Psychology Notes

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					Psychology Notes
        Day 1
Why we study Psychology
  Why do we study psychology

►To better understand why
 people act as they do
►Psy is the study of behavior
►What is behavior?
►Anything you say, think, or do
       2-types of behavior

►Voluntary  (you have control)
►Involuntary (you have no
 control) – heart beat, blood
 pressure
►Involuntary manslaughter???
    Psychology includes all mental
             processes
     ►Thoughts

►   Memories
►   dreams
Psychology also study emotions
  ►Are emotions voluntary or
   involuntary
  ►Emotions effect behavior
   and mental processes
  ►Example anxiety=increased
   heart rate, nail biting, and
   an inability to concentrate
  Psychology as a science
►It is a social science
►It deals with the structure
 of human society and the
 nature of the individuals
 that make it up
►Research and test theories
►Lots of gray area (ESP)
   Our favorite question is WHY
► Why    do people think, feel and behave in a
  certain way?
► There are lots of reasons: Personality, social
  norms, social pressures, personal beliefs
  and values, behavior results in a reward or
  fulfills an internal or emotional need. It
  could be simple learning or modeling… Each
  person and situation must be looked at
  individually
Has there ever been a time
you did something that was
against your values because
     of social pressure?
            Social Influence
► Efforts by one or more individuals to change
  the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, or
  behaviors of one or more others
► We frequently try to influence others or are
  influenced by others
► Varying levels of explicitness
      Type of Social Influence
► Conformity:  when we change our attitudes
  in order to adhere to existing social norms
► Compliance: direct request from one person
  to another
► Obedience: when someone orders another
  to perform some action, and the person
  complies
  Continuum of Social Influence




► Socialinfluences vary in the degree of
 pressure they exert on the individual and
 how much risk is involved in resisting that
 influence
               Conformity
► Inmost contexts there are social norms:
  explicit or unspoken rules indicating how we
  should behave
► Explicit Examples?
► Implicit Examples?
            Social Norms
► Every formal, informal, or awkward situation
  in you life is guided by social norms and
  etiquette
► Table manners, greeting/meeting new
  people, where you stand to pee (if you’re a
  guy)
Implicit Elevator Norms Made
Explicit by: ElevatorRules.com
              Elevator Norms
► Calling/Waiting
► Ifyou are going up or down one floor, use the
  stairs! This rule should especially be observed
  during peak traffic times like morning and
  afternoon rush.
► Exceptions:
  1. When you have a cart, stroller or large
  packages
  2. When the elevator is empty
  3. If you are disabled or injured
            Elevator Norms
► Calling/Waiting
► NEVER  re-push the call button after
 someone has already pushed it. This
 indicates that you either do not understand
 how the button works, or you do not trust
 the person that has already pushed the
 button to do an adequate job of it.
            Elevator Norms
► Calling/Waiting
► Wait for the Door: If you arrive as a door is
 closing, regardless of how many people are
 in the car, DO NOT press the button. The
 people in the car are already prepared
 mentally for their trip and do not need to be
 interrupted. WAIT for the door to close
 completely before pressing the button.
             Elevator Norms
► Boarding
► While waiting to board, stand AWAY form
 the door opening. DO NOT board the car
 unless you are sure no one is getting off on
 your floor. If there is someone exiting, allow
 them to clear the door before attempting to
 board.
              Elevator Norms
► Where   to Stand
► You should stand as close to a wall as possible.
  Consider your destination floor and stand near the
  back if you are going to a high floor. If you know
  you are getting off shortly, stand toward the front.
  If you choose to stand near the buttons,
  understand that you may have increased
  responsibility.
► Always allow as much space as possible between
  you and the passengers. Always stand facing the
  door.
              Elevator Norms
► Pressing   Floor Buttons
► No re-pressing: Pay attention to which buttons
  have been pressed when you enter the elevator.
  Once a button has been pressed, nothing more
  can be done. Re-pressing the floor button will not
  make the elevator get you to your floor any faster.
  Re-pressing is disrespectful to the person that has
  already pressed the button and is generally
  irritating.
              Elevator Norms
► Pressing  Floor Buttons
► Press for Others: If you find yourself close to the
  button panel in an elevator, you have the
  additional responsibility of button management. It
  is your job to make sure the other riders have had
  the button for their floor pressed. This keeps
  people from reaching through a crowd to the
  button panel and eliminates the stress for those
  that cannot reach the buttons.
              Elevator Norms
► Pressing  Floor Buttons: Make a Mistake?
► Take steps to ensure that the only buttons being
  pressed are the ones for which floor a passenger
  must exit. However, in the event that you
  mistakenly press a button for the wrong floor, wait
  until the doors open on that floor and apologize to
  those who remain in the elevator. You may press
  the door closed buttons to cut down on wasted
  time.
            Elevator Norms
► Calling/Waiting
► If pressing the call button would require you
  to push through someone, it is acceptable
  to ask someone else to push the call button
  for you as long as they are not further away
  from it or unable to reach the button for
  you (i.e. coffee in their hands, etc.)
Urinal Norms
The Urinal Test
Easy Section: #1
Easy Section: #2
Kind of Tricky Section: #3
Kind of Tricky Section : #4
Subtle, Tricky, but Important to
       Know Section: #5
Very Tricky Indeed Section: #6
Easy Section: #1
Easy Section: #1
Easy Section: #2
Easy Section: #2
Kind of Tricky Section: #3
Kind of Tricky Section: #3
Kind of Tricky Section : #4
Kind of Tricky Section: #4
Subtle, Tricky, but Important to
       Know Section: #5
Subtle, Tricky, but Important to
       Know Section: #5
Very Tricky Indeed Section: #6
Very Tricky Indeed Section: #6
     How do We Learn Norms?
► Social Modeling
► Operant Conditioning
► Classical Conditioning
► Others?
Are Norms a Good or a Bad Thing?
► Pros:?




► Cons:?
              Cohesiveness
► We  are influenced by those we like
► Cohesiveness is all of the factors that bind
  group member together
► High cohesiveness means we like, identify
  with, and feel strong ties to others
► This increases pressure to conform
               Group Size
► Conformity increases with group size
► Asch found effect up to three
► Other research has found effect up to eight
Why do we conform?
              Compliance
► Directrequest from one person to another
► Much research conducted with ‘compliance
  professionals’
      Cialdini’s Field Research:
   6 Basic Principles of Persuasion
► Friendship/Liking:   More likely to comply with
  those we like
► Commitment/Consistency: Once we commit
  ourselves to something, we are more likely
  to behave in a way that’s consistent with it
► Scarcity: We value scarce or rare things
      Cialdini’s Field Research:
   6 Basic Principles of Persuasion
► Reciprocity: more likely to comply with
  someone who has done a favor for us
► Social validation: likely to comply with
  things that we think others like us are doing
► Authority: more likely to comply with
  someone who holds legitimate authority
            Friendship/Liking
► Impression  management techniques
► Ingratiation: getting others to like us so
  they’ll be more likely to agree with our
  requests
     Commitment/Consistency
► Foot in the door technique
► Requester begin with a small request and
  then , when this is granted, escalate to a
  larger one
► Saying ‘no’ after ‘yes’ is inconsistent
► Lowball procedure: offer a deal then, after
  the person has accepted it, change it
               Reciprocity
► “do unto others as they have one unto you”
► Door in the face technique: begin with a
  large request and then retreat to a smaller
  one
► That’s not all technique: offer additional
  benefits to target persons
► Samples
                 Scarcity
► Playinghard to get
► Deadline technique
               Obedience
► When  someone orders another to perform
  some action, and the person complies
► Used less frequently than other techniques
Why do we obey?
            Why do we obey?
► Diminished   responsibility
► Social norms
► Foot in the door
► Little time for reflection

				
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