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					                 Brain and
             Consciousness

     Brain Patterns and TM
            Practice
12/12/2012                   1
 Grey
Matter


White
Matter
Cortex
 (grey
matter)
is 1/8
  Inch
Thick
            Parts of neurons
• Dendrites and
 dendritic spines
 – Input
• Cell body
 – make energy,
   neurotransmitters,
   integrate activity of cells
• axon
 – Output
EEG: Ions in the Fluid Around
                   the Neuron
        + + - ++ +
   + - ++ + - --++ +
      +
+++ - - -- ++ + - +
           + --
 + + - - ++ + - + ++
    +
   + - +
        +-+-- ++- - -- +++
         +      + + +++
 +                     ++ +
 + + - + + ++ - - +
++                      +
    + - +
       + + -+ + -+ +
     +- +
                    +         Sodium and
         + + + - - --
       +- + - + + +++ -
                              potassium

      -+ -+-- + -- ++
                    + +       Chloride
     ++           +++ -
                   -+ - +
       + + +    -- +   -
Sources and Sinks along the Apical Dendrites

          - -- -- -
          - -- - --- --
                                   Sodium and

         - - - -- +
               -+ -+
                                   potassium

             -+ + + -+
                    --             Chloride
                  -
            +-+-- + +-
              + + - ++ +
                  + + +
           - + - + -+
           +- +
          +- +
             + + + - - --++
           +- + - + + +-+ -
          -+ -+-- + -+ ++
          ++           +++ +
                        -+ --+
           + +  +    -- +   -
Electrical Activity from Neurons “Talking”
      Can be Measured at the Scalp




Brain waves measured by EEG mostly reflect
electrical activity in the cortex, but include
contributions from the whole brain.
    Frequency               Cognitive Processes
(cycles/sec or Hz)

1-3 Delta            Restoration during deep sleep.
                     Delta is also seen during waking
                     when brain areas are strongly
                     inhibited from firing.

4-5 Theta1           Drowsiness and dreaming

5-7.5 Theta2         Inner mental processes such as
                     during a memory task



8-10 Alpha1          Inner wakefulness (Seen during TM)
10-12 Alpha2         Brain modules primed to be used in
                     a task, but currently are quiet (Seen
                     during eyes-closed rest)

16-20 Beta1          Ongoing processing of experience

20-50 Gamma          Strong focus or concentration (Seen
                     right now in your brain…)
Power Spectrum
Power Maps: Frontal Theta
Alpha   Beta   Gamma
Alpha   Beta   Gamma
Inward and Outward Strokes of TM
                      .




      Inward stroke       Outward Stroke


                                   Travis, 2001
Transcendental Consciousness Apneustic
  Breathing and Autonomic Measures




                         Travis, 2000
          “Whatever the object is, if the subject keeps on changing, the
knowledge will keep on changing. A fresh, alert man likes oranges, but if, when
he starts to feel sleepy and dull, some says, Here is some very sweet orange
juice. Would you like it? he may not even say no; he is now sinking another state
of consciousness: drowsiness, sleep. The same orange juice, which was so
sweet, so likeable, now has not much value and does not draw his attention at all.
So knowledge differs on the basis of the differing states of consciousness of the
knower.” Maharishi
19
 TM Versus Eyes-Closed Rest
0.5

0.4
            Frontal                           Frontal
0.3       Coherence                            Power
          Differences                       Differences
0.2

0.1

  0

-0.1
         Alpha1  Beta1 Frontal    Alpha1      Beta1 Frontal   Gamma
        Frontal   Coherence       Frontal        Power        Frontal
       Coherence                  Power                       Power
                     TM          Eyes Closed
                                                          Travis et al, 2010
 fMRI (Blood Flow) during TM

Red =
Higher
Blood Flow


Blue=
Lower
Blood Flow
 Transcendental Consciousness and
      the Junction Point Model

Transcendental Consciousness, the
fourth state of consciousness
experienced during Transcendental
Meditation practice between
thoughts, is also available between
states of consciousness.
Junction Point Model




                   Travis, 1994
   Transcendental Consciousness
       and the Junction Point

Junction
Point in
non-
meditators
falling
asleep and
during TM




                         Travis, 1994
Junction points between sleeping
and dreaming




                         Travis, 1994
      Srīmad Bhāgavatum
• Discourse XIII, 4
  – “With eyes turned towards the Self,
    he should discover the true nature of
    the Self at the point of contact
    between deep sleep and waking life
    and look upon both bondage and
    release as illusion and not real.”
             Main Point
The continuous firing of 100 billion
 neurons, each responding to
 different aspects of experience,
 create the electrical field around the
 brain that are sampled by EEG
 recording. Changes in the whole
 electrical field characterize
 conscious experience and states of
 consciousness from sleeping to pure
 consciousness.
     Small Group Exercise
• Why might changes in brain
  functioning be seen primarily in
  the frontal areas of the brain
  during TM practice?
• A considerable body of previous research
  on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has helped
  characterize the regional specificity of
  various cognitive functions, such as
  cognitive control and decision making.
  Here we provide definitive findings on this
  topic, using a neuropsychological
  approach that takes advantage of a unique
  dataset accrued over several decades. We
  applied voxel-based lesion-symptom
       Prism analogy
Decomposing a complex signal into
component waves.
        Delta 0-4 Hz


                                    Theta 4-8 Hz



                 FFT
Raw
                        FFT            Alpha 8-12 Hz


                             FFT


                       FFT
           FFT                     Beta 12-20 Hz

      Gamma 20-50 Hz
Power = Amplitude squared
                   Alpha
amplitude




                   Beta

amplitude
Default Network: Frontal-Midline circuits
     (eLORETA-exact Low Resolution Electrotomography)




                                               Travis et al, 2010
   Make into transnecnding…
   Action

Thinking     Motor

            CEO


             Emotions
                        Concrete
                        Experience
       Anterior-
       Posterior
        Alpha
      Synchrony




Hebert et al, 2005. Journal of Signal
Processing.

				
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posted:12/12/2012
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