Brain and Consciousness Brain Patterns and TM Practice 12/12/2012 1 Grey Matter White Matter Cortex (grey matter) is 1/8 Inch Thick Parts of neurons • Dendrites and dendritic spines – Input • Cell body – make energy, neurotransmitters, integrate activity of cells • axon – Output EEG: Ions in the Fluid Around the Neuron + + - ++ + + - ++ + - --++ + + +++ - - -- ++ + - + + -- + + - - ++ + - + ++ + + - + +-+-- ++- - -- +++ + + + +++ + ++ + + + - + + ++ - - + ++ + + - + + + -+ + -+ + +- + + Sodium and + + + - - -- +- + - + + +++ - potassium -+ -+-- + -- ++ + + Chloride ++ +++ - -+ - + + + + -- + - Sources and Sinks along the Apical Dendrites - -- -- - - -- - --- -- Sodium and - - - -- + -+ -+ potassium -+ + + -+ -- Chloride - +-+-- + +- + + - ++ + + + + - + - + -+ +- + +- + + + + - - --++ +- + - + + +-+ - -+ -+-- + -+ ++ ++ +++ + -+ --+ + + + -- + - Electrical Activity from Neurons “Talking” Can be Measured at the Scalp Brain waves measured by EEG mostly reflect electrical activity in the cortex, but include contributions from the whole brain. Frequency Cognitive Processes (cycles/sec or Hz) 1-3 Delta Restoration during deep sleep. Delta is also seen during waking when brain areas are strongly inhibited from firing. 4-5 Theta1 Drowsiness and dreaming 5-7.5 Theta2 Inner mental processes such as during a memory task 8-10 Alpha1 Inner wakefulness (Seen during TM) 10-12 Alpha2 Brain modules primed to be used in a task, but currently are quiet (Seen during eyes-closed rest) 16-20 Beta1 Ongoing processing of experience 20-50 Gamma Strong focus or concentration (Seen right now in your brain…) Power Spectrum Power Maps: Frontal Theta Alpha Beta Gamma Alpha Beta Gamma Inward and Outward Strokes of TM . Inward stroke Outward Stroke Travis, 2001 Transcendental Consciousness Apneustic Breathing and Autonomic Measures Travis, 2000 “Whatever the object is, if the subject keeps on changing, the knowledge will keep on changing. A fresh, alert man likes oranges, but if, when he starts to feel sleepy and dull, some says, Here is some very sweet orange juice. Would you like it? he may not even say no; he is now sinking another state of consciousness: drowsiness, sleep. The same orange juice, which was so sweet, so likeable, now has not much value and does not draw his attention at all. So knowledge differs on the basis of the differing states of consciousness of the knower.” Maharishi 19 TM Versus Eyes-Closed Rest 0.5 0.4 Frontal Frontal 0.3 Coherence Power Differences Differences 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 Alpha1 Beta1 Frontal Alpha1 Beta1 Frontal Gamma Frontal Coherence Frontal Power Frontal Coherence Power Power TM Eyes Closed Travis et al, 2010 fMRI (Blood Flow) during TM Red = Higher Blood Flow Blue= Lower Blood Flow Transcendental Consciousness and the Junction Point Model Transcendental Consciousness, the fourth state of consciousness experienced during Transcendental Meditation practice between thoughts, is also available between states of consciousness. Junction Point Model Travis, 1994 Transcendental Consciousness and the Junction Point Junction Point in non- meditators falling asleep and during TM Travis, 1994 Junction points between sleeping and dreaming Travis, 1994 Srīmad Bhāgavatum • Discourse XIII, 4 – “With eyes turned towards the Self, he should discover the true nature of the Self at the point of contact between deep sleep and waking life and look upon both bondage and release as illusion and not real.” Main Point The continuous firing of 100 billion neurons, each responding to different aspects of experience, create the electrical field around the brain that are sampled by EEG recording. Changes in the whole electrical field characterize conscious experience and states of consciousness from sleeping to pure consciousness. Small Group Exercise • Why might changes in brain functioning be seen primarily in the frontal areas of the brain during TM practice? • A considerable body of previous research on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has helped characterize the regional specificity of various cognitive functions, such as cognitive control and decision making. Here we provide definitive findings on this topic, using a neuropsychological approach that takes advantage of a unique dataset accrued over several decades. We applied voxel-based lesion-symptom Prism analogy Decomposing a complex signal into component waves. Delta 0-4 Hz Theta 4-8 Hz FFT Raw FFT Alpha 8-12 Hz FFT FFT FFT Beta 12-20 Hz Gamma 20-50 Hz Power = Amplitude squared Alpha amplitude Beta amplitude Default Network: Frontal-Midline circuits (eLORETA-exact Low Resolution Electrotomography) Travis et al, 2010 Make into transnecnding… Action Thinking Motor CEO Emotions Concrete Experience Anterior- Posterior Alpha Synchrony Hebert et al, 2005. Journal of Signal Processing.
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