bytes                              100 bytes                  4 bytes

                                                                                            (108 bytes) UDP
                                                         (128 bytes) IP
                                                                                (146 bytes) Ethernet



                                            .        8                                                         (byte) "        "                  •
                                    .                    (octet)                RFC
                       .                                                                               "        "
                                                                                                                                       .
                                                     .                                                                    .

                  "        "                                                                       .
        , "           " TCP                                          "                      " IP
    .                               "            "                                      .              "                      " UDP


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                                   68
        Ethernet          IP                      UDP      TCP     )
 .                                                                                          (
        .                            .
  ."        "


        Ethernet           .                            Ethernet              UDP
                                                                                                          "       "
                IP              IP                  Ethernet                                 .
                                          .                                  UDP                         UDP


                                          .   8                                         (byte) "    "
                                              .             (octet)               RFC


                                                   UDP


                                      :                                                            UDP
                                                             (Source Port)                                    •
                                                    (Destination Port)                                        •
                                                                         (UDP Length) UDP                     •
                                              .(UDP checksum)                                                 •


                                                                              :         UDP




                     :                                                            UDP
                                                             (Source Port)                                    •
                                                    (Destination Port)                                        •
                                                                         (UDP Length) UDP                     •


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                   69
                                            (UDP checksum)                                     •


                                               TCP


                         :                                                               TCP
                                                       (Source Port)                           •
                                               (Destination Port)                              •
                                                     (Sequence Number - SEQ)                   •
        (Acknowledgement Number - ACK)                                                         •
                                                      (TCP Header Length) TCP                  •
   (        ... RST                   SYN                FIN           ACK     )               •
       (Window Size) (                 )                 TCP                                   •
                                            (TCP checksum)                                     •


                                                                        :          TCP




                         :                                                               TCP
                                                       (Source Port)                           •
                                               (Destination Port)                              •
                                                     (Sequence Number - SEQ)                   •
        (Acknowledgement Number - ACK)                                                         •
                                                      (TCP Header Length) TCP                  •
   (        ... RST                   SYN                FIN           ACK     )               •

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                70
    (Window Size) (                      )                  TCP                             •
                                              (TCP checksum)                                •


                                               TCP




                                                                                                 .a
                                                                                                 .b


                                                      :                         TCP
       ACCEPT        LISTEN :                                                                   .1
                             :                 CONNECT                                          .2
 ACK            (1       )       SYN                  TCP
                                       SEQ                                .(0         )
                                             LISTEN                                             .3
                                  (1                      RST     ) RST               TCP


                                                                                                .4
                                             ACK                            .


                                                                                                .5


                                                                                                .6


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                   71
                                                                                                                               :
               (                                         )
                                         (                           )
                                                                                                                           .
                                                         TCP


                                                             .                                                   TCP
                   :(                           )
                                     (                   FIN                              ) FIN                                    .1
                    FIN                              ACK                                              FIN                          .2
                          (                                                       )
                                                                                      ACK                                          .3




                                                                                                                                        •

                                                                 "            "                                                         •

                        (10Gb/s 1Gb/s 100Mb/s 10Mb/s) Ethernet                                                                          •
                                                                                                                           IEEE

                                                                                                                               :
                                  Charles Spurgeon               www.host.ots.utexas.edu/internet
                                                                                                        .Ethernet

                              .
                                                     .
                                                                                                                       .

 :Ethernet                                                               ."           "
               Ethernet II                   Linux                   .IEEE 802.2LLC SNAP                     Dix Ethernet II
       802.2                                 Windows             IPX                       Novell   .CISCO          UNIX
                              .                                                                       Ethernet II


                                                                                                             .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                         72
                     (10Gb/s 1Gb/s 100Mb/s 10Mb/s) Ethernet
                .                                                                                             .IEEE

                                                                                                             :
                          Charles Spurgeon               www.host.ots.utexas.edu/internet
                                                                                            .Ethernet




                      .                                                                                            •
                                           :(MTU) "                   "


                             MTU
                                      1492)        1500                          Ethernet
                                              (802.2
                             512                                          PPP
                                                       576


                                    4500           1500                          (T1, T3)


                                                                 TCP/IP                            IP              •
                                                                                                    .
                            .
       "                                                              .         1500                    Ethernet
                                           :MTU                                                 (MTU) "


                             MTU
                                      1492)        1500                          Ethernet
                                              (802.2
                             512                                          PPP
                                                       576


                                    4500           1500                          (T1, T3)




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                    73
                                                                   TCP/IP                               IP
                                                                                                                 .
                                                                               .
                                                               .


                                TCP                      .
                                UDP
                                                   .                               IP




                                                                                             ping
                                       .(                                          )


                                                                       ping


                    (       32)
                                                                                                    .


                                                                                                             :
                                      Ping –l size –f target_address


                                      (1) IP


                                            .                                                IP
                                                                       .


                        :                                                  .            IP
                                                                                                                     •


                                                                                                                     •
                            .                                                                                        •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                      74
                                                                                            IP
                                                                            .


                                               (2) IP


 :IP
                                                                                                 .


        "           "(                                       )
                                                                                    .


                                                                    .
                                                                                        .


                                                  IP
                                                                        .
                                                                                                      big-endian     •
                                                                                                     little-endian   •


                                                                                                                 :
                .                RFC 791                ."       " IP                            IP                  .1
                     .
                                                                   .


                                                                                                                     .2
                         (             )                                                    .
                                           .


 :IP
            .                                                                                    .
                             .                                                  .
                                                                            .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                       75
    (              )
                                  .                 IP                            IP


                                                                                                .
        ."             "(                                    )
             .OSI                                                         "            "
                               ."                    "


                                      .
                                      .
                              .


                                               IP
                                                                      .
                             .big-endian                          .


                                          IP                     .little-endian                          .
                                                                                       .




               .
                                                                                                    :
                                                                 (Medium Access Control) MAC                     •
                                                                                                        IP       •
                                                                                                                 •


                                                                      MAC
                                                         .                                 IP                .
                                                                                                                 .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                  76
                                             MAC


                                                    :
                                                                      6             Ethernet                •
                                                6                             Token Ring                    •


                                                                      :         6            Ethernet
                                                                                                            •
                                                                                                            •


                                                                                                        :
                                             :                                                              •
 http://www.iana.org/assignements/ethernet-numbers
                                     3COM                     .                     Ethernet                •
                                                                                    .


                                                 MAC                                        .3COM
                                                                          .
                 Ethernet                           .
                 .          6                             Token Ring                    .                       6
                                             (point to point networks)
                                                                                                    .


                                                                  :            6             Ethernet
                                         .
                                .

 RFC1700                                            RFC
 www.iana.org/numbers.htm :             .Assigned Numbers                                               1994
                                                          .


                            .                                                 Ethernet
 .                                                                    .
                                    .


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                 77
                                                             IP


     (   32)         4           IP                                                                           IP
                                                 .                                        IP                       .


                                      .TCP/IP                                                  IP
                   ARP                   (                                                                                          )
                                                                  .


 Windows                 Linux               .                                                       IP
                   yahoo.com                                           IP
                                                                                                       .216.115.105.245
                                             .NIS                                   DNS                                     hosts
                                             .                                                 .IP


                                                                                                                        :
                                                                      IP
                                                         .                                                                  .




                         .
                                                                                                              .TCP/IP


               "             "                                        ."        "             TCP/IP
                                                     .


                                                                            .
                                                                                          .


                                                                                     :                    "        "
                                                                                                                                •
                                                                                                                                •



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                     78
                                      :
                                                                                                                     •


                                                  .                                                                  •



                .
                                              .                                                      TCP/IP


                            .                                                                                        .


         A             ":                                         "       "                       TCP/IP
                                          "           "                                                    ."C
                                                                                  .


                                                                      .
     .                                                                                        .
                                "
                                                                                      .             (network unreachable)


                                                                              :                             "    "
                                                                                                                     •
                                                                                                                     •


                                      :
                                                              .                                                      •
         .                                                .



                                                  .                                                                  •
                                                                                          .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                         79
                            .


                         (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP


                                             .           IP


 ." 128.138.116.4                                                                  "                                     ARP
                    Ethernet                                  IP               "
                                                                                                              ."8:0:20:0:fb:6a


                                                                    Ethernet               IP
                                .                                    ARP                                      .ARP
                                                     .
           .                                                                           .        IP
                                                                                           .Ethernet


                        ARP                      Ethernet                      B                          A
                                    A            A                                     B             .B
                 ARP                     .                                             ARP                    B
           .


                     ARP                                           ARP
       .                                ARP                                                                          .


 ." 128.138.116.4                                                                  "                                     ARP
                    Ethernet                                  IP               "
                                                                                                              ."8:0:20:0:fb:6a


                                                                    Ethernet               IP
                            .                                       ARP                                       .ARP
 ARP                    .
                                                                                                .         ARP




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                              80
                               (RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)


                                    .IP
                                     (                                                                    )"          "
       .                                                                         IP
                                                          .                ARP                  RARP


                                                     .                             RARP             ARP
 –RARP                                           –                         .Ethernet       IP
                                                                                                                  rarpd


                          DHCP                                Bootp                        RARP
                                                                                                          .



  IP       )                                                                                    arp
                                .                    ping                                           .(MAC


                                                                                                              :
                                                                                                :
                                                         arp –a


                                               ICMP
                                             (ICMP redirects)


                .ICMP                                                                      IP
                           .


                                      .
                          ":                                            .ICMP
                                            ."                    yyy                               xxx


                   .                                                                      ICMP



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                       81
                                                                                  (            )
                                                                                                   .              –


                                                                         .                             ICMP
                                                                                      .
                    (                     ) Linux
                    (                 )                                                   .(                          ) CISCO
                                                                                                                      .


                                               ICMP
                                             (ICMP redirects)




                                                                             ICMP                                         .1
                                                                     MTU                                                  .2


                                                    (                         )                                           .3
             (          )                                (           )
                 .(IP2, MAC2)                           (IP1,MAC1)                                            .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                             82
                                                                            :
                                                                                                   IP


                                                                                      :
                                                                        .


                                                                                                   :
                            .                IP
                                         .


                                                                                          :
                                                                    :
                                                                                IP                      •
                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                        •




    "                 " :           IP            .   32                                  IP
                                                                                 ."                         "


               "                "                               :                             IP
                                                           ."               "


    "                 " :           IP            .   32                                  IP
                                                                                 ."                         "



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             83
                            .IP

                   "                  "                                                               :                                  IP
      "                                                          "                "         ."                             "
                                                                      .                                                                        "
                             .                                                                                     .

                       .
               .            IP                                                                   IP

                                                                 IP

                                     ."1"       "0"                                     32                                 IP

                                                                              :
                                                00001010110000000011100000100101
                                                                          .                                                     10.192.56.37

                                                      .


                                                                                                          ‫ا‬



                                                      IP A d ress =                             t. x. y. z
      127.0.0.1                           "               "                       127                         IP
                                                                                           ."                          "

                            ."1"              "0"                                     32                               IP
                       IP
                                                    .IP                   8

                                          "7"                   "0"                                                –
 :                                                                            .                   "16"                            "8"
          IP                     .                            10.192.56.37                      00001010110000000011100000100101
                                                                                        128.138.240.1 :
                                                                                                                                                   .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                                    84
                             "          "                         127                    IP
        "                                       127.0.0.1                       .
                                                                                                                  ."




                .E D C B A :


        "              " )                                  D               .                       C B A
                                                                        .                           E             .(


                                                            .IP




                  Class A                                               Class B
                                            ‫ﺵ‬                                                   ‫ﺵ‬             ُ

                                                                                [128-191].[1-255].y.z
                                     [1-127].x.y.z
                  Class C                                                           Class D
                                                                                    (Diffusion Group)
                                        ‫ﺵ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺵ‬
                    [192-223].[1-255].[1-255].z
                                                                                        [224-239].x.y.z

              .E D C B A :


                                                                                                                       .

                                                                            .                       C B A
   )                             D              .
                                            .                       E                      .(             "                "

                                                            .IP



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                            85
             Class A                                     Class B
                                       ‫ﺵ‬                                 ‫ﺵ‬            ُ

                                                            [128-191].[1-255].y.z
                            [1-127].x.y.z
             Class C                                         Class D
                                                             (Diffusion Group)
                                   ‫ﺵ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺵ‬
                [192-223].[1-255].[1-255].z
                                                                    [224-239].x.y.z




                              DOD                        N.H.H.H         1-126        A

                                                         N.N.H.H.      128-191        B

                                                         N.N.N.H       192-233        C

                                                                       224-239        D
                                                                       240-255        E



                                                         C B A
                                                IP                                        .
                               .
                                           IP
                                                     .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                           86
                                                                                                                        :
                                                                                   0                                             •
                                                     0.0.0.0                           0                            IP           •


     "                      "        255.255.255                                       1                            IP           •
 :        ."                                     "        1                                                        IP            •
                                                                                                    20.255.255.255
         20.0.0.0 :             ."                    "        0                                                   IP            •
                                     "                             " 127                                  IP                     •



                                                                                                                        :
               .                                                               0                                                 •
                                         .                         IP                                          IP
                                                     0.0.0.0                           0                            IP           •
                                                                               .           IP
                                                                                                0
                                             .
                   "        255.255.255                                    1                              IP                     •
                                                                                                                            ."
                                                                                                               .
          ."                                     "        1                                                        IP            •


               :        .                                                              .
                                                                                                           20.255.255.255
                       ."                    "            0                                                  IP                  •
  20.0.0.0 :                .                                                               .
                                     "                             " 127                                  IP                     •
                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                                             .


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                  87
                                                              :C B A


 16.777.214              (224 - 2)                                          127    (27 - 2)            A               •
                                         126.0.0.0 1.0.0.0                                     A               .
                    16                                                              14
 65534      (2 - 2)                                                     16383      (2 - 2)             B               •
                               191.255.0.0 128.0.0.0                                           B               .
           8                                                                        21
 254      (2 - 2)                                                    2097151      (2 - 2)              C               •
                             223.255.255.0 192.0.0.0                                           C               .


                                            C
 A                                                                                            .(   254)
                                                 .                                                                         B




  .                                                                                                .

                                                              ) 239 224
                                                                                             .(7           0

                                                             (Internet Gatway Multicast Protocol) IGMP
                .




      .                      BA                          .                        100


                         "                           "


            "                        :          IP
                                                                                        ."             "           "



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                            88
                                                                                                             :
                      H                            N         ) N.N.H.H                 B
                                                                                                         (
               256        B                                        .N.N.N.H
                                  .   254                                                    C


              BA                            .                      100
                                      .(                         65534 16777214                     )
                                                                                  .                              A


          "                   "
                                  .
      "               "                 "         :         IP
                                        "             "                                             ."
                                                                         .



                                                  .


                                            :



                                      .IP             "             "


                                                                         .   32


                                                                                                             :
                     10                     255.255.255.0                             10.15.3.154
                                                            .154                           15.3




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                  89
                                                                                                                  :

                               ‫ي‬                       ‫ﺕ‬                                   ‫ﺕ‬


            IP Address        200.20.16.5                      1101000 00010100 00001000 00000101



                Subnet        255.255.255.0                    1111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
                 Mask

                Network       200.20.16.0                      1101000 00010100 00001000 00000000



                                                                                                              :
                 IP                                                     IP
                                                                                       .


                                       ."                  "
       "               "                                                      .
                                                                                                        .IP


 IP                             ("1"             )                                32
           IP                                   ("0"            )
                                            .                                                       .




                                                                         :...... ......        IP                     .1
                                                                                                        .i
                                                               MAC                                      .ii
                                                                                                        .iii
                                                                                                        .iv




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                        90
                                                                             :IP                  .2
                                                                                      16 .i
                                                                                      32 .ii
                                                                                      48 .iii
                                                                                      64 .iv


            :(                        )                                              B            .3
                                                                                           .i
                                                                                           .ii
                                                                                           .iii
                                                                                           .iv


                                                            :172.16.10.10                         .4
                                                                                      A    .i
                                                                                      B    .ii
                                                                                      C    .iii
                                                                                      D    .iv
                                                                                      E    .v


                                                        :                                         .5
                                                            0                 32           .i
                                                            1                 32           .ii
                                                    1             16                       .iii
                                                1               16                         .iv


                                                        :                                         .6
                                                                            10.200.10.30   .i
                                                                            172.16.20.20   .ii
                                                                             255.10.10.2   .iii
                                                                               0.10.10.3   .iv


                                          :IP                    A            IP                  .7
                                                                                    25%    .i
                                                                                    50%    .ii
                                                                                   12.5%   .iii
                                                                                    75%    .iv




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                    91
                                          (1 )


                                  .              1



                                          0                   1
                                                              .
             .                                                                             1                    0

                                                                                                                    :
             255.240.255.192                                                   10.192.3.63
             .                                          10.193.3.0


                                  .              1
        :                             255.240.255.0      1                     0



                                          0                   1
                                                              .
             .                                                                             1                    0



                                          (2 )

            )"             "
                                                                  ."                   "                   ("1" "0"
                                                                                                           .

                       .                                               "           "
 255.255.0.0               B                     255.0.0.0                 A                           .
                                                             .255.255.255.0                    C


                                                                                                   .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                     92
                                         (3 )


               XX           /XX          (IP                  )
   .(classless Inter-Domain Routing) CIDR                                          .

                                                                                                                     :
                                                                                   128.138.243.0/26
 128.138.243.128 128.138.243.64                                                                             128.138.243
                                                                                                 .128.138.243.192

                                                  255.255.255.192
                        .                                                     .0                                 1


                                         128.                     138.         243.               0
                                         255.                     255.         255.             192


                                  11111111           11111111            11111111       1100 0000




                   64                 26=64               .                        (32-26=6)               /26
                   0                                                     62                            .
                                                     .(                                                )                  1

                                           ( 1)



                                                                                            :     128.138.234.0/26
                                                    :                                  6         /26                 .1
                                      Number_of_bits = 32-26=6 bits

                                    64       (              )        (Network Size)                                  .2
                                                 Number_of_bits    6
                                Network_Size = 2                = 2 =64

                                       :              256                                                            .3
                             Last_Octet= 256 – Network Size=256-64=192



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                           93
                                  :                         255.255.255.192 :                              .4
                          128.             138.                 243.             0
                          255.             255.                  255.           192


                   11111111      11111111                  11111111     1100 0000



        2             )                                                                                    .5
 10 01 00                                                                        .(         4
                                      :         /26          4     128.138.234.0/26                   11
                                                           (128.138.243.00000000) 128.138.243.0/26    •
                                                       (128.138.243.01000000) 128.138.243.64/26       •
                                                      (128.138.243.10000000) 128.138.243.128/26       •
                                                      (128.138.243.11000000) 128.138.243.192/26       •

                                                .                                                          .6

                                          (2)

            )                                          (RFC950)                                 RFC
                                                                                      .(

                  0                                               .                         RFC
                                      .

                                                       :
                                                                                                               .1
                                                                                                  .            .2
                                                            .2

                                                                                                           :
                                                      :


                                           128.138.243.63                 128.138.243.0      128.138.243.0/26
                                          128.138.243.127                128.138.243.64     128.138.243.64/26
                                          128.138.243.191               128.138.243.128    128.138.243.128/26
                                          128.138.243.255               128.138.243.192    128.138.243.192/26



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                 94
            )                               (RFC950)                                RFC
 0              :                                                    .(
                                                                                .192

                    0                                    .                     RFC


                              1
                                  .(                                                               .0

                                            :
                                                     0                                            .3
                        .                            0                                            .4
                                                .2
                                       .                                        :



                                                                 :                                 .8
                                           IP                             IP               .i
                                                                                           .ii
                                                                                           .iii
                                                                                           .iv

                        :                                                                          .9
                                                                                       1 .i
                                                                                       2 .ii
                                                                                       3 .iii
                                                                                       4 .iv

                                                     :       C                                    .10
                                                                                     253   .i
                                                                                     254   .ii
                                                                                     255   .iii
                                                                                     256   .iv




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                     95
              :C                                                                                    .11
                                                                                    2    .i
                                                                                    6    .ii
                                                                                    4    .iii
                                                                                    8    .iv

                                          :206.15.8.0/20       IP                                   .12
                                                                                 4094    .i
                                                                                 4088    .ii
                                                                                 4098    .iii
                                                                                 4096    .iv

        :                     B                                     4                               .13
                                                                         255.255.240.0   .i
                                                                         255.255.224.0   .ii
                                                                           255.255.0.0   .iii
                                                                        255.255.255.64   .iv

                                      :          6                                                  .14
                                                                                   32    .i
                                                                                   64    .ii
                                                                                   48    .iii
                                                                                  128    .iv



                     :                                     ‘
                                                                              X.Y.Z.T/26        1
                                                                              X.Y.Z.T/27        2
                                                                              X.Y.Z.T/28        3
                                                                              X.Y.Z.T/33        4
                                                                              X.Y.Z.T/34        5
                                                                                     :




                                                                                         :
                                                                                                1
                                                                                                2


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                       96
                                                                                                   3

                                                          :                                        :
                                                                4:             X.Y.Z.T/26 1
                                                                8:             X.Y.Z.T/27 2
                                                               16 :            X.Y.Z.T/28 3
                                                               32 :            X.Y.Z.T/33 4
                                                               64 :            X.Y.Z.T/34 5

                                        CIDR

 IP        "                                      IP
                                                                                          ."

           ."            "     ("         " ) (network prefix) "      "              IP



                                                                                               .

                                        10.10.0.0/16 :
                                    .

                          .


          255.255.255.255                                /32                     1
          255.255.255.252                                /30               2
          255.255.255.248                                /29               6
          255.255.255.240                                /28              14
          255.255.255.224                                /27              30
          255.255.255.192                                /26              62
          255.255.255.128                                /25              126
               255.255.255.0                             /24              254
               255.255.254.0                             /23              510
               255.255.252.0                             /22              1022
               255.255.248.0                             /21              2046




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                    97
                                                                                      :


                                                                                          .1
                           IP                                     .
 :                                              .
                                                                      .10.10.0.0 255.255.0.0


 IP        "                           IP
                                                                                 ."


                                      C B A
 "             "             IP             .
                                                ."       "   ("        " ) (network prefix)



                   .                                                                  .


                                .
                                                         .
 :                                                   .
                                                                                10.10.0.0/16
                                                                            .


                                                                                      :


                                                                                          .1
                           IP                                     .
 :                                              .
                                                                      .10.10.0.0 255.255.0.0




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                            98
                                                            IP

                                                        .                                          IP

                                             .                        CIDR
                                                                                             .



                                                                                                                .

                         B                 256 B                       16 A                  RFC1918
                                                                                                        .

                                                                 .
                                                                                             .
                                      CIDR                                                         IP
                                       10.0.0.0/8            10.255.255.255             10.0.0.0    A
                                  172.16.0.0/12              172.31.255.255           172.16.0.0    B
                                 192.168.0.0/16             192.168.255.255          192.168.0.0    C


                                                    .                                              IP
                                                                                         ‘
                                                                             .

                                             .                        CIDR



                             .
                                                                                                    .



      256 B                  16 A                   RFC1918                      .
                                                                       .                                    B
                     .

                                                                  .
                                                                                             .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                 99
                                                              .NAT




              NAT
                                                                         .

                                         .          NAT        CISCO

                                                .NAT      Linux      Windows Server

                                                           .                                NAT

                                (Network Address Translation) NAT
                                                                     .
                                                                                          NAT
                                                          .


                                                                                                    .
                                                                                .
         IP                                                                                NAT
                        .                                            .
              .


                                                                                      .
                                                .                                         NAT
  Windows                                .          NAT        CISCO
                                                                                NAT   Linux Server
                                                                                                .
                  NAT                                                                       NAT
                            .                                    .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                     100
                                           IP          1


                      :                                                          1992
                                                                                                           .1
      .                                                                                                    .2
                                            .               "                       "       IP             .3


                                                                    :
 (CIDR-Classless                                                                                           •
                                                                                   Inter-Domain Routing)
                                                           IPV6                                            •
                      :                                                          1992
               –                                                    B                                      .4
                                                                                                   1995
      .                                                                                                    .5
                                                            "                       "       IP             .6
                                            .
                          .
                                                                    :
 (CIDR-Classless                                                                                           •
                          4           IP                                          .Inter-Domain Routing)



                          IP                               IPV6                                            •
          IP                                                            16
      IP                                                                     .
                                                                .


                                                CIDR                                       IPV6
                                                  .                                               CIDR




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             101
                 .                               (InterNIC)
                                                              .            InterNIC     ARIN


                                                     :
                  (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names, & Addresses) ICANN
                          .


                                                                   www.arin.net       ARIN
                                                                  www.apnic.net       APNIC
                                                                   www.ripe.net        RIPE


                                          APNIC RIPE ARIN         ICANN
                                      .


                 .                               (InterNIC)
                                                              .            InterNIC     ARIN


                            .
                                                   .


                                                     :
                  (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names, & Addresses) ICANN
                         .



                                                                                         .ICANN


                                          APNIC RIPE ARIN         ICANN



                                                                              .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               102
                                      1.9-10-11.23

                                               .                                                 .1


       IP                                                                                        .2

                                                        :134.122.0.0/16                          .3
                                                             /19                    .i
                                                                                    .ii
                                       134.122.64.124                               .iii
                                                                                    .iv




                                                                          :
                                                                               IP


                                                                          :
                                                                .    Glossary


                                                                                         :
                                               IP
        .




                                                                               :
                                                            :
                                                                          IP                 •
                                                                                             •
                                                                                             •
                                                                                             •
                                                                                             •



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                   103
                                              1.12-13.1

                                                                                                   o



  .                                                                                                o


                        .                                                  .


      .                                                                        .
                  ."C                     A                "   "   "
                                                                       "                   "
                                                                                                   .



                                                                       .

                                  .


                                                                                                   .



                                                                                   .




                   .                                                                   (               )
                                                   .

  .

                            AND


      (    )                          (                                                        )
                                                       .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                        104
                               )
                                                                    (
                                                                              :


                                                                                                                 :


                                    20.20.20.2          255.255.255.1         20.20.20.3
                                    20.20.20.2          25.255.255.1          20.20.20.4
                                   200.200.65.24        255.255.64.0      200.200.128.0
                                200.200.128.24          255.255.128.0    200.200.129.128


                                                   IP


                                           IP                                               IP                           •



                                                                   IP                                                    •



                                                                                                                         •


                                                             "            "       "        "                             •
                                                                                                    .


                                                                                                   IP                    •



                                                                                                                     :
                                                                                      "IP               "
              .   ... AppletalK IPX                                                                         IP
                  .                                                    "IP"                    "        "


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                          105
                                                    IP                                        IP
                                                                                          .


                                                                        IP


                                                                                 .


                                IP
                                                                                                           .




          .                                              IP                  .
                        "             "   "          "                                            IP
              .                                               .


                                                                                                  IP
                                                                                              .




  "               "                                               :IP
                                                                                     ."                "


                                                                                                               •



      (                     )                                                                                  •
                                              (IP        )


                                                                                                               •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                106
                                                                                                                :


                                                                                                        .       IP
                                                         .


      "                                                      :                IP
                                                                                       ."       "               "



                                                                                            .


              (                    )
                                                    .(           IP                    )


                               .
                                                                 :


                                                                                                            .
                               .


                                                                                                    .




          :                                                           .
                                                "   "                     (        )                                •
              (            )                                                                                        •
              "        "                                                                                            •
                                                                                       (        )


                                       ."   "


                  .(                    )



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                     107
       :                                                                                      .
                                                                             "            "                        (                    )
                                                                                                      (                 )
                                                                    .(                )                                             "           "
                                                              .


                                              (       )
                   .


                                             ."           "
                                                                         .                                                              "       "
                                                                                                              .                                     "   "


              .(                             )
                            "                                     ICMP
                                                                                                                  .(network unreachable) "



                                                                                                                                :


                                                                         2        1
                                                                             B3                                             2
                                                                                                      N2                        C1
                                        1             N1
                                2
                                    A


                                                                                                                                            N3
                       N0

                                                                                                                                            3   1

                                                                                                                                            2
                                                                                                                                                G
                   2
                   D    1               N4
                                                                                                                   N6

                                                                             N5
                                                  2           1
                                                                                                          1
                                                      E                                           2
                                                                                                      F

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                                         108
                                            A,B,C, …                                              N1,N2, ...
                                                .       ... 2 1


                                                                (           )


                                                        :                                              .


                                                                                            :E



                                                                        2           1             F                N3
                                                                        4           2             D                N3
                                                                        …                         …                …
                                                                                                                   …



                                                                                            !!!


                                      !!!




                              .                                             :IP
                                                                                                               .


                                                    .
                                                                    .


                                      .                                         :


                                                            .
                                                                                        .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                     109
                                                                         :


    ) 1                                                (         )
                                                                                         ."               "(


                                           .


                                 .10.32.0.0/14              10.35.63.45

   IP Address=10.35.63.45         00001010 00100011 00111111 00101101



   Network = 10.32.0.0./14        00001010 00100000 00000000 00000000


                                                                                                          :
                     .IP


                                                                             .



                                               (                     )
                                                            ."                       " (                       ) 1
                                                                                              .


                           "                       "
                                                                                                      .


                               .10.32.0.0/14               10.35.63.45
     10.35.63.45               10.32.0.0/14                                      .
                                       .                                             "            "




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                  110
                                           Classless routing Algorithm


                                                    .IP


                                                                         .


    .                                                                         IP


                                       :
    .                                                                              :                     ←
                                                                                       :                 ←
                                                                                                 .
                  .                                                                                      ←


                                                                                                         :
                                                .
                                                                                   :




        192.168.1.1                   Ethernet0                  8.0.0.0/5                       1
        192.168.2.1              TokenRing0                     10.1.0.0/16                      2
         172.16.1.1                    Serial0                  172.0.0.0/8                      3
         10.32.1.10                   Ethernet1                 10.32.0.0/14                     4
              -                       Ethernet1                 10.32.1.0/24                     5
         10.32.1.11                   Ethernet1                 10.32.0.0/14                     6
              -                       Ethernet0               192.168.1.0/24                     7
              -                  TokenRing0                   192.168.2.0/24                     8
              -                        Serial0                 172.16.1.0/30                     9


                                                                                           6 4
                                                                                             .
                                                                                                     .


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                          111
                                              .10.35.45
                                                                                     .
 8 7 5 3                       6 4 2 1                                                                      ←
                                                                                                       .9
                          .                                    6 4                                          ←
             .                                                   6 4                                        ←


                                               10.255.5.1
                                                                                                            :
                                                 .               1                                          ←
                                                                           .1                               ←
             .192.168.1.1                        Elhernet0                                                  ←


         :                                      .9.1.1.1
                                                           .               1                                ←
                                                                           .1                               ←
                              Elhernet0                                                                     ←
                                                                                             .192.168.1.1

                                                 .IP
                                                                                                 .C B A


                                          .


                                                                                IP
                                                                 .
                 .


                                      :
 .                                                                                   :                      ←
                                                     .
                                                                       .
                                                                                         :                  ←
                      .                                                                            .


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             112
               .                                                                                 ←



                                        Classfull Routing Algorithm


   :
                            .                       IP                                           o
                   .                                                                             o



                                                            .

   :
                            .                       IP                                           o
               .                                                                                 o


                                                                .
       ) 10.0.0.0/8                                S2 S1                    H2 H1
       ) 172.16.0.0/16                     S3                       S2 S1               .(A
       S2 S1                                                          H2 H1             (B
                                    .                                                    R2 R1



                                                            .


                                                                            .




                                                                                .


                                .
                                                                                    :


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                  113
                                                                            :                                         •
                                        .                                                        IP
                                                                                    :                                 •


                                              .


                                                                 ."                 "                 .


                                                                                                                  :


                                                                        .



                                                                                             :
                                                   (per-packet load balancing) "                                      "   •
                                            (per-destination load balancing) "                                        "   •


                                                                                             :
                                                                                                                          •
       "               .                                                            .
                                                           .(per-packet load balancing) "
                                   IP                                                                                     •
               IP                                                                                             .
      (per-destination load balancing) "                                        "                .
                                                     .




                           .


      .                                               IP
                                                                                        ."                "


                               :


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                           114
                                                             "                     "                                •
              ."                        "                                                                           •
                                                                         "                 "


                        .
                                                .


          .                                                              IP
 .                                                               .
                                                                                                   ."       "


                                .
                                                                                       .
                                                    .(                         )                                    •


                   ."                       "                                                                       •
          "                 "                                                                  .




                                                     :
                                                                                                                •
                                                                                                                •



                                    .



                                                                     .



                   .                                     "                     "
                                                                             255 0
                                                                                           .(           )


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                     115
      ."                 "     "                               .
                                                                                                              :
                                              :




                                   100      192.168.1.1        Ethernet0               8.0.0.0/5          1
                                   150      192.168.2.1       TokenRing0           10.1.0.0/16            2
                                   150      172.168.1.1            Serial0         172.0.0.0/8            3
                                   200      10.32.1.10         Ethernet1          10.32.0.0/14            4
                                      0           -            Ethernet1          10.32.1.0/24            5
                                   100      10.32.1.11         Ethernet1          10.32.0.0/14            6
                                      0           -            Ethernet0         192.168.1.0/24           7
                                      0           -           TokenRing0 192.168.2.0/24                   8
                                      0           -                Serial0        172.16.1.0/30           9


           .1
                                                                             .10.32.1.0/28

                               .
                                                                                             10.32.1.0/24
                                                                      .28                                         24


                                      150
 (              )                                                                                        8.0.0.0/5
                                                          .                                        100




                         :
                                                                                                              •
                                                                                                              •
                                                                                                              •


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                    116
               .             "            "


                                                       ."                        "


                    ."                                 "


                                 ."                                "



                         .
                                                                                     :
                                                                                                             •


                                                                                                             •


                                                                                                             •



                                      .
                                                               .        "                "


                                              ."                        "
                         .
                                      .
                                                           .
                                                                   ."                        "
               ."                                  "                                                     .
                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                         .


                                      Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

                    .                                                       IP


                                                                                                     .

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                              117
   .CIDR                                                                  IP


                                                           .EGP                               CIDR
              CIDR
                                                                                   :          RFC 1519


            "Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): An address Assignment and Aggregation Strategy"


                                                                               :        RFC 1518


                                                  "Architecture for IP Address Allocation With CIDR"


                                             .CIDR                                 RFC 1812




                             .
                 .


                 .
                                                                      .




                                      :                                                          IP
                                                                                                         •
                                                                                                         •
                                                                                                         •
                                                       .


                                                 .
                                      .


                                                  ."              "

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                          118
                                                          ."               "


                        :         RFC 1122                 .
                        "Requirements for Internet Hosts Communication Layer"
                      .RFC 1812


                                      :                                             IP
                                                                                              •
                                                                                              •
                                                                                              •
                                                      .


                                                 .


                        .                                                       .


   .                                                                                     IP


                                                 ."             "
                            .


                                                                       .
                                                          .0.0.0.0/0


                                                          ."               "



                        :         RFC 1122                 .
                        "Requirements for Internet Hosts Communication Layer"
                      .RFC 1812




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               119
           WindowsXP               Windows 2000            )          route PRINT             route
                                                                                        (


                                                                                               route




                                     Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)


                                                                                            ICMP
             "             "   "     "                                              .
                                                           .


            .IP                                ICMP             .IP                     ICMP
                       .                              IP                                            ICMP


                                                                                                             :
                  ICMP                                     .                   IP            ICMP
                   .                                                                                   .IP


                                                  ICMP


                                                                       .                ICMP


                                          IP          ICMP                                     ICMP
                                                                               ..


                                   ICMP                           IP
                                                                           .


                               .ICMP                                                    ICMP


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                              120
                                                                                            :
                                                                                            (Type)              •
                                                                                        (Code)                  •
                                                                                    (Checksum)                  •


                                                                                ICMP
                                                         .    64


                                              :        RFC 792
                                     "Internet Control Message Protocol"
                                                                                        :        RFC 1700
                                            "Assigned Numbers"
                                                                            .


                               ICMP                                                         ICMP
                                                  .


                                     IP               ICMP                                         ICMP
                          .                                                         .


                              ICMP                                     IP
                                                                                .
                                                                                                            .


                                       ICMP                                                      ICMP
                                                                                                 .ICMP
                                                                                            :
                                                                   8                        (Type)              •
                                                                   8                    (Code)                  •
                                                             16                     (Checksum)                  •


                                                                                ICMP
                                                         .   64


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                 121
                                           :     RFC 792
                                  "Internet Control Message Protocol"
                                                                                :       RFC 1700
                                         "Assigned Numbers"
                                                                  .




                                                                                           :
                                                                            TCP/IP


                                                                                          :
                                                                                    .    Glossary


                                                                                                      :
                     TCP/IP
                     :TCP/IP                                                                  .
                                                                        .


                                                                                                  :
                                                                            :
                                                                                                          •
                                                                                                          •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                           122
                                                                 1.14-15.1


                     :TCP/IP
                                                                       TCP/IP                                     •
           .                                                                                                      •


                                                                                                             :



                                 .                                                          –                     .



                                                    DHCP


                         BootP                              RFC2132 RFC2131                     DHCP
                                                    .                                              UNIX


                                                                        IP       :                        BootP
       .                                                                                                         TFTP
                                                            ."     "                                 DHCP


                                      :



                                      "         !       "                                          DHCP               .1
                IP                                                                          DHCP                      .2
                     (                                                                      )
                                                                                     DHCP                             .3
                                          "DHCP                          "
                                            .                                                                         .4
                                                                             .



                                                                                                                      .5


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                        123
                                                                                                             .6


                                                                                                             .7
                                                                                                             .8
                                         (              ) DHCP                  "            !      "


                                         :



                                   .                                                         DHCP            .1
             –                                      .                                   DHCP


                                                                                    .
                                                                           DHCP                              .2
                                                                                         .
                               :                          .
                                                                                             IP         .a
                                                                            (                 )         .b
                                                                           (DNS)                        .c
                             .(RFC2132                        )                                         .d
                                                                   DHCP                       DHCP           .3
                     .
                             ) MAC                            IP                             DHCP            .4
  .                                                                                                     .(
                         )                                                                                   .5
                                                                                    .(
                 .                                                        DHCP                               .6



                                   Windows          DHCP

 DHCP                         Windows 2003 Server        Windows 2000 Server
                                                                                .Windows




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                               124
                                                                                 Control Panel      .1
                                                                  Add Remove Software               .2
                                                       Add Remove Windows Component                 .3
                                                                           Networking Services      .4
                                                            Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol     .5
                                        Administrative Tools                                        .6
                                                                                                    .7
      :                                                               Local Host                    .8
                     (         Windows Server                 )      .


                                                                                                    .9
     MAC                                    IP               Reservation                           .10


          )                                  (              ) DNS                                  .11
 Windows Server
                                                                                               (
                                        .                                                          .12
                                                        DHCP
     .TCP/IP       Local Area Network            Network Connections           Control Panel
                                             DHCP                                                  .13
                                                        :                    Command Prompt        .14
                                              ipconfig /all
                                            DHCP                                                   .15
                                                                                               :   .16
                                             ipconfig /release
                                                                                    :
                                              ipconfig /all
                                      .0.0.0.0
                                                                                               :   .17
                                             ipconfig /renew
                                                                                    :
                                                  ipconfig /all
                                                              .
                                                                  DHCP                             .18




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                      125
                                         (       )



                                                                           !


                                                                     :
                                                                                       .


                                                                    DNS                          .DNS
                                                                                                  .IP
                         .                               DNS                       .                     IP
                                                          .


                                                     "          "              .                               DNS
           .


                                                DNS

                                                                                                                             •
                     :                                                                                         DNS           •


        RFC 883                RFC 882                                     DNS                      Paul Mackapetris         •
                                                                     NS                                 Paul          1983
                                                         1984             UNIX                                               •
                                                                                                          Berkeley
 (Berkeley Internet Name BIND                Kevin Dunlap                DEC                               1985              •
                                                                                                        Damain System)
         UNIX                     BIND                   Windows           BIND                  ISC    Nortel               •
                                                                                                               DNS
    .                        Microsoft           Windows 2000                              DNS            Microsoft          •
                                                                                                 RFC      30                 •




                                                                          .ARPANET

Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                              126
                                                                      .



                                     DNS            .                                   ARPANET
                                                .                                        :


       1983          RFC 883                   RFC 882                                 DNS                Paul Mackapetris
              DNS                              Paul        RFC 1035 RFC 1034                        1987
                                                                                                     .UNIX


                                                                    1984          UNIX
                              .Songnian Zhou        Riggle David          Mark Painter        Douglas Terry :             Berkeley
               .Berkeley                                                                      Ralph Campbell                 BSD


 (Berkeley Internet Name Damain BIND                       Kevin Dunlap           DEC                            1985
        BIND                   .Paul Vixie Phil Almquist Mike Karels                                                      System)
 ISC                                                      www.isc.org                                LINUX       UNIX
    .BIND                                                                                (Internet Software Consortium)
               ISC               .                                                           BIND9              ISC


                                                                                                .
                                                                                  .


              UNIX                             BIND             Windows               BIND          ISC      Nortel
                              .DNS                          UNIX           BIND                                              DNS
 Microsoft                .                                               Windows             DNS                 UINX
 BIND                                                   Microsoft               Windows 2000                   DNS
                                           .


        RFC          30                        DNS                                    RFC 1035 RFC 1034


                                                                                                                      .



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                  127
                                              .                                      hosts
          %SystemRoot%\System32\drivers\etc                             Windows 2000                 )
                                                                       .(/etc                Linux

  .Ping

                                        DNS

                                                                                          :DNS
                                                      IP


                                                                       "resolver"




                                                  .DNS

                .     DNS

                                                           .       /                       DNS

                                                  (                             )
                                                               .                    DNS

                              DNS
                                                                                                 .

      .                                                            DNS

                                                                                          :DNS
                                                      IP


                                                                       "resolver"




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                      128
                                             /etc/hosts                     DNS
                                                                                  .                                           IP


                       .       DNS
           .
               .                                                   (                  )


     DNS                                           (                    )                  .       /                        DNS
                   .
                                 .DNS                                                                  DNS


                                                                              (                              )
                                                                                               .                     DNS
                                                   .                                                                         DNS
                                                       .                                                                           DNS


                                                       DNS


                                                               .                          DNS
                                                                                                             .BIND DNS


                                                                                                        RFC
                                                           .                          SRV                 2052
                                                               .IPV6                      A6                     -
                               .IPV6                                              DName                  2672-3
                                                           .IPV6                                                 -
                                             .(DHCP                               )                       2136
                                     .                                                    DNSSEC        2535-51
                                               .                                      TSIG/TKET           2845


                           .                                           IPV6                                          IPV6    BIND9


                                         .                     DNS                                                      DNSSEC


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                      129
                                                                                                   DNS
                                                                                              .


            DNS                                       (         DNSSEC IPV6)
                                                             .UDP


 BIND DNS                              .                     DNS
 .                                                                                   DNS
 .                                                                                 BIND
                         .            IETF


                     .                       IPV6                                   IPV6      BIND9


           DNSSEC                .         DNS                                            DNSSEC
                             .                            DNS              DNS
              "              "                       ."            "
                                                                   .
 (Transaction TSIG                                        DNSSEC                      BIND9          .
                                                                                                  .Signature)


                                                                                              DNS
                                                                                              .


        DNS                                      (           DNSSEC IPV6)
                                                           .UDP


                                      DNS


                                             .(domains) "              "            DNS
                                                                                          .


                                                                             "."



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             130
      "                            "             "           "              IP                                         o
               "                    "                "                                 IP                              o
                                                                                                                 "

            .(Generic Top-Level Domains) GTLDs
                              1988
                                                                                            .2001


                                                           aero                                        com
                                                            biz                                        edu
                                                           coop                                        gov
                                                            info                                       mil
                                                         museum                                            net
                                                           name                                        org
                             ....                           Pro                                            int
                                                                                                       arpa
                                                                                               IP

                   :                        .



                                                hk                        Fi                         au
                                                Ch                        Fr                          ca
                                                mx                        Jp                          br
                                                hu                        Se                         de


          “Svu”            "svu"                 "SVU"       (                 )
                                                                                                                     .DNS

           .                                                       (Fully Qualified)
                                        .                   mail                            mail.svuonline.org


                           Host.svuonline.org                                      .
                       .                                                       www.svuonline.org      mail.svuonline.org



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                         131
                                                                    .(domains) "              "                 DNS
                                                                                                                       .

        .(root-level                         )                                                      ."."
            (                                                                   ) ICANN
                                      .coop aero museum name info biz :                           2001

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                                                     .                                                                       .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                                                      132
            .                                              (Fully Qualified)
                                .                   mail                                   mail.svuonline.org
                                    .                                                                    mail
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 National               Network Solutions          edu net org com
                                                                                                    .Science Foundation


                                               .gTLDs


                                                                             .


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                        DNS                                 .
                                                                        .


 DNS                                     (RFC 1219                  )                           DNS
                                                   .


                                        DNS                                          DNS
                                                                                                                .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                        133
 National             Network Solutions                 edu net org com
                                                                                                .Science Foundation
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                                                    .
                                                                           .
                                                                                                              .


                                       DNS                                     DNS
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                          .
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                                            .
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                          DNS                   .       12                                     RFC 1032
                                   .                                                 255             63
                                                               .




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                   134
                                       .                                                         DNS
                                                                                         .
                                                Twinkies.com                  .        ...
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                                                                       .(                                 )

                                                                                   :




                                                                                                     .

                                                  BIND

                 )                 BIND4          .BIND9 BIND8 BIND4 :BIND
  .2000                BIND9               1997                   BIND8           .(1035 1034             RFC

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             .                                           8      Sendmail                             .8
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                              135
                  .                                      (BIND               )
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                         136
                                                                                          :
                                       DNS                                                    o


                                             .                                                o
                                                                       edu     com   bin


                                                 DNS




                           :


                                             Client DNS                  DNS
                                        Demande Recursive
                                          www.silogix.fr
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                                        Serveur DNS Local                   DNS
                                                                    (ns.mydomain.com)
                                         Demande itérative
                                          Serveur Racine
                                         Serveur de nom .fr           .org
                                      Serveur de nom silogix.fr   svuonline.org




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               137
                                             .                                               DNS
 fr org edu com                                                                                           .
                           com        .svuonline.org                            org                   .       ...de
                .                                                                                    admin.com


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               ns.mydomain.com                          .
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   .                                                                            :


                                                   .


 BIND8.2                         RFC 2308                                                           1998
                                                                       .BIND9


                                                   :




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                   138
  .                                            Windows                     RFC                              BIND

      .                                                                                       :

                                                          .
                         .

                                                          .
              DNS                                                 .
                             .BIND                                                          RFC 1034

 BIND8.2                             RFC 2308                                                              1998
                                                                                     .BIND9

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                                       .(                                 Microsoft                                )
                                 .                                                          DNS

                                                              :
                                                .
                                                                  .
                                                                                       .
                                                                      .

                                              Windows                     RFC                               BIND
                                                                                 .
 NXDOMAIN                                                 (Start-Of-Authority              SOA         )
          .                                          15                                           .(               )




               mail                                                                        DNS
                    .(                      alias                 )         WWW



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                    139
               DHCP
                                                      .


 DHCP


                                                                .                DNS


                                                .              DNS
  DHCP
                                    .DHCP



                      Windows 2000                           DNS


 DNS                         Windows 2003 Server          Windows 2000 Server
                                                                                .Windows


                                                                           Control Panel           .1
                                                             Add Remove Software                   .2
                                                    Add Remove Windows Component                   .3
                                                                     Networking Services           .4
                                                                     Domain Name Service           .5
                                       Administrative Tools                                        .6
                                                                                                   .7
                                                                                                   .8
                                        New Zone                                                   .9
                                                                                                  .10
        Start-Of-Authority    SOA                                                                 .11


                                                                                                  .12
                                      (Host)
                                                                                           (MX)
    )                                          Properties                                         .13
                               (


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                     140
 DNS                                                (Forwarders)                    .14


                                .                                                   .15
                     ) .                          DNS
                 DHCP                                   DHCP
                                              (                           DNS
   nslookup :                       Windows                        Command Prompt   .16
                                          DNS




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                       141
                                                       :



                                                       :
                                              .       Glossary


                                                                 :
                              :
      .                                           .


                                                           :
                                          :
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                      142
 .



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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                         143
                                                                                                     :
                     "   "            .(Zero Paper -                  )
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                                                                  .                                          Netcom
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                                                       :                         .
             .                                               Kriegsmann




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                   144
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                           145
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                               146
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                           147
 (DOS: Deny
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                   148
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                          149
     .



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                                           :
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               150
               .



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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l               151
     .                                                                     CERT (www.cert.org)


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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                  152
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                               153
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                   154
                                                             office



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                                                                              :

      "       (Microsoft Virus Builder)
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                               155
  .     Word                                          test.txt                 Word




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            (Security)          Word           (Tools)                             .Office 2000
                                                                 .



 Internet
                                                                     .(                 5.0       ) Explorer 5.0
                                       (Internet Options)                  (Tools)
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                156
                   (Advanced)             (Internet Options)


                                                               (security)



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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                 157
                                                                                                           :
                                                                                  :Replicator                  •
                                                                                      :Protector               •
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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                                158
                                                                          :
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                                                                                       :
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                    .(Files Type)                                    (Folder Option)




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                              159
                                                                                 :
                                                  (Tools)
                                   (Views)                                                    (Folder Option)
                                                                        .(Hide extensions)




  .


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                                                                     PROMISCUOUS                             •
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                                                                                                :
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                                       Switch                        .Hubs           Switch         •



                                                                                                    •



                                                                                                         :
                                                 Deny of Service                                             •
                           (Ping                    ) ICMP Echo
                                                            .


Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                              160
                                                                                           •


                                                                                           •


                                                                                           •
                               (Amazon)
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                                                                                   :
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                                                                       ICMP Echo           •




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Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                            161
                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                   o
          .                                                                                            •
                                                                                         :
                                                                             Deffie-Hellman o
                                                                Public Key Exchange Protocol o


                                                                                           :
                           C[KC](M)= ME :           C                   KC             M               •
              D[KD]( ME)=M :          D                         KD              ME                     •
                                                        KC=KD                                          •
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                                                                         KAB                       o

                                                                        DES, IDEA :                o
                                          KD   KC                                                      •
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                                                                                               :
                           (   10000       1000     )                                                  •
                                                                                                       •
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                                                        .                                              •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                        162
                            Numerical Certificate    (    )                   •


                             :                                                •
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                                                                  :       o



                                                                              •
                                         (Root CA)                            •
                                                                      .



                                      SSL (Secure Socket Layer)




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                               163
                                                                                  :(       )
                                 Public Key
                                 Certificate
                                 Request to connect to: https://...                        https
                                 Certificate of Server Public Key


                                 Public Key Certificate
                                 WWW browser
                                 WWW Server
                                 For SSL3 Only                                                    SSL3
                                 Request for public key Certificate


                                 Public Key Certificate of Client


                                 Exchanging Common Key for
                                 session
                                 Encryption of Server Data
                                 Encryption of Client Data
                                 Certification Authority


                                                                                                        :
     ..                                                                                                     •


                                           SSL                                                              •
                                                                                                            •
                                                                                                            •
 Certificate                                                          (   )                                 •
                                                                                               Server


                                                                                               : SSL
                                                                              (        )                    •
                             .                                                                              •


                                           (...   128      40)                                              •



Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l                                                                             164
                                      •


                   (          )       •




Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l       165
Universal Knowledge Solutions s.a.l   166

				
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