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TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS GRADE EIGHT MODEL TEST THREE PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION SECTION A MINI-LECTURE In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Complete the gap-filling task. Some of the gaps below may require a maximum of THREE words. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes. The Importance of Questions For non-native speakers of English who want to participate in group discussions, it is important to be able to ask questions in order to resolve their difficulties. Ⅰ. Causes of Breakdowns in (1) (1)______ 1. On students' part --insufficient command over the (2) of English (2)______ --poor pronunciation 2. On teachers' part --uncertainty of whether his student has asked a question --the students (3) to employ the correct question form (3)______ --the teacher interprets the question as a comment --difficulties arising when the student employs an/a (4) (4)______ question form --the teacher may not know about the (5) of the (5)______ student's difficulty Ⅱ. Specific Questions 1. Begin questions with an/a (6) . (6)______ 2. Be careful to (7) the exact point. (7)______ Ⅲ. Another Reason for the Correct Use of (8) --Politeness (8)______ 1. The students uses the imperative (9) the question (9)______ form when he is nervous or struggling with new subject matter. 2. The teacher may interpret it as (10) and feel angry. (10)______ SECTION B INTERVIEW In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet. Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview. 1. According to Samantha Heller, people tend to eat milk chocolate because [A] it is less bitter than dark chocolate. [B] it is more healthy than dark chocolate. [C] it has special flavor with many nutrients. [D] it is less expensive than dark chocolate. 2. Samantha Heller suggests that to get benefits from chocolate, you may [A] take nutrients out of chocolate. [B] make cocoa powder on your own. [C] make hot chocolate by yourself. [D] consult an expert on chocolate. 3. According to the interview, chemicals contained in green tea actually help [A] refresh one's memory. [B] combat some diseases. [C] revive one's spirits. [D] improve one's physique. 4. Ginger can be used to deal with all of the following diseases or symptoms EXCEPT [A] arthritis. [B] morning sickness. [C] nausea. [D] flu. 5. According to Samantha Heller, people should eat a product from other animals [A] every two days. [B] every other day. [C] together with fruits, [D] in small amounts. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet. Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news. 6. France's highest court halted the final voyage of the Clemenceau because [A] the French President Jacque Chirac has ordered the return of it. [B] some substances on board the ship may harm people's health. [C] the Clemenceau should return to France at the end of the week. [D] the French President is ordering a test to discover what is on board. Questions 7 and 8 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the two questions. Now listen to the news. 7. The man Mr. Cheney accidentally shot and injured is [A] a doctor. [B] a secretary. [C] a lawyer. [D] a leader. 8. The Bush Administration has been accused by Harry Reid of [A] being covert. [B] shielding Dick. [C] being dishonest. [D] attacking the victim. Question 9 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news. 9. Which of the following statements about the American Defense Department is TRUE? [A] It has denied the authenticity of the pictures of abused prisoners. [B] It has supported the decision to stop the publication of the pictures. [C] It has considered the pictures of abused prisoners unacceptable. [D] It has been worrying about the violence incited by the pictures. Question 10 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news. 10. If Reno Preval's supporters exceeded 50~ of the total voters, he would [A] surpass another candidate. [B] be the president of Haiti. [C] avoid a second round runoff. [D] defeat his rival in the first round. PART Ⅱ READING COMPREHENSION In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet. TEXT A There were a number of carved stone figures placed at intervals along the parapets of the old Cathedral; some of them represented angels, others kings and bishops, and nearly all were in attitudes of pious exaltation and composure. But one figure, low down on the cold north side of the building, had neither crown, mitre, nor nimbus, and its face was hard and bitter and downcast; it must be a demon, declared the fat blue pigeons that roosted and sunned themselves all day on the ledges of the parapet; but the old belfry jackdaw, who was an authority on ecclesiastical architecture, said it was a lost soul. And there the matter rested. One autumn day there fluttered on to the Cathedral roof a slender, sweet-voiced bird that had wandered away from the bare fields and thinning hedgerows in search of a winter roosting-place. It tried to rest its tired feet under the shade of a great angel-wing or to nestle in the sculptured folds of a kingly robe, but the fat pigeons hustled it away from wherever it settled, and the noisy sparrow-folk drove it off the ledges. No respectable bird sang with so much feeling they cheeped one to another, and the wanderer had to move on. Only the effigy of the Lost Soul offered a place of refuge. The pigeons did not consider it safe to perch on a projection that leaned so much out of the perpendicular, and was, besides, too much in the shadow. The figure did not cross its hands in the pious attitude of the other graven dignitaries, but its arms were folded as in defiance and their angle made a snug resting-place for the little bird. Every evening it crept trustfully into its corner against the stone breast of the image, and the darkling eyes seemed to keep watch over its slumbers. The lonely bird grew to love its lonely protector, and during the day it would sit from time to time on some rainshoot or other abutment and trill forth its sweetest music in grateful thanks for its nightly shelter. And, it may have been the work of wind and weather, or some other influence, but the wild drawn face seemed gradually to lose some of its hardness and unhappiness. Every day, through the long monotonous hours, the song of his little guest would come up in snatches to the lonely watcher, and at evening, when the vesper-bell was ringing and the great grey bats slid out of their hiding-places in the belfry roof, the brighteyed bird would return, twitter a few sleepy notes, and nestle into the arms that were waiting for him. Those were happy days for the Dark Image. Only the great bell of the Cathedral rang out daily its mocking message, "After joy... sorrow." The folk in the verger's lodge noticed a little brown bird flitting about the Cathedral precincts, and admired its beautiful singing. They were poor, but they understood the principles of political economy. So they caught the bird and put it in a little wicker cage outside the lodge door. That night the little songster was missing from its accustomed haunt, and the Dark Image knew more than ever the bitterness of loneliness. When morning came there floated up to him, through the noise and bustle of the Cathedral world, a faint heart-aching message from the prisoner in the wicker cage far below. And every day, at high noon, the song of the little bird came up to the parapets—a song of hunger and longing and hopelessness, a cry that could never be answered. The pigeons remarked, between mealtimes, that the figure leaned forward more than ever out of the perpendicular. One day no song came up from the little wicker cage. There was a crackling sound in the night on the Cathedral roof and a noise as of falling masonry. The belfry jackdaw said the frost was affecting the fabric, and as he had experienced many frosts it must have been so. In the morning it was seen that the Figure of the Lost Soul had toppled from its cornice and lay now in a broken mass on the dustheap outside the verger's lodge. 11. "And there the matter rested. " in the first paragraph probably means the sullen stone figure [A] was considered a lost soul. [B] was considered a demon. [C] has aroused great controversy. [D] was inconspicuous in the corner. 12. A new bird flied on to the Cathedral roof immediately because [A] it lost its way and intruded into the Cathedral. [B] it acquainted with the fat blue pigeons. [C] it need a nest to spend the coming winter. [D] it was attracted by the great angel-wings. 13. What change has the bird brought to the sullen stone figure? [A] The figure didn't seem to be as bitter as before. [B] The figure began to love its little guest. [C] The figure might be welcomed by other birds. [D] The figure began to cross its hands. 14. It is said that ______ should be blamed for the falling of the figure. [A] the missing bird [B] weather condition [C] the folk in the verger's lodge [D] the pigeons TEXT B For admissions officers reviewing applications is like final-exam week for students--except it lasts for months. Great applications tell us we've done our job well, by attracting top-caliber students. But it's challenging to maintain the frenetic pace without forgetting these are all real people with real aspirations--people whose life stories we are here to unravel, if they will let us. The essay is a key piece of learning those life stories. I live near Los Angeles, where every day screenplays are read without regard for human context. The writer's life and dreams don't matter--all that mat ters is the writing, the ideas, the end product. On the other hand, in reading essays, context does matter: who wrote this? We are driven to put the jigsaw puzzle together because we think we are building a community, not just choosing neat stories. When I pick up a file, I want to know whether the student has siblings or not, who his parents are, where he went to high school. Then I want the essay to help the rest of the application make sense, to humanize all the numbers that flow past. I am looking for insight. A brilliantly written essay may compel me to look beyond superficial shortcomings in an application. But if no recommendation or grade or test score hints at such writing talent, I may succumb to cynicism and assume the writer had help--maybe too much. In the worst cases, I may find that I have read it before--with name and place changed--on the Internet, in an essay-editing service or a "best essays" hook. The most appealing essays take the opportunity to show a voice not rendered homogeneous and pasteurized. But sometimes the essays tell us too much. Pomona offers this instruction with one essay option: "We realize that not everything done in life is about getting into college. Tell us about something you did that was just plain fun." One student grimly reported that nothing was fun because in his family everything was about getting into college. Every activity, course choice and spare moment. It did spark our sympathy, but it almost led to a call to Child Protective Services as well. Perfection isn't required. We have seen phenomenal errors in essays that haven't damaged a student at all. I recall a student who wrote of the July 1969 lunar landing of--I kid you not--Louis Armstrong. I read on, shaking my head. This student was great--a jazz trumpeter who longed to study astronomy. It was a classic slip and perhaps a hurried merging of two personal heroes. He was offered admission, graduated and went on for a PhD in astrophysics. He may not have been as memorable if he had named "Nell" instead of "Louis" in his essay's opening line. Hey, we're human, too. An essay that is rough around the edges may still be compelling. Good ideas make an impression, even when expressed with bad punctuation and spelling errors. Energy and excitement can be communicated. I'm not suggesting the "I came, I saw, I conquered" approach to essay writing, nor the "I saved the world" angle taken by some students who write about community-service projects. I'm talking about smaller moments that are well captured. Essays don't require the life tragedy that so many seem to think is necessary. Not all admission offers come out of sympathy! Admissions officers, even at the most selective institutions, really aren't looking for perfection in 17-and 18-year-olds. We are looking for the human being behind the roster of activities and grades. We are looking for those who can let down their guard just a bit to allow others in. We are looking for people whose egos won't get in the way of learning, students whose investment in ideas and words tells us--in the con-text of their records--that they are aware of a world beyond their own homes, schools, grades and scores. A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. To us, an essay that reveals a student's unaltered voice is worth much, much more. 15. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that [A] reviewing applications is a tedious and exhausting task. [B] there are a lot of applications that need attending to quickly. [C] people tend to tell their life stories in their applications. [D] reviewing applications is a constant headache to the teachers. 16. An admissions officer may doubt whether an excellent essay is written by the applicant himself because [A] there might be some obvious weaknesses in his essay. [B] the officer might see signs of erasure on the essay paper. [C] there is no proof that the applicant has such writing ability. [D] the applicant may not bring his argument to a natural conclusion. 17. The sentence "Hey, we're human, too." in the fifth paragraph implies that [A] man should look before they leap. [B] man might shrink back from difficulties. [C] man should be severe with themselves. [D] it is hard for man to avoid mistakes. 18. Which of the following statements is TRUE about the essay? [A] To admissions officers, the structure of an essay matters much. [B] Admissions officers appreciate an essay full of high-sounding words. [C] Admissions officers expect to read an essay that can really move them. [D] Admissions officers tend to offer admission to students out of pity. 19. Admissions officers are looking for all the following qualities of applicants in the essay EXCEPT [A] open-mindedness. [B] broad-mindedness. [C] frankness. [D] discretion. 20. The main idea of the passage is [A] how to write a good essay in the application for college. [B] how to show the person behind the test scores and grades. [C] how to tell one's life stories in the application for college. [D] how to outdo others in essay writing of the application. TEXT C We have to admire Suzanne Somers's persistence. She doesn't give up--even when virtually the entire medical community is lined up against her. Three years ago, Somers wrote a best-selling book called The Sexy Years in which she promoted so-called bioidentical hormones as a more natural alternative to hormones produced by drug companies for menopausal women. Somers, now 60, claimed that these individually prepared doses of estrogen and other hormones, sold via the Internet or by compounding pharmacies, made her look and feel half her age. As the popularity of bioidenticals soared, major medical organizations like the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists grew so alarmed that they mounted publicity campaigns to convince Somers's readers that these alternative treatments, which are usually custom made for each patient, haven't been proven safe or more effective than traditional hormone therapy for symptoms like hot flashes. This month Somers is at it again with her latest book, Ageless. Subtitled The Naked Truth About Bioidentical Hormones, the cover features a coquettish shot of the actress unclothed from the collarbone up. Inside, she calls bioidenticals "the juice of youth" and also promotes the questionable dosage advice of a former actress and "independent researcher" named T.S. Wiley who thinks menopausal women should have as much estrogen in their bodies as 20-year-olds. Now, even some of the pro-bioidentical doctors Somers quotes in her books are screaming foul. "Many of the claims throughout the book are scientifically unproven and dangerous," three of these doctors assert in a letter sent a few weeks ago to Somers's publisher, Crown. Somers adamantly defends her book and bioidenticals. "From a woman's standpoint, this is the first time we've gotten some relief in a non-drug way," she says in an interview with NEWSWEEK. "Doctors are embarrassed that they don't know about this," Somers says. "When doctors don't have an answer, they like to pooh-pooh it." The word bioidentical is a marketing term, not a scientific one, and it means different things to different people. To most doctors, bioidentical refers to a wide variety of FDA-approved drugs that are virtually identical to the hormones produced by women's ovaries. They come in many forms and doses, some of which have been used for years. Somers uses the term to refer to made-to-order treatments created by compounding pharmacies with dosages usually determined by the results of blood tests every two weeks (the method Somers herself uses), or regular saliva tests, a method most experts say is an unreliable way to measure a women's specific hormone needs. Somers claims that she is so "in touch" with her body's needs that she can "tweak" her hormones even without the benefit of these tests. Proponents of Somers's program say only hormones prepared specifically for each woman can meet her unique needs. But since the Women's Health Initiative, the FDA has approved many new hormone products, including some in very low doses. While the FDA process isn't perfect, it's certainly better than what consumers get with compounding products: no black box warning about side effects, no package insert, no data on relative safety, no check on advertising claims and no manufacturing oversight. Somers says these custom-made treatments are natural and not really drugs. That's just not true. Bioidenticals may start out as wild yams or soybeans, but by the time this plant matter has been converted into hormone therapy, it is in fact a drug. All of these products--whether or not they're approved by the FDA--are chemicals synthesized in a lab. Another thing you should know, there are only a few labs in the world that synthesize these hormones. Everyone--from small compounding pharmacies to big pharmaceutical companies--gets their ingredients from the same places. Somers argues that bioidenticals are safer than FDA-approved hormones even though there are no high-quality studies to prove that assertion. In the absence of any reliable research to the contrary, most women's health experts say it's prudent to assume that all hormone products (FDA-approved or not) carry the same heart disease and cancer risks. 21. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that [A] bioidentical hormones don't live up to the hype. [B] many women show zeal for bioidentical hormones. [C] experts will ask for the ban on bioidentical hormones. [D] many people worry about the safety of bioidenticals. 22. Which of the following statements is TRUE about some doctors Somers quotes in her books? [A] Some doctors turn to support Somers's bioidenticals. [B] Some doctors were in favor of Somers's bioidenticals. [C] Suzanne Somers's new book has some doctors crying good. [D] Some doctors wrote a letter to the magazine named Crown. 23. The word "pooh-pooh" in the third paragraph probably means [A] disdain, [B] loathe. [C] disregard, [D] glorify. 24. The author's attitude towards bioidentical hormones is [A] strong disapproval. [B] slight disapproval. [C] logical paradox. [D] absolute neutrality. 25. According to the author, all the following are the traits of compounding products EXCEPT [A] no scientific data on its safety. [B] no account of therapeutic effects. [C] no surveillance of the advertisement. [D] no supervision on the production. 26. In the passage, the author aims to tell us [A] what differences are there between natural hormones and bioidenticals. [B] why Somers's claims about "natural" hormones are wrong. [C] what Somers's new book Ageless tells us about bioidenticals. [D] why people should be cautious of traditional hormone therapy. TEXT D "I wouldn't want to have someone take my daughter to a hospital for an abortion or something and not tell me. I would kill him if they do that." So much for Arnold Schwarzenegger's typically expressive support for Proposition 73, a constitutional amendment requiring doctors to give parents 48 hours' notice before carrying out an abortion on a girl under 18. Will the voters agree with the governor? His own status erstwhile hedonist turned responsible father of two teenage girls and two pre-teen boys--reflects his state's mixed feelings about sexual politics. California is one of the most sexually liberated states in the nation. It also boasts the fifth-worst rate for teenage abortions and the seventh for teenage pregnancies. In 2000, some 116,000 teenagers in California became pregnant, and almost 44,000 of them chose to have an abortion--including 1,620 under the age of 15. A recent Field Poll showed 45% of respondents in favour of the amendment, 45% against and 10% undecided. The proposition's advocates are careful to argue that supporting parental notification is not the same as opposing abortion full stop. Mr. Schwarzenegger is a "pro-choice Republican" and the proposition would al-tow a minor to petition a court to allow her an abortion without notifying a parent. The real point, they say, is that a 17-year-old girl "can't get an aspirin from the school nurse, get a flu shot, or have a tooth pulled without a parent knowing", but a 13-year-old can have a surgical or chemical abortion without her parents' knowledge. And since a majority of the prospective fathers are over 21, the current system in effect condones statutory rape. Opponents, including the California Nurses Association and Planned Parenthood, are unconvinced. As an editorial in the Los Angeles Times argued: "It's nice to think that all girls feel comfortable talking to their parents about sex, birth control and abortion. Nice, but absurd. "Equally absurd, add other opponents, is the notion that a pregnant teenager from an abusive family will have the gumption to go to court--rather than to some backstreet operator--to seek her abortion. And they suspect the proposition is the start of an effort to ban all abortions: instead of speaking of a fetus, the proposition defines abortion as causing the "death of the unborn child". Just how parental notification would affect the rate of teen pregnancies and abortions is an open question. Some 34 states require some parental involvement in a minor's decision to end a pregnancy, but there is no hard-and-fast correlation with the number of abortions. For example, New Mexico and New Hampshire require no parental notification, but according to the Alan Guttmacher Institute, which studies reproductive health, they ranked 18th and 25th in the rate of teen abortions in 2000. By contrast, Wyoming and Florida, which do have notification laws, ranked 14th and 7th. And even if notification laws deter abortions, they do not seem to deter teen pregnancies: Texas, for example, is ranked 26th in abortions for girls aged 15--19 but fifth in pregnancies for that age group. This last statistic matters for California, where the main problem is teens getting pregnant in the first place. Roughly a quarter of California's 14-year-olds and three-fifths of its 17-year-olds have had sex. True, according to the Public Policy Institute of California, birth rates fell from 73 for every 1,000 15—19-year- olds in 1991 to just 44 in 2001. But California's teenage girls become mothers at between 4 and 12 times the rate of their peers in France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and Japan; the figures for blacks and Latinas in the state are particularly appalling. Whatever your views on abortion, these statistics add up to an awful lot of heartache. 27. Which of the following statements about Arnold Schwarzenegger is TRUE? [A] He has been elected governor of California 10 years ago. [B] He used to attach much importance to personal enjoyment. [C] He has been thinking of solving sexual problems for long. [D] He has troubles with his two daughters and two sons. 28. Some people are in favor of the proposition because they think [A] it may reduce the number of teenage pregnancies. [B] it might protect girls from being raped. [C] the current law is not fair to all girls. [D] the current law is attacked by many parents. 29. Those who are against the proposition suspect that it may lead to [A] a protest of teenage girls. [B] full stop of abortion. [C] more eases of child abuse. [D] serious social problems. 30. The best title for the passage would probably be [A] Hard Decisions to Make. [B] A Constituitonal Amendment. [C] Teenage Pregnancies. [D] The State of California. PART Ⅲ GENERAL KNOWLEDGE There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your answers on your answer sheet. 31. The two newest states which joined the United States are [A] Alaska and Florida. [B] Hawaii and Oregon. [C] Alaska and Hawaii. [D] California and New Mexico. 32. Australia is the world's largest exporter of [A] wheat. [B] wool. [C] meat. [D] dairy products. 33. The majority of French Canadians live in [A] Quebec. [B] Ontario. [C] Newfoundland. [D] Nova Scotia. 34. A New Zealander of European descent is known as a [A] Pakeha. [B] Kiwi. [C] Pukeko. [D] Maori. 35. The Victorian Age was largely an age of prose, eminently represented by Charles Dickens and [A] John Keats. [B] Francis Bacon. [C] William Makepeace Thackeray. [D] George Gordon Byron. 36. Henry David Thoreau's work ______ , has always been regarded as a masterpiece of New England Transcendentalism. [A] Daisy Miller [B] White Fang [C] Walden [D] The Prince and the Pauper 37. From the first novel Sister-Carrie on, ______ set himself to project the American values for what he had found them to be materialistic to the core. [A] Theodore Dreiser [B] Ernest Hemingway [C] John Steinbeck [D] James Baldwin 38. The sounds produced without the vocal cords vibrating are ______ sounds. [A] voiceless [B] voiced [C] vowel [D] consonantal 39. ______ deals with the relationship between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience. [A] Reference [B] Concept [C] Semantics [D] Sense 40. Of the following word-formation processes, ______ is the most productive. [A] clipping [B] blending [C] initialism [D] derivation PART Ⅳ PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed. The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way: For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line. For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "∧" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line. For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "—" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line. Have you ever thought of the similarities between the cinema and the theatre? The cinema has learnt a great deal from the theatre about presentation. Gone are the days when crowds were packed on wooden benches in tumbledown buildings to gape at the antics of silent, jerking figures on a screen, where some poor pianist made (1)______ frantic efforts to translate the drama into music. These days it is quite easier to find a cinema that surpasses a theatre in luxury. Even in (2)______ small easy villages, cinemas are spacious, well lit and well-ventilated places where one can sit for comfort. The projectionist has been (3)______ trained to give the audience time to prepare themselves for the film they are to see. Talk drops to a whisper and then fades out together. (4)______ As soon as the cinema is in darkness, spotlights are focused on the curtains which are drawn slowly apart, often to the accompany of (5)______ music, to reveal the title of the film. Everything has been carefully contrived so that the spectator will never actually see the naked screen which will remind to him all too sharply that what he is about (6)______ to see is nothing merely shadows flickering on a white board. (7)______ However much the cinema tries to simulate from the conditions in a theatre (8)______ , it never fully succeeds. Nothing can be equal to the awe and sense of hushing expectation which is felt by a theatre audience as (9)______ the curtain is slowly risen. (10)______ PART Ⅴ TRANSLATION SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH Translate the following underlined part of the text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. 8 月 17 日的下午，约克逊号邮船无数的窗眼里，飞出五色飘扬的纸带，远远的抛到岸上，任凭送别 的人牵住的时候，我的心是如何的飞扬而凄恻! 痴绝的无数的送别者，在最远的江岸，仅仅牵着这终于断绝的纸条儿，放这庞然大物，载着最重的离 愁，飘然西去! 船上生活，是如何的清新而活泼。除了三餐外，只是随意游戏散步。海上的头三日，我竟完全回到小 孩子的境地中去了，套圈子，抛沙袋，乐此不疲，过后又绝然不玩了。后来自己回想很奇怪，无他，海唤 起了我童年的回忆，海波声中，童心和游伴都跳跃到我脑中来。 SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. We've come a long way with computers already. The interactive children's toy called a Furby has ten times the processing power of the Apollo command module, and there are now so many microchips in an automobile that Chrysler like to joke that they only bother to put wheels on their cars to stop the computers dragging along the highway. In simple terms, the eighties were shaped by cheap microprocessors and the nineties by cheap lasers; the symbol of the eighties was the IC, and the symbol of the nineties is the web. The next decade? Well, that's going to be shaped by very low-cost, very high-performance sensors. We're basically going to attach eyes, ears and sensory organs to our computers and ask them to observe and manipulate the physical world on our behalf. Processors and sensors are going to be everywhere: helping McDonalds to keep your French fries consistent the whole world around by embedding networked sensors in their frying machines; telling Coca-Cola when a vending machine is broken or empty; and helping diabetics with subcutaneous microdelivery systems for insulin which deliver medication on a precise schedule. PART Ⅵ WRITING There are certainly many teachers in a university, but different teachers teach in different ways. However, there is a growing trend among students to expect teachers to make their teaching enjoyable, adding some jokes in the process of teaching, for example. Do you think this expectation is reasonable? Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic: Enjoyable Teaching In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the a hove instruction may result in a loss of marks. Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR. Key to Model Test Three PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION SECTION A MINI-LECTURE 1. Communication 2. grammar and vocabulary 3. fail 4. appropriate/proper 5. source 6. introductory statement 7. locate/speak out 8. the Question Form 9. instead of/rather than 10. rudeness SECTION B INTERVIEW 1. [A] 2. [C] 3. [B] 4. [D] 5. [D] SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST 6. [B] 7. [C] 8. [A] 9. [D] 10. [C] PART Ⅱ READING COMPREHENSION TEXT A 11．[A]。语义理解题。由题干定位至首段。在指出教堂里主要的雕像之后，作者提到位于最北面的一个雕 像：面带痛苦，神情阴郁。在栏杆架上栖息，在那儿终日晒太阳的肥鸽子说，那是一个魔鬼。而作为教堂 建筑权威的钟楼寒鸦说，那是一个迷失的魂灵。之后出现了 And there the matter rested．这个表达，从前面 的 an authority 可以推断，既然寒鸦是权威人士，它说的话自然会具有权威性，因此可以判断这个人物被认 为是一个迷失的魂灵，故[A]为答案，排除[B]。虽然鸽子和寒鸦对这个人物的看法不同，但不能由此推断 出存在很大争议，排除[C]。[D]未提及，无根据。 12．[A]。细节题。由题干中的 Cathedral roof 定位至第二段。首句指出；秋日的一天，一只纤细的、叫声 悦耳的鸟飞到了教堂屋顶上。它从荒地，稀松的灌木篱墙飞出去寻找越冬的栖息地时迷了路。可见[A]是原 因，故为答案。[C]是这只鸟飞到教堂屋顶的间接原因，非直接原因，排除。[B]和[D]在文中未提及，无根 据。 13．[A]。推断题。按照题目顺序定位至第三段。在前文对小鸟栖息在雕像上之后的表现进行了描述之后， 作者指出雕像的变化：可能是风和天气的原因，也可能是受到其他影响，那张表情痛苦的脸上似乎渐渐地 少了些苦难和不快乐。联系上下文我们可以推断，这种变化应该是小鸟带给它的，故[A]为答案。第五句指 出：这只孤独的鸟开始爱上了自己孤独的保护者，[B]将主语和宾语置换，与原文矛盾，排除。第二句指出： 该雕像不像其他那些雕像一样，双手交叉…，后面也没有提及姿势发生了变化，排除[D]。这里没有提及其 他鸟对该雕像的态度是否有变化，[C]无依据。 14．[B]。细节题。按照试题顺序定位至最后两段，第四段末句提到 the figure leaned forward more than ever out of the perpendicular(雕像身体前倾)，由此可以判断有关 the failing of the figure 的内容应该是在末段。第 二句首先提到 a crackling sound，然后寒鸦解释说“霜影响了建筑物” ，末句指出：第二天早晨，人们看见 那尊雕像从檐口倾倒下来， 倒在门房外的垃圾堆上， 变成了碎片。 可见， 这里提到的雕像倾倒的原因是 “天 气原因” ，其他三项均未提及。虽然由文章我们可以推断出雕像可能由于鸟儿的离开而心碎坍塌，但是这 里问的是文中人物的看法，而非读者体会到的内容，故排除[A]。 TEXT B 15． [B]。 推断题。 首段首句指出： reviewing applications is like final-exam week for students—except it lasts for months， 可见 applications 非常之多， 这里没有提到这项工作沉闷、 累人， [A]不符合文意。 [D]中的 “constant” 意为“持续的” ，过于绝对，与 it lasts for months 矛盾，故排除。第三句中的 the frenetic pace 与[B]“need attending to quickly”意思一致，故[B]为答案。末句提到 people whose life stories we are here to unravel，这 里是说录取官员要火眼金睛，从学生们的申请材料中发现他们的生活轨迹，[C]不符合文意，排除。 16． 细节题。 [C]。 第三段第二句指出： if no recommendation or grade or test score hints at such writing talent, But I may succumb to cynicism and assume the writer had help—maybe too much。可见录取官员需要看到推荐信， 学业成绩或考试成绩，证明该申请人有极好的写作能力，才会相信一篇好文章是该学生自己写的。故[C] 为答案，[A]是对首句的曲解，不符合文意。 17．[D]。语义理解题。首句点明：Perfection isn't required．接下来给出例子：一个学生将 1969 年登月的 宇航员名字记错了，但还是被录取了，后来读了博士学位。可见段末那句话的意思是说：人无完人，犯错 很正常。故[D]为答案．[A]“三思而后行” ；[B]“知难而退”和[C]“严于律己”与此处语境无关，排除。 18． [C]。 细节题。 根据题目顺序定位至倒数第二段。 第二句提到： Good ideas make an impression, even when expressed with bad punctuation and spelling errors．此处没有涉及文章结构，排除[A]。第四句指出录取老师 不喜欢的两种文章类型：the "I came, I saw, I conquered" approach 和 the "I saved the world" angle，[B]与此矛 盾，排除。末句指出“Not all admission offers come out of sympathy!”这是对前一段中所举例子的说明，提 醒考生要靠实力而不是靠录取官员的同情进入大学。 可见[D]与原文矛盾， 排除。 第五句的 “I'm talking about smaller moments that are well captured”与[C]一致，故为答案。 19． [D]。 推断题。 由题干中的 looking for 定位至末段。 第四句中的 We are looking for people whose egos won't get in the way of learning 表明[B]符合文意。 该句中的 they are aware of a world beyond their own homes...与[A] 意思一致。末句中的 a student's unaltered voice is worth much 表明录取官员看重学生的坦诚，[C]符合文意。 只有[D]“审慎”未提及，故为答案。 20．[B]。主旨题。文章开篇引入主题，首段指出录取官员需要从考生的申请材料中看出他们的生活轨迹。 在之后各段中作者反复提到文章的内容，令人信服的证明材料(推荐信、成绩单等)，独特的观点，打动人 的论述非常重要。最后再次强调录取官员看重的是文章中反映出来的品质。这里作者告诉考生录取官员们 看重的是考生作为人这个整体，而不仅仅是分数，故[B]为答案。[A]具有强干扰性，本文没有介绍写申请 材料文章的步骤，故排除。 TEXT C 21．[B]。推断题。首段第五句提到：As the popularity of bioidenticals soared...，由此可以推断 bioidentical hormones 非常受欢迎，既然该药物是针对更年期女性的，因此其受众群应为女性，故[B]为答案。此处未 提及对该药物进行大肆宣传，排除[A]。末句提到医学专家提醒消费者该药物还没有被证实是安全的，[C] 不符合文意。末句指出一些大的医疗机构对 bioidenticals 的流行感到担忧，他们发动宣传，让 Somers 的读 者相信这种替代疗法的安全性还没有得到证实，可见对此表示担心的是医疗机构，非[D]中的“许多人” ， 排除。 22．[B]。细节题。由题干中的 doctors Somers quotes 定位至第二段。第四句指出：Now, even some of the probioidentical doctors Somers quotes in her books are screaming foul. [A]和[C]不符合文意，排除。其中的 probioidentical 表明这些医生以前是支持 bioidenticals 的， [B]符合文意， 故为答案。 第五句中的 three of these doctors assert in a letter sent a few weeks ago to Somers's publisher, Crown 表明[D]不符合文意。 23．[A]。语义理解题。由题干定位至第三段。该句是 Somers 为自己受到批评而进行的辩护：When doctors don't have an answer, they like to pooh-pooh it.显然这里的 pooh-pooh 有负面含义，排除[D]。由于医生们明确 表示了反对，[C]“忽视，漠视”不符合文意，排除。从前面内容来看，医生们只是对她的观点提出质疑， 并非水火不容的敌对状态，[B]“憎恨”程度过重，排除。只有[A]“鄙视，不屑”符合语境，故为答案。 24．[A]。态度题。第四段首句指出：The word bioidentical is a marketing term, not a scientific one。可见作者 认为 bioidentical 没有经过科学论证。此外，第五段第三句指出；While the FDA process isn't perfect, it's certainly better than what consumers get with compounding products...最后几段都是对 Somers 说法的驳斥，可 见作者明确反对 Somers 的观点，故[A]为答案。 25． 细节题． [B]。 第五段末句指出 compounding products 与经过 FDA 验证了的药物的区别， 其中提到 no black box warning about side effects，这里是说副作用，不是疗效，[B]不符合文意，故为答案。其他几项均有提 及，符合文意。 26．[B]。主旨题。在开篇介绍了 Somers 的观点之后，作者提到很多反对的声音，指出医生们的担心。最 后三段中，作者就 Somers 支持者的观点进行驳斥，认为 Somers 所宣扬的自然荷尔蒙 bioidenticals 不安全， 可能对人体存在副作用。可见作者的目的是为了驳斥 Somers 的观点，即指出她观点的错误之处，故[B]为 答案。 [A]、[C]都是部分内容，不全面。[D]与作者观点相悖，排除。 TEXT D 27．[B]．细节题．由题干中的 Arnold Schwarzenegger 定位至首段。该段提到一个新的宪法修正案，并未 提到施瓦辛格的其他情况，继续浏览第二段。第二句中的 erstwhile hedonist(以前的享乐主义者)与[B]一致， 故[B]为答案。首句提到他是州长，但并未提及他任职有多久了，[A]与文意不符。 28． [C]。 细节题。 由题干中的 proposition 定位至第三段， 该段指出支持者的观点。 倒数第二句； 17-year-old a girl "can't get an aspirin from the school nurse... but a 13-year-old can have a surgical or chemical abortion without her parents' knowledge。此外末句中的“现在的法律赦免了法定的强奸” ，可见他们认为现在的法律 不公平，故[C]为答案。 29．[B]。细节题。题干中的 against 与第四段中的 opponent 属于同一语义场，定位至该段。末句指出：they suspect the proposition is the start of an effort to ban all abortions，故[B]为答案。 30．[A]。主旨题。文章开篇指出一项新的宪法修正案，之后介绍加州十几岁的少女怀孕的人数非常多。对 于 18 岁以下少女流产必须要经过父母认可这项法案存在支持和反对两种声音。最后作者用其他州的数据 来说明全文末句；Whatever your views on abortion, these statistics add up to an awful lot of heartache. [A]符合 文意，故为答案。全文重点是对该修正案的讨论，非修正案本身，排除[B]。[C]是争论想要解决的问题， 非本文主旨，排除。 PART Ⅲ GENERAL KNOWLEDGE 31．[C]。本题考查美国历史知识。美国共有 50 个州，Alaska(阿拉斯加州)位于北美洲最西北部，1959 年 被纳为第 49 个州，是联邦中面积最大的州。Hawaii(夏威夷州)位于太平洋中部，由夏威夷群岛组成，1900 年成为美国领土，1959 年被纳为美国第 50 个州。 32．[B]。本题考查澳大利亚背景知识。澳大利亚的养羊业发达，有“骑在羊背上的国家”之称。澳大利亚 是全球最大的羊毛生产和出口国。 33．[A]。本题考查加拿大地理知识。魁北克是加拿大一座法兰西风味浓郁、历史悠久的文化名城，是加拿 大唯一以法语为官方语言的省份，也是加拿大法裔的主要居住地。 34．[A]。本题考查新西兰历史知识。Maori(毛利人)是新西兰的原住民。Pakeha(白种人)是指祖先是欧洲人 的新西兰人。Kiwi(几维)鸟是尾巴翅膀极短不会飞的鸟，非常珍贵，只在新西兰僻静的丛林里才能见到， 所以成为新西兰的国鸟。Kiwi 鸟为新西兰人骄傲，新西兰人也自称为 Kiwi。Aborigines(原住民)是澳大利 亚土著居民。 35．[C]。本题考查英国文学流派。William Makepeace Thackery(萨克雷，1811-1863)是维多利亚时期的代表 作家，其主要作品有 The Book of Snobs(《势利者集》)、Vanity Fair(《名利场》)等。John Keats(约翰·济 兹， 1795—1821)是浪漫主义时期作家，代表作有 Ode to a Nightingale(《夜莺颂》)、To Autumn(《秋颂》)。 Francis Bacon(培根，1561—1626)是文艺复兴时期作家，作品有 Advancement of Learning(《学术的进展》)、 New Atlantic(《新大西岛》)、Essays(《论文集》)。George Gordon Byron(乔治·拜伦，1788—1824)也是浪 漫主义时期作家，其代表作有 Hours of Idleness(《懒散的时刻》)，Manfred(《曼弗霄德》)等． 36．[C]。本题考查美国文学作品。Henry David Thoreau(亨利·大卫·梭罗，1817—1862)是美国超验主义 作家，是“湖畔诗人” ，其代表作有 Walden(《瓦尔登湖》)，Resistance to Civil Government(《抵制公民政 府》)等。 Daisy Miller(《苔瑟·米乐》)是美国现实主义作家 Henry James(享利，詹姆斯，1843—1916)的 小说，其作品还有 The Portrait of a Lady(《贵妇人画像》)等。White Fang(《白獠牙》)是美国自然主义作家 Jack London(杰克· 伦敦， 1876—1916)的作品。 《野性的呼唤》 The Sea 其代表作还有 The Call of the Wild( )， wolf (《海狼》)等。Mark Twain(马克·吐温)标志着美国文学的一大里程碑，其代表作有 The Adventures of 《 Tom Sawyer( 汤姆· 《 索耶历险记》 The Prince and the Pauper( 王子与贫儿》 The Adventures of Huckleberry )， )， Finn(《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》)等。 37．[A]。本题考查美国文学作品。在第一部小说《嘉莉妹妹》出版过后，Theodore Preiser(西奥多·德莱 塞， 1871—1945)一直把美国的价值观推向彻底的物质享受主义。其代表作还有被称为美国最伟大的小说 的 An American Tragedy(《美国悲剧》)。Ernest Hemingway(欧内斯特·海明威，1899—1961)是“迷惘的 一代”的代表人物，其作品有 The Sun Also Rises(《太阳照样升起》)，Farewell to Arms(《永别了，武器》)， For Whom the Bell Tolls(《丧钟为谁而鸣》)等。John Steinbeck(约翰·斯坦贝克，1902—1968)是美国短篇小 说作家，最著名作品的作品是 The Grapes of Wrath(《愤怒的葡萄》)，他获得 1962 年诺贝尔文学奖。James Baldwin(詹姆斯·鲍德温，1924—1987)是美国作家，种族主义批评家。其代表作为 Go Tell It on the Mountain(《向苍天呼吁》)，Note of a Native Son(《土生子的笔记》)。 38．[A]。本题考查语音学基本概念。咽腔内最重要的发音器官是位于喉头的声带，发音时声带在气流的冲 击下发生颤动决定了声音的浊音化(voicing)。浊音化是所有元音以及部分辅音，如[b]，[g]，[m]等所具有 的特性。声带不发生颤动所发出的音是清音(voiceless)，如[t]，[k]，[f]等。 39．[A]。本题考查语言学概念。所指(reference)是词汇在特定的语境中所指称的具体事物。它是关于语言 与非语言的客观世界之间的关系。例如：The boy is crying．在这个例子中，boy 一定是有所指的，特指一 个交际活动中交际者都知道的那个“男孩” 。这就是在这个特定的交际情景中“男孩”的所指。 40．[D]。本题考查词汇学基本概念。词汇学构词法中最常见的是 compounding(合成法)，derivation(派生法) 和 conversion(转换法)这三种构词方法。此外，其他一些构词法包括 blending(拼缀法)，clipping(剪裁法)， initialism(首字母缩略法)，back-formation(逆序构词法)等。与前三种构词法相比，其他构词法构成的词汇数 量要少得多。 PART Ⅳ PROOFREADING & ERRORCORRECTION 1．where→while 语义衔接错误。本句前半句意为：过去的日子已经一去不复返了，那时人们在摇摇欲坠的房子里挤坐 在木板凳上，目瞪口呆地看着银幕上无声的、闪动的人物的滑稽动作。后面部分意为：某个可怜的钢琴师 兴奋地将戏剧用音乐表现出来。这里钢琴师是真实存在的，不是银幕里的人物，因此后面部分不是 screen 的定语从句。从语义可以判断， 这里表示观众看无声电影和钢琴师演奏音乐两件事同时进行，因此用 while 符合语义逻辑关系。 2．easier→easy 形容词比较级误用。句中提到 cinema 和 theatre，已明确指出其豪华程度的优劣，没有其他比较关系， 无需使用比较级。本句意为：如今，很容易就能找到豪华程度超过剧院的电影院。 3．for→in 介词错误。这里 sit in comfort 是指“舒舒服服地坐着” ，comfort 不是 sit 的目的，不使用 for。本句意 为：即使在小村庄里，电影院也宽敞明亮，通风良好，人们可以舒舒服服地坐着。 4．together→altogether 副词误用。本句意为：交谈变成了耳语，之后声音彻底消失了。together 意为“一起，共同” ，例如： The children played together in the street. altogether 有 entirely 或 completely 之意， 例如： not altogether sure He's what to do.他全然不知该怎么做。显然，这里是说声音由大变小，最后完全消失了，故用 altogether。 5．accompany→accompaniment 词性错误。 此处定冠词后要求使用名词， accompany 为动词， 改成其对应的名词 accompaniment(伴奏)。 本句意为：影院一黑下来，聚光灯就打到屏幕上，屏幕缓缓拉开，通常在音乐的伴奏下，打出影片名。 6．remind to→去掉 to 介词赘述。remind 为及物动词，常用于 remind sb. of sth．或 remind sb．to do sth., remind sb. that，例 如： Please remind me that I must call her up before nine．请提醒我九点前给她打个电话。本句意为：一切都 经过认真构思，这样观众就不会看到空空的银幕，让他突然意识到…。 7．nothing merely→去掉 nothing 代词赘述。 本句意为： …让他突然意识到他将看到的不过是在一块白板上闪动的影子而已。 这里 nothing 多余，删除。 8．simulate from→去掉 from 介词赘述。 simulate 意为 “模仿， ， 模拟” 为及物动词， 例如： shook a sheet of metal to simulate the noise He of thunder．他摇动金属薄片来模拟雷声。此处去掉后面的 from，本句意为：不论电影院多么努力地去模仿 剧院的环境，都不能完全成功。 9．hushing→hushed 非谓语动词误用。现在分词用作定语表示进行，过去分词表示完成。此处后面的名词中心词为 expectation，从句意分析，剧院里的人们满怀敬畏之心，安静地期待着戏剧开演，显然这里是指已经安静 下来，应使用过去分词，表示完成。 10．risen→raised 形近词误用。rise 为不及物动词，不能用于被动语态。raise 为及物动词，可用于被动语态。 PART Ⅴ TRANSLATION SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH 参考译文 Those sentimental individuals, standing in large numbers on the increasingly distant shore, could only hold on to the paper streamers until they would eventually break, reluctantly letting the iron mammoth sail westward, loaded down as it was with the heavy grief of parting! Daily life on the ship was refreshing and active. Outside of the three meals, all my time was spent playing games and taking walks on the decks as I pleased. For the first three days, I seemed to have totally reverted to my childhood. I tossed rings and small beanbags, never tiring of playing these games. Then three days later, I cut all connection with such pastimes. As I recalled it all later, I felt very strange though there was nothing more to it than this: The sea had unmoored my childhood memories, and midst the sound of the surging waves, a sense of childlike innocence and my young playmates flooded my mind. SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE 参考译文 我们在计算机技术方面已经取得了巨大进步。一种名为 Furby 的交互式儿童玩具的处理能力是当年阿 波罗号宇宙飞船指令舱处理器的十倍。现在的汽车上都装有大量微型芯片，所以克莱斯勒公司的人喜欢开 玩笑说，他们之所以要给自己出的汽车装上轮子，不过是免得让计算机自己在公路上拖着地走。 简而言之，左右八十年代的是廉价徽处理器，左右九十年代的是廉价激光技术；八十年代的象征是集 成电路，九十年代的象征是网络。下一个十年呢?左右下一个十年的将是造价极低、性能极高的传感器。 简要地说，我们要给计算机装上眼睛、耳朵和感觉器官，让机器替我们观察和处理物质世界。 处理器和传感器会到处都是：给麦当劳店的油炸机装上联网的传感器，可以保证你在全世界任何麦当 劳店都吃到炸得同样好的薯条；可口可乐公司的售货机要是坏了或空了，公司会自动得到通知；给糖尿病 患者装上胰岛素皮下微输药系统，可以做到用药的时间和计量精确。 PART Ⅵ WRITING Enjoyable Teaching Nowadays there is often a misunderstanding between teachers and students. Frustrated teachers often com- plain about their students' carelessness in class, while many students say that their teachers' way of teaching is so boring. Thus efficient teaching is a constant challenge for instruction that is stimulating, interactive and lively. In my opinion, enjoyable teaching is the only way to render teaching efficient. Firstly, enjoyable teaching can help to establish a good teacher-student relationship. University students should not only acquire knowledge, but also learn to grow up to be a man and therefore university should also be a place where teachers and students learn to be friends. If a teacher just talk about knowledge in class and pays no attention to students' interests and feelings, it must be horrible for students. So teachers should try to include something in each class period that is fun for their students. This provides the opportunity for a vibrant learning environment with some good learning outcomes. A good teacher-student relationship will make learning enjoyable and interesting for the students and teaching worth-while for a teacher. Secondly, enjoyable teaching is beneficial to teachers. Teaching means assisting and guiding rather than filling knowledge into a supposedly empty head. And knowledge is the wisdom, experience accumulated from people, by people and for people. Since knowledge is acquired most in a natural and effective way, an enthusiasm for a subject can provide students with internal and permanent motivation. So teachers may get twice the result and half the effort. The last and greatest benefit, of course, should go to students. Enjoyable teaching may arouse the students' interest. If teachers try to add some jokes in the process of teaching, the class atmosphere will be more relaxed and students can surely learn willingly and happily. Besides, enjoyable teaching may help students to remember what they are suggested to learn. University courses are usually about some complex and abstract topics, so students usually find it difficult to remember all those tedious things. Enjoyable teaching may help students to concentrate on the lecture, consequently to remember the content. It is true that making instruction enjoyable may spoil the atmosphere necessary for serious learning. Some are afraid that this type of "merry teaching" may be mile wide but inch deep. But it is equally true that enjoyable teaching may establish a good teacher-student relationship, benefit teachers as well as students. In conclusion, enjoyable teaching can be mutually beneficial. The students gain knowledge eagerly and enjoyably and the teacher gains satisfaction from his job. PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION SECTION A MINI-LECTURE Non-native speakers of English, like their native counterparts, usually find that the opportunity to participate in group discussions is one of the most valuable aspects in their whole academic programme. But in order to obtain full value from this type of activity the student must Be proficient in asking questions. If he isn't, then any attempt to resolve his difficulties may lead to further confusion, if not considerable embarrassment. Some students who are not fluent in the language find that in the early stages of their course there are frequent breakdowns in communication. There are, of course, many possible explanations for this. The student may not have a sufficient command over the grammar and vocabulary of English to enable him to express himself clearly. He may, on the other hand, have a poor pronunciation. Factors such as these, of course, require urgent and persistent attention on the part of the student. But a very frequent cause of misunderstanding in discussion sessions and one which can much more easily be put right, is the teacher's uncertainty whether his student has, in fact, asked a question at all. What often happens is as follows. The student, puzzled about a particular point, decides to ask a question. As so often happens when under pressure, he tends to concentrate most of his attention on the subject matter and he pays practically no attention to the language. Consequently he fails to employ the correct question form. For example, he may use a statement form instead. The result is predictable. The teacher interprets the intended question as a comment. He then either agrees or disagrees with it, or he continues with what he was saying before. However, even when the student does employ an appropriate question form, difficulties may still arise. The teacher may not know, for example, what the source of the student's difficulty is. The basic difficulty may, in fact, be one of the several different types. It may lie in the student's limited aural perception, in other words, the student may not have clearly heard what was said; or it may lie in his insufficient linguistic knowledge, that is to say, he may not have understood the English that his teacher employed; or alternatively, it may lie in his lack of knowledge of the subject matter itself, i.e. he may not have worked out the meaning of a point in relation to the special subject. Each type of difficulty requires a different kind of question. If the student, for example, does not clearly specify that his difficulty is that he did not quite catch what was said, then the teacher is quite likely to give an explanation in terms of the subject matter. All what is really necessary in such cases is a simple repetition of the original statement. Next, a student must ensure that his teacher is clear about exactly which point he is referring to. To put it in another way, the question must be specific. In order to be absolutely precise, it is a good idea if students preface their questions with an introductory statement. They might say, for example, something like the following : "I don't understand the point you made at the beginning of the discussion about cost inflation. Could you explain it again please?" The teacher is always in a position to give a satisfactory answer to this form of question without any waste of time. He knows what type of difficulty the student has-one of subject matter. He knows where the difficulty occurs—at the beginning of the discussion. And he knows precisely what point the student refers to—cost inflation. Perhaps, before concluding, one further example may be helpful. When a student is given the Opportunity to ask questions on a text, he must be particularly careful to locate the exact point. Thus, "Page 3, three lines from the top, the word 'straightforward'. Would you explain it to me please?" is clearly a better question than the utterance and the nature of the difficulty. All this is, of course, common sense, but it is surprising how often students ignore it. Finally, one point should be mentioned before we leave this subject. The correct use of the question form is important for another reason than basic communication. It is often necessary to employ it because not to do so would be rude. The non-native speaker is normally well aware of this, but when he is nervous and is struggling with new subject matter in a foreign language, he may sometimes find himself using the imperative instead of the interrogative form. Learners of English have, for example, said to me such things as "See me here tomorrow" or "Explain this". Fortunately, as I dealt with non-native speakers and as I understand their language problems, I interpret this as inadequacy in the language rather than rudeness. Other teachers, however, may feel angry at receiving such orders. It is important, therefore, to practice the necessary question forms in order to avoid such problems. SECTION B INTERVIEW M: Though should chocolate lovers everywhere be rejoicing today, Samantha Heller is a contributing editor of Health Magazine and a clinical nutritionist at New York University Medical Center. Hey Samantha, good morning. W: Good morning. M: People tend to do the one plus one equals two, and consider things OK. I just heard this news and I'm going out buying a lot of chocolate. Bad idea? W: It's a bad idea. And the reason is that the way we process chocolate in this country--the way we dilute with a lot of sugar and fat takes out a lot of the healthy compounds. M: And I am basically talking about that dark chocolate is good for you. In this country there are more people who tend to consume milk chocolate. W: That's right. That's diluted and it's treated to take the bitterness of dark chocolate out. And that's also taking out the healthy compound that's in it. You can take, like cocoa powder and make your own hot chocolate and you're getting some of the benefits. M: But you don't dispute the fact that this flavonoid seeder found in chocolate may be beneficial to health. W: It may absolutely be beneficial but what we are finding out in research is when you isolate a compound from food that's healthy in the food, it may not have the effect by itself in your body that we would anticipate. M: So, more research needs to be done? W: So much more research, yes. M: While we have you here, we wanna talk about some other foods in the news if you will. I've been hearing so much. Really this has been in the last couple of years. Green tea. Everybody is talking about it. You've seen it in advertise. People I know have said that stop drinking coffee in the morning, I'm drinking green tea. What's the potential benefit here? W: Green tea is packed with polyphenols. These are chemicals that actually help fight disease, high in anti-oxidants. Green tea has been showing to be anti-carcinogenic, anti-tumorgenic and may even help prevent cavities. M: No caffeine? Is there caffeine? W: There is some caffeine sure. M: So by switching from coffee to green tea in the morning might we be doing some, helping ourselves? W: You certainly might be. I don't think you will get the caffeine kick that you get from coffee, but the green tea is a great choice. M: Alright, we've got a couple of other things we wanna talk about. First is ginger. What's the benefit to ginger? W: Ginger, again, anti-nausea, anti-motion sickness. M: Actually a lot of pregnant women use ginger for morning sickness. W: Yeah. It's great for that. You can have ginger tea. It's versatile and also some of the anti-inflammatories may be good for people with arthritis. M: Is this turmeric? W: Yes. It's the bright yellow spice in here. And there's a compound called curcumin which has been shown to fight cancer. It's very potent, very strong. M: We all know that fruits and vegetables are good for us, but you in particular wanna just mention today the cruciferous. That's the vegetables which are things like broccoli and Brussels sprouts. W: That's right. Now these have compounds called indoles and others that are very anti-cancergenic, protect against stomach, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer and may help detoxify the liver disease. These are very important, very helpful. M: Down on the end of the table, I just wanna say here basically you say anything that comes or as a product from other animals is not good except in small amounts. W: That's right. And the reason is that it has artery-clogging fat, saturated fat, not good for you. But the lower, non-fat choices are good. Fat-free ice cream, cheese, etc. M: And just as a way of event ending here, for years, when I was feeling that I was getting a cold, I started taking Echinacea though I never felt better. And now we are hearing word that perhaps I wasn't alone. W: Well, you are not alone, but actually with Echinacea, they were looking at colds that may have effects on respiratory. We are not sure yet and there are different kinds of Echinacea. M: Alright, Samantha Heller, thanks very much. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST Question 6 is based on the following news. The French President Jacque Chirac has ordered the return to port of a decommissioned aircraft carrier after the highest court in France halted its final voyage to an Indian scrap yard. Environmental groups including Green- peace say that asbestos on board the ship the Clemenceau will be a health hazard to any workers involved in dismantling it. The Clemenceau has proved a toxic headache for France, with this just the latest chapter in a series of embarrassments. Now, France's highest court has issued a ruling, ordering the transfer to be suspended and President Chirac has agreed that the Clemenceau should return to France until a definitive solution is found. The issue had already begun to overshadow his visit to India due at the end of this week. The French President is also ordering test to discover exactly how much asbestos is still on board. Questions 7 and 8 are based on the following news. The American Vice President Dick Cheney has said he accepts full responsibility for accidentally shooting and injuring a fellow hunter over the weekend. Mr. Cheney has been coming under increasing pressure over the incident. The White House did not report the shooting until a day after it took place. And the Democratic Party's leader in the Senate, Harry Reid, has accused the Bush Administration of being secretive. Harry Whittington, the elderly lawyer who was shot by Mr. Cheney has since suffered a minor heart attack at the hospital in Texas where he is being treated. In his first comment since the incident, Mr. Cheney said he had shot a friend. "Ultimately, I am the guy who pulled the trigger that fired the round to hit Harry. And, you can talk about all of the other conditions that existed at the time, but that's the bottom line. And there was no... That was not Harry's fault. You can't blame anybody else." Question 9 is based on the following news. The United States has strongly criticized the broadcast of previously unseen images of alleged prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq. The images, which show prisoners apparently being tortured and humiliated, have been shown on television stations across the world. The American Defense Department confirmed the authenticity of the pictures, but said releasing them could only serve to incite unnecessary violence. The American authorities are very unhappy that these new disturbing images from Abu Ghraib have seen the light of day. The State Department has dismissed them as disgusting and defended the US government's decision to try and stop their publication. Question 10 is based on the following news. The front-runner in the presidential election in Haiti Rene Preval has accused the electoral authorities of committing fraud in an attempt to stop him winning outright. With almost all the votes counted, Mr. Preval is just short of the majority needed to avoid a second round. Two people were killed during unrest in the city. The United Nations Security Council has called for calm and extended the mandate of its peace mission in Haiti by six months. According to official election figures with around 90 per cent of the votes counted, Rene Preval is just short of the 50 per cent he needs to avoid a second round runoff. Speaking in the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince, he said he'd seen gross errors and probably gigantic fraud. Claiming a first round victory, he urged his supporters to keep up protests, but he also called them on to be mature, responsible and non-violent.
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