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									                                                                                CONTENT STANDARD 1: Communication 

   Students will engage in conversation, provide and obtain information, express feelings and exchange opinions. (Interpersonal)

                 K-2                                         3-4                                     5-6                                       7-8                                       9-10                                            11-12

Interpersonal Communication                   Interpersonal Communication              Interpersonal Communication              Interpersonal Communication              Interpersonal Communication)                  Interpersonal Communication
1.K-2.   Greet and respond to simple          1.3-4.   Give simple commands or         1.5-6.   Expand conversational           1.7-8.   Respond to factual and          1.9-10.   Expand on idioms (e.g., “I          1.11-12. Restate facts from an oral
         greetings and farewells, match                instructions to classmates               ability based on new                     interpretive questions                    know it like the back of my                  interview.
         time of day (morning,                         and teacher, (e.g., stand up,            information (e.g., climate,              audibly and clearly, varying              hand.”).                            1.11-12. Obtain information on another’s
         afternoon, evening) with                      sit down, come here, raise               seasons, school schedules,               pace, tone, and stress to       1.9-10.   Defend position on given                     thoughts and opinions (e.g.,
         pictured activity.                            your hand please, write your             etc.)                                    enhance meaning.                          social topic.                                current social, political, or
1.K-2.   Perform simple commands,                      name)                           1.5-6.   Take part in longer             1.7-8.   Orally express own              1.9-10.   Preview video without sound                  environmental issue).
         (e.g., sit down, stand up, line      1.3-4.   Relate favorite pastimes                 exchanges with others using              thoughts, ideas, opinions                 and write own dialog.               1.11-12. Use transitional words or
         up, get your pencil, open your                (sports and hobbies).                    more interrogation (e.g.,                and emotions (e.g., express     1.9-10.   Debate the value of specific                 phrases to sustain conversa­
         books, etc)                          1.3-4.   Give time framework (hour,               What, When, Which,                       approval, disapproval,                    cultural traditions.                         tions (e.g., “vamos a ver,”
1.K-2.   Identify necessity and need                   day, month, today,                       Where, Who, How many,                    wants, preferences, ask and                                                            “pues,” “eh bien”).
         with courtesy phrases, (e.g.,                 yesterday, tomorrow) for                 How much, How and Why)                   answer what one likes best,     Interpersonal Communication                   1.11-12. Sequence items presented
         bathroom please, pencil                       when activities are                      and ask about clubs, sports,             give and respond to             1.9-10.   Respond to a series of                       visually.
         sharpener please, thank you).                 performed (go to school, go              favorite musicians, movies,              compliments.                              instructions that involve
1.K-2.   Name the days of the week and                 to church, sports, camp,                 etc.)                           1.7-8.   Describe themselves, a best               interrelated tasks (e.g., how to    Interpersonal Communication
         identify them on a calendar.                  meals). Describe daily          1.5-6.   Discuss with a partner or                friend, a favorite celebrity,             drive a car, change a tire, etc.)
1.K-2.   Imitate feelings, match feeling               routines.                                group details of plans and               etc.                            1.9-10.   Participate in an interview         1.11-12. Teach others to accomplish a
         with picture and ask classmates      1.3-4.   Ask and respond in simple                people, (e.g., dream home,      1.7-8.   Demonstrate an awareness                  (e.g., with a guest speaker,                 given task.
         how they feel, (e.g., I’m happy,              conversations to questions               ideal vacation, ideal friend,            of dialects and regional                  local celebrity, etc.)              1.11-12. Analyze and critique social and
         I’m sad, I’m fine, I’m sick).                 about peers and teachers.                etc.                                     variations.                     1.9-10.   Initiate and maintain                        political events, music, literary,
1.K-2.   Introduce and describe                        (e.g., How are you? Where       1.5-6.   Talk with others about                                                             discussions where some                       or artistic performances, etc.
         themselves, family members                    do you live? What time do                personal activities (e.g.,      Interpersonal Communication)                       responses may be                    1.11-12. Debate both sides of an issue
         and pets, (e.g., me, my sister,               you eat lunch? How many                  school, home, scouts,           1.7-8.   Respond with simple,                      unpredictable (e.g., scenarios).    1.11-12. Discuss information presented
         my brother, my mother, my                     …. in your family do you                 sports, etc.)                            appropriate social              1.9-10.   Express own thoughts and                     visually.
         father, my grandfather, my                    have)?                          1.5-6.   Acquire goods and services               expressions (e.g., idioms                 opinions on topics of social
         grandmother and my pets).            1.3-4.   Identify and describe                    through basic                            such as “I have hunger” vs.               and personal interests such as
1.K-2.   Respond to simple questions                   themselves and members of                conversational skills (e.g.,             “I am hungry”, “It makes                  music, literature, the arts, and
         about themselves and                          immediate and extended                   order food in a restaurant,              cold” vs. “It is cold out)”.              the sciences.
         surroundings (e.g., weather,                  family, (e.g., I am short, my            exchange currency,              1.7-8.   Describe a conflict/present     1.9-10.   Engage in extended conversa­
         places in city, beach, zoo, etc.).            uncle is tall, my aunt is                purchase school supplies).               a solution.                               tions on a variety of topics.
1.K-2.   Identify dates, (months, days                 blonde).                        1.5-6.   Exchange opinions, feelings     1.7-8.   Relate the sequence of a        1.9-10.   Interpret information
         and numbers), tell birthdays and     1.3-4.   Ask and state location of                and emotions (e.g., I’m                  movie video without the                   presented visually (through
         ages.                                         places and things, (e.g.,                proud, I admire the hero, I              sound.                                    art, drama, etc.
                                                       “Where is the zoo? The zoo               hate drugs etc).                1.7-8.   Identify customs from           1.9-10.   Discuss advantages and
                                                       is near the park.”).            1.5-6.   Accept and decline an                    target cultures that have                 disadvantages of an idea or
                                              1.3-4.   Express likes and dislikes               invitation.                              been assimilated to daily                 proposed course of action
                                                       on a variety of topics (e.g.,                                                     life in the U.S. (e.g., Taco              (e.g., the year-round school,
                                                       animals, sports, foods).                                                          Bell, Piñata at parties).                 raising the age for getting a
                                                                                                                                                                                   driver’s license to 18).
                                                                                  CONTENT STANDARD 2: Communication 

   Students will understand and interpret spoken and written language on a variety of topics. (Interpretive)

                K-2                                         3-4                                      5-6                                        7-8                                       9-10                                       11-12
Interpretive Communication                   Interpretive Communication                Interpretive Communication              Interpretive Communication                 Interpretive Communication                    Interpretive Communication
2.K-2.   Recognize classroom objects in      2.3-4.   Understand and use               2.5-6.   Read aloud authentic           2.7-8.     Read and respond creatively     2.9-10.   Read and respond creatively to 2.11-12. Read a play and demonstrate
         oral and written forms (e.g.,                correctly interaction,                    materials with correct                    to texts (designing a poster,             texts by scripting a skit.              comprehension through
         clock, door, pencil sharpener.)              pronunciation and stress                  intona-tion, pronunciation                making a graph, etc.)         2.9-10.     Write an editorial on a current         various tasks (e.g., restating
2.K-2.   Orally supply missing word(s)                (e.g., recites aloud).                    and stress.                    2.7-8.     Express viewpoint on                      issue.                                  storyline, identifying
         to a song, rhyme, game or story     2.3-4.   Decode new vocabulary            2.5-6.   Demonstrate understanding                 authentic magazine or         2.9-10.     Characterize the tone, mood,            antagonist/ protagonist
         at correct time (e.g., An apple a            using contextual clues and                of written or oral text by                newspaper article.                        and/ or point of view of one or         describing setting, etc.)
         day keeps the __________                     drawing on words and                      summarizing or                 2.7-8.     Summarize or establish the                ore speakers.                  2.11-12. Read aloud plays and poetry
         away).                                       phrases from prior studies.               paraphrasing (e.g., setting               sequence of events in a       2.9-10.     Create class web page.                  with fluency and confident
2.K-2.   Draw pictures to demonstrate        2.3-4.   Use a simple picture                      characters plot etc.)                     familiar recorded new story   2.9-10.     Read a story and represent the          delivery.
         comprehension of simple                      dictionary.                      2.5-6.   Read simple texts in target               (e.g., Tour de France).                   sequence of events through     2.11-12. Infer a writer’s assumptions,
         stories                             2.3-4.   Read aloud a familiar                     language and answer simple     2.7-8.     Continue to explore cultural              pictures, words, music, or              purpose, or point of view in an
2.K-2.   Comprehend greetings,                        passage with correct                      questions (e.g., weather                  components of Internet.                   drama (e.g., comic strip).              editorial.
         farewells and statements of                  interaction and                           report, travel poster or                                                2.9-10.                                    2.11-12. Analyze the social context of a
                                                                                                                                                                                    Identify organizational features
         feelings.                                    pronunciation (e.g.,                      brochure, T.V. Guide, etc.)    Interpretive Communication                           of texts (e.g., paragraphs,             spoken exchange (e.g., a
2.K-2.   Listen to, imitate and use                   language ladder or simple        2.5-6.   Use primary bilingual          2.7-8.     Read and respond creatively               diagrams, titles, headings, table       coach’s pep talk, a student’s
         gestures in simple songs,                    rhymes).                                  dictionary, picture                       to texts by writing a simple              of contents, references).               conference with a guidance
         rhymes and stories (whenever        2.3-4.   Read short narrative texts (if            dictionary or glossary to                 rhyming poem (e.g.,                                                               counselor, a conversation at
         possible they should be                      possible culturally                       access information.                       nonsense rhyming).            Interpretive Communication                          the refund counter of a
         culturally authentic).                       authentic) and retell the        2.5-6.   Obtain information from        2.7-8.     Read and summarize an         2.9-10.    Comprehend unfamiliar text               department store).
2.K-2.   Identify letters, symbols, or                main storyline in their own               short messages (oral or                   authentic magazine or                    using contextual clues (e.g.,   2.11-12. Interpret information presented
         common characters in                         words.                                    written) (e.g., invitations,              newspaper article.                       including words with more than           visually.
         alphabetic, phonetic or syllabic    2.3-4.   Comprehend main idea of                   directions, announcements,     2.7-8.     Watch and answer                         one meaning).
         systems.                                     an oral or written                        appointments).                            questions on taped sporting 2.9-10.      Read a story and represent      Interpretive Communication
2.K-2.   Identify beginning letters of                announcement using               2.5-6.                                             or other social activities.              sequence of events through      2.11-12. Read a poem and demonstrate
         posted classroom words                       contextual clues.                                                        2.7-8.     Establish contact with target            pictures, words, music, drama            understanding through various
2.K-2.   Demonstrate comprehension of        2.3-4.   Read and prepare simple                                                             language school or person                (e.g., comic strip).                     tasks (e.g., identifying the
         main idea or principal message               activity involving a series of                                                      via the Internet.             2.9-10.    Use target language to validate          theme).
         in highly illustrated culturally             steps (e.g., recipe, science                                             2.7-8.     Read aloud familiar and                  choice of vocabulary.           2.11-12. Apply skills of critical analysis
         based texts in which cognates,               experiment or Gouin series).                                                        unfamiliar texts with         2.9-10.    Obtain information through               to oral communication.
         repetition, predictability and                                                                                                   fluency and competent                    email.                          2.11-12. Read an authentic historical
         rhythm are used including                                                                                                        delivery.                     2.9-10.    Use authentic documents to               text and relate it to the
         stories, simple advertisements                                                                                        2.7-8.     Examine and discuss socio­               compare costs of goods and               historical period.
         and/or other literacy sources.                                                                                                   cultural elements                        services in the home (e.g.,
2.K-2.   Comprehend the main idea of                                                                                                      represented in text (e.g.,               gasoline, food, shelter, etc.)
         orally related personal                                                                                                          values, attitudes and         2.9-10. Examine and discuss socio­
         anecdotes, songs, rhymes,                                                                                                        beliefs).                                cultural elements represented
         familiar fairy tales and other                                                                                        2.7-8.     Use a dictionary to validate             via the Internet.
         narratives (familiar and/or                                                                                                      choice of language.
         culturally related) based on well
         known age appropriate themes.
2.K-2.   Distinguish differences between
         simple binary (polar) opposites
         (e.g., tall/short, hot/cold,
2.K-2.   Read aloud familiar words
         demonstrating initial awareness o
         pronunciation, interaction, and
2.K-2.   Comprehend simple questions
         and commands on classroom
         topics by responding correctly
         either orally or physically (e.g.,
         Where is the flag? Response
         could be, “It’s over there.” or
         child points to it).
2.K-2.   Make connections between
         illustration and simple written
         texts (e.g., use picture
         dictionary, match illustrations
         with short phrases or
2.K-2.   Find key words in song,
         rhymes, story or game.
                                                                                              CONTENT STANDARD 3: Communication 

    Students will present information, concepts and ideas to listeners or readers on a variety of topics. (Presentational)

               K-2                                         3-4                                         5-6                                         7-8                                       9-10                                           11-12
Presentational Communication                Presentational Communication             Presentational Communication                   Presentational Communication              Presentational Communication                Presentational Communication
3.K-2.   Pronounce proper nouns.            3.3-4.   Spell common words              3.5-6.     Take written dictation on           3.7-8.   Fill in authentic forms (e.g.,   3.9-10.   Extract information from      3.11-12.       Identify and understand
3.K-2.   Identify and label vocabulary               correctly and take written                 unfamiliar text that is                      magazine subscriptions,                    timetables, menus,                            organizational elements of
         connected to the lesson                     dictation.                                 orthographically predictable.                invitations).                              advertisements.                               writing (e.g., titles, paragraphs,
         theme.                             3.3-4.   Create and perform short        3.5-6.     Write, review, and edit own         3.7-8.   Take notes from recorded         3.9-10.   Write an editorial based on                   bibliography).
3.K-2.   Complete simple sentences,                  skits, puppet shows and role               writing with teacher guidance.               phone messages.                            teacher-designed topic.       3.11-12.       Write a well-organized
         phrases and/or short                        play.                           3.5-6.     Write a personal letter             3.7-8.   Write and act out a              3.9-10.   Respond in writing to                         composition.
         dialogues to accompany             3.3-4.   Produce and use basic print,               applying conventions,                        commercial with a group.                   personal questions.           3.11-12.       Approximate native-like
         illustrations.                              capitalization and                         accurately (e.g., layout,           3.7-8.   Write brief paraphrases and      3.9-10.   Write and present an original                 pronunciation, intonation, and
3.K-2.   Talk about pictures based on                punctuation conventions                    headings, punctuation).                      summaries on teacher-given                 story.                                        inflection.
         simple stories, rhymes or                   (e.g., inverted Spanish                    Address the envelope.                        topics.                                                                  3.11-12.       Speak audibly and clearly,
         songs.                                      question marks, quotation       3.5-6.     Create and present short            3.7-8.   Narrate/give an oral report      Presentational Communication                            varying pace, tone, and stress to
3.K-2.   Predict orally or through                   marks, lower case for days of              skit/play involving more than                in present, past and future      3.9-10.   Complete authentic forms                      engage the audience.
         illustrations events in a story.            the week, etc.).                           two characters. May use                      times.                                     and documents (e.g.,              Presentational Communication
3.K-2.   Trace, copy words or               3.3-4.   Begin to write for different               videotape, props, costumes          3.7-8.   Represent information                      passport, driver’s license, job   3.11-12.   Proofread compositions,
         characters from various                     purposes (e.g., post cards,                and scenery.                                 visually.                                  application).                                checking for cohesiveness, flow
         sources                                     phone messages, informal        3.5-6.     Prepare and present brief                                                     3.9-10.   Take detailed notes on given                 of ideas, and clarity of meaning.
3.K-2.   Begin to write familiar                     notes, birthday invitation,                reports on thematic topics          Presentational Communication                        topic via video.                  3.11-12.   Present to class information
         words, phrases and simple                   etc.).                                     (e.g., weather report,              3.7-8.   Design own form(s) of            3.9-10.   Retell events of a video                     learned from research paper
         sentences in a meaningful          3.3-4.   Write and record a message                 commercial, etc.) using a                    announcements.                             using detailed notes.                        using technology (e.g., video,
         context.                                    (e.g., advertisement, weather              variety of formats (e.g.,           3.7-8.   Write simple letters about       3.9-10.   Write a well-organized                       etc.).
3.K-2.   Perform short conversation                  reports, phone messages,                   brochures, dioramas, puppets,                self and school.                           paragraph.                        3.11-12.   Engage in exchanges with the
         (e.g., skits, puppet shows,                 etc.).                                     travel posters, etc.)               3.7-8.   Create original poem and         3.9-10.   Proofread and peer-edit                      audience (e.g., take and answer
         role play, etc.)                   3.3-4.   Summarize orally the plot of    3.5-6.     Identify orally the setting,                 illustrate it on a poster.                 paragraphs.                                  questions).
3.K-2.   Use information from a text                 a folktale (e.g., the                      main characters and events in       3.7-8.   Write a simple narrative or      3.9-10.   Adjust spoken presentation        3.11-12.   Write about a variety of trips
         or oral story to draw or label              beginning, the middle, and                 narrative texts (e.g., linear and            description on a given topic               to suit the audience.                        related to personal, social, and
         pictures, diagrams, or charts.              the end).                                  circular story mapping).                     (e.g., an account of an          3.9-10.   Write a business letter.                     school needs, using appropriate
3.K-2.   Contribute to teacher              3.3-4.   Use a picture dictionary or     3.5-6.     Create written journals in                   event, a problem, etc.).                                                                specialized vocabulary.
         directed shared writing                     other sources to create an                 response to teacher prompt                                                                                                3.11-12.   Give a formal, well-organized,
         activities (e.g., Gouin series,             alphabet based on a theme                                                                                                                                                       and sustained oral presentation.
         story mapping, “word snake”                 (e.g., food alphabet, animal
         and concrete poetry).                       alphabet, cultural alphabet,
                                            3.3-4.   Fill in text based on words
                                                     from known song or story.
                                                     (written or orally – “The
                                                     farmer in the _________”.
                                            3.3-4.   Write simple descriptive
                                                     sentences, given two choices
                                                     (e.g., John is tall, short).
                                                                                                   CONTENT STANDARD 4: Cultures 

    Students will demonstrate an understanding of the traditions, products and perspectives of the cultures studied.

                K-2                                          3-4                                           5-6                                          7-8                                        9-10                                          11-12
Practices of Culture                         Practices of Culture                         Practices of Culture                          Practices of Culture                       Practices of Culture                        Practices of Culture
4.K-2.    Respond to cultural                4.3-4.    Use cultural expressions           4.5-6.    Identify roles and                  4.7-8.    Identify subculture(s)           4.9-10.   Recognize and discuss             4.11-12.   Recognize and readjust behavior
          expressions and gestures for                 (using formal and informal                   responsibilities of men,                      within the target culture(s)               cultural differences in                       in response to nonverbal cues.
          greetings and farewells in                   modes of discourse) and                      women and children in the                     (e.g., differences in                      educational requirements,         4.11-12.   Respond to and use humor
          appropriate social situations.               appropriate body language of                 target culture(s).                            “Spanish” cultures among                   grades, and attitudes in the                  appropriately.
          (e.g., bowing, shaking hands,                greetings, farewells and           4.5-6.    Explain attitudes toward                      Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico,                target culture(s) and the U.S.    4.11-12.   Interpret and explain a political
          Mr., Mrs., Miss).                            introductions in a variety of                concept of time in the target                 etc.).                           4.9-10.   Discuss how the roles of men                  cartoon, situation comedy or
4.K-2.    Introduce self, family and/or                situations.                                  culture(s) (e.g., Spanish siesta,   4.7-8.    Use appropriate etiquette in               and women and their                           joke in the target culture.
          teacher and respond to             4.3-4.    Demonstrate understanding                    Swiss punctuality, etc.).                     initiating and responding to               occupations are changing.         4.11-12.   Identify cultural factors that
          introductions.                               that families meet basic           4.5-6.    Identify and name selected                    telephone communication.         4.9-10.   Describe attitudes toward                     affect meaning.
4.K-2.    Initiate and respond to                      needs in a variety of ways                   occupations that are specific to    4.7-8.    Identify the status of                     money in the target culture(s).
          routine courtesy exchanges                   (e.g., how climate effects                   target culture(s) (e.g., matador,             various occupations in           4.9-10.   Identify practices and beliefs    Products of Culture
          (e.g., excuse me, thank you,                 type of dwelling, food,                      chocolate maker, shaman, etc.)                target cultures(s) (e.g.,                  with regard to body hygiene.      4.11-12.   Analyze the literature and arts
          please) and make polite                      mealtime, etc.)                    4.5-6.    Role play patterns of behavior                status of teachers in Japan                                                             that depict cultural products,
          requests.                          4.3-4.    Make request in a variety of                 and interactions of everyday                  and Germany, status of           Products of Culture                                    practices and perspectives.
4.K-2.    Respond physically and/or                    social situations (e.g., asking              settings in the target culture(s)             nurses, engineers, etc. in       4.9-10.   Research a cultural region of     4.11-12.   Study and explain the role of
          orally to demonstrate respect                a peer for a snack at a                      (e.g., French practice of                     western cultures).                         the target culture(s).                       different social, political, and
          and/or courtesy (e.g., in                    celebration, asking                          closing doors in house;             4.7-8.    Demonstrate understanding        4.9-10.   Compare the contributions in                 economic institutions of the
          South America the principal                  permission of an adult, etc.)                standing up for school                        of purchasing power of the                 sports between the target                    target culture.
          walks in room and students         4.3-4.    Identify chores of each                      principals/teachers when they                 currency of the target                     culture(s) and the U.S.           4.11-12.   Study and analyze the cultural
          stand up; in Germany,                        member of the family in the                  enter classroom, etc.                         culture.                         4.9-10.   Identify the architectural and               perspectives and practices in the
          students rap on desks to                     target culture.                    4.5-6.    Describe staples and dishes         4.7-8.    Identify and describe                      city planning contributions                  films of the target culture.
          express approval).                 4.3-4.    Plan for and participate in a                unique to target culture(s) and               various values reflected in                that the target culture(s)        4.11-12.   Gather information about sub-
4.K-2.    Listen and share in                          cultural activity (e.g.,                     indicate order in which these                 food, clothing, and shelter                make(s) to American society                  cultural perspectives through
          reading/reciting authentic                   holidays, birthday,                          are served (e.g., soup at end of              in the target culture(s) e.g.              and the world.                               reading subculture texts and
          fairytales, folktales, nursery               graduation) using customs of                 Chinese course, salad and                     kosher taboos, French            4.9-10.   Identify and analyze the role                analyzing their art.
          rhymes, etc. Identify and                    target culture(s). (e.g.,                    cheese at end of meal in                      herbal teas, extended family               of television in shaping          4.11-12.   Analyze and discuss the
          imitate characters.                          decoration, ceremony, eating                 France). Accept/ refuse                       living quarters.                           attitudes and values in the                  challenges that the target
4.K-2.    Participate in cultural                      habits, etc.                                 appropriately offers of food.                                                            target culture(s).                           culture’s economy faces.
          activities and traditions (e.g.,   4.3-4.    Identify and name selected         4.5-6.    Demonstrate a basic                 Products of Culture                        4.9-10.   Describe how people in the
          holidays, birthday, Saint’s                  commercial establishments in                 knowledge of the history and        4.7-8.    Recognize the regions of                   target culture(s) interact with   Practices of Culture
          day, celebrations).                          the target culture(s) (e.g.,                 geography at the                              the target culture(s).                     their physical and social         4.11-12.   Self-monitor and self-evaluate
4.K-2.    Name and experience foods                    role play shopping).                         people/countries of the target      4.7-8.    Identify the sports activities             environment (e.g., living                     language use according to
          and eating customs of the          4.3-4.    Recognize and write                          culture(s).                                   in the target culture(s).                  space, commercial and                         audience.
          target culture (e.g., typical                numbers according to               4.5-6.    Use appropriate etiquette in        4.7-8.    Describe styles of                         business space, parks and         4.11-12.   Rephrase or reword an utterance
          foods, table manners,                        cultural custom (e.g., one: 1,               initiating and responding to                  architecture used to design                recreational space, open air                  when it results in cultural
          chopsticks, samovar tea                      seven 7). When appropriate,                  telephone conversations, e-                   monuments.                                 markets, plazas, walled                       misunderstanding.
          ceremony etc.)                               count on fingers the way of                  mail and other types of             4.7-8.    Identify and categorize                    houses and cities, modes of       4.11-12.   Use elements of humor, irony
4.K-2.    Participate in the creation of               target culture (e.g., starting               communication.                                television programs                        transportation).                              and satire of the target language
          a group story on a cultural                  with thumb, little finger, etc.)   4.5-6.    Role play shopping practices                  available in the target          4.9-10.   Compare how artists use                       in written and oral presentations.
          theme                              4.3-4.    Demonstrate the use of                       in target cultures (e.g.,                     culture(s).                                universal themes in the U.S.      4.11-12.   Interpret meaning through
4.K-2.    Describe selected ingredients                symbols and signs as a way                   bargaining in marketplace,          4.7-8.    Identify how people in the                 and in the target culture(s)                  knowledge of cultural factors
          i       l f th t       t lt                    f          i ti i th                       b t i i A                                               l    ( )i
         in meals of the target culture.          of communication in the                     bartering in Amazon                          target culture(s) interact                  (e.g., love, grief, friendship,              that effect meaning (e.g., word
4.K-2.   Match animals with sounds                target culture(s) (e.g.,                    rainforest, etc.)                            with their environment                      beauty).                                     choice, intonation, setting, etc.)
         perceived by target culture              directions, warnings, street      4.5-6.    Identify how people in the                   (e.g., living space, modes of 4.9-10.       Compare form(s) of                4.11-12.   Decide when use of slang is
         (e.g., rooster said “Cocorico”           sign, etc.)                                 target culture(s) interact with              transportation, recreational                government in the roles of the               appropriate.
         in France, “Quiquiriqui” in     4.3-4.   Describe tangible products of               their environment (e.g., living              space).                                     major political leaders in the    4.11-12.   Determine appropriate topics for
         Spain, “Cucuricul” in                    everyday living, such as                    space according to available       4.7-8.    Identify and name forms of                  target culture(s) with those of              interaction/social conversation.
         Sweden                                   housing, food and dress,                    materials, modes of                          government and major                        the U.S.
                                                  (e.g., hacienda, villas, sushi,             transportation – metro,                      political leaders in the target 4.9-10.     Identify emigration and           Products of Culture
4.K-2.   Products of Culture                      fondue, toga, lederhosen).                  chivitas,, recreational space,               culture(s) (e.g., monarchy,                 immigration patterns to and       4.11-12.   Identify and describe how artists
4.K-2.   Listen and respond to stories, 4.3-4.    Name and identify capitals                  etc.)                                        social democracy,                           from target culture country.                  and writers have influenced the
         songs, and rhymes of the                 and major topographical           4.5-6.    Interpret military/train station             dictatorships).                                                                           history of the target culture (J.J.
         target culture(s).                       features of countries from                  time (hours only) e.g., The                                                    Practices of Culture                                    Rousseau, Voltaire, Picasso,
4.K-2.   Participate in children’s                target culture(s) on maps                   train leaves at 22:00 – 10:00      Practices of Culture                        4.9-10.   Identify the perspectives and                 Delacroix, Goya, Rockwell).
         games representative of the              written in target language                  pm).                               4.7-8.    Identify and describe                       practices in regard to what       4.11-12.   Read with understanding written
         target culture(s).                       (e.g., on map of Chile                                                                   elements of subculture(s)                   causes and/or cures illness or                materials in target language(s)
4.K-2.   Identify and color flags and a           divided in half as in Chilean     Products of Culture                                    within the target culture(s)                death.                                        (e.g., current periodicals) about
         few landmarks of the target              classroom, identify Santiago,     4.5-6.    Identify ways of life, family                (e.g., music genre, poems,        4.9-10.   Demonstrate an                                social, political and economic is-
         culture(s).                              Anders, Alacama desert,                     structures and pastimes from                 dress, and folktales).                      understanding of ways to give                 sues pertinent to the target
4.K-2.   Identify artwork (visual and             Antarctica and Pacific                      written, oral, and visual texts    4.7-8.    Use appropriate etiquette in                and receive compliments,                      culture.
         performing arts) as a                    Ocean).                                     (e.g., video clips from a                    public places                               show gratitude, apologize,        4.11-12.   Create a video/film that reflects
         reflection of the target       4.3-4.    Read, listen to, observe, and               Mexican or Puerto Rican            4.7-8.    Describe attitudes of                       express anger, impatience, in                 the cultural practices and/or
         culture(s).                              perform expressions of the                  quinceañera celebration).                    general population toward                   target culture.                               perspectives of the target culture.
4.K-2.   Dramatize simplified                     target culture(s) (e.g.,          4.5-6.    Identify and discuss significant             police, fire and other public     4.9-10.   Exchange opinions with            4.11-12.   Suggest possible solutions to the
         authentic folktales from the             children’s literature, music,               individuals/heroes and events                service institutions (e.g.,                 classmates on social issues                   economic and environmental
         target culture(s).                       art, dance, etc.)                           in the target culture(s). (e.g.,             public vs. private).                        from the target culture.                      challenges faced by the target
4.K-2.   Create a calendar with                                                               Rigoberta Menchu from              4.7-8.    Name technology present in        4.9-10.   Recognize elements of                         culture(s).
         cultural holidays.                                                                   Guatemala, four historical                   daily lives in target                       humor, irony, and satire in the   4.11-12.   Describe the challenges that
4.K-2.   Celebrate selected target                                                            events in Spain the year of                  culture(s) (e.g., MINITEL,                  target language and culture.                  religion and religious institutions
         culture national holiday with                                                        1492).                                       TV, radio, banks and              4.9-10.   Recognize use of slang,                       currently face in the target
         games, dances, songs, food,                                                4.5-6.    Recognize age appropriate                    exchanges).                                 dialectics, and regionalisms                  culture.
         etc                                                                                  fantasy heroes/heroines from       4.7-8.    Compare shopping practices                  in conversations.
4.K-2.   Identify utilitarian and/or                                                          the target culture(s) (e.g.,                 in the target culture(s) (e.g.,   4.9-10.   Interpret and respond
         esthetic objects of the target                                                       Astérix, Mafaldo, Zorro, etc.)               bartering, bargaining, a set                appropriately t nonverbal
         culture(s) (e.g., chopsticks,                                              4.5-6.    Recognize and/or taste/make                  price).                                     cues and body language.
         Russian dolls, boleadoras).                                                          foods and crafts from target       4.7-8.    Identify culturally               4.9-10.   Determine the appropriate
4.K-2.   Name and explain the                                                                 culture(s) (e.g., crêpes, job de             appropriate wording in                      distance to maintain while
         significance of some national                                                        Dies, origami).                              formal correspondence.                      talking to someone,
         and/or festivals from the                                                  4.5-6.    Identify and participate in        4.7-8.    Exchange opinions with pen                  depending on the situation.
         culture(s) (e.g., flags,                                                             sports activities and/or recess              pals from the target
         currency, commercial                                                                 games typical of the target                  culture(s) on social issues       Products of Culture
         products, signs).                                                                    culture(s) (e.g., “chueca”, the              (e.g., dating practices,          4.9-10.   Study and experience the
4.K-2.   Access target culture(s)                                                             sport of the Mapuches,                       current fashions, movies,                   literature and arts that depict
         cookbooks to make                                                                    “pomme, pêche, poire” from                   pastimes).                                  target cultural products,
         traditional holidays foods.                                                          France, “Doña Ana” from            4.7-8.    Identify sociocultural                      practices, and perspectives.
                                                                                              Puerto Rico.                                 elements represented in           4.9-10.   Study and analyze the forms
                                                                                    4.5-6.    Identify architectural and/or                texts (e.g., idioms, proverbs,              of government and political
                                                                                              engineering accomplishments                  humor, etc.)                                leaders in the target
                                                                                              of the target culture(s) (e.g.,,                                                         culture(s).
                                                                                              Eiffel Tower, Chichén Itzá,        Products of Culture                         4.9-10.   Research the role of film
                                                                                              Inca highway, The Great Wall       4.7-8.    Prepare a timeline to                       (movie) in the target culture.
                                                                                              of China, etc.)                              compare important events          4.9-10.   Identify and recreate products
4.5-6.   Describe cultural                          within a limited period of              and practices that represent
         achievements and/or symbols                time in US history and the              subculture(s) of the target
         of the target culture(s) (e.g.,            target culture’s history.               culture (e.g., Creole food,
         Mona Lisa, Statutes of Simon      4.7-8.   Describe the regions of the             Algerian clothing, reggae
         Bolivar, Fados of Portugal,                target culture(s).                      music).
         castles, cathedrals, pyramids     4.7-8.   Compare and contrast the      4.9-10.   Identify the economic
         and fountains).                            role of television in the               situation of the target culture
                                                    target culture(s) and the US.           country and its position in the
                                                                                            global economy.
                                                                                  4.9-10.   Explore the role religion and
                                                                                            religious institutions play in
                                                                                            the target culture.
                                                                                                  CONTENT STANDARD 5: Connections 

   Students will reinforce and expand their knowledge of other areas of study through the world language. (Interdisciplinary)

                 K-2                                         3-4                                          5-6                                        7-8                                      9-10                                        11-12
Connecting wth Other Disciplines             Connecting wth Other Disciplines            Connecting wth Other Disciplines             Connecting with Other Disciplines       Connecting with Other Disciplines           Connecting with Other Disciplines
5.K-2.    On a primary map or globe,         5.3-4.    Count to 100 by 1’s, 5’s,         5.5-6.    Count and use numbers between      5.7-8.    Tell time according to the 5.9-10.      Demonstrate ability to use       5.11-12.    Use authentic documents to
          point to country/region where                and 10’s.                                   0 and 1000 to do the four                    24-hour clock.                          large numbers in real life                   compare costs of goods and
          the target language is spoken.     5.3-4.    Count foreign currency and                  operations (add, subtract,         5.7-8.    Explore health, nutrition,              situations (e.g., buying a car,              services, wages/salaries, etc.,
5.K-2.    Identify eight colors using                  make simple (rounded off)                   multiply and divide).                        and physical fitness issues             taking a trip, renting a house).             in the home and target
          clothing of children and                     conversions (e.g., 3 to 1         5.5-6.    Complete simple operations                   of adolescents in the target 5.9-10.    Examine and describe unusual                 culture(s).
          pictures.                                    conversion).                                with fractions – half, quarter,              culture.                                weather patterns (e.g., el Niño, 5.11-12.    Use a map to retrace the
5.K-2.    Classify selected objects by       5.3-4.    Tell time orally (hour and                  third, eighth (e.g.,¼ * ¼ = ½).    5.7-8.    Use metric system to                    le Mistral).                                 military campaigns/journeys
                                                                                         5.5-6.    Tell time orally and in writing
          color, size and shape (e.g.,                 half hour).                                                                              describe personal            5.9-10.    Examine 20th century                         of famous
                                                                                                   (hour, half hour, quarter hour,
          small, red, triangle, etc.).       5.3-4.    Use a thermometer to                                                                     attributes/abilities (e.g.,             developments in the areas of                 historical/regentary figures
                                                                                                   minutes and military time).
5.K-2.    Match animals with their food,               determine C° or F° scale (up                                                             height, weight, athletic                arts, music, and literature in               (e.g., Charlemagne,
                                                                                         5.5-6.    Count with ordinal numbers up
          homes, body parts, etc. (e.g.,               to 100° F).                                 to the “tenth one” using items               record, etc.).                          the target culture(s).                       Columbus, Napoleon,
          horse eats grass, bird lives in    5.3-4.    Use a centimeter ruler to                   from another domain (e.g., the                                            5.9-10.    Examine how target culture                   Aeneas, Odysseus, etc.).
          next, elephant has trunk, etc.)              measure classroom objects                   fifth musician is Brahms, the      Connecting with Other Disciplines                 immigrants to the U.S.           5.11-12.    Give examples of social,
5.K-2.    Identify unique characteristics              and/or children in class.                   second musician is Beethoven).     5.7-8.    Use numbers to 1 million                preserve their cultural                      political and economic
          of self and others, such as                  Explore some other                5.5-6.    Convert foreign currency of        5.7-8.    Observe and record                      traditions.                                  interdependence of the home
          name, age, address and                       measuring instruments (e.g.,                target countries, checking for               weather forecasts.                                                                   and target culture(s).
          telephone number.                            weigh children in kilos,                    accuracy with a calculator.        5.7-8.    Connect professions with      Connecting with Other Disciplines
5.K-2.    Count 0 – 31, match and                      measure volume, etc.)             5.5-6.    Perform geometric functions in               their qualifications (e.g.,   5.9-10.   Use authentic documents to        Connecting with Other Disciplines
          identify numbers on timeline       5.3-4.    Classify foods according to                 the target language (e.g., area,             apprenticeships, higher                 compare costs of goods and        5.11-12.   Compare/Classify
          and calendar.                                colors, shapes and food                     volume, etc.) and measure the                education, degrees, skills              services, wages/salaries, etc.,
                                                                                                   distance between objects (e.g.,                                                                                                   information using technical
5.K-2.    Calculate/solve simple math                  groups (e.g., the orange is                                                              and interests, etc.).                   in the home and target                       vocabulary (e.g., take an
          problems using numbers 1 – 10.               orange, round, fruit).                      in the solar system, between       5.7-8.    Identify how music, art,                culture(s).
                                                                                                   famous monuments, etc.)                                                                                                           advanced math class or a
5.K-2.    Name seven days of week in         5.3-4.    Create an original work of                                                               and literature reflect the    5.9-10.   Use a map to retrace the                     history course in the target
          culturally correct order. Name                                                 5.5-6.    Convert or authentic recipe                  target culture.                         military campaigns/journeys
                                                       art using shapes, sizes, and                from metric measurement to                                                                                                        language).
          12 months of the year in order..             colors. Then, describe it in                                                                                                     of famous historical/regentary    5.11-12.   Write a persuasive essay
                                                                                                   standard and then make recipe
5.K-2.    Identify the four seasons,                   the target language to                                                                                                           figures (e.g., Charlemagne,                  about a controversial issue.
                                                                                                   for class.
          relating weather expressions to              others. (e.g., The pine tree is   5.5-6.    Create a classroom model, label                                                      Columbus, Napoleon, Aeneas,       5.11-12.   Discuss topics from other
          each one. Make connections                   a triangle. It is green.)                   it and describe with simple                                                          Odysseus, etc.).                             school subjects in the target
          between months, seasons and        5.3-4.    Recognize and describe                      target language (e.g., solar                                               5.9-10.   Give examples of social,                     language, including political
          holidays.                                    geographic features of the                  system, a Roman villa, an                                                            political and economic                       and historical concepts,
5.K-2.    View authentic artifacts, works              target country(s) (e.g.,                    outdoor market, an architectural                                                     interdependence of the home                  worldwide health issues, and
          of art and illustrations in                  capital, big cities, rivers,                landmark, etc.)                                                                      and target culture(s).                       environmental concerns.
          children’s literature drawn from             mountains, oceans). Point         5.5-6.    Observe and record weather                                                                                             5.11-12.   Use target language including
          the target culture and will use              out relative locations (e.g.,               forecasts using authentic                                                                                                         appropriate figures of speech
          adjectives to describe what they             the ocean is west of the                    newspapers and/or video
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and literary devices to
          see. (e.g., Teacher asks “What               capital, the equator is north,              weather reports.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     analyze literature and explore
          color is the llama?” _____                   etc.)                             5.5-6.    Label and/or create several
                                                                                                   types of maps of target                                                                                                           universal themes (e.g., death,
          “brown”. “Is the flower pretty     5.3-4.    Recognize some famous                                                                                                                                                         love, war, etc.).
          or ugly? _____”pretty”.)                     figures whose native                        countries (e.g., political,
                                                                                                   topographical, linguistic,                                                                                             5.11-12.   Explore and analyze how
5.K-2.    Identify geometric shapes in                 language is the target                                                                                                                                                        people in the target culture(s)
          works of art and illustrations                                                           products, natural resources,
                                                       language. Make a collage to                 ethnic groups etc )                                                                                                               solve societal issues (e g
         from authentic children’s                    include picture of person,                ethnic groups, etc.)                solve societal issues (e.g.,
         literature (e.g., square, triangle,          origin, occupation and/or        5.5-6.   Recognize contemporary music        terrorism, welfare,
         circle, etc.).                               reason for being a celebrity.             of the target language (e.g.,       unemploy-ment, and health
5.K-2.   Match puzzle-type shapes and        5.3-4.   Explore and describe simple               Selena, Inti Illimani, Céline       care).
         places of five or six regions or             patterns found in music,                  Dion, etc.)
         countries of target culture(s) on            nature, art and literature.      5.5-6.   Recognize characteristics/ style
         primary map of the world.           5.3-4.   Answer questions orally                   of three to five famous
                                                                                                artists/musicians and draw or
5.K-2.   Sing and dance to children’s                 regarding concepts covered
                                                                                                paint a picture or make
         music from target culture(s).                in content related or content
                                                                                                music/rhythm in this style (e.g.,
5.K-2.   Play authentic instruments of                based units. (e.g., the sloth             French Impressionists, Mexican
         target culture(s) to explore                 lives in the canopy of the                Muralists, etc.)
         music and rhythms.                           rainforest. Castles              5.5-6.   Use simple social studies
5.K-2.   Dress in authentic or imitation              change(d) from fortresses to              vocabulary to identify historical
         clothing of target culture(s) in             luxurious homes.                          concepts and events and/or
         either fashion show, folkloric      5.3-4.   Complete simple writing                   make a time line (e.g., Rise and
         dance representation or                      exercises in target language              Fall of the Roman Empire,
         dramatic program.                            that cover main ideas of                  Slavery and the Underground
5.K-2.   Follow simple directions                     concepts covered in content               Railroad in the Caribbean
         through total physical response              related or content- based                 Island, etc.)
         for activities typical of a                  units. (e.g., The quetzal is a   5.5-6.   Recognize the style of an author
         physical education class (e.g.,              bird. “Hola” and “ola” are                or poet from the target
         jump, run in place, crab walk,               homophones (homo(oros).                   culture(s) and retell story/poem
         etc.)                                                                                  in own words with proper
5.K-2.   Respond to folktales, fables and                                                       sequence, typing to imitate
         legends known to children of
                                                                                       5.5-6.   Design an imaginary trip to a
         target culture(s).
                                                                                                target country (maybe planned
5.K-2.   Identify select list of flowers,                                                       as a group). Include passports,
         fruits and/or vegetables from                                                          suitcase with clothes and
         target culture(s).                                                                     camera, money, tickets, etc.
5.K-2.   Use five senses to observe                                                             Itinerary may include meeting a
         environment (native and/or                                                             famous person, seeing the sites,
         school setting) and will acquire                                                       sample products of the country,
         simple vocabulary to describe                                                          etc.
         what they are seeing, hearing,                                                5.5-6.   Participate in cultural market as
         smelling, tasting and touching.                                                        buyer and seller of typical
                                                                                                goods. (e.g., I need 2 kg. of
                                                                                                rice. How much does it cost?)
                                                                                                         CONTENT STANDARD 6: Connections 

         Students will acquire and use information from a variety of sources only available in the world language, using technology, print, audiovisual, media,
         data and human resources. (Intradisciplinary)
                 K-2                                            3-4                                              5-6                                      7-8                                       9-10                                        11-12

Accessing Information in the Target Accessing Information in the Target                         Accessing Information in the Target         Accessing Information in the           Accessing Information in the Target          Accessing Information in the Target
Language                            Language                                                    Language                                    Target Language                        Language                                     Language
6.K-2.     Through cassettes, videos,        6.3-4.   Use “Key pals” from target culture(s)     6.5-6.    Use target language sales         6.7-8.    Read a TV schedule train,    6.9-10.   Research, record, and report      6.11-12.     Read literary texts and relate
           CDs, etc. listen to authentic              to exchange holiday information                     notices to make purchases                   train, and bus schedule                scores of an athletic event.                   them to the historical period
           music, folktales, fables and      6.3-4.   Research and make a typical craft of                within a specific budget.                   from the target culture      6.9-10.   Use the Internet to record a log               about which or in which
           legends known to children                  the native culture(s) (e.g., Mardi Gras   6.5-6.    Review typical current TV         6.7-8.    Identify jobs from                     of weather conditions in the                   they were written.
           of target culture.                         or African Mask, origami, piñata,                   commercial clips and create a               American classified ads                target country.                   6.11-12.     Research, discuss, and
6.K-2.     Retell a modified version of               etc.)                                               simplified advertisement for a              that require the target      6.9-10.   Use the Internet to find                       debate a controversial
           an authentic story (fable,        6.3-4.   Research and create a menu of one                   product from the target                     language.                              employment opportunities in the                ecological issue.
                                                      meal (either breakfast, lunch, dinner
           legend and/or folktale)                                                                        culture.                          6.7-8.    Use popular magazines                  target culture.                   6.11-12.     Locate information
                                                      or assorted desserts) typical of the
           using multimedia sources.                                                            6.5-6.    Listen to recordings of                     from the target culture to   6.9-10.   Read, listen to and view works                 appropriate to assignment in
                                                      target culture(s).
6.K-2.     Watch videos of dances,           6.3-4.   Explore everyday events (e.g., school,              contemporary music from                     identify and describe                  of literature and arts that                    text or other reference
           children’s folkloric fashion               sports, shopping) which occur in the                target language musicians and               social conventions about               describe contemporary life in the              material.
           shows and/or celebrations                  target country(s) using multiple                    identify three different styles             adolescents.                           target culture.
           in the target culture in                   sources.                                            and/or musicians.                 6.7-8.    Use TV shows, videos,                                                     Accessing Information in the Target
           preparation for their own         6.3-4.   Conduct and interview with an             6.5-6.    Complete authentic travel                   etc. to explore aesthetic    Accessing Information in the Target          Language
           celebration.                               immigrant or exchange student from                  document forms (e.g., pass-                 concepts of the target       Language                                      6.11-12.   Participate in a debate in
6.K-2.     Receive and share informa­                 the target culture(s).                              port, visa, customs form, etc.              culture.                     6.9-10.   Access and organize information                which a current event/issue
           tion about the members of         6.3-4.   Research and create a display             6.5-6.    Use maps, charts, and globes                                                       through authentic language text                is discussed from the
           local families from the                    (showcase or bulletin board) of                     in target language to identify    Accessing Information in the                     and media to contribute to a
                                                      figures (e.g., people in native
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            perspective of people in the
           target culture(s) (e.g., native                                                                weather/climate, patterns,        Target Language                                  topic being discussed in a
                                                      costume, musical instruments, crafts,                                                                                                                                                 target and home cultures.
           speakers in traditional                                                                        natural resources, native         6.7-8.    Plan a daily schedule                  different class
                                                      toys, children’s literature, etc.) May                                                                                                                                     6.11-12.   Communicate (via letters, e-
           costumes present with                                                                          products, modes of                          based on a weather           6.9-10.   Research current weather
                                                      use pictures and text from computer                                                                                                                                                   mail, etc.) with peers in the
           realia).                                                                                       transportation, etc.                        forecast.                              conditions in target language
                                                      technology, library and/or realia from                                                                                                                                                target country and exchange
6.K-2.     Examine native crafts and                                                            6.5-6.    Read and interpret authentic,     6.7-8.    Use the Internet t access              countries via Internet
                                                      home or teachers).                                                                                                                                                                    information/ideas, opinions
           either make a few                                                                              fairly current schedules (e.g.,             current events from the      6.9-10.   Observe and record information
                                             6.3-4.   Research and retell a folktale using a                                                                                                                                                relating to common societal
           simplified versions or                                                                         TV music, train, plane, bus,                target culture.                        about societal issues in the target
                                                      multimedia approach.                                                                                                                                                                  issues.
           prepare poster with pictures                                                                   etc                               6.7-8.    Complete an authentic                  culture through a variety of
                                             6.3-4.   Using Internet, newspaper, or other
           of crafts, using information               sources, record and graph in target       6.5-6.    Use the Internet to access                  job application from the               authentic texts and media.
           accessed through                           language, the weather in capital city               current events in target                    target culture.
           technology and/or library.                 or other town of target country for 1               language from Target
                                                      week.                                               culture(s).
                                                                     CONTENT STANDARD 7: Comparison Among Languages 

   Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of language through comparison of that world language and their own.

                K-2                                         3-4                                       5-6                                      7-8                                        9-10                                         11-12
Language Comparisons                          Language Comparisons                     Language Comparisons                      Language Comparisons                     Language Comparisons                         Language Comparisons
7.K-2.   Compare names in English with        7.3-4.   Recognize sounds and short      7.5-6.   Cite and use examples of         7.7-8.   Cite and use borrowed           7.9-10.   Compare grammatical                7.11-12.   Use idiomatic expressions
         closest equivalent in target                  words from target language               words and roots borrowed                  words from other languages                structures between the native                  appropriate to a given
         language.                                     that do not exist in English             from the target language                  and hypothesize why                       and the target language (e.g.,                 situation in the target
7.K-2.   Address the World language                    (e.g., students hear “llama”             used in English and English               languages in general need to              word order, verb tenses, noun                  language.
         teacher appropriately in the                  pronounced in English and                words that are currently                  borrow words.                             cases, number, etc.).              7.11-12.   Select, use, and compare
         target language using courteous               Spanish and they distinguish             used in the target language.     7.7-8.   Collect and list examples       7.9-10.   Demonstrate differences in                     appropriate terms f address
         language and body language,                   which is L1 and which is                 Illustrate some of these                  showing differences in the                writing systems.                               between the target and native
         followed by addressing the                    L2.)                                     words, (e.g., rodeo,                      grammar structure of the                                                                 languages.
         classroom teacher appropriately      7.3-4.   Recognize simple cognates.               kindergarten, etc.)                       two languages (e.g., word
                                                                                                                                                                          7.9-10.   Identify idiomatic expressions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       7.11-12.   Identify and compare
                                                                                                                                                                                    appropriate to a given situation
         and courteously in English.                   Identify through listening      7.5-6.   Compare nuances of                        order, gender, agreement,                                                                telephone etiquette for
                                                                                                                                                                                    in the target language.
7.K-2.   Identify and use (in greetings)               and reading which words                  meanings and pronunciation                tense, etc.)                                                                             different purposes in both
         titles for school personnel (e.g.,            from a list are cognates.                of cognates. Discuss false       7.7-8.   Identify the use different      7.9-10.   Recognize noun and verb forms                  target language and native
         Mr., Mrs., Miss for principal,       7.3-4.   Identify simple indicators of            cognates and draw two                     titles of address used in the             and how they function in the                   language (e.g., business,
         librarian, etc.                               gender and number in target              different meanings (e.g.,                 target country and the U.S.               target language in relation to                 school, social, etc.).
7.K-2.   Answer the phone using                        language that is different               “trampa” in Spanish and          7.7-8.   Initiate telephone                        comparable elements in             7.11-12.   Use appropriate words in a
         appropriate expression in the                 from English (e.g., in                   “tramp” in English).                      conversation and compare                  English.                                       given situation to illustrate
         target language (e.g., “Wer” in               Spanish, usually male           7.5-6.   Compare concept of gender                 differences in telephone        7.9-10.   Recognize that vocabulary                      cultural differences.
         Chinese, “Mashi – Moshi” in                   people and animals end in                in English and target                     etiquette in the target and               conveys different meanings in      7.11-12.   Compare and contrast
         Japanese, “Allô” in French,                   “o”, and female people and               language (e.g., “lion and                 their own cultures. (e.g.,                various contexts within                        rhetorical and oratorical
         etc.)                                         animals end in “a”.                      lioness” versus “le lion et la            state one’s identity, ask to              different cultures.                            techniques used in different
7.K-2.   Recognize the writing system         7.3-4.   Compare word order in                    lionne.”                                  speak to someone, ask when      7.9-10.   Recognize the existence of                     languages.
         (alphabet and numbers) of the                 simple phrase or expression     7.5-6.   Compare and contrast                      someone will return, state                language varieties within          7.11-12.   Examine various genres of
         target language (e.g., kanji in               (e.g., red car, car red,                 differences and similarities              that they will call again,                cultures through dialect                       literature and oral
         Japanese, Chinese characters,                 beautiful Mexico, “Mexico                in the pronunciation                      conclude a call).                         comparisons.                                   communication to
         Cyrillic alphabet, some                       lindo”                                   systems. Give examples                                                                                                             hypothesize the world views
         differences in European              7.3-4.   Compare suffixes that                    that are more complicated        Language Comparisons                     Language Comparisons                                     of different cultures.
         languages, such as cross F’s,                 denote simple concepts such              than in earlier years. (e.g.,    7.7-8.   Demonstrate how idiomatic       7.9-10.   Identify idiomatic expressions
         accents, etc.)                                as size, affection, beauty,              “esdrujulas” in Spanish,                  expressions reflect culture.              appropriate to a given situation   Language Comparisons
7.K-2.   Recognize some differences in                 etc.(e.g., “into” and “on”               diphthongs and triphthongs       7.7-8.   Generate idiomatic                        in the target language.
         the sound systems of the                      Spanish; “chen” in German,                                                         expressions in both the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       7.11-12. Identify and understand a
                                                                                                in many languages).                                                       7.9-10.   Select and use appropriate title
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  range of linguistic and
         English language and target                   etc.                            7.5-6.   Discuss how idiomatic                     native language and the                   of address in the target
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  structural features in
         language (e.g., “n” in Spanish,      7.3-4.   Recognize differences in                 expressions work in general               target language and discuss               language in a given situation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  different text types.
         “zh” in Chinese, “eu” in                      writing systems (e.g., print,            and practice in a meaningful              how idiomatic expressions       7.9-10.   Identify and compare
         French).                                      symbols, syllabic, alphabets,            way. Incorporate into oral                work in general.                          differences in telephone           7.11-12.   Use and explain idiomatic
7.K-2.   Recognize roots in two                        characters, orientation of                                                7.7-8.   Recognize that vocabulary                 etiquette in the target and                   expressions appropriate to a
                                                                                                and written communication.
         languages and compare                         written language, and                                                              conveys different meanings                native languages.                             given situation in the target
                                                                                       7.5-6.   Identify language
         cognates.                                     punctuation conventions                                                            in various contexts.            7.9-10.   List and compare                              language.
                                                                                                characteristics which may
7.K-2.   Recognize that languages are                  (e.g., read right to left in             or may not be present in                                                            corresponding words with their     7.11-12.   Explain how various
         inter-related and belong to                   Hebrew, use upside down                  English (e.g., formalities,                                                         social meanings in their                      languages are interrelated in
         language family(s), (e.g., Count              exclamation points in                    levels of politeness, formal                                                        particular cultures.                          terms of word origin and text
         to ten in two or three related                Spanish, etc.)                           and informal language,                                                                                                            structures.
         languages and compare).          7.3-4.   Recognize that letters/               different registers of          7.11-12.   Demonstrate language
7.K-2.   Practice writing simple words             characters can represent              language, etc.)                            varieties within cultures
         in target language (e.g., names,          different sounds in target   7.5-6.   Illustrate proverbs and                    through comparison of
         label for classroom objects,              language and in English               compare with equivalent                    regional and/or social
         animals to label drawings, etc.           (e.g., Vowels, Key                    translation in English (e.g.,              dialects.
7.K-2.   Respond to alphabet cards in              consonants, etc.). Read               “It’s raining cats and dogs”
         L1 and L2 identifying which               aloud simple monosyllabic             with Spanish version, “Está
         are from L1 and which are from            and bi-syllabic words                 lloviendo a chuzo/a
         L2. Respond similarly to eight            demonstrating capacity to             cántaros”. (It’s raining
         or ten flash cards from theme             closely reproduce sounds              spears/jarfuls).
         (e.g., animals, classroom                 and comprehension of         7.5-6.   Give examples of words
         objects) that portray both                which letters/ characters             borrowed from one
         picture and word in L1 and                represent those specific              language and used in
         duplicate picture with word in            sounds.                               another and develop an
         L2.                                                                             understanding of the
                                                                                         process of borrowing.
                                                                       CONTENT STANDARD 8: Comparison Among Cultures 

   Students will demonstrate an understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.

               K-2                                      3-4                                          5-6                                       7-8                                       9-10                                           11-12

Cultural Comparisons                    Cultural Comparisons                         Cultural Comparisons                         Cultural Comparisons                   Cultural Comparisons                          Cultural Comparisons
8.K-2.   Imitate common gestures of     8.3-4.   Recognize selected food from        8.5-6.   List, identify and describe         8.7-8.   Describe appropriate       8.9-10.      Compare and contrast seasons      8.11-12.     Compare nuances meanings of
         the target culture(s) (e.g.,            target culture(s) related to                 with simple adjectives ten                   clothing and celebration                and weather conditions of the                   words, idioms, and vocal
         bowing, hand-shaking,                   holidays and seasons of the                  daily activities in the native               activities for different                target countries.                               inflections in the target
         kissing on cheeks,                      year and compare with food                   and target cultures (e.g., In the            holidays/ceremonies (e.g., 8.9-10.      Compare and contrast the                        language and their own.
         embracing, etc.) Imitate                served in US at similar                      US the boy/girl wakes up at                  gifts, etc.)                            concept of “snacks” in the two 8.11-12.        Identify and explain the
         greeting and farewell                   occasions (e.g., trick or treat              7:00 a.m. in ___________            8.7-8.   Choose a profession and                 cultures.                                       relationship between weather
         behaviors appropriate to                candy for Halloween as                       (country) the boy/ girl wakes                tell about the career in   8.9-10.      Discuss the similarities and                    and cultural
         target culture(s).                      compared to sugar skills,                    up at ______a.m., etc.                       both cultures.                          differences between one’s own                   activities/practices in different
8.K-2.   Recognize the similarities              “calaveras de azúcar” for The       8.5-6.   Compare and contrast the role                                                        culture and the target culture as               countries.
         and differences in the                  Day of the Dead in Mexico).                  of selected family members in       Cultural Comparisons                             represented in the media and/or 8.11-12.       Compare and contrast a typical
         representa-tion of animal      8.3-4.   Compare songs and                            both cultures (e.g., the            8.7-8.   Describe a leisure activity             literature.                                     “lunch” at home and in the
         sounds in the two                       instruments used during                      grandmother in USA often                     in both native and target                                                               target culture.
         languages/cultures (e.g.,               holiday celebrations in target               lives far away/the                           culture using the target      Cultural Comparisons                          8.11-12.   Compare and contrast tangible
         rooster is perceived as                 culture(s) and in US (e.g., at               grandmother in __________                    culture.                      8.9-10.   Compare nuances meanings of                     products of the target cultures
         making different sounds – in            Christmas time, people go                    lives with the family). Present     8.7-8.   Describe an article or                  words, idioms, and vocal                        and their own (e.g., dress,
         English “cock-a-doodle­                 caroling “Parranda” in Puerto                to class in target language                  outfit in modern or                     inflections in the target                       toys, sports, equipment, etc.).
         doo”, in French “cocorico,”             Rico using “maracas”, “guiro”,               with pictures.                               traditional dress using the             language and their own.             8.11-12.   Compare and contrast career
         in Spanish “Quiquiriqui.”)              “cuatro” and guitar singing         8.5-6.   Company and contrast school                  target language.              8.9-10.   Identify and explain the                        choices and social roles in the
8.K-2.   Recognize the similarities              “aguinaldos” such as “Los                    and family life in the target       8.7-8.   Describe a particular                   relationship between weather                    target cultures and their own.
         and differences in the                  Tres Santos Reyes” as                        culture and the USA (e.g.,                   myth associated with a                  and cultural activities/practices   8.11-12.   Analyze the relationship
         representation of                       compared to usually no                       extended family living under                 celebration in both                     in different countries.                         between cultural stereotyping
         environmental sounds in the             instruments for carolers who                 one roof or getting together                 cultures that incorporates    8.9-10.   Compare and contrast a typical                  and its implications in
         two languages/cultures (e.g.,           sing “We Three Kings of                      every weekend, respect for                   symbolism.                              “lunch” at home and in the                      different cultures.
         train is perceived as “clac­            Orient Are.” Also, climatic                  parents, teachers, etc.)                                                             target culture.                     8.11-12.   Recognize the contributions of
         clac-clac” in Spanish, “hong­           difference, hence, clothing         8.5-6.   Illustrate/write about how                                                 8.9-10.   Compare and contrast tangible                   other parallel cultures (e.g.,
         long, hong-long” in Chinese             difference for caroling activity.            birthday, Saint’s Day or                                                             products of the target cultures                 Native American, African, and
         and “choo-choo” in English). 8.3-4.     Compare weather and                          “coming of age” is celebrated                                                        and their own (e.g., dress, toys,               European) to the target
8.K-2.   Celebrate a holiday or                  consequences (dress, sports,                 in both cultures (e.g., compare                                                      sports, equipment, etc.).                       culture.
         birthday according to the               foods, houses, etc.) in a target             “quinceañera” party in                                                     8.9-10.   Compare and contrast career
         customs of the target                   culture city/town with                       Mexico with Bas Mitzvah in                                                           choices and social roles in the     Cultural Comparisons
         culture(s) and compare                  Connecticut city/town. Make                  CT).                                                                                 target cultures and their own.      8.11-12.   Explain the meaning of non-
         simple aspects with customs             collage/poster of weather           8.5-6.   Describe orally and in written                                             8.9-10.   Analyze the relationship                        verbal behavior in different
         of USA (e.g., a birthday                comparison highlighting a                    language a holiday in US and                                                         between cultural stereotyping                   cultures.
         party at a roller skating rink          theme (e.g., hot weather in                  a similar celebration in target                                                      and its implications in different   8.11-12.   Identify and explain the
         in USA versus mariachis                 southern Mexico – women                      culture explaining similarities                                                      cultures.                                       economic impact of weather
         serenading a Mexican child              wear huipil/men wear light                   and differences (e.g., On New                                              8.9-10.   Recognize the contributions of                  on different cultures.
         singing “Las Mañanitas” or              cotton shirts, pants and sandals             Year’s eve in Spain each                                                             other parallel cultures (e.g.,      8.11-12.   Discuss the relationship
         piñata.)                                as compared to four seasons in               family member eats twelve                                                            Native American, African, and                   between cultural perspectives
8.K-2.   Recognize pictures of target            Connecticut with appropriate                 grapes/in US people watch                                                            European) to the target culture.                and practices (e.g., holiday,
         country peers in their school           clothing).                                   TV or go to parties.                                                                                                                 celebrations, work habits,
         country peers in their school     8.3-4.   Express personal preferences       8.5-6.   Create a “mock” marketplace                    play) by analyzing the target
         or everyday clothes (e.g.,                 in the target language                      typical of target countries) and               cultures and their own.
         school uniform in some                     regarding sports and activities             assign rolls to students to        8.11-12.   Compare and contrast various
         public schools abroad versus               of target culture(s) and of                 represent vendors and                          institutions in different
         T-shirts and blue jeans in                 Connecticut.                                customers. Buy and sell with                   cultures (e.g., family
         Connecticut).                     8.3-4.   Compare and contrast through                play target currency. Bargain                  education, religion, health
8.K-2.   Identify dolls, pictures and/or            Venn diagrams how selected                  and/or trade according to                      care, etc.).
         photos of people in                        holidays are celebrated in                  norms of culture. Recognize        8.11-12.   Identify and analyze cultural
         traditional/folkloric clothing             target culture(s) and in US                 and identify inventory that is                 perspectives as reflected in a
         at the target culture(s) and               (e.g., on Independence Day in               typical of target culture that                 variety literary genres.
         compare with costumes for                  both US and Chile, people eat               would not usually be present
         American traditions/folklore               picnics/cook-outs but, in US                in a US supermarket.
         (e.g., costumes of Veracruz                the menu is usually hotdogs        8.5-6.   Compare and contrast beliefs
         and square dancing outfits).               and hamburgers, whereas in                  regarding sickness and
8.K-2.   Experience/taste fruit or                  Chile people usually eat                    ___?______ (e.g., role play
         deserts/pastries are native to             “empanadas”.                                US doctor attending to broken
         target culture(s) and compare     8.3-4.   Compare and contrast meals                  arm and Chinese
         with fruits/desserts/pastries              and eating styles/practices in              acupuncturist attending to
         typical of USA (e.g., mango                the target culture(s) with North            patient’s pain).
         vs. apple/crepe vs. cookie).               American equivalents (e.g.,        8.5-6.   Compare and contrast
8.K-2.   Identify toys and/or games of              cheese is served before meal in             folktales and animal stories in
         the target culture and                     US and after meal in France).               US children’s literature and
         compare with toys/games of        8.3-4.   Plan a menu associated with                 authentic cultural literature in
         children from the United                   two similar holidays in two                 simplified language (e.g.,
         States (e.g., “el trompo” and              cultures (e.g., cut and past                Simple Simon and Juan
         “el emboque” are toys from                 pictures as a group project and             Bobo/image of fox in both
         many Latin American                        present in target language).                cultures).
         countries composed to             8.3-4.   Compare and contrast dress         8.5-6.   Compare and contrast male
         marbles, pegs or the latest                (e.g., modern/urban and                     and female heroes from both
         fad in children’s toys).                   clothing for special holidays)              cultures and how people
8.K-2.   Identify pictures of houses                in two cultures. Draw pictures              celebrate their heroes (e.g.,
         and stores typical of target               and label in target language.               equestrian statutes, legends,
         culture(s) and of                          Present to class.                           pictures, etc.)
         Connecticut.                      8.3-4.   Compare and contrast work          8.5-6.   Compare and contrast music
8.K-2.   Compare two versions of a                  activities of people in US with             or art from same time
         folktale/song/game/nursery                 similar and different                       period/style in US and target
         rhyme through pictures and                 occupations in target cultures              cultures). (e.g., French
         hearing text read aloud from               (e.g., doctors and nurses in                Impressionists and US
         the US and target culture.                 both countries; however                     Impressionists).
         (e.g., “The Farmer in the                  bullfighter in Spain as            8.5-6.   Compare and contrast cultural
         Dell: ends in English with                 compared to basketball player               meaning of proverbs, sayings,
         “the cheese stands alone” and              in US).                                     jokes, riddles in target
         in French with “le fromage        8.3-4.   Compare daily living in both                language/culture(s) and US.
         est battu.”)                               cultures (e.g., food, school,               This may be carried out partly
                                                    leisure, grocery shopping, etc.)            in English. (e.g., “You move
                                           8.3-4.   Discuss in very simple target               your feet and you lose your
                                                    language, the roles of men,                 seat./”El que se va a
                                                    women, and children in their                Sevilla/melipilla, pierde su
                                                    own cultures (e.g., the father              silla”/”Celui qui va à la
                                                    works in the office; the mother             chasse, perd sa place.”
                                                    sells at the market; the           8.5-6.   Identify cultural
                                                    children go to school and help              activities/sports that take
         in the market).                  place according to seasons
8.3-4.   Compare and contrast             and compare with similar US
         superstitions in target          activities/sports. (e.g., skiing
         language/culture(s) and in       takes place in both Germany
         USA. (e.g., bad luck on Friday   and US in winter, hiking in
         13th or Tuesday 13th a South     summer activity, more
         American good luck brought       prevalent in Germany then
         by rabbit’s foot or chimney      USA.)
         sweep in Germany and
         Switzerland or Ekeko in
                                                                                              CONTENT STANDARD 9: Communities 

   Students will use the world language both within and beyond the school setting for personal enjoyment, enrichment and active participation.

                K-2                                        3-4                                         5-6                                         7-8                                        9-10                                          11-12
School and Community                         School and Community                    School and Community                          School and Community                      School and Community                          School and Community
9.K-2.   Introduce themselves in the         9.3-4.   Imitate communication in       9.5-6.     Identify and describe              9.7-8.     Observe, take notes, and       9.9-10.   Write to international corpora­     9.11-12.   Develop a resume in the target
         target language to native –                  the target with native-                   professions in the US which                   write a summary of an                    tions requesting information on                language studied.
         speaker peers in their school                speaking peers of the target              require proficiency in the                    interview with a speaker                 job qualifications that include a   9.11-12.   Gather statistics on
         and community.                               culture (e.g., Sister School              target language studied.                      of the target language.                  second language.                               import/export of U.S. products
9.K-2.   Recognize local neighborhoods                exchange, pen pals with        9.5-6.     Develop an interview                                                         9.9-10.   Compile a list of local part-time              and products from countries of
         where the language is spoken                 videotaping, etc.)                        questionnaire/interview a          Personal Enrichment                                 positions that have a need for                 the language studied.
         (through sister school field        9.3-4.   Visit local establishments/               native-speaker (preferably         9.7-8.     Compare cost of previous                 proficiency in the target           9.11-12.   Analyze potential stock or bond
         trips, pen-pals, photographs,                social clubs owned and                    close to same age) in the                     year’s imaginary travel to               language.                                      investments.
         etc.)                                        managed by native speakers.               target language.                              cost of same travel in         9.9-10.   Re-enact famous target culture      9.11-12.   Familiarize a native-speaker of
9.K-2.   Recognize words in the target       9.3-4.   Engage in simple               9.5-6.     Plan an imaginary trip to a                   current year.                            tales and stories for younger                  the target language with the
         language heard/seen outside of               conversations with native-                country of the language that       9.7-8.     Exchange information                     students.                                      community at large.
         school (e.g., on TV – “Sesame                speaker personnel at site                 includes itinerary, budget,                   with foreign pen-pal on
         Street”, on cereal boxes, etc.)              visited (e.g., How are you?               transportation, etc.                          topics of personal interest,   Personal Enrichment                  Personal Enrichment
9.K-2.   Interact/work/play through                   What is your name? Where       9.5-6.     Use the country’s currency on                 community interests, and          Write or give a review of a
                                                                                                                                                                             9.9-10.                              9.11-12. Create a portfolio showing
         school project (e.g., Sister                 do you come from? etc.)                   the imaginary trip.                           world concerns.                   cultural event/performance                   involvement in at least 20
         Schools, Multicultural grant,       9.3-4.   Use community resources to     9.5-6.     Perform a story/play TV            9.7-8.     Participate in a language         attended.                                    leisure activities where the
         etc.) with children/adults from              explore target cultures                   program in the target language                immersion experience      9.9-10. Explore international shopping               language studied was heard,
         target culture(s).                  9.3-4.   Write to embassies/                       to be presented to the                        (e.g., language, camp,            market on the Internet.                      read, or spoken by the student.
9.K-2.   Celebrate with children from                 consulates/cultural centers               community.                                    travel).                  9.9-10. Explore opportunities to live and 9.11-12. Continue exploring an area of
         community where target                       of target culture/countries    9.5-6.     Design/prepare thematic                                                         study in a target language                   interest on the Internet (chat
         language is spoken (e.g., dance              and request cultural                      bulletin board/showcase            School and Community                         culture.                                     lines, etc.).
         performance, art display etc.)               materials.                                display of an aspect of target     9.7-8.    Establish and maintain                                               9.11-12. Bookmark Internet sources in
                                                                                                culture with labels in target                communication with peers School and Community                                   area of interest.
Personal Enrichment                          Personal Enrichment                                language (e.g., dolls,                       in the target culture.     9.9-10. Use target language to request
9.K-2.   Look at pictures/read simple        9.3-4.   Attend/participant activity               postcards, musical                                                              information about employment      School and Community
         text in authentic story book                 in target culture festival.               instruments, etc.)                 Personal Enrichment                          and career opportunities for      9.11-12. Write a cover letter and resume
         and/or picture dictionary.          9.3-4.   Attend children’s              9.5-6.     Prepare article for school         9.7-8.    Watch and listen to TV or          bilingual speakers.                          in the target language and mail
9.K-2.   Listen to/sing/recite songs and              movie/theater/sports event                newspaper in target language                 radio broadcasts in the    9.9-10. Read and discuss articles in the             them to possible employers.
         nursery rhymes from target                   delivered in target language              about cultural aspects of target             language studied.                  target language on the global     9.11-12. Post resume on international
         culture(s).                                  with customs from target                  countries.                         9.7-8.    Attend at least two plays,         market                                       Internet.
9.K-2.   Attend                                       culture.                       9.5-6.     Exchange information about                   concerts, or cultural      9.9-10. Host a native speaker of the      9.11-12. Analyze the impact of statistics
         multicultural/international four                                                       school, town and state with                  celebrations.                      target language                              gathered relative to the global
         with parents/friends and will                                                          foreign pen pals or pen pals                                            9.9-10. Exhibit familiarity with stock               economy.
         participate in activities such as                                                      from Sister School in state                                                     and bond markets of the target    9.11-12. “Chat” on the Internet.
         making crafts, dance, eating,                                                          where target language is                                                        country.                          9.11-12. Do volunteer work in the
         etc.                                                                                   spoken.                                                                 9.9-10. Teach some of the target                     community using the target
                                                                                     9.5-6.     Take on identity of famous                                                      language to peers or younger                 language.
                                                                                                native speaker and present to                                                   children.
                                                                                                class.                                                                  9.9-10. Familiarize native speaker of the Personal Enrichment
                                                      target language with the school   9.11-12. Create a portfolio showing
Personal Enrichment                                   community in the target                    involvement in at least 25
9.5-6.   Collect and read                             language.                                  leisure activities where the
         advertisements of                                                                       language studied was heard,
         products/video clips from         Personal Enrichment                                   read and spoken by the student.
         target language/culture(s).       9.9-10.   Create a portfolio showing         9.11-12. Create a web page in the target
9.5-6.   Explore cultural components                 involvement in at least 10 leisure          language for the school’s web
         of the Internet.                            activities where the target                 site.
9.5-6.   Go with family to ethnic                    language was heard/ read/spoken
         restaurants with menus in                   by the student.
         target language and speak to      9.9-10.   Explore an area of interest on the
         waiter in target language.                  Internet.
9.5-6.   Travel (true or vicarious trip)
         with family on vacation to a
         country where target language
         is spoken. Attend museum
         with target culture exhibit on

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