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					                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                     ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




       
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

        ٢٠٧
                                             ٢٠٧                                  
                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



         W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
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  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                   
                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                       
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
                                        K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                       
  ?   ?  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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     W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
                                                                                                  K‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                            
                                              ٢٠٧                                    
                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



 ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                           W،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                          
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
،‫א‬‫ א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                             K‫א‬
                       
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                            
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                              
                                                                                                      K
                                                                                                            
                                               ٢٠٧                                  
                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



    ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                         
     ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                           
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  
     ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                 
 ،،،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                     
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           
                                      

                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




١
            ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                             
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                 



                                                                                  W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                                                        W‫א‬‫א‬
                                              W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
                                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
                             ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                                                      
                                                                                    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             K٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                                               W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                            




                                                      -١-
            ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                       
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           



                                                                          WIntroduction ١J ١
                                    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
            
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                            
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                             ‫א‬ •
                                                             ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                  ‫א‬ •
                                                                                        ‫א‬‫• א‬
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                                                                               WSI Units‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢
                        
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                          W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
         E
         sFW‫א‬                         EmFW‫א‬                          EkgF‫א‬W‫א‬
                                                  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
         Em2FW‫א‬                           Em3FW‫א‬                                      ENFW‫א‬
         Em3/sFW‫א‬                         Em/sFW‫א‬                                   Em/s2FW‫א‬
                   EJF‫א‬EN.mFW‫א‬                           EPaFEN/m2FW‫א‬




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            ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                     
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         



                                                             WFluid Mechanics‫א‬‫א‬                     ١J ٣
                                                                 WFluid Density‫א‬                 ١J ٣J ١
K [ρ ] = kg / m 3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                    
1  4oC‫א‬1000 kg/m3‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                               
                                                                                                              Kgm/cm3
                         W‫א‬‫א‬E γ FE ρ F‫א‬
                                                                                                                          
                                                  γ = ρg                      E١J ١F
                                                                                                                          
                                                         K‫א‬‫א‬E g = 9.81 m / s 2 F
                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                          
                                                              WFluid Viscosity‫א‬                  ١J ٣J ٢
                                   
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                          
                                                          µ
                                                   ν=                          E١J ٢F
                                                          ρ
                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                   W
                                                                  Em2/sF‫א‬‫א‬ = ν 
                                                                                  EPa.sF‫א‬ = µ 
                                                                                 Ekg/m3F‫א‬ = ρ 




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            ‫א‬‫א‬                                 ٢٠٧                                       
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                                                    WFluid Pressure‫א‬                   ١J ٣J ٣
              
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                                             KE١F‫א‬
                         W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                             
                                                             F
                                                     p=                         E١J ٣F
                                                             A
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                      W
                                                                                    EN/m2F‫א‬ = p 
                                                                                ENF‫א‬‫א‬ = F 
                                                                    Em2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ = A 
                                                         
‫א‬E h F‫א‬‫א‬E ρ F‫א‬
                                                                                                                     W‫א‬
                                                                                                                             
                                                     p = ρgh
                                                                                    E١J ٤F
                                                      =γh


                                                                           ‫א‬
                               




                                                                      

                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ١F
                                                                                                                             
                                                             -٤-
            ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                    
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         



                   
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                    _
    W‫א‬‫א‬E p F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬bar‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                       
                                                _
                                                         p
                                               p=                             E١J ٥F
                                                        10 5
                                                                                                                       
                               K0.102 m‫א‬‫א‬1.0 kPa‫א‬
                                                                                                      WE١J ١F
                     K‫א‬‫א‬kPa‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،3 m‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                               W‫א‬
               W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E١J ٣F‫א‬،1000 kg/m3‫א‬
                                                                                                                       
                                                          p = ρgh
                                                                   kg         m
                                                            = 1000  3
                                                                       × 9.81 2 × 3 m
                                                                   m          s
                                                                       kg            N       kN
                                                             = 29430      2
                                                                            = 29430 2 = 29.43 2 = 29.43 kPa
                                                                     m.s            m        m
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                           WFluid motion‫א‬ ١J ٣J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                          
K‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
                                                                                               K‫א‬




                                                          -٥-
            ‫א‬‫א‬                                    ٢٠٧                                    
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                            



                                                                    WContinuity Equation‫א‬‫א‬
                                          
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E٢F‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                            
                      W،E٢F‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                             
                                         ρ1V1 A1 = ρ 2V2 A2                          E١J ٦F

                                                            E١F‫א‬‫א‬ = ρ1 W
                                                                             E٢F‫א‬‫א‬ = ρ 2 
                                                                    E١F‫א‬‫א‬ = V1 
                                                                       E٢F‫א‬‫א‬ = V2 
                                                                                 E١F‫א‬ = A1 
                                                                                          E٢F‫א‬ = A2 
‫א‬E A F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E Q F‫א‬
                                                                                                                       WE V F
                                                                                                                             
                                                      Q = VA                         E١J ٧F
                                                                                                                             

                                                                                        A2

                                                                                         V2
                                                                                    ٢
                                              V1




                                 ١       A1

                       ‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٢F
                                                                                                                             




                                                             -٦-
            ‫א‬‫א‬                                           ٢٠٧                                       
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           



                               
، ρ1 = ρ 2 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                      
                                                Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2                              E١J ٨F
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                      WE١J ٢F
4.0 m/s‫א‬،E١J ٣F‫א‬
،3.0 mmE1F‫א‬‫א‬KE٢F‫א‬0.25 m/sE١F‫א‬
                                                                                                       ‫؟‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬
                                           ٢
                                                                                            ١
                                                 V2                            V1
                                                                                            A1
                                         A2

                             E١J ٢FWE١J ٣F
                                                                                                                                W‫א‬
                                                              V2 = 0.25 m / s                            V1 = 4.0 m / s W
                                                                                                 WE1F‫א‬
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                           2
                                                                 ⎛ 3 ⎞
                                                              π ×⎜      ⎟
                                                πD    2
                                                                 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ = 7.07 × 10 −6 m 2
                                        A1 =             =
                                                  4                 4
                                                                                                                                       
                                               WE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                       
                                                  V1 A1 = V2 A2
                                                  4.0 × 7.07 × 10 −6 = 0.25 × A2
                                                  A2 = 1.1312 × 10 − 4 m 2

                                            WE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


                                                                     -٧-
           ‫א‬‫א‬                                            ٢٠٧                                  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      


                                                                πD22
                                                         A2 =
                                                                 4
                                                                               πD22
                                                         1.1312 × 10 − 4 =
                                                                         4
                                                          D = 0.012 m = 12.0 mm

                                                                                                               WE١J ٣F
K‫א‬‫א‬،0.12 m3/s‫א‬‫א‬150 mm

                                                                                                                          W‫א‬
                                                                                                                          W
                                                                         Q = 0.12 m 3 / s               D = 150 mm
                                                                                                    W‫א‬
                                  πD 2           π × 150 2
                            A=              =               = 17.671 × 10 3 mm 2 = 17.671 × 10 −3 m 2
                                    4                4
                                                                                                W‫א‬
                                                         Q     0.12
                                                V =       =              = 6.80 m / s
                                                         A 17.671 × 10 −3




                                                                         -٨-
            ‫א‬‫א‬                                         ٢٠٧                                        
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                            



                                                                                    WBernoulli Equation
                                           
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E٢F‫א‬E١F‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                               
                                                                                                                       KE١J ٤F
                                                                                                                                      

          ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                 V12
                                                                 V22
                                                                                           2g
                                                                 2g
          ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  p2
                                                                  γ                        p1
                                                                                           γ




                                                                 z2

                                                                                               z1



                                                        ‫א‬
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                    WE١J ٤F
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                   
                                                                          W‫א‬‫א‬،
                                                                                                                                      
                                                    2                     2
                                         p1       V        p V
                                              +    1
                                                     + z1 = 2 +  + z2   2
                                                                                               E١J ٩F
                                         γ        2g        γ 2g
                                                                                                                               W
                  E٢F‫א‬‫א‬ = p 2                                 E١F‫א‬‫א‬ = p1 
           E٢F‫א‬‫א‬ = V2                             E١F‫א‬‫א‬ = V1 
                                                                   -٩-
            ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                              
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                  



                   ‫א‬E٢F‫א‬ = z 2  ‫א‬E١F‫א‬ = z1 
                           ‫א‬‫א‬ = g                                            ‫א‬ = γ 
     W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                           p W‫א‬               •
                                                                                           γ
                                                                                         V2
                                                                                        2g       W‫א‬          •
                                                                                           z W‫א‬              •

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                          K‫א‬
                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                WE١J ٤F
‫א‬،E١J ٥F‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٢FE١F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                            ‫؟‬h‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                        
                                                                                     1


                                                                         2 m/s                    2.0 m

                                           2
                                                                                                     h

                              9.6 m/s          0.5 m
                                                                         ‫א‬

                                   E١J ٤FWE١J ٥F
                                                                                                                          

                                                         -١٠-
             ‫א‬‫א‬                                            ٢٠٧                                 
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                                                                                           ‫א‬
                                           W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                             
                                                                  p1 = p 2 = 0
                                                                                                        W
                                                                                                                             
                                                    p1       V12       p V2
                                                         +       + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2
                                                    γ        2g         γ 2g
                                                                                                                           W
                                               p1 = 0                           p2 = 0
                                              V1 = 2 m / s                     V2 = 8 m / s
                                               z1 = h + 2                         z 2 = 0 .5
                                                                                                                             
                                                            Wh‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                             
                                                    (2)2                        (9.6)2
                                              0+            + (h + 2 ) = 0 +            + 0 .5
                                                    2g                             2g
                                                                                                                             
                                                                  h = 3 .0 m
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                  WHydrology‫١ א‬J ٤
                                                                      WHydrologic Cycle‫א‬‫א‬ ١J ٤J ١
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                              
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                             K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E١J ٦F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


                                                                      -١١-
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                  



                                                                                                                                                      ‫א‬                                                                                     ‫א‬
                                                                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                        ‫א‬
                                                                                                                            ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬
         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                     W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                       I − O = ∆S                                                                         E١J ٩F




                                                                                                                           - ١٢ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                




                                                                                                                             
                                                                                     



                                                                                                                                                                                                                ‫א‬
                              

                                                                                 ‫א‬




                   ‫א‬




                                                                                                                      


                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                     ‫א‬
                                                                          
                                                                                                                ‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                   ‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٦F‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                           
E ∆S F ، ‫א‬‫א‬E O F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E I F
                                                                                                                                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




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                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                



                                                           WGlobal Water Distribution‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                ١J ٤J ٢
                                   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1.36 × 1018 m 3 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          K‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ١F‫א‬
                                       ‫א‬‫א‬                                     ‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                           ‫א‬
                                                  E٪F                                       E103 km3F
                                                                                                         ١{٢٥                                                                                                                
                                                                                                         ١٢٥                                                                                ‫א‬
                                                         ٠{٦٢
                                                                                                        ٨٢٥٠                                                                                            ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                           ٦٥                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                       ٠{٠٠٨                                             ١٠٥                                                       ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                       ٠{٠٠١                                               ١٣                                                                                        ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                         ٢{١٠                                         ٢٩٢٠٠                                             ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                       ٩٧{٢٥                                       ١٣٢٠٠٠٠                                                                                        
                                                         ١٠٠                                       ١٣٦٠٠٠٠                                                                     ‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
٪٠{٦٢‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                    K‫א‬800 m




                                                                                                                           - ١٤ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                



                                                                                                                                                      WPrecipitation‫א‬                                                                  ١J ٤J ٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
mm،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                 
                                                                                                                                               W‫א‬Kin‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،0.5 mmW‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                                E١
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        W
                                                                   7.6 mm/hr‫א‬W                                                                                                                                                      •
                                                 7.6 mm/hr2.5 mm/hr‫א‬‫א‬W                                                                                                                                                                  •
                                                                  2.5 mm/hr‫א‬W                                                                                                                                                        •
  
 0.5 mm‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                     E٢
                                                                                                                                                                                                              K1 mm/hr
                                                    
‫א‬، ‫א‬W‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                    E٣
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       K
                                                                                                               
                                                 K5 mm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W ‫א‬                                                                                                                                                      E٤
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                      W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       
‫א‬W‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                                       E١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE١J ٧F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                K‫א‬
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                     ‫א‬

                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                             




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                 ‫א‬WE١J ٧F
                                                                                                                           - ١٥ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                



                                                                 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                                    E٢
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                            W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                          E١
                                                                                                                                                                                        W‫א‬،
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                             Pi
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                        N
                                                                                                            P =∑                                                                       E١J ١٠F
                                                                                                                         i   N
                                                                                                                                                                                ‫א‬ = P W
                                                                                                                                   ‫א‬‫א‬ = P 
                                                                                                                                                                                ‫א‬ = N 
                                                                  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                          E٢
‫א‬‫א‬،E١J ٨F‫א‬
                  W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                                                                                                       2 mm


                                                                                                                                                                3 mm

                                                                                                                                                                          4 mm


                                                                                                                                                                          5 mm

                                                                                                                                                                               6 mm




                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬WE١J ٨F
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                             - ١٦ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                


                                                                                                                   N
                                                                                                                  ∑ Pi Ai
                                                                                                     P=           i
                                                                                                                       N
                                                                                                                                                                                       E١J ١١F
                                                                                                                    ∑ Ai
                                                                                                                       i

                                                                                                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬ A 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                 WEvaporation‫א‬ ١J ٤J ٤
                          
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      W‫א‬
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                                             E١
                     K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                              E٢
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                                E٣
                                                      
‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬2900 mm/year
                                       
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٨F‫א‬‫א‬Eclass A panF‫א‬
                                                  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                  K٠{٨٠{٦‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                           ١٢٢‫א‬
                                                                          ٢٥{٤‫א‬                                                                         




                                                                                
                                                                                  ١٥

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                     ‫א‬WE١J ٨F‫א‬



                                                                                                                           - ١٧ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                             
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                              
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   K‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                         E a = 0.35(e s − e )(0.5 + 0.54 u 2 )                                                          E١J ١٢F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                        Emm/dayF‫א‬‫א‬ = E a W
                                                                                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ = es 
                                                                                                                                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬ = e 
                                                                                                                 Em/sF2 m‫א‬‫א‬ = u 2 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WE١J ٥F
١٤{٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                         
                                                                                                                        K18 km/hr‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬٥{٨
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   W‫א‬
                                                                                                                                  18 × 1000
                                                                                    u 2 = 18 km / hr =                                     = 5 m/s
                                                                                                                                   60 × 60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                      E a = 0.35(es − e )(0.5 + 0.54 u 2 )
                                                                                              = 0.35(14.4 − 5.8)(0.5 + 0.54 × 5)
                                                                                               = 9.63 mm / day




                                                                                                                           - ١٨ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                



                                                                                                                                                               WInfiltration‫א‬                                                           ١J ٤J ٥
                        
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                     
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                        K‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                        W‫א‬‫א‬
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                                                                                                          E١
                                                                                                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                     E٢
                                                                                                                                                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬                                                     E٣
                                                                                                                                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬                                                                    E٤
                                             
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                       
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ hydrograph‫א‬
E١J ٩F‫א‬،‫א‬
                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                             K‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                   ‫א‬
                                                        Emm/hrF‫א‬




                                                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬



                                                                                     ‫א‬

                                                                                                                                                  EhrF ‫א‬
                                                                                   WE١J ٩F‫א‬




                                                                                                                           - ١٩ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                



                                                                                                                     WSurface Runoff‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                           ١J ٤J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                      KE١J ١٠F‫א‬،‫א‬
                                            
‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                 Q = VA                                                                E١J ١٣F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W
                                                                                                                                                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ = Q 
                                                                                                                                                                                ‫א‬ = A 
                                                                                                                                                                                   ‫א‬ = V 
  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE١J ١١F‫א‬
                                                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                           




                                                                                                                           - ٢٠ -
                  ‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٠٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                                




                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                       



                                                                                                                                                                             


                                                                                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  WE١J ١٠F‫א‬
                                                                                                                           
                                                        EmF‫א‬




                                                                                                                                             Em3/sF ‫א‬
                                                                       WE١J ١١F‫א‬




                                                                                                                           - ٢١ -
                                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                    ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                    ‫א‬
‫א‬




٢
       ‫א‬‫א‬                         ٢٠٧                                  
      ‫א‬                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                                                                             W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

                                                                                            W‫א‬‫א‬
                                             W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  K‫א‬‫ א‬ K١
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                                                         K‫א‬ K٥

                                 ٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                    
                                                               ٨W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




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      ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٠٧                                 
     ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     



                                Introduction١{٢ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                        
                                                                    Water Resources‫א‬ 2.2
                                                                           Rainfall‫א‬١{٢{٢
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


                                                                Surface Water‫א‬‫א‬ 2.2.2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




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      ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٠٧                               
     ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   



                                                          Groundwater‫א‬‫א‬٣{٢{٢
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


       Primary Studies of Water Supply Projects‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ، 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                     W‫א‬‫א‬
                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
                                K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ K٤
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
                                                                                                  
                                                     Forecasting population‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬       ،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 


                                                - ٢٤ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                 ٢٠٧                                   
      ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



       ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                             KE١{٢F‫א‬
                                ‫א‬‫א‬WE١{٢F

             E٪F‫א‬          ‫א‬               ‫א‬‫א‬        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                        J                J                   ٢٠١٠٠٠              ١٩٦٠

                       ٥{٤٧             ١١٠٠٠                ٢١٢٠٠٠              ١٩٧٠

                       ٥{٣٦             ١٢٠٠٠                ٢٢٤٠٠٠              ١٩٨٠

                       ٤{٤٦             ١٠٠٠٠                ٢٣٤٠٠٠              ١٩٩٠

                       ٥{٥٥             ١٣٠٠٠                ٢٤٧٠٠٠              ٢٠٠٠

                                                                                                            
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    
                                                                                              K‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                                  Arithmetic Method‫א‬‫א‬٥{٢

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                                                    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                     dP
                                           k=                                                     E١{٢F
                                                     dt
                                                                                                       W
                                                                                                      dP
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:
                                                                                                      dt
                                                                                    K‫א‬Wk
             W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


                                               Pt = Po + kt
                                                                                                    E٢{٢F
                                                     - ٢٥ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                         ٢٠٧                                          
     ‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              



                                                                                                          W
                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W Pt
                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W Po

                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wt
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ k‫א‬
                                                                                  KE٢{١F‫א‬

                                               Pn − Pm
                                       k=                                                        E٣{٢F
                                               tn − tm
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                     W
                                                                 Ktm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WPm
                                                                 Ktn ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WPn

                         ‫א‬‫א‬


                       Pn                                                    ∆P
                                                                        k=
                                                                             ∆t
                       Pm




                                             tm                   tn              ‫א‬
             
                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢{١F




                                             - ٢٦ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٠٧                                    
      ‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                          Geometric Method‫א‬‫א‬٦{٢
                                                                                     
‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   
                                                                                       W،‫א‬
                                                 dP
                                                   = k ′P                                       E٤{٢F
                                                 dt
                                                                                                    W
                                                                                                   dP
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
                                                                                                   dt
                                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬W k′ 
                                                                               K‫א‬W P 
                                                                                                          
                                                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                              
                                       ln Pt = ln Po + k ′∆ t                                    E٥{٢F
                                                                                                    W
                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W Pt
                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W Po

                                                                                   KW k′
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ∆t
                                                                                                         
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ k’‫א‬
                                                                        KE٢{٢F‫א‬
                                                                                                         
                                                 ln Pn − ln Pm
                                          k′ =                                                   E٦{٢F
                                                    tn − tm
                                                                                                    W
                                                                  tm ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WPm
                                                                      tn ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WPn
                                                                                                          
                                                   - ٢٧ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                                     
     ‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                         



                                                                                                         
                             ‫א‬‫א‬

                        ln Pn
                                                                                ∆ ln P
                       ln Pm                                             k′ =
                                                                                  ∆t



                                                                                          ‫א‬
                                                     tm             tn
              
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢{٢F
                                                 
                                                 
                                                            Comparative Method‫א‬٧{٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬     ‫א‬
                                        KE٣{٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                 




                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣{٢F
                                                 - ٢٨ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٠٧                               
     ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   



،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣{٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٩٧٠EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEEFEDF،ECF،EBF
                          .١٩٣٠EBF‫א‬،٥١٠٠٠
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                     Density of Population‫א‬‫א‬٨{٢
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                                                         W
            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢L٣٨٠٠ •
      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢L١٠٠٠٠٨٨٠٠ •
         ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ٢ L ٢٥٠٠٠٠  ٢٥٠٠٠  •
                                                                                 KE‫א‬F
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                         Consumption for various purposes‫א‬‫א‬٩{٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬                       
                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   WDomestic  ‫א‬ ‫• א‬
       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،LL٣٤٠٧٥


                                                - ٢٩ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                   
     ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       



         WCommercial and Industrial ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬
       K‫א‬L٢L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        ٪١٥   ٢٥٠٠٠     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  WPublic use ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫• א‬
       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
          KLL٧٥‫א‬‫א‬
         ‫א‬ ‫א‬   WLoss and waste ‫א‬  ‫א‬  •
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                       K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ E٢{٢F ‫א‬               
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                         
                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢{٢F
                            ‫א‬          ‫א‬
                                                                         ‫א‬
                           E٪F           ELLF
                            ٤٤                 ٣٠٠                   ‫א‬‫א‬
                            ٢٤                 ١٦٠                      ‫א‬
                            ١٥                 ١٠٠                      ‫א‬
                            ٩                   ٦٠                   ‫א‬‫א‬
                            ٨                   ٥٠                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                           ١٠٠                 ٦٧٠                      ‫א‬

                                                   - ٣٠ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٠٧                                       
     ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           



               Factors Effecting Water Consumption‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠{٢
           W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                    K‫א‬ K١
                                                                K‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                                                                    K‫א‬ K٣
                                                                         K‫א‬ K٤
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
                                                                    K‫א‬ K٦
                                                       K‫א‬‫ א‬K٧
                                                                                                          
                                                                                                          
                         Variations of Water Consumption ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١١{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
  E‫א‬ F    W‫א‬   K‫א‬     
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        KE٤{٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                  
                                       P = 180 t −0.10                                           E٧{٢F
                                                                                                          
                       K‫א‬EtF،‫א‬‫א‬(PF


                                                - ٣١ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                                  ٢٠٧                                      
     ‫א‬                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           



                                                                                  W‫א‬
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬٪١٢٨Z‫א‬ •
                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬٪١٤٨Z‫א‬ •
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬٪١٨٠Z‫א‬ •
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪١٥٠Z‫א‬ •
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                

                          7000
                                                                               ‫أﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﻌﺪل اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬
                          6000
    (‫ﻣﻌﺪل اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك )م٣/س‬




                          5000
                          4000       ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                          3000
                          2000
                                                    ‫أدﻧﻰ ﻣﻌﺪل اﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬
                          1000       ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬                           ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻨﻬﺎر‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬
                            0
                                 0      2     4        6       8      10       12       14   16   18      20       22      24
                                                                              ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬

                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤{٢F
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    WE١{٢F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                        KLL٦٧٠
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                          W‫א‬
                                              LL١٨٠٠ZE١{٥FE١{٨FE٦٧٠FZ‫א‬


                                                                     - ٣٢ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                    
     ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                   Fire demand‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٢{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬
                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (flow) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                           
                                       F = 18 C ( A ) 
                                                      0 .5
                                                                                                     E٨{٢F
                                                                                                     W
                                               KE٣{٧٨LLF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WF
                                                                       K‫א‬WC
                                              KE١٠{٧٦ ×٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WA
                                                                                                           
‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
         ٠{٦  ‫א‬     ١{٥  C   •
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ٢٢٦٨٠‫א‬L ٣٠٢٤٠‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •
       L ١٨٩٠،‫א‬ ‫א‬ L
                                                                                      K‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٣{٢F‫א‬ •
                                                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬ ٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                  K١٠‫א‬‫א‬E٤{٢F
            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •




                                                   - ٣٣ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                         
     ‫א‬                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                             



‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،L٣٠{٩K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                    K٤٠٠‫א‬
           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣{٢F
                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                            ELF                                        EF
                                ١٨٩٠                                      ٣٠{٥
                            ٢٨٣٥J ٣٧٨٠                                    ٩{٥٣٠{٥
                            ٣٧٨٠J ٥٦٧٠                                    ٣{٤٩{٥
                            ٥٦٧٠J ٧٥٦٠                                    ٣{٤
                                                  
                                                      
                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤{٢F
                            ‫א‬‫א‬                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                         EF                                  ELF
                                  ٤                                       ٣٧٨٠
                                  ٥                                       ٤٧٢٥J ٣٧٨٠
                                  ٦                                       ٥٦٧٠J ٤٧٢٥
                                  ٧                                       ٦٦١٥J ٥٦٧٠
                                  ٨                                       ٧٥٦٠J ٦٦١٥
                                  ٩                                       ٨٥٠٥J ٧٥٦٠
                                 ١٠                                      ٨٥٠٥
                                                                                                               




                                                          - ٣٤ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                    ٢٠٧                                      
     ‫א‬                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                            



   ‫א‬ ٥        ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬٣٠٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬K٢١٥٠٠
                                                                                     KLL٦٧٠
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                W‫א‬
                          L 106×20.1ZE٦٧٠F×E٣٠٠٠FZ‫א‬‫א‬ •
                            ‫א‬‫א‬٪١٨٠Z ‫א‬ •
                  L106 × 36.18 Z(106 . 20.1) (1.8) Z
                                                                                                           
                                                         W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
                                            F = 18 C ( A )
                                                           0 .5


                                                      0.5
                                                             [(1000) . (10.76) . (6)] . (3.78)(1.8) =F 
                                                                                     L 17.29 = F
                                                                                L 106 ×٢٤{٨٩= F
     LL106 ×61.07 Z106 ×24.89H 106 ×36.18Z‫א‬ •
                           10/24 ×106 ×٢٤{٨٩H106×٣٦{١٨Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
                                       L 106 × 46.55Z
                                      LL1551Z
                                                                                                                   
     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                                                     W٢٠٠٠٠٠
                                                                                                                   
                                                        (
                               Q = 231.64 P . 1 − 0.01 P                )                                       E٩{٢F
                                                                                                                W
                                                                      KEL٣F‫א‬‫א‬WQ
                                                                               KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WP
                            K١٠‫א‬‫א‬


                                                         - ٣٥ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٠٧                               
     ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



                                                                                           WE٣{٢F
                       K١٠٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                                                                W‫א‬
                                                (                    )
                            Q = 231.64 100 1 − 0.01 100 = 2084 .76 m 3 / hr
                               KL٣٢٠٨٤٨Z١٠KE٢٠٨٤{٧٦FZ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                              Methods of Water Distribution‫א‬١٣{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                  Gravity distribution ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١{١٣{٢
‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  KE٥{٢F ‫א‬     ‫א‬
                
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    E‫א‬ ‫א‬   F
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                      
             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

                                              ‫א‬‫א‬



                                                          ‫א‬

                             ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                
                               Waterhead


        
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥{٢F


                                                     - ٣٦ -
         ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٠٧                              
         ‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  



                Distribution by means of pumping with storage ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢{١٣{٢

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
KE٦{٢F ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                    


                                                               ‫א‬
                               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
            


                 

                          ‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬
    
                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦{٢F
       Distribution by means of pumping without storage‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣{١٣{٢

   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
‫א‬K٢٤‫א‬E٧{٢F‫א‬‫א‬
     
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬       
          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬




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      ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٠٧                                  
      ‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      




                                        ‫א‬


                 

                                     ‫א‬‫א‬
     
                        KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧{٢F
                                                                Elevated storage‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٤{٢
                                                                    
 ١٢    ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬    ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬E٨{٢F‫א‬
                         K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE٩{٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬




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 ‫א‬‫א‬                          ٢٠٧                               
 ‫א‬                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   



                                                   ‫א‬
                                                    ‫א‬


                                                    ‫א‬


                                                       
          
                 

                           ‫א‬E٨{٢F
                                                     W‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                                                               K‫א‬
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                               K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ K٣




                                          - ٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬                         ٢٠٧                     
 ‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬         




                                                                     
                                                                     
                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩{٢F




                                         - ٤٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬                                                          ٢٠٧                                         
 ‫א‬                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                             



                                                                             Storage necessary‫א‬‫א‬١٥{٢
                                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                 K‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬ K١
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬٪٢٥‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                                                                             W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                         K Q ≤ 270 m 3 / hr  Q = 231.64 P .(1 − 0.01 P )
    ،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   W‫א‬  K٤
                                                                                                                             W
                              ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    
                                               KE١٠{٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

                              7000
                                                                                                 ‫أﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﻌﺪل اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬
                              6000                                                                         D

                              5000
       (‫ﻣﻌﺪل اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك )م٣/س‬




                              4000                                                                 (II)
                                           P                       C                                                E     Q

                              3000                                            ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬                      (III)
                                        A
                                                     (I)
                                                                                                                          F
                              2000
                                                     B
                              1000             ‫أدﻧﻰ ﻣﻌﺪل‬
                                           ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬                      ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻨﻬﺎر‬                       ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬
                                  0
                                       0         2         4   6     8     10      12       14    16      18   20   22       24
                                                                              ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻴﻮم‬


                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠{٢F
                                                                         - ٤١ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                                      
     ‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                          



               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                        K(PCEQ)‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      (III)،(II)،(I)‫א‬
                      (III)‫א‬Z(II)‫א‬H(I)‫א‬Z‫א‬
                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬E١{٢٥FZ‫א‬ K٥
                                                                                                          

                                                           Pressure in pipes‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٦{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                          
                                                                        W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ kPa ٢٠٠ ١٥٠ •
                                                                                 K‫א‬
                                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬kPa٤٠٠ •
                                                             K‫א‬kPa٥٠٠ •
                                                                         W‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ،kPa ٣٥٠   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   •
                                     KkPa١٥٠‫א‬٦‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،kPa٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬
kPa ٥٠٠ ٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                                                       W‫א‬‫א‬
            K‫א‬١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                                               
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 - ٤٢ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                               
     ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   



                                                              Pressure zones‫א‬‫א‬١٧{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                         WE١١{٢F‫א‬
          ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                                     KE١٢{٢F،‫א‬‫א‬
               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢



                                                 EF


                                           EF           EF


                                         EF             EF
          
                               K‫א‬‫א‬WE١١{٢F
                                                    

                      
                                                         ‫א‬



                                       ‫א‬
                                                                       
    
                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٢{٢F

                                                    - ٤٣ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                 
    ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                 KE١٢{٢F‫א‬،
                                                                                                      
                                               Water distribution systems‫א‬١٨{٢

                                                    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
         ‫א‬ ‫א‬    WPrimary Feeders ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
         ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
        ‫א‬ ‫א‬    KE١٣{٢F        ‫א‬
        ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬
        ‫א‬‫א‬WSecondary Feeders‫א‬‫א‬
        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                  KE١٣{٢F‫א‬
          ‫א‬   WSmall Distribution Mains ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


          
                ‫א‬


             
             
             
                           ‫א‬

   
                                  K‫א‬WE١٣{٢F
                                                  - ٤٤ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                                 
     ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   



                        Planning of Water distribution systems‫א‬١٩{٢
                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                      KE١٤{٢F‫א‬‫א‬WBranching System‫א‬‫א‬
                        KE١٥{٢F‫א‬‫א‬WGrid System‫א‬‫א‬
                         KEE١٦{٢FF‫א‬(Composite System)‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                  


                      ‫א‬                                            



                                                            ‫א‬

    
                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٤{٢F
                                                

                                                                                       




                                     ‫א‬                   ‫א‬

                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥{٢F


                                                - ٤٥ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                                  
      ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      




                                                                              ‫א‬

                                                                                       
                  ‫א‬



 
                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦{٢F
                                                                                                      
                Basic Design of Water Supply Networks‫א‬٢٠{٢
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
          W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
                                                                     K‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
                                                                                                      
                                                                                                      
                                               Flow Computations‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢١{٢
  ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬،(Reynolds) ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ (velocity)‫א‬

                                                 - ٤٦ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                         ٢٠٧                                               
      ‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                   



(Hazen-Williams)     ،‫א‬  (headlosses) ‫א‬  ‫א‬
                                   W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                            
                                                                           Q
                              v = 0 . 849 CR                 S 0 . 54 =     E١٠{٢F
                                                     0 . 63

                                                                           A
                                                                                                            W
                                     .(Velocity)ELF‫א‬‫א‬Wv
                             .(Hydraulic Radius)EF‫א‬‫א‬WR
.(Hazen-Williams      ، ‫א‬     WC
                                               KCE٥{٢F‫א‬Coefficient)
                                          .(Hydraulic Gradient)‫א‬‫א‬WS
                                                         .(Flow)ELF‫א‬WQ

                             .(Hydraulic Area)EF‫א‬‫א‬WA
                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                             W،E‫א‬‫א‬F ÷ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FZR
                                                     WR

                                         πD 2 / 4 D                                           D
                                      R=         =
                                          πD       4
 
                                                       WR


                                         πD 2 / 8 D                                          D
                                      R=         =
                                         πD / 2    4



                                              - ٤٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                               
 ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                    



                   K‫א‬‫א‬WE٥{٢F

                     C                                ‫א‬‫א‬
                    140           Extremely smooth and straight
                                   Cast iron:
                      130          New
                      120          5 years old
                      110          10 years old
                    90-100         20 years old
                     75-90         30 years old
                   120-140         Concrete or cemented:
                                   Welded steel, as for cast-iron pipe, 5 years older
                                   Rived steel, as for cast-iron pipe, 10 years older
                      150          Plastic

                   120-140         Asbestos



           WE١٧{٢F‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                                     
                               Q = 0 .278 CD 2.63 S 0.54                                                         E١١{٢F


                                                  hL
                                        S =                                                             E١٢{٢F
                                                  L

                                                                  1 / 0 . 54
                                    hL ⎡       Q         ⎤
                                     =⎢           2 .63 ⎥                     E١٣{٢F
                                    L  ⎣ 0 .278 CD       ⎦
                                             



                                                 - ٤٨ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                              ٢٠٧                                                
     ‫א‬                                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                          




                                                                     Energy of grade line
                                                                                                              hL
                      Q

                          Q1 , v 1 , A 1


                                                                                       D
                                                                                                              Q2, v2, A2
                                            Z1                                                           Z2
                                                                                 L


                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧{٢F
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                            WE٤{٢F

                               W،١٠٠٠(headlosses)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

                                    D = 500 mm, Q = 0.25 m3/s, C = 130
                                                                                                                                 W‫א‬

                                 πD 2                                     Q 0.25
                           A=              = 0.2m 2      , v=              =     = 1.25m / s
                                   4                                      A 0.2
                                                                                                      0 .54
                                                                                             ⎛ hL ⎞
                           Q = 0 .278 CD         2 .63
                                                         S   0 .54
                                                                     = 0 .278 CD     2 .63
                                                                                             ⎜ ⎟
                                                                                             ⎝ L ⎠
                                                                     1 / 0 .54
                           hL  ⎡       Q          ⎤
                              =⎢           2 . 63 ⎥
                           L   ⎣ 0 .278 CD        ⎦

                                10 . 7 Q 1 .85 L
                           h L = 1 .85 4 .87
                                C       D

                      

                                                                      - ٤٩ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                             
     ‫א‬                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                



                                10 . 7 × ( 0 . 25 )1 .85 × 1000
                          hL =                                    = 2 . 96 m
                                   (130 )1 .85 × ( 0 . 5 ) 4 .87
                          h L = 2 . 96 × 10 ≅ 30 kPa

                      

                                                              Chart Method‫א‬‫א‬٢٢{٢
      E١٨{٢F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 C = 100 (Q, D, S, v)‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Hydraulic Gradient)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                   
           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠٠C‫א‬‫א‬
                                               WS Dv 
                                                                           1 .85
                                                                 ⎛ 100 ⎞
                                                    S c = S 100 ⎜     ⎟           E١٤{٢F
                                                                 ⎝ C ⎠
                                                       
                                            WDS Q
                                                                            0.38
                                                            ⎛ 100 ⎞
                                                 Dc = D100 ⎜     ⎟                E١٥{٢F
                                                            ⎝ C ⎠
                                                       
                                          WQSD 
                                                                ⎛       C ⎞
                                                     Qc = Q100 ⎜          ⎟ E١٦{٢F
                                                                     ⎝ 100 ⎠




                                                       - ٥٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬                        ٢٠٧                         
 ‫א‬                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬             




 
      K(Hazen-Williams) ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨{٢F

                                        - ٥١ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                  
      ‫א‬                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                                                                                 WE٥{٢F
٢‫א‬٢٠٠١٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                     K‫א‬
                                                                                                             
                                                                                                            W‫א‬
                         L = 1500 m, D = 200 mm, Q = 2 m3/minW‫א‬‫א‬
                                   KE١٨{٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                       (Q, D, S, v) ‫א‬ ‫א‬      
                                                                            W
                                                         D = 200 mm, Q = 2 m3/min
                       Z S  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   Z  S  
                                                                             K10.(10-3)
                                                   ∆L
                                             S=       = 10 .10 − 3
                                                    L
                              ∆L = S .L = (10 .10 3 ) × (1500 ) = 15 m ≅ 150 kPa

                                                     


                                        Types of Pipes‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٣{٢
‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                       ‫א‬F   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K٢
                                                                            KE‫א‬‫א‬
                                                             K‫א‬ K٣

                                                         - ٥٢ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٠٧                              
     ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  



                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
                                                                          W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    W‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K١
         ،  ١٠٠  ‫א‬‫א‬    ،  ‫א‬
                                                                       K١٢٠
                                                      
         ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫א‬ K٢
        ،‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
                                       
                                 K٢٥٠
         ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   W ‫א‬ K٣
       ‫א‬‫א‬،١٨٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                             K‫א‬
         ، ٣٠‫א‬W‫א‬ K٤
       ‫א‬‫א‬،
       ‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                                                    K‫א‬
                                                                                                 

                                                                      Pumps‫א‬٢٤{٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬

                                                - ٥٣ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                               
     ‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   



L٥{٧١{٩‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
  ‫א‬      L   ٢{٨   ‫א‬‫א‬ 
                                                                              K١٠٠٠٠
                                                                                               
                                                      W‫א‬‫א‬K
                         KE١٩{٢F‫א‬،(Centrifugal Pumps)
                                                   K(Reciprocating Pumps) 
                                                                K(Rotary Pumps)‫א‬
                                                                                                   




                       
                       (Centrifugal Pumps)WE١٩{٢F
                                              
                        
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬  E٢٠{٢F ‫א‬     ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
                                                                            
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬      ‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


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          ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                 
         ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     



      ،‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  (Head)
                                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                       
                                            TDH = H L + H F + H V E١٧{٢F
                                                                                                      W
                                         (Total dynamic head)‫א‬‫א‬:TDH

    ‫א‬‫א‬ (Total static head) ‫א‬‫א‬ :HL
                                                                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                          (Total friction headloss) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:HF

                                            (Velocity head: v2/2g) ‫א‬:HV




                                         Static
                                         discharge
                                         head
                                                                                            Total
                                  Pump                                                      static
                                                                                            head
                                              P

                                                             Static
                                                             suction
                                                             head





                                    K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٠{٢F



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      ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٠٧                                          
      ‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              



 ،(Net output) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                Pw = KQH E١٨{٢F
                                                                                                           W
                                                 K(Water Power, kW)E‫א‬F‫א‬:Pw
                                              K(Flow, m3/min)ELF‫א‬: Q
                            K(Total dynamic head, m)،‫א‬‫א‬:H
 ٢٠ ‫א‬     ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    :K
                           K٠{١٦٣K(kW, m3/min, m)‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                            Pw
                                                 Pp =         E١٩{٢F
                                                            Ep

                                                                                                           W
                                (Power input to the pump, kW)E‫א‬F‫א‬:Pp

                                                 (Water Power, kW)E‫א‬F‫א‬:Pw
                                                         (Pump efficiency)‫א‬:Ep
                                                                                                     WE٦{٢F
‫א‬  L  ١{٩  ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬
                                                       K٪٩٠‫א‬K٧٠
                                                                                                           W‫א‬

                                            Pw = KQH 
                                              Pw = (0.163).(1.9).(70) = 21.68 kW
                                                       Pw
                                             Pp =
                                                       Ep
                                                 Pp = 21.68 / 0.9 = 24.9 kW

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      ‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٠٧                              
     ‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  



                                                                            Valves‫א‬٢٥{٢
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KE٢١{٢F‫א‬
                                    W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬‫א‬W(Sluice valve)
                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W(Non-return valve)  
       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                      K‫א‬‫א‬




                                                                                                   




                       K‫א‬‫א‬E٢١{٢F

                                                  - ٥٧ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬                         ٢٠٧                            
        ‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬               



                                               Excavation and Backfill ‫א‬‫א‬٢٦{٢
   ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ٣٢‫א‬‫א‬٢١{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   E٢٢{٢F‫א‬K ١٢٢٠ ١٧٦٠ ٥٠ ٤٦٠‫א‬
                                                                     K‫א‬


         ‫א‬                                          ٩٠

          
                                                      D                  ٣٠
           
                                                                      ١٥
 
                          K‫א‬E٢٢{٢F




                                                - ٥٨ -
                                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                       ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                      ‫א‬
‫א‬




 ٣
   ‫א‬‫א‬                          ٢٠٧                                  
 ‫א‬                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                                         W‫א‬‫א‬
                                           W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                K‫א‬ K٦
    ‫א‬    ‫ א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K٧
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬
                      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
                                                     K‫א‬ K١٠

                              K٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                 
                                                           K٦W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                            - ٥٩ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٠٧                                    
    ‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                          Introduction١{٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                              
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                
‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
                            
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                              
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                      
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
                                                                      
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                   
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                        K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KErunoffF‫א‬ErainfallF‫א‬،‫א‬
                               W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                       
         ‫א‬‫א‬                                         ‫א‬
                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬                              ‫א‬‫• א‬
                 ‫א‬ •                              ‫א‬ •
                             150 mm                                           ٣٠٠mm 
                ‫א‬‫א‬ •                             ‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                   0.75 m/s                                                     1 m/s
                •                     •
                 ‫א‬                                
                       ‫א‬ •                                                             ‫א‬
                                                                              ‫א‬ •




                                                     - ٦٠ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٠٧                                     
     ‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       



                                                    Amount of Storm Water‫א‬٢{٣
                                             
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     K‫א‬‫• א‬
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                          
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                          
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                      W،‫א‬
                                                                                                          
                                                Q = iA                                            E١{٣F
                                                                                                          
                                                                                                  W
                                                        E m3 / hr F‫א‬‫א‬ :Q
                                                               KE mm/ hr F‫א‬‫א‬ : i 
                                                   KE m 2 F‫א‬‫א‬ : A
                                                                                                   
                  
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                             
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                       
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                           W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                          
                                          Q = CiA                                                 E٢{٣F


                                                 - ٦٢ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                      
    ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                          



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ C
                                                                                          KE١{٣F‫א‬
                            
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                    W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                               
                                                     ∑ C i ⋅ Ai
                                          C avg =                                                     E٣{٣F
                                                       ∑ Ai
                                                      
                          ‫א‬‫א‬WE١{٣F
                               C                                         ‫א‬
                           ٠{٧٠–٠{٩٥                         E‫א‬F
                           ٠{٨٠–٠{٩٠                                                    ‫א‬
                           ٠{١٠–٠{٢٥                                            ‫א‬
                           ٠{٧٥–٠{٨٥                                            ‫א‬
                           ٠{١٥–٠{٣٠                                           ‫א‬
                          ٠{٠٥–٠{١٠                       ٪٢
                          ٠{١٠–٠{١٥                ٪٧٢
                          ٠{١٥–٠{٢٠        ٪٧
                          ٠{١٣–٠{١٧                        ٪٢
                          ٠{١٨–٠{٢٢                ٪٧٢
                          ٠{٢٥–٠{٣٥        ٪٧
                                                                                                               
                                                                                                               
                                                                                                    WE١{٣F
،٠{٥ km2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،٪٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٣٥‫א‬


                                                      - ٦٣ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                 
    ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     



                                                                   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
                                                                                               ‫ 46؟‬mm/hr
                                                                                                               
                                                                                                      W‫א‬
         K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                           
               ∑ C i ⋅ Ai    Ci ‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       ‫א‬
        C=
                 ∑ Ai       E٣J ١F           Em2F Ai           E٪F‫א‬
       ٠{٢٤٥J ٠{٣٣٢٥         ٠{٧٠–٠{٩٥           175000                  ٣٥           
        ٠{٣٠٠J ٠{٣٤٠         ٠{٧٥–٠{٨٥           200000                  ٤٠      ‫א‬
                                                                                  
         ٠{٠١٢٥J ٠{٠٢٥       ٠{٠٥–٠{١٠           ١٢٥٠٠٠                  ٢٥
                                                                                       
       ٠{٥٥٧٥J ٠{٦٩٧٥                                               ‫א‬
                                                                                                           
٠{٥٥٧٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                            
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٠{٦٩٧٥
                                                                                       
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                            100 m
                Q = CiA = 0 . 6975 ×              × 0 . 5 × 10 6 m 2 = 22320 m 3 / hr
                                           1000 hr
                                                    
                                                    
                                                                   Time of Concentration‫א‬٣{٣
                                    
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                  KEinlet timeF‫א‬Etime of flowF


                                                        - ٦٤ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                 ٢٠٧                           
    ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                  



،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K20 min 5 min‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                                                    
                                                                       
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W
‫א‬١٢{٥ m‫א‬5 min‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 20 m‫א‬
              K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                                                                                          WE٢{٣F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١{٣F‫א‬
              K0.75 m/s‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KEwatershedF
                                                                                               


                                           ‫א‬
                                             5 min
                                     A
                                    ١ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬
                                                   ‫א‬
                                           m ١٢٠




                                     B               6 min



                                         ٢ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬
                                                     m ١٥٠
                                     C
                                  ‫א‬
                                  8 min               ٣ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬
                                                                  ‫א‬


                           E٢{٣FWE١{٣F




                                                       - ٦٥ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                   ٢٠٧                                    
    ‫א‬                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                                                                          W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                    W
                                                     W٢‫א‬١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                               
                                            120 m
                              =            m       sec
                                                        = 2 . 67 min
                                     0 . 75    × 60
                                             s      min
                                                                                                               
                                                     W٣‫א‬٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                               
                                        150 m
                            =          m       sec
                                                    = 3 . 33 min
                                 0 . 75    × 60
                                         s      min
                                                                                                          
                       WE٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                             WA
                                      = 5 + 2 .67 + 3 .33 = 11 min
                                                                                             WB
                                      = 6 + 3 . 33 = 9 . 33 min
                                                                                             WC
                                               = 8 min

            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬11 min
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                                       Rainfall Intensity‫א‬‫א‬٤{٣
                                 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                     
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

                                                        - ٦٦ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                   
    ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       



                                                    
‫א‬E٢{٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                               K٢٥،١٠،٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                
‫א‬١٠،‫א‬‫א‬٥‫א‬
                           
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٥،‫א‬
                                                                                              K‫א‬
         
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                        W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                    
                                                         A
                                                i=                                                 E٤{٣F
                                                        t+B
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                    W
                                                                  KE mm / hr F‫א‬‫א‬ :i
                                                      KE min F‫א‬–‫א‬ : t
                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬ : A& B
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           




                                                   - ٦٧ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                 
     ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     





                                ‫א‬–WE٢{٣F‫א‬
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
                                                                                              WE٣{٣F
‫א‬٠{٢٥ km2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                           4830
               K i =           ‫א‬12 min‫א‬،C = 0.30‫א‬
                          t + 25
                                                                                                   
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                   W‫א‬
                                                                                     W‫א‬
                                  4830     4830
                           i=          =         = 130 . 5 mm / hr
                                 t + 25   12 + 25


                                                    - ٦٨ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                   
    ‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                       



                                                                                      W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                           
                                    mm    m                 10 6 m 2        m3
          Q = CiA = 0 .30 × 130 .5    ×       × 0 .25 km ×
                                                         2
                                                                     ≅ 9800
                                    hr 1000 mm                km 2          hr
                                                   
                                                   
                                                            Flow in Sewers‫א‬‫א‬٥{٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                          
،،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
                                             
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
                                   W‫א‬‫א‬EManning EquationF
                                                                                                      
                                                  1 2 /3 1/ 2
                                        V =        R S                                               E٥{٣F
                                                  n
                                                                                                      W
                                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬ :V
                                                                 ‫א‬‫א‬ : n 
                                                                D
                                                          R=     W‫א‬‫א‬ : R
                                                                4
                                                                                ‫א‬ : S
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                               W‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                   R 2 /3S 1/ 2
                                      Q = A                                                          E٦{٣F
                                                        n
                                                                                                      
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                     W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                      
                                                       - ٦٩ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                       
    ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           


                                                                2   1
                                                   0 .397 3 2
                                            V =         D S                                                 E٧{٣F
                                                      n
                                                                                                                    
                                                                8   1
                                                0 . 312 3 2
                                            Q=        D S                                                   E٨{٣F
                                                    n
                                                                                                                    
        K‫א‬‫א‬ m3 / s  m/ s W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬E D F
                                                                                                             
                               
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢{٣F‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                       
                          ‫א‬‫א‬E n F‫א‬WE٢{٣F
                                     n                              ‫א‬
                                ٠{٠١١–٠{٠١٤                           
                                ٠{٠١٠–٠{٠١٧                                  
                                ٠{٠١١–٠{٠١٧                               
                                ٠{٠١٢–٠{٠١٦                                      
                                ٠{٠١٣–٠{٠١٧                                  
                                ٠{٠١٠–٠{٠١٣                                  

                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                         WE٤{٣F
        
‫א‬K0.04 m3/s‫א‬٠{٠٠٢٥‫א‬‫א‬
                ‫؟‬‫א‬‫؟‬،n = 0.013‫א‬
                                                                                                                    




                                                       - ٧٠ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                       ٢٠٧                                
   ‫א‬                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                                                                                         W‫א‬
                                                                   WE٨{٣F‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                         
                                                    8     1
                                       0 . 312
                                   Q =         D 3S       2
                                           n
                                                              8
                                             0 . 312                  1
                                  0 . 048 =          D 3 (0 . 0025 ) 2
                                             0 . 013
                                   D = (0 . 04 )
                                                 3/8
                                                     = 0 . 30 m = 300 mm
                                                                                                         
                                    W‫א‬E٢{٣F‫א‬،‫א‬
                                                2   1
                                      0 .397 3 2
                                  V =        D S
                                         n
                          
                                      0 .397          2            1
                                    =        (0 .30 ) 3 (0 .0025 ) 2 = 0 .68 m / s
                                      0 .013
                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.0 m/s‫א‬
                                                                                The Profile‫א‬‫א‬٦{٣
                                     
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                 
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬١W١٠٠٠١W٥٠٠
                                                                      W،E٣{٣F‫א‬،‫א‬
             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬
                        K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬




                                                          - ٧١ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                
    ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    




                          ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣{٣F
                                            Sewer Appurtenances‫א‬٧{٣
                                                                                    Manholes‫א‬
                                     
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                   
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬E٤{٣F
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                                           ‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                             ‫א‬ •
                                                                       ‫א‬ •
                                                                          ‫א‬ •
                                                               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                         ‫א‬ •
                                                                                                       
                                                                            Inlets E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                   - ٧٢ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                
    ‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



‫א‬‫א‬،E٥{٣F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٦{٣F
                                                                      
‫א‬KK‫א‬
                                                                                        KE٧{٣F‫א‬
                                                                                                      


                                                
                                                ‫א‬‫א‬           ‫א‬




                                                



                                                   
                                                         




                                WE٤{٣F




                                                   - ٧٣ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                               
     ‫א‬                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    





                        ‫א‬‫א‬WE٥{٣F‫א‬




                        ‫א‬‫א‬WE٦{٣F‫א‬

                                                                        
                                    
                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬




                           ‫א‬WE٧{٣F‫א‬
                                                   


                                                       - ٧٤ -
       ‫א‬‫א‬                                     ٢٠٧                                             
     ‫א‬                           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                 



                                                             Design of Storm Sewers‫א‬٨{٣
                                        
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                     W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                     
                                       
١W١٠٠٠،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                       K١W٣٠٠٠
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
  
                                            
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                    K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
  
                                                                              
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                       ‫א‬‫א‬ E١
                                                                               KE A F‫א‬‫א‬
                          KE C F‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
                                                                                                  KE t F
                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤
                                                                                           KE i F
                       ‫א‬‫א‬ E٥
                                                                               KE Q = C ⋅ i ⋅ A F‫א‬
                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٦
                                                                                                                           




                                                            - ٧٥ -
     ‫א‬‫א‬                                 ٢٠٧                                           
   ‫א‬                       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               



                                                                                                           WE٥{٣F
                        
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                              W،‫א‬
                                                                                          W‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                     A1 = 1 .55 × 10 − 2 km 2
                                                                     A 2 = 1 .40 × 10 − 2 km 2
                                                                               −2
                                                              A3 = 1 .22 × 10 km
                                                                                   2


                                                                     A 4 = 1 .05 × 10 − 2 km 2
                                                                     A5 = 0 .67 × 10 − 2 km 2
                                                               t = 10 min‫א‬             •
                                                                 C = 0.40 ‫א‬‫א‬         •
                                                                 n = 0.013‫א‬‫א‬            •
                                                  L = 90 m‫• א‬
                                                             2880
                                                 i =             ‫א‬‫א‬              •
                                                            t + 20


                            95   94                    93                      92                    91


                                                                                                                90
                A1                                          A3                                A5




                                           ٢                     ٣                       ٤          ٥
                        ١




                                      A2                                            A4




                                                     - ٧٦ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                                            ٢٠٧                                  
 ‫א‬                                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                                                                                              W‫א‬
                                                                                          W١J ٢‫א‬
                   A = 1.55 ×10−2 km2 = 15500 m 2
                   t = 10 min
                        2880       2880
                  i=           =         = 96 mm / hr = 0.096 m / hr
                       t + 20 10 + 20
                   Q = C ⋅ i ⋅ A = 0.40 × 0.096 × 15500 = 595.2 m3 / hr = 0.1653 m 3 / s
                       94 − 93
                   S=             = 0.011
                          90
                                                                                                              
                            W‫א‬‫א‬،
                                    8       1
                           0.312 3 2
                   Q=           D S
                             n
                                                8
                                0.312 3         1
                  0.1653 =           D (0.011) 2        
                                0.013
                           = (0.0654 ) = 0.36 m = 360 mm
                                      3/8
                   D1− 2
                                                                                                              
                                        2   1
                             0.397 3 2 0.397       2         1
                      V1−2 =      DS =      (0.36) 3 (0.011) 2 = 1.63 m/ s 
                               n       0.013

                                                                                            W٢J ٣‫א‬
              A = 1.55×10−2 + 1.40 ×10−2 = 2.95 ×10−2 km2 = 29500 m2
                          90 1
               t = 10 +      × = 10.92 min ≅ 11 min
                        1.63 60
                   2880 2880
             i=           =         = 92.9 mm / hr = 0.0929 m / hr
                  t + 20 11 + 20
              Q = C ⋅ i ⋅ A = 0.40 × 0.0929× 29500 = 1096.22 m3 / hr = 0.3045 m3 / s
                  93 − 92
              S=           = 0.011
                     90
                             8 1
                   0.312 3 2
              Q=          D S
                      n
                                   8
                         0.312 3          1
             0.3045 =          D (0.011) 2        
                         0.013
              D2 −3 = (0.1204 ) = 0.453 m ≅ 450 mm
                                3/8




                                                              - ٧٧ -
   ‫א‬‫א‬                                            ٢٠٧                                             
 ‫א‬                                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                 



                                                                                                                           
                                     2   1
                         0.397 3 2 0.397         2         1
                V2−3 =        D S =       (0.45) 3 (0.011) 2 = 1.88 m / s 
                           n        0.013
                                                                                                        W٣J ٤‫א‬
              A = 1.55 × 10 −2 + 1.40 × 10 −2 + 1.22 × 10 −2 = 4.17 × 10 −2 km 2 = 41700 m 2
                          90    1
              t = 11 +       ×     = 11.80 min
                        1.88 60
                   2880        2880
             i=           =           = 90.6 mm / hr = 0.0906 m / hr                        
                  t + 20 11.8 + 20
              Q = C ⋅ i ⋅ A = 0.40 × 0.0906 × 41700 = 1096.22 m 3 / hr = 0.42 m 3 / s
                      92 − 91
              S=              = 0.011
                        90
                                      
                                     8       1
                       0 . 312
              Q =              D 3S          2
                           n
                                             8
                         0 . 312                 1
             0 . 42 =            D 3 (0 . 011 ) 2                               
                         0 . 013
                       = (0 . 167 )
                                   3/8
              D 3− 4                   = 0 . 51 m ≅ 500 mm
                                                   
                                 2       1
                        0.397 3 2 0.397         2         1
              V3−4 =         D S =       (0.50) 3 (0.011) 2 = 2.02 m / s 
                          n        0.013

                                                                                                        W٤J ٥‫א‬
                         −2                  −2                −2        −2                −2
        A = 1.55 × 10 + 1.40 × 10 + 1.22 × 10 + 1.05 × = 5.22 × 10 km = 52200 m 2                 2


                      90    1
         t = 11.8 +       × = 12.54 min
                     2.02 60
             2880         2880
       i=           =            = 88.51 mm / hr = 0.08851 m / hr                                                   
            t + 20 12.54 + 20
        Q = C ⋅ i ⋅ A = 0.40 × 0.08851× 52200 = 1848 m 3 / hr = 0.51 m 3 / s
              91 − 90.2
        S=              = 8.888× 10−3
                 90
                                                                                                                           




                                                                - ٧٨ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                              
    ‫א‬                        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                  


                             8       1
                  0 . 312
           Q =              D 3S 2
                      n
                                8

                                         (          )
                                                   1
                      0 . 312
          0 . 51 =           D 3 8 . 888 × 10 − 3 2               
                      0 . 013
           D 4 − 5 = (0 . 225 )
                               3/8
                                   = 0 . 572 m ≅ 570 mm
                                                                                                                    
                             2   1
                                                    (               )
                                                                     1
                      0.397 3 2 0.397         2
            V4−5 =         D S =       (0.57) 3 8.888×10−3           2    = 1.98 m / s 
                        n        0.013

                                                                                                                    
                                     
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                 K1.0 m/s‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                   K300 mm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                          K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •




                                                        - ٧٩ -
                                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
                                                          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                               ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬




٤
         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                          ٢٠٧                                    
   ‫א‬‫א‬          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                                                                   W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬

                                                                                                  W‫א‬‫א‬
                                                      
                                                W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١١
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢
                                          K‫א‬‫א‬ K١٣
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٤

                                   ٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                         
                                                                 ٦W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                                 - ٨١ -
         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٠٧                                  
   ‫א‬‫א‬               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



                                         Introduction١{٤
 ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
                                                                                           W
                                                        
        ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    W‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ א‬K١
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                K
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢
          ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،‫א‬ ‫א‬
        ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        ،‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   W‫א‬  K٣
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ K٤
        ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
                                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                             
                Primary Studies of Sewerage Systems‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢{٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                          K‫א‬
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

                                                      - ٨٢ -
             ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                               
       ‫א‬‫א‬              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                   



                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬
                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                            
                                 Primary Planning of Sewerage Networks‫א‬‫א‬٣{٤
                                                                                   
              ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
                                                                                         
     ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
     ‫א‬KE٤{١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                            

                                 506

                                                                  ‫א‬‫א‬

                             504




                          502




                                


                                 ‫א‬WE١{٤F




                                                         - ٨٣ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                    
  ‫א‬‫א‬                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                                          The profile ‫א‬‫א‬ 4.4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٣{٣F‫א‬
١W١٠٠٠ ١W٥٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ١٠   ‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                              

                                         Design of Sewerage Systems‫א‬‫א‬٥{٤
                                           W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬      ٢٠٠    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬K١
                         K‫א‬١٥٠‫א‬‫א‬
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                       K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                                                                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
                                                                          K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٦
                                                             W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                   K٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬L٩٠
                        ٥٠٠ ٢٠٠   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ L ٨٠
                                                                                        K
                                   K٥٠٠‫א‬‫א‬L٧٥
                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                      - ٨٤ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                 
  ‫א‬‫א‬             ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                 KL٤٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
              KL٣٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
           K٩٠٠‫א‬٠{٠٠٠٨٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬٠{٠٠٣٣‫א‬ K٥
                                                                                                               
                                         Waste Water Flow Rate‫א‬‫א‬٦{٤
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
‫א‬ ‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
                                                                                                     W
                                                                                             ‫א‬
      ٠{٧٥ × ‫א‬‫א‬ × ‫א‬ × ‫א‬‫א‬                   =             E١{٤F


                                 P  × ‫א‬ =                                       E٢{٤F
                                                                                                     W
                                                    2 ≤ P ≤ 6 (Peaking factor)‫א‬W P
                                                                                                               
                                                      W٨٠٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

                                                           5.75
                                                      P=                                               E٣{٤F
                                                           p 0 .2


                                                           W٨٠٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                           
                                                                   18
                                                     P = 1+                                           E٤{٤F
                                                                4 + p 0.5
                                                                                                               
                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬p


                                                     - ٨٥ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                           ٢٠٧                                    
  ‫א‬‫א‬           ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                        



                                                                Design Equation ‫א‬‫א‬٧{٤

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Manning Equation)‫א‬‫א‬
                                                               W،‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                  
                                                   0 .397 2 / 3 1 / 2
                                             v=         D S                                          E٥{٤F
                                                      n
                                                                                                            
                                                   0.312 8 / 3 1 / 2
                                             Q=        D S                                                E٦{٤F
                                                     n
                                                                                                       W
                                                                     (Velocity)ELF‫א‬:v
                                                                              EF‫א‬‫א‬:D
                                                (Hydraulic gradient)‫א‬‫א‬:S

                                                              (Flow)ELF‫א‬:Q

                                   K‫א‬‫א‬٠{٠١٥‫א‬‫א‬٠{٠١٣Z:n
                                                                                                            
          Types of Pipes and its Properties‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨{٤
‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
                     W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                     K‫א‬ K٣
                                                                 K‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
                                                                     K‫א‬ K٥

                                                 - ٨٦ -
          ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٠٧                                
    ‫א‬‫א‬               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



                                                                                W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ١٥٠  ‫א‬   W(Verified clay pipes: VCP) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
         ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬٦٠٠
         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
            E٣{٤F ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
                                                                                          K‫א‬‫א‬
          ٣٠٠W(Plain concrete pipes: PC)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                 K‫א‬
            W(Reinforced concrete pipes: RC) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
                   K‫א‬‫א‬٣٠٠٠٦٠٠‫א‬
         W(Glass fiber reinforced pipes: GRP)‫א‬‫א‬ •
         ٣٠٠٠٦٠٠
                                                                                          K٨٠٠
         ‫א‬W(Polyvinyl chloride pipes: PVC) ‫א‬‫א‬ •
           KE٣{٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،٣٠٠١٥٠




                                                                         
                                    .(VCP)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣{٤F
                                                       




                                                       - ٨٧ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                 
  ‫א‬‫א‬              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     




 
                              K(PVC)‫א‬‫א‬WE٥{٤F
                                         Load and Supporting Strength ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٩{٤

                             W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                 K(Earth load)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                                    K(Live load)‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                    K‫א‬(Bedding)‫א‬ K٣
                                                                K(Load factor)‫א‬ K٤
                                                             K(Factor of safety)‫א‬ K٥
                                                             K(Pipe strength)‫א‬ K٦
                                                                                                            
                                    Determination of Earth Load ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١{٩{٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦{٤F‫א‬
                                                                                                  
                                                 W E = C d WB                                        E٧{٤F
                                                                                                       W
                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:WE
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١{٤F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:W
                                                                                   K‫א‬‫א‬

                                                    - ٨٨ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                     ٢٠٧                                           
‫א‬‫א‬                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               



                           KB = 1.5 D + 300W‫א‬،‫א‬:B
                                                                              K‫א‬:Cd
                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١{٤F
                (kg/m3)‫א‬‫א‬                                     ‫א‬
                        ١٦٠٠                                                         (Dry sand)
                        ١٨٤٠                                                (Ordinary sand)
                        ١٩٢٠                                                         (Wet sand)
                        ١٩٢٠                                                   (Damp sand)
                        ٢٠٨٠                                              (Saturated clay)
                        ١٨٤٠                              (Saturated topsoil)
                        ١٦٠٠                   (Sand and damp topsoil)
                                                                                                                    




            
                         EFEF




                                                          - ٨٩ -
              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                                 
        ‫א‬‫א‬                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                     



                                                                B



                                       H                        WE                        


                                                                  D                       


                                                          EF
                               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J EF،EF،EFWE٦{٤F
                       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧{٤F‫א‬Cd ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                            1 − e −2ku′H / B
                                                      Cd =                                                   E٨{٤F
                                                                2ku′
                                                                                                             W
                                                                             K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:H
           K(Vertical Pressure) ‫א‬(Active internal pressure)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:k
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:u’




    
                                           KCd‫א‬‫א‬WE٧{٤F

                                                            - ٩٠ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                        ٢٠٧                              
‫א‬‫א‬                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



                                K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(ku’)E٢{٤F‫א‬
                                                            
                                 ‫א‬‫א‬ku’E٢{٤F
                  ku’                                          ‫א‬
                        ٠{١٩٢                     (Cohesionless granular soil)
                        ٠{١٦٥                                           (Sand and gravel)
                        ٠{١٥٠                                   (Saturated topsoil)
                        ٠{١٣٠                                                  (Saturated clay)
                        ٠{١١٠                                             (Saturated clay) 
                                                                                                    WE١{٤F
             W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                       K٦٠٠Z‫א‬
                                                                        K٣{٦Z‫א‬
                                                                      K١{٢Z‫א‬
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                          W‫א‬
                                                                           WWE‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                              
                         W E = C d WB
                              1 − e −2 ku ′H / B
                         Cd =
                                  2 ku ′

                        ku’ = 0.11

                        W = 1920 kg/m3

                                 1 − e −2 ( 0.11) 3 / 1.2
                         Cd =                             = 2 .2
                                     2 (0.11)

                        WE = 2.2 × (1920) × (1.2)2 = 6082 kg/m

                                                             - ٩١ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                ٢٠٧                        
  ‫א‬‫א‬                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬            



                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                  Applied Live Load on Pipes ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢{٩{٤
‫א‬K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    KE٨{٤F‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
                                        KE٤{٤FE٣{٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  




                                  
                           K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨{٤F




                                                      - ٩٢ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                             ٢٠٧                                
‫א‬‫א‬             ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



              K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE٣{٤F
                   Proportion of (long) superficial loads pipes in trenches
                                       ‫א‬
                                                           ‫א‬
                 1.00          1.00             1.00                1.00        0.0
                 0.89          0.88             0.86                0.85        0.5
                 0.80          0.77             0.75                0.72        1.0
                 0.72          0.67             0.64                0.61        1.5
                 0.64          0.59             0.55                0.52        2.0
                 0.51          0.45             0.41                0.37        3.0
                 0.41          0.35             0.31                0.27        4.0
                 0.33          0.27             0.23                0.19        5.0
                 0.26          0.20             0.17                0.14        6.0
                 0.17          0.12             0.09                0.07        8.0
                 0.11          0.07             0.05                0.04       10.0
                                                                                                     




                                                 - ٩٣ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                              ٢٠٧                                
‫א‬‫א‬              ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WE٤{٤F
                   Proportion of (short) superficial loads pipes in trenches
                                        ‫א‬
                                                            ‫א‬
                 1.00          1.00              1.00                1.00        0.0
                 0.81            0.79             0.78                 0.77        0.5
                 0.66          0.63              0.61                0.59        1.0
                 0.54          0.51              0.48                0.46        1.5
                 0.44          0.40              0.38                0.35        2.0
                 0.35          0.32              0.29                0.27        2.5
                 0.29          0.25              0.23                0.21        3.0
                 0.19          0.16              0.14                0.12        4.0
                 0.13          0.10              0.09                0.07        5.0
                 0.08          0.06              0.05                0.04        6.0
                 0.04          0.03              0.02                0.02        8.0
                 0.02          0.01              0.01                0.01       10.0
                                                                                                      




                                                  - ٩٤ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                               ٢٠٧                                            
‫א‬‫א‬               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                



                                                                                  Load Factor‫א‬٣{٩{٤

                                                  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                            
                                                [W E  + WL ]
                                      Lf =                                                          E٩{٤F
                                                     WB

                                                                                                              W
                                                                                            ‫א‬WLf
                                                    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WWL
                                .(Three-edge bearing strength) ‫א‬WWB
                                                                  Factor of Safety ‫א‬٤{٩{٤

       W‫א‬FS ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                           FS = 1W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                       FS = 1.25 - 1.5W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
                                                                                                                       


                           Required Bearing Strength for Pipes ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥{٩{٤

                                           W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                            
                                                                ⎛ WE       WL ⎞
                                                   WB = ⎜
                                                         ⎜
                                                                       +       ⎟.FS                           E١٠{٤F
                                                                ⎝ Lf       1.5 ⎟
                                                                               ⎠
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                              W
                                    .(Three-edge bearing strength) ‫א‬WWB



                                                   - ٩٥ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                                  
  ‫א‬‫א‬            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  E٨{٤F  E٥{٤F  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
                                                   K(ASTM)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                  
               K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥{٤F
                           Minimum crushing strength of clay pipe (ASTM)

              Nominal size        Extra strength clay pipe,           Standard strength clay pipe,
                (mm)                   kgf/linear (m)                       kgf/linear (m)

                     100                    2980                                 1790

                     150                    2980                                 1790

                     200                    3270                                 2080

                     250                    3570                                 2380

                     305                    3870                                 2680

                     380                    4320                                 2980

                     460                    4910                                 3270

                     530                    5730                                 3570

                     610                    6550                                 3870

                     690                    6990                                 4170

                     760                    7440                                 4910

                     840                    8190                                 5360

                     915                    8930                                 5960


                                                  - ٩٦ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                   ٢٠٧                                
‫א‬‫א‬                   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦{٤F
                                      K‫א‬‫א‬
   Physical and dimensional requirements for non-reinforced concrete pipes (ASTM)


                         Class 1                           Class 2                      Class 3

 Internal Minimum               Minimum         Minimum          Minimum       Minimum       Minimum
  diam., thickness               strength,      thickness         strength,    thickness      strength,
  (mm)     of wall,            kN/linear m,      of wall,       kN/linear m,    of wall,    kN/linear m,
            (mm)                three-edge        (mm)           three-edge      (mm)        three-edge
                                  bearing                          bearing                     bearing

    100          15.9             21.9             19.0              29.2        22.2            35.0

    150          15.9             21.9             19.0              29.2        25.4            35.0

    200          19.0             21.9             22.2              29.2        28.6            35.0

    250          22.2             23.3             25.4              29.2        31.8            35.0

    310          25.4             26.3             34.9              32.8        44.5            37.9

    380          31.8             29.2             41.3              37.9        47.6            42.2

    460          38.1             32.1             50.8              43.8        57.2            48.1

    530          44.5             35.0             57.2              48.1        69.9            56.2

    610          54.0             37.9             76.2              52.5        95.3            64.2




                                                       - ٩٧ -
      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                  
‫א‬‫א‬                  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧{٤F
                               Supporting strength of concrete pipe

                          Standard strength                                 Extra strength
                       Concrete sewer pipe, C14                        Concrete sewer pipe, C14
                          Safety factor = 1.5                             Safety factor = 1.5
     Bedding
       class
                      D        C         B            A            D          C       B              A
       Load
      factor
                      1.1      1.5       1.9         3.0          1.1        1.5      1.9           3.0
     Internal
     diameter                                  Supporting strength, (kN/m)
     of pipe,
       (mm)
        150           11.68          16.06      20.44 32.12 21.90 29.20 36.50                     58.40

        200           13.14          18.98      23.36 37.96 21.90 29.20 36.50                     58.40

        250           14.60          20.44      26.28 40.88 21.90 29.20 36.50                     58.40

        310           16.06          21.90      27.74 43.80 23.36 32.12 40.88                     65.70

        380           17.52          24.82      32.12 51.10 29.20 40.88 51.10                     80.30

        460           20.44          29.20      36.50 58.40 35.04 48.18 61.32                     96.36

        530           23.36          32.12      40.88 64.24 40.88 55.48 71.54                    113.88

        610           42.82          35.04      43.80 70.08 42.34 58.40 74.46                    116.80




                                                      - ٩٨ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                            ٢٠٧                                
  ‫א‬‫א‬            ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                    



         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨{٤F
                          Design loads for reinforced concrete pipe (ASTM)

                                 Design load, (N/m per mm diameter)
               Class             To produce a 0.25 mm crack                   Ultimate
                  I                        38.3                                 57.4
                  II                       47.9                                 71.8
                 III                       64.6                                 95.8
                 IV                        95.8                                 144.0
                  V                        144.0                                180.0
                                                  
                                                Manholes ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠{٤
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                      W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                                           K‫א‬ K١
                                                           K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                             K‫א‬ K٣
                                         K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                    K‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
 ١٢٠٠   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ،   ‫א‬ 
 ٦٠٠‫א‬‫א‬، ١٢٠ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٢٠٠٧٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٨٠60‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                                                K‫א‬




                                                  - ٩٩ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                 ٢٠٧                                  
  ‫א‬‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      



٦٠K‫א‬،،W
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ٧٠
               W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                                   KE١ × ١F •
                                                           KE١{٢ × ٠{٨F •
                                                         K١‫א‬ •
                                                                                                             
                                                          Water Pressure Testing‫א‬‫א‬١١{٤
  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
                                                 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
                                                                 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
                                                    K‫א‬
                                       K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
        ١٠٠‫א‬ ٣ ٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
                                                                           K‫א‬

                                         Stages of Pipe Construction‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٢{٤
       W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
                                                                                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
                                   
         ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬  K٢
                  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٩{٤F‫א‬
                                                      
                                                 
          ‫א‬‫א‬     ١٠  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K٣
                                 K‫א‬‫א‬،


                                                      - ١٠٠ -
        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                 ٢٠٧                          
  ‫א‬‫א‬                 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬              



       ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K٤
                                                            K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
                                                        K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




                                 




                                 




                                 
                                     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩{٤F

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        ‫א‬‫א‬                                  ٢٠٧                                  
                                         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                      


                                     References
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?E١٩٨٨F‫א‬ K١
                                                                               K،‫א‬
– ‫א‬   ،?‫א‬ ? E١٩٨٢F ‫א‬     K٢
                                                                      K‫א‬،‫א‬


       3. Chin, David A. (1999), “Water Resources Engineering”, Prentice Hall.
       4. Hammer, J. Mark. & Hammer, J. Mark, Jr. (1996) “Water and
             wastewater Technology”, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, inc., New Jersey.
       5. Lin, Shun D. & Lee, C. C. (2001), “Water and Wastewater Calculations
             Manual”, McGraw-Hill Professional.
       6. Mays, Larry W. (2001), “Storm Water Collection Systems Design
             Handbook”, McGraw-Hill Professional.
       7. Mays, Larry W. (1999), “Water Distribution Systems Handbook”,
             McGraw-Hill Professional.
       8. Qasim, Sayed R. (2000), “Edward M. Motley and Guang Zhu. Water
             Works Engineering Planning Design and Operations”, Prentice Hall
             PTR.
       9. Steel, E. W. & Mcghee, Terence J. (1979), “Water Supply and
             Sewerage”, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc.
       10. Streeter, L. Victor & Wylie, E. Benjamin (1979), “Fluid Mechanics”, 7th
             Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc.
       11. Vennard, K. John & Street, L. Robert (1982) “Elementary Fluid
             Mechanics”, 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.




                                                 - ١٠٣ -
 ‫א‬                                                        ٢٠٧                                                          
                                                     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                 




                                                                                                              ‫א‬
                ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
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                                             ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
            ٢٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK١{٢
           ٢٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬2.2
            ٢٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬١{٢{٢
            ٢٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬2.2.2
            ٢٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬٣{٢{٢
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 ‫א‬                                                                            ٢٠٧                                                                                
                                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                                          



  ‫א‬‫א‬
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                                                    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                 




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                                                      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬                                                 



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               ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

            ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

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