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									   Session 1: Washington -                        Protective Tariff – tax on imported goods, get     Indian Removal Act – NA forced to Oklahoma
                                                  revenue and help American businesses               along Trail of Tears
    Reform Movements                              Federalists – more power to federal gov’t
                                                  (Hamilton)
People                                            Democratic-Republicans – more power to state       Military
                                                  gov’t (Jefferson)
George Washington – precedent, cabinet,           Federalist Period – strong central gov’t,          Undeclared War w/ France – Adams; France
neutrality, only served 2 terms                   Washington/Adams                                   seizing ships, led to XYZ Affair, “Quasi-war”
John Adams – Federalist, issues w/ France         XYZ Affair – Adams sent ambassadors to Fr,
Thomas Jefferson – Republican, state gov’t        but were refused recognition, Feds want war        War of 1812
power, 1st Sec of State under Washington,         Revolution of 1800 – Election of 1800, chosen         Impressment
Louisiana Purchase                                by House of Reps, transfer of power from              Tippecanoe (Harrison)
James Madison – War of 1812                       Federalists to Dem-Rep.                               New Orleans (Jackson)
James Monroe – Era of Good Feelings,              Midnight Judges – Federalist judges appointed         Treaty of Ghent (Armistice)
Nationalism, Monroe Doctrine                      by Adams at end of presidency
John Q. Adams – corrupt bargain (deal w/ Clay     Strict Interpretation – gov’t only has powers
to be pres, Clay will be SoS)                     listed in Const’n                                  Social Trends
Andrew Jackson – spoils system, common            Loose Interpretation – gov’t has more powers
man, Jacksonian Democracy, Indian Removal,        than those listed, “elastic clause”                Power to common man – land owning voter
pet banks                                         Impressment – British practice of capturing        restrictions gone, Jackson, campaigns for
Martin Van Buren – bank crisis                    ships and forcing men to fight in their navy       common man (Log Cabin Hard Cider)
William H. Harrison – war hero from 1812,         War Hawks – wanted Madison to go to war            Expansion – US gets FL, Louisiana Territory,
“Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too”, died in 30 days      Nationalism – strong federal gov’t, nation over    borders (49th parallel)
John Tyler – took over for Harrison               state, expansion, our country over others          Religion – 2nd Great Awakening, AME church
                                                  2nd Great Awakening – religious revivals           for Afr. Am., religious arguments for/against
Alexander Hamilton – Sec of Treasury,             Tariff of Abominations – high tariff, south        slavery, Utopian Communities (Mormons,
Economic Plan, Federalist (strong central         doesn’t like b/c benefits north at their expense   Shakers, New Harmony, Brook Farm)
gov’t), MONEY                                     Transcendentalism – literary, philosophical        Education Reforms – public education (Horace
Henry Knox – Sec of War                           movement, nature-based, individualism              Mann), schools for women (Lyon)
John Jay – 1st Chief Justice, Jay’s Treaty        Spoils System – appointing friends/supporters      Abolition – violent and nonviolent approaches
John Marshall – Chief Justice, powerful           to gov’t jobs, Jackson                             Temperance Movement – no alcohol, led by
federal gov’t, nation over state (nationalism)    Nullification – states can get rid of a federal    women, morally wrong
Henry Clay – “Great Compromiser”, Speaker         law that they don’t like                           Prison/Mental Health Reform – rehabilitation,
of House, Sec of State, Missouri Compromise,      Abolition – movement to end slavery                treatment, Dorothea Dix
Compromise of 1850                                Temperance – movement to ban alcohol, also         Immigration – Irish (potato famine, poorer,
Lewis and Clark/Sacajawea – explored              called prohibition                                 settled in cities) and Germans (political
Louisiana Territory                               American System – Clay’s plan to unite             instability, better off, went west to farm land)
Eli Whitney – Invented cotton gin                 nation’s economy, North manufacturing, South       Artistic/Literary Movements –
Tecumseh – Shawnee chief, anti- white settlers    farming, tariff, national bank, canals             transcendentalism (Thoreau/Emerson),
John C. Calhoun – States’ rights, nullification   Industrial Revolution – machines,                  American frontier spirit (Cooper), Hudson
Henry David Thoreau – Civil Disobedience,         mechanization, mass production,                    River School (art, American landscapes),
Transcendentalism                                 interchangeable parts                              Romanticism (Nathaniel Hawthorne)
Ralph Waldo Emerson – Transcendentalism           Cult of Domesticity – women belong at home         Women’s Rights (Feminism) – Seneca Falls
Nathaniel Hawthorne – romanticism, Scarlet        Civil Disobedience (Thoreau) – people should       Convention, “Declaration of Sentiments”
Letter                                            not let gov’t do bad things, peacefully disobey    (rights, similar to Decl of Indep), Stanton/Mott,
Charles Finney – preacher during Great            gov’t as a form of protest                         better health for women (Elizabeth Blackwell,
Awakening; Richard Allen – AME Church             Whigs – ant-Jackson party, pro-business,           Bloomer), Mount Holyoke female seminary
Horace Mann – Public Education                    transportation, tariffs, Henry Clay
William Lloyd Garrison – abolition, “The
Liberator” newspaper                              Legislation                                        Economics
Frederick Douglass – escaped slave, “North
Star” newspaper, autobiography                    Pinckney’s Treaty – US can use Miss. River         Hamilton’s Economic Plan
Nat Turner – led a slave revolt                   and New Orleans                                       Bonds to wealthy to pay national debt
David Walker – violent approach to abolition,     Jay’s Treaty – British say they will leave forts      Nation absorbs (takes care of) state debts
slaves should fight against masters               in west (but doesn’t happen…until after 1812)         Excise tax on whiskey
Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Lucretia Mott –            Alien and Sedition Acts – keeping Federalists
                                                                                                        Protective Tariff
Women’s rights convention, Senaca Falls NY        in power, tougher immigration laws, can’t
                                                                                                        National Bank to handle money
Dorothea Dix – mental hospital reforms            criticize gov’t
Elizabeth Blackwell – hospitals for women         Kentucky and Virginia Revolution –                    Helps North and hurts South, capital
Mary Lyon – school for girls                      nullification, protesting A&S Acts                     moved to DC to make South happy
Sarah & Angelina Grimke – abolitionists,          Embargo Act of 1807 – Jefferson, no trade
Appeal to the Christian Women of the South        with other countries to keep US out of war, but    Bank Crisis/Recession of 1837 – pet banks of
James Fennimore Cooper – Amer. Frontier           hurt US businesses                                 Jackson, too much money (inflation), must use
spirit, “Last of the Mohicans”                    Marbury v. Madison – Judicial Review,              gold/silver to buy land, run on banks,
Joseph Smith – founder of Mormon church           Supreme Court can declare law unconst’nal          depression, unemployment
Brigham Young – led Mormons to Utah               Gibbons v. Ogden – Fed gov’t controls
                                                  anything that crosses state lines                  North v. South
Terms                                             McCulloch v. Maryland – national bank is              Industrial Revolution in North
                                                  const’nal, states cannot nullify fed. Law             Cotton Gin = more slavery in South
Neutrality – don’t take sides, Washington         Missouri Compromise – Missouri slave, Maine           Tariff – helps North and hurts South
Washington’s Farewell Address – warned            free, 36.30 line, north free, south slave             American System by Henry Clay – regions
against alliances and political parties           Monroe Doctrine – Europe must stay out of              work together to help each other, South
Excise Tax – tax on one product, whiskey          Western Hemisphere                                     grows crops, North makes things
Whiskey Rebellion – protesting excise tax,        Adams-Onis Treaty – Spain cedes FL. to US             Better transportation to unite country:
showed power of national gov’t to enforce laws    Worchester v. Georgia – state cannot take              National Road, Erie Canal, Turnpike,
                                                  Indian land, Jackson does not enforce                  beginning of RRs

                                                                         1
Session 2: Expansion,                       Freeport Doctrine-Douglas’ ideas,            Radical Republicans-wanted to
                                            popular sovereignty                          transform the south after the war,
     Crisis, Civil War,                     The North Star-Frederick Douglass’           harsh treatment of South
     Reconstruction                         abolitionist newspaper.                      Wade-Davis Bill-Radical Repub.
                                            Spot resolution-Lincoln’s early              early plan for Recon. Doesn’t pass.
 People                                     attempt to stop western expansion of         Reconstruction Act of 1867-
 Joseph Smith-founded Mormons.              slavery, argument against Mex War            compromise plan, military districts in
 Moved west                                 popular sovereignty-voters of a terr.        South
 Henry Clay- Great Compromiser              decide on slavery or not.                    14th Amendment-civil rights and
 John Calhoun- “states rights” and          “Bleeding Kansas”- violence there            equal protection of law for all citizens
 sectionalism                               over Pop. Sov.                               (including blacks)
 JK Polk-war with Mexico, west.             Know-Nothing Party-anti-                     15th Amendment-universal male
 Expansion, 54-40 or Fight                  immigrant, nativism                          suffrage.
 Stephen Austin – sold land in TX,          Free-Soil Party- stop spread of              black codes- post CW laws to restrict
 imprisoned by Santa Anna                   slavery                                      civil rights for freed people.
 Sam Houston- led TX vs Mexico,             Republican Party-united factions of          Civil Rights Act of 1866- precursor
 first pres of Rep of TX.                   anti-slavery expansion parties               to 14th Amendment, made black
 Santa Anna-Mexican general vs. US          Secession-southern states leave US           codes illegal
 William Lloyd Garrison-radical             after Lincoln’s election.                    Freedmen’s Bureau- Early
 abolitionist. Paper= The Liberator         Dred Scott decision-protected                reconstruction offices in the south to
 John Brown-violent abolitionist.           slavery in all states.                       guarantee freed slaves’ rights and
 Harper’s Ferry, Pottowatomie Creek         Uncle Tom’s Cabin- anti-slavery              basic necessities
 KS                                         novel. Banned in the south. By               Jim Crow laws-post-Reconstruction
 Frederick Douglass-black                   Harriet Beecher Stowe.                       laws in southern states to restrict
 abolitionist, speaker, and writer          Emancipation Proclamation-                   rights of freed peoples.
 Sojourner Truth-abolition,                 Lincoln’s plan to free southern slaves
 women’s’ rights, travelled                 during the CW, blacks could fight in     Military
 Harriet Tubman –underground RR             army
 Stephen Douglas – Sen from IL.             Reconstruction-post CW attempts to           Civil War:
 Debated Lincoln. Pop. sov.                 reunite the nation.                          Anaconda Plan-N plan to choke S
 James Buchanan-pres before                 impeachment-A Johnson nearly                      Blockade ports
 Lincoln. Inaction.                         removed from office.                              Control Miss river
 Abraham Lincoln-pres during Civil          sharecropping – southern cycle of                 Capture Richmond (capital)
 War, Republican                            poverty agriculture, share crops with        Ft. Sumter-beginning of CW
 Jefferson Davis-pres CSA                   owner of land                                Gettysburg –PA, farthest N the CSA
 Thomas Jackson-CSA general.                tenant farming- renting a farm.              advanced
 Robert E Lee-CSA general                   Cycle of poverty                             Vicksburg – N control of Miss R
 Ulysses Grant-USA general                  “redemption” of Southern                     Antietam – Maryland. Bloody single
 George McClellan-USA general,              Democrats’ power / “home rule”-              day turning point
 fired by Lincoln                           southern states return to white
 WT Sherman-USA general; burned             supremacy rule. Republicans off the          Texas Revolution and Mexican War
 Atlanta, “Sherman’s March”                 ballot and voting rights taken away.         Alamo – all Texans killed, but held
 destroyed South’s morale                   the legacy of Reconstruction-failure.        13 days, used as motivation,
 JW Booth-killed Lincoln                    Transcontinental RR- RR across the           “Remember the Alamo”
 Andrew Johnson-pres after Lincoln.         country. Joined in Utah.                     San Jacinto- sneak attack on Santa
 Easy on the south during Recon.,           Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail-                Anna, forces him to sign TX indep.
 impeached                                  Routes to the west                           Border Controversy – Rio Grande
 Thaddeus Stevens-Rad. Rep Senator          54’40” or fight!-fight for expansion         or Nueces? Rio Grande in treaty
 during Recon, wants to punish South        to Oregon, settled at 49th though            Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo—
 Charles Sumner-Radical-Rep                 Compromise of 1877- Ended                    ended Mex. War, western land from
 Senator during Recon.                      Reconstruction, election of Hayes,           Mexico to the US. 1/3 of country.
                                            military removed from South                  Manifest Destiny completed
 Terms
 Manifest Destiny – expansion of US     Legislation                                      Social Trends
 across continent                           Fugitive Slave Law – must return
 Annexation of Texas-was a republic,        runaway slaves to their masters              Abolition-opposition to slavery
 part of US later.                          Compromise of 1850-free CA,                  Underground railroad-aid escaping
  “49ers”-gold rush to CA                   fugitive slave act strengthened              slaves.
 Gadsden Purchase-southern part of          KS-Neb Act-pop sov in those states.          scalawags and carpetbaggers-
 AZ/NM, for railroad                        Morrill Act- $ for land grant                southern whites for Reconstruction.
 habeas corpus- violated on both            colleges, agricultural/technical             Ku Klux Klan and anti-black
 sides of CW, right to know why in          schools                                      violence- founded to stop practice of
 jail                                       Homestead Act-free farmland for              new rights by freed people and their
 Bear Flag Republic-California.             those who move west, led to                  advocates. Violence and intimidation,
 Wilmot Proviso-attempted to stop           Oklahoma Land Rush                           lynchings, etc.
 westward spread of slavery, no             13th Amendment-get rid of slavery
 slavery in land from Mex War, didn’t       Ten-Percent Plan-Lincoln’s moderate
 pass                                       Recon. plan. Doesn’t pass.
                                                           2
                                                 George Westinghouse – invented the air            Credit Mobilier – comp stole money intended
     Session 3: Old West to                      brake for RRs, thus making them safer             for construction of RRs – Grant scandal
          Imperialism                            Robber Barrons:                                                     Progressivism
                                                       Andrew Carnegie – used Bessemer             People
                                                       process for steel production, wrote         Muckrakers – exposed corruption of the
                 Old West
                                                       Gospel of Wealth                            industrial age, included:
People                                                 John Rockefeller – Standard Oil
Chief Joseph – Nez Perce chief – “I will fight                                                     Ida Tarbell – exposed corrupt practices of
                                                       J.P. Morgan – banking, U.S. Steel           Standard Oil
no more forever”                                       Cornelius Vanderbilt – railroads
Helen Hunt Jackson – wrote Century of                                                              Jacob Riis – wrote How the Other Half Lives,
                                                 Horatio Alger – wrote “rags to riches” novels     exposed the poor living conditions in urban
Dishonor, condemned U.S. treatment of            of Gilded age                                     slums and tenements
Native Americans                                 Samuel Gompers – labor union organizer –
William Jennings Bryan – gave “Cross of                                                            Lincoln Steffens – wrote The Shame of the
                                                 led American Federation of Labor                  Cities, exposed political corruption in city
Gold” speech as Populist presidential            Eugene Debs – labor organizer                     government
candidate                                        Jane Addams – began settlement house              Upton Sinclair- wrote The Jungle, exposed
                                                 movement with Hull House                          corruption in meatpacking industry
Events / Legislation                             Boss Tweed – head of Tammany Hall,                Carrie A. Nation – fought against the evils of
Sand Creek Massacre – marked beginning of        powerful NY political machine
U.S. war against Native American                                                                   alcohol with a Bible and a hatchet
                                                 Thomas Nast – political cartoonist, exposed       Robert LaFollette – Progressive Wisc senator
Battle of Little Big Horn – largest Indian       Tweed corruption                                  Susan B. Anthony – leading proponent of
victory over U.S. army – defeat of General
Custer                                                                                             women’s right to vote (suffrage)
                                                 Events / Legislation                              Booker T. Washington – civil rights activist
Battle of Wounded Knee – marked end of           Labor Union strikes and rallies –                 who urged blacks to work to improve selves
U.S. war against Native Americans in 1890              Haymarket riot
Dawes Severalty Act – gave land tracts to                                                          and earn racial equality, gave “Atlanta
                                                       The Great Strike                            Compromise” speech
individual Indian families                             Pullman strike                              W.E.B. Dubois – civil rights activist who
Interstate Commerce Act – began federal                Homestead strike                            demanded immediate racial equality and
government regulation of railroads               Sherman Antitrust Act –trusts & monopolies        helped found NAACP
Homestead Act of 1862 – gave “free” land to      illegal                                           Ida B. Wells (-Barnett) – civil rights activist
western settlers                                 Chinese Exclusion Act – banned further            who fought for federal anti-lynching law
Morrill Act of 1862 – creation of land-grant     Chinese immigration
universities                                     Gentlemen’s Agreement – limited Japanese          Events / Legislation
                                                 immigration                                       Triangle Shirtwaist fire – awakened public to
Organizations / Terms                            Pendleton Civil Service Act – federal jobs to     realities of poor and dangerous working
Farmer Alliances – populist organizations to     be awarded on basis of merit                      conditions, locked doors, many women die
increase education and political strength of                                                       Anthracite Coal Strike – federal gov’t (T.R.)
western farmers – included:                      General Terms                                     intervened to arbitrate and settle
       National Farmer Alliances                 Social Darwinism – the strong (in business)       Great Migration – large-scale movement of
       Southern Alliance                         will survive                                      southern blacks to northern cities
       Colored Farmers Alliance                  Monopoly – one company controls an industry       Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 – “separate but
Reservation system – land given to Indian        Gilded Age – post Civil War era of industrial     equal” public facilities for different races is
tribes to remove them from path of American      growth and the rise of millionaires               constitutional
settlers                                         Vertical integration – a company takes over       17th Amendment – direct election of senators
Buffalo Soldiers – African-American              companies that contribute to production of        18th Amendment – outlawed production and
regiments that fought in Indian wars             product, including suppliers and transportation   sale of alcohol, prohibition
Transcontinental Railroad – Central Pac.         Horizontal integration – merging of               19th Amendment – gave women right to vote
and Union Pac. RRs met at Promontory Pt,         companies that produce similar products           (suffrage)
Utah, built primarily by Chinese and Irish       Knights of Labor – labor union open to all        Federal Reserve Act – created a national
immigrants                                       individual workers                                banking system with regional control
Comstock Lode – major discovery of silver in     Strike – protest conditions by not working        Pure Food and Drug Act- required labeling
Nevada, spurred mining in western territories    Yellow-dog contract – contract that requires      of foods for safety of consumers
Sod houses – plains homes made of dirt           employee NOT join labor union                     Meat Inspection Act – created standards of
Oklahoma land rush – rush for land in            Collective bargaining – workers and bosses        hygiene, gov’t inspection in meatpacking
former Indian terr.                              negotiate working conditions
Barbed wire – fenced land and ended open-        Ellis Island – entry point for European           Organizations / Terms
range cattle drives                              immigrants (New York)                             National Association for the Advancement
Populism – political platform supporting         Angel Island – entry point for Asian              of Colored People (NAACP) – organization
farmers rights                                   immigrants (San Francisco)                        that promoted equality among races
The Grange – farmer organization to fight        Nativism – favoring native-born over              Progressive/Bull Moose Party – political
RRs                                              immigrants                                        party headed by Theodore Roosevelt in 1912
Omaha Platform – demands of Populist party       Melting pot – U.S. as a nation of immigrants      presidential election
in 1896 elec.                                    and a mix of cultures                             Progressive movement – reform movement
Gold standard – dollars backed only by gold      Cultural pluralism – small groups within          intended to curb excesses of private industry
Bimetallism – dollars backed with gold AND       larger society maintains unique cultural ident.   and corrupt government officials, shifting
silver                                           Tenements – dirty and crowded multi-family        political and economic power to people
Greenbacks – currency issued by gov’t during     housing                                           Initiative – bill originating with individuals as
Civil War, not backed by metal                   Urbanization – growth of cities                   opposed to legislators
                                                 Political machines – controlled political         Referendum – vote by general public to
               Gilded Age                        activity in a city                                accept or reject an initiative
People                                           Graft – illegal use of political power for        Recall – voters remove official from office
Edwin Drake – used steam engine to drill for     personal gain                                     Mugwumps – republicans who voted for
oil                                              Patronage – rewarding political supporters        Grover Cleveland, a democrat, in election of
Alexander Graham Bell – invented telephone       with gov’t jobs                                   1884
Thomas Edison – invented everything else        Whiskey Ring – whiskey tax revenues in            Square Deal – program of progressive
                                                 pockets of politicians – Grant scandal            reforms by Roosevelt administration

                                                                       3
                 Imperialism                       Session 4: WWI, 1920s,                           Bootlegging/Speakeasies – illegal selling of
                                                                                                    alcohol, related to organized crime
People                                             Depression                                       “Jazz Age” (Fitzgerald), “Roaring 20s”
Alfred T. Mahan – U.S. admiral who                                                                  Scopes Trial – teaching evolution in schools,
advocated sea power as path to national power      People                                           science v. fundamentalism
and imperial expansion                                                                              Teapot Dome – scandal, Harding, oil reserves
Frederick Jackson Turner – wrote of the            Alfred T. Mahan – bigger Navy                    Bonus Army – veterans want $, Hoover calls
closing of the western frontier by 1890            John Pershing – head of American                 forces to open fire/gas on them
Josiah Strong – Protestant minister who            Expeditionary Force                              Shantytowns/Hoovervilles – shacks
promoted missionary work in the western U.S.       George Creel - Propaganda                        Dust Bowl – Midwest, dry, dust storms, move
and possibly influenced overseas missionary        Eddie Rickenbacker - pilot                       to California
work                                               Alvin York – conscientious objector, later       Rugged Individualism – succeed on your
Queen Liliuokalani – ruled Hawaii until            hero                                             own, don’t want gov’t help
overthrown by a revolution of U.S. planters        Henry Cabot Lodge – senator, opposed             New Deal – FDR’s plan to fix G.D., relief,
and marines                                        League of Nations and Treaty of Versailles       recovery, reform, more gov’t intervention,
William Randolph Hearst – publisher of                                                              provides jobs, direct relief
New York Journal, practiced yellow                 Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston –            Black Tuesday – Oct. 29, 1929, stock market
journalism                                         Harlem Renaissance authors                       crash
Joseph Pulitzer – publisher of New York            Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, Louis              Speculation/Buying on Margin – risky stock
World, practiced yellow journalism                 Armstrong – jazz artists                         market practices
George Dewey – U.S. admiral, attacked              Marcus Garvey – back to Africa, United           “1st Hundred Days” – FDR’s many actions
Spanish at Philippines during S.A. war             Negro Improvement Assoc.                         taken during first days of presidency
Theodore Roosevelt – Led group of American         James Weldon Johnson – “Lift Every Voice”        Fireside Chats – FDR, comforting speeches
volunteers, Rough Riders, in Cuba during           Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald,           over radio
S.A. war. Became president with active             “Lost Generation” – authors of 1920s, war,       Deficit Spending – spending more than you’re
imperialist ambitions                              extravagance                                     bringing in (criticism of New Deal)
John Pershing – led U.S. forces into Mexico        Charles Lindberg, Amelia Earhart – pilots        Sit-Down Strike – refuse to work, but get in
to try and capture Pancho Villa                    Jack Dempsey, Gertrude Ederle, Babe Ruth         the way
                                                   – athletes
Events / Legislation                               Margaret Sanger – birth control                  Legislation
Spanish-American War – “Splendid little            Flappers – independent women of 1920s,
war”, 1898, U.S. defeats Spain and receives        bobbed hair, short skirts, smoking/drinking      Selective Services Act - draft
Spanish colonial territories                       Sacco and Vanzetti – Italian immigrants,         Espionage and Sedition Act – cannot criticize
Boxer Rebellion – Chinese spiritual peoples        accused, convicted, and executed for             war, limits freedom of speech, targeted
rebellion to oust foreign influence. Rebellion     killing/robbery, no hard evidence                immigrants and socialists
fails miserably                                                                                     Schenck v. US – gov’t can limit rights during
Teller Amendment –U.S. would not take              Huey Long – Pres. nominee, “Share our            war (relates to Esp/Sed Acts)
control of Cuba following S.A. war                 Wealth” program, gov’t should do more,           Quota Acts – limits immigration during
Platt Amendment – Cuban constitution must          assassinated                                     1920s, especially from S/E Europe
allow for U.S. intervention, if deemed             Frances Perkins – 1st female in cabinet          Dawes Plan – plan for US to loan $ to
necessary                                          Eleanor Roosevelt – fought for women, civil      Germany so they could pay debts to
                                                   rights, children                                 GB/France, then GB/Fr could pay US
Organizations / Terms                                                                               Kellogg-Briand Pact – no war
Anti-Imperialism League – established to           Woodrow Wilson – President, 14 Points,           Hawley-Smoot Tariff – high tariff to help US
oppose the annexation of the Philippines by        League of Nations, “Make the world safe for      business, but hurt foreign trade
the U.S. following S.A. war                        democracy”                                       AAA – help farmers, unconstitutional
Imperialism – one country’s political,             Warren Harding – return to normalcy,             CCC – young men, $ to family, trees/trails
military, economic control over another            isolationism                                     TVA – dams in TN for electricity, jobs
country                                            Calvin Coolidge – leave businesses alone, let    Social Security - $ for retired, handicapped,
“White Man’s Burden” – moral justification         them prosper                                     taken from current paychecks
for imperialism, to bring civilization to          Herbert Hoover – president, no direct relief     FDIC – fix banks, secure money
uncivilized territories                            Franklin D. Roosevelt – “New Deal”, WWII,        SEC – regulates stock market
Seward’s Folly – the purchase of Alaska in         longest serving president                        WPA – provided jobs, various talents
1867                                                                                                FHA/HOLC - $ to help with mortgages, home
USS Maine – exploded in Havana’s harbor in         Terms                                            repairs
1898, angered Americans and led to war with                                                         Wagner Act – power to unions
Spain                                              Convoy System – ships travel together            Fair Labor Standards Act – min. wage,
Treaty of Paris, 1898 – ended S.A. war             U-Boats – German submarines                      better conditions
“Jingoism” – extreme patriotism that calls for     Zimmerman Note – Germany suggests                Still Around: FDIC, SSA, FHA, TVA, SEC,
imperialist foreign policy                         alliance with Mexico, threatens US land          labor standards
Open Door Policy – all nations will have           Lusitania – ocean liner that sunk
equal access to Chinese trade and resources        American Expeditionary Force –                   Military
Dollar Diplomacy – U.S. using economic             “Doughboys”, US troops
power to control or influence other countries,     War Industries Board – oversees factory          WWI –
used by President Taft                             production, Bernard Baruch                        MAIN: Militarism, Alliances,
Panama Canal – passage through Central             National War Labor Board – no strikes               Imperialism, Nationalism
America b/w Atlantic and Pacific Oceans            Fourteen Points – Wilson’s plan for peace to      Trench Warfare, No Man’s Land
Roosevelt Corollary – U.S. will use force to       end WWI, League of Nations – peace org.           Trench foot, shell shock
protect interests in Latin America                 “Big Four” – main people at Treaty of Vers.,      Allies v. Central Powers
Spheres of Influence – areas of economic or        represented US, GB, France, Italy (main Allies    Effects on Germany (took away land,
political control by one imperialist nation over   from war but no Russia)                             no military, war guilt, reparations,
another country                                    Great Migration – AA move north for jobs            caused dep., led to Hitler’s rise to power)
                                                   Isolationism – US stays out of world affairs      Treaty of Versailles – ended WWI
                                                   Nativism – anti-immigration
                                                                                                     League of Nations – peace-keeping
                                                                                                       organization, US does not join

                                                                         4
Social Trends                                    J. Edgar Hoover—FBI director                    Sputnik—Soviet satellite, began “space race”
                                                 Nikita Khrushchev—Soviet Premier                NASA—established in 1958 for the “space
Harlem Renaissance – AA culture in art, lit,                                                     race”
music, etc.                                      Post-War America (Technology & Arts):           HUAC—“House Un-American Activities
Red Scare – fear of communism                    Dr. Benjamin Spock—Child and Baby Care,         Committee; investigated Communist & Fascist
Anti-Immigration - Nativism                      1946                                            groups in US
Prohibition – 18th amendment banned alcohol,     Dr. Jonas Salk—polio vaccine, 1955 declared     McCarthyism—The New Red Scare; anti-
21st ended the ban (so gov’t could tax and get   safe                                            communist suspicion and persecution during
$ during Depression)                             Allen Ginsberg (“Howl”), Jack Kerouac (On       the 1950s; headed by Joseph McCarthy
Rise of KKK – anti black, immigrant,             the Road)—Beat movement
Catholic                                         Michael Harrington—The Other America,           Post-War America:
                                                 ppl left out of prosperity, living in poverty   Election of 1948—division in Democratic
                                                                                                 Party; Strom Thurmond runs as Dixiecrat
Economics                                        Terms                                           Fair Deal—presidential policies of Truman;
                                                                                                 raised minimum wage, expanded SS, National
Laissez-Faire – hands off, no gov’t              WWII:                                           Housing Act (not all passed)
intervention or regulation of businesses,        Isolationism—Am policy to stay out of WWII      Dynamic Conservativism—balancing
growth of business during 1920s                  (in beginning)                                  economic conservativism and some activism
Consumerism – buying products                    Appeasement—concessions for peace               Levittown—suburb in New York, inexpensive
Credit – buy now, pay later                      Self-Determination—nations for nationalities    and mass produced
Great Depression – high unemployment, low        Good Neighbor Policy—improve relationship       Baby boom—65M+ children born between
production, foreclosures                         w/ Latin American, nonintervention              1945-1961
Farmers – low crop prices, grow more,            Island Hopping—strategy in Pacific Front
overuse land, lost farms                         Selective Service and Training Act)—first       Legislation
WWI: war production, jobs in factories           peace time draft, 1940
(particularly for women and AA), No strikes      “GI”—“government issue”; soldiers, war          Neutrality Acts (1939)—prohibits loans &
allowed                                          goods, etc                                      arm sales to belligerent nations; cash & carry
1920s: False prosperity, strength of             Japanese Relocation—West coast declared a       Lend-Lease (1940)—Am policy to lend/lease
businesses, gov’t stays out, Labor movement      military zone, Jp-Am moved to 10 relation       war goods to nations whose defense was vital
not supported (communists!)                      camps, 1942                                     to American safety
1930s: Depression, New Deal represents gov’t     Office of Price Administration—stabilize        Atlantic Charter (1941)—FDR & Churchill’s
intervention, Labor movement gains support       wages & price dueing war                        plan for WWII, endorse self determination
w/ Wagner Act and Fair Labor Standards Act       War Productions Board—regulated raw             Korematsu v. US (1944)—Supreme Court
                                                 material usage                                  upheld relocation of Jp-Am to internment
                                                 War Labor Board—prevent strikes, WLB=           camps for military security
Session 5: WWII and Early                        mediator                                        GI Bill—(Serviceman’s Readjustment Act)
Cold War (1946-1960)                             Rationing—OPA regulated, meatless               loans to soldiers for businesses, education,
                                                 Mondays, etc                                    homes
People                                           War Bonds—helped finance war                    Executive Order 9981—(1948) Truman
                                                 Manhattan Project—code name for atomic          integrates the military
WWII:                                            bomb project                                    Truman Doctrine (1947)—policy to prevent
Benito Mussolini—Fascist Italian leader; Axis    United Nations—peace keeping organization       Communist expansion; aid to Turkey and
Adolf Hitler—German Nazi leader; Axis            (1944), first met in San Francisco              Greece
Francisco Franco—Spanish nationalist leader      Yalta Conference—(Feb. 1945) “Big Three”        Marshall Plan (1947)—US’s plan for
Joseph Stalin—Communist Soviet leader;           decided on UN & occupation of Gm                European economic recovery
Allies                                           Potsdam Conference—(July/Aug 1945)              Loyalty Review Board—(1947) review gov’t
General Tojo—Japanese Military leader            demanded Jp surrender                           employees to find Communist sympathies
Emperor Hirohito-- Japan                                                                         Taft-Hartly Act—(1947) congress restricted
F. Roosevelt—32nd president                      Cold War:                                       union power, outlawed “closed shops”
N. Chamberlain—Br Prime Minster (first           Declaration of Liberated Europe—right for       McCarren Act—(1950) Internal Security Act;
part); Appeasement                               European countries to decide on gov’t, Yalta    communists had to register w/ fed gov’t
W. Churchill—Br Prime Minister (last part);      Conf (1945)                                     Eisenhower Doctrine—(1957) use force
Iron Curtin                                      Satellite nations—communist countries of        against advancing communists in Middle East
H. Truman—33rd president; A-bomb                 Eastern Europe                                  Federal Highway Act—(1956) constructed
D.D. Eisenhower—Allie Supreme                    Iron Curtain—coined by Churchill,               40K miles of highway
Commander; 34th president                        imaginary division in Europe between            National Defense Education Act—(1958)
D. MacArthur—Military leader in                  Communist East & “Free” West                    increase funding for math, science, languages
Philippines; Korean War Supreme Gen.             Domino Theory—if one nation falls to
Gen. G. Marshall—WAACs, Marshall Plan            communism, other will too; used in SE Asia
James Doolittle—bombing raids on Jp (’42-        Containment—Am foreign policy btw 1946-         Trends
’43)                                             1990; stop spread of Communism
“Rosie the Riveter”—♀ workers                    Brinkmanship—willingness to go to the           Sunbelt— Movement to California, Southwest
A. Philip Randolph—civil rights in WWII;         verge of war so that the other side will back   and Deep South; industrial movement
March on Washington, D.C.                        down                                            Change in jobs—1950s more “white-collar”
J. Robert Oppenheimer—Manhattan Project          Berlin Airlift—US supplies West Berliners       jobs; advertisement increases
                                                 during blockade by Soviets (1948-1949)          Changes in companies—more multinational
Cold War:                                        NATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization;        corporations (IMB); franchises (McDonalds)
George Kennan—long telegram, containment         mutual defense organization                     New Consumerism—increase in purchasing
F. Gary Powers—U-2 Incident                      Warsaw Pact—mutual defense organization         “White Flight”—growth of suburbs, plight in
Joseph McCarthy—Wisc. Senator;                   in Eastern Europe                               cities, increase in segregation
McCarthyism                                      SEATO—(1954) Philippines, Thailand,             Changes in Entertainment—TVs, movies,
John Foster Dulles—“massive retaliation”;        Pakistan signed Southeast Asia Treaty           rock-n-roll, MoTown
Sec. of State under Eisenhower                   ANZUS—(1951) mutual defense treaty              Social Conformity—The Organization Man,
Alger Hiss, Rosenbergs, Hollywood 10—            between Australia, New Zealand, United          increase in church membership
“victims” of the Red Scare                       States in the Pacific

                                                                       5
Military Conflicts                                Civil Rights Terms/People                        1965 – US troops start fighting in Vietnam and
                                                                                                   Operation Rolling Thunder begins
WWII                                              Martin Luther King-preacher of non-              1965-1967 Escalation, Draft begins, US
  Allies: US, GB, Fr, Belgium, USSR              violence protest and leader of movement          presence peaks in ‘69 at 535.000 troops
  Axis Powers: Germ, Italy, Japan                Malcolm X-charismatic leader of nation of        1968 – Tet Offensive, Nixon wins presidential
  Dec 7, 1941: Jap attacks Pearl Harbor          Islam, “by any means necessary”                  election promising ‘Peace with Honor’;
  D-Day: June 6, 1944, largest operation,        Stokeley Carmichael-started Black power          Violence at Democratic convention in Chicago
    France                                        movement                                         1969 – Vietnamization begins; My Lai
  Stalingrad: turning point in USSR              Huey Newton/Bobby Seale-founders of the          1970 – Invasion of Cambodia; Kent State
  Midway: turning point in Pacific               Black Panthers                                   riots,
  Atomic Bomb: Hiroshima, Nagasaki,              Thurgood Marshall-NAACP lawyer in                1971 – Publishing of Pentagon Papers,
                                                  Brown v. Board of Education case, 1st Afr-Am     1972 – Kissinger negotiates end to war
    “Manhattan Project”
                                                  Supreme Court justice, appointed by LBJ          1973 – Last US troops leave Vietnam
                                                  Black Power-giving power to black                1975 – Saigon falls and country reunified
China
                                                                                                   under communist government
  Ho Chi Minh: communist leader                  community
  Chiang Kai-shek: democratic leader             Little Rock 9-first 9 black students in
  Becomes Communist                              Southern white school                            Vietnam Terms
                                                  Rosa Parks-refused to move to back of bus
Korean War                                        starting the civil rights movement               Vietminh – communists in N. Vietnam
  Divided at 38th parallel
                                                  SCLC-Southern Christian Leadership Council,      Vietcong – communists in S. Vietnam
                                                  civil rights org                                 Napalm - gas based bomb to destroy jungle
  D. MacArthur: leads South pushing
                                                  Sit-ins-peacefully protesting by refusing to     Agent Orange - chemical defoliant
     back North; fired by Truman
                                                  leave                                            Guerilla warfare - hiding in jungles, ambush
  End: Stalemate, still divided, North           Civil Rights act of 57,64,68-Acts of congress
     Communist, South democratic                                                                   style of fighting
                                                  that guaranteed black rights by fed gov’t        Search and Destroy missions - small groups
                                                  Voting Rights Act of 1965 – federal gov’t        of US soldiers sent into jungle to kill as many
                                                  guarantees voting rights                         enemy soldiers as possible
                                                  De facto segregation – separation of races by    SDS - Students for a Democratic Society, anti-
Session 6: 1960s – Vietnam                        practice or tradition especially in housing      war college students
                                                  De jure segregation – separation of races by     Hawks/Doves - those for/against war
                                                  law (Jim Crow laws)                              Tet Offensive - Turning point of Vietnam;
                                                  Affirmative Action – trying to help women        military victory/public relations loss
Civil Rights Timeline of Events                   and minorities gain job opportunities            Vietnamization - Nixon’s plan to withdraw
                                                                                                   US troops from Vietnam
1947 - Jackie Robinson becomes first                                                               Silent Majority - Nixon’s less vocal
African-American to play in the Major League      60’s Terms
                                                                                                   supporters
Baseball
                                                  Flexible Response – building up conventional     My Lai Massacre – US soldiers killing entire
1948 – Truman Desegregates army                                                                    village of innocent people; outrage in US
1954 – Brown v. Board of Education                military forces to better respond around world
                                                  Peace Corps – US volunteers to go around         Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – gave president
overturns Plessy v. Ferguson rules segregation                                                     unlimited power to send troops
illegal                                           world
                                                  Green Berets – Special forces trained in         War Powers Act-law that limits presidents
1955 – Rosa Parks ignites modern movement
                                                  guerilla warfare                                 ability to send troops around world
led by Martin Luther King and starts the
Montgomery Bus Boycott                            Bay of Pigs invasion –Failed attempt to
1957 – Little Rock Nine enter all white           overthrow Castro in Cuba, disaster               60’s Culture
Southern high school under the escort of          New Frontier – Kennedy’s programs, Space
federal troops                                    Race, Peace Corps, etc.                          Counterculture – young people rejecting
1960 – Sit-in in Greensboro Woolworths to         Great Society – Johnson’s programs to fight      traditional values; protesting war
desegregate public places and restaurants         war on poverty (housing, healthcare,             Hippies - members of counterculture, often
1961 – Freedom riders try to desegregate          education, etc)                                  drug users
buses all throughout South                        Medicare – Gov’t funded healthcare for           Haight-Ashbury District – center of
1962 – James Meredith enters Ole Miss in          retired                                          counterculture movement, San Francisco
an attempt to desegregate colleges                Medicaid – Gov’t funded healthcare for poor      “Be-In” / “Summer of Love” – San Fran,
1963 – Marches in Birmingham and                  Alliance for Progress – Kennedy’s foreign        communal living, peace
Washington where King delivers his most           aid program for Latin America                    Woodstock – 3 days of “Peace and Music”
famous speech                                     Cuban Missile Crisis-standoff between            Space race - goal of Kennedy to get moon by
1964 – Freedom summer – white college             US/USSR over nuclear missiles based in           end of decade
students come south to help register voters +     Cuba; Soviets back down
passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 banning       Quarantine-blockade of Cuba in CMC
job discrimination and to speed up school         Hotline –Telephone connecting leaders of
desegregation                                     US/USSR directly
1965 – March from Selma to Montgomery;            Domino Theory – if one country falls to
Passage of Voting Rights Act of 1965              communism, others will too; US policy of
eliminating literacy tests for voting and         containment during Cold War
allowing federal government to register voters;
Malcolm X is assassinated                         Vietnam Timeline
1966 – Formation of the Black Panthers by
Huey Newton and Bobby Seale; Black Power          1945-1954 – Ho Chi Minh leads North
movement started by Stokeley Carmichael           Vietnam for independence against French
1968 – Assassinations of King and Robert          1954 – Geneva Accords splits Vietnam at the
Kennedy; passage of Civil Rights Act of           17th parallel
1968 ending housing discrimination                1954-1963 – US supports South economically
                                                  and militarily with advisors
                                                  1964 – Gulf of Tonkin incident, starts direct
                                                  military involvement

                                                                        6
Session 7: Watergate-                        Saddam Hussein-Prez (dictator)Iraq.          efforts to correct discrimination against
                                             Invaded Kuwait 90, Deposed                   other groups(affirmative action)
           Present                           03/executed 2005 in Iraq War                 Multiculturalism-representation of
                                             Osama Bin Laden-Al Quaeda                    variety of cultures rather than dominant
                                                                                          culture
People
                                                                                          Globalization-breakdown of national
                                             Terms/Events                                 trade barriers and creation of
Richard Nixon-Prez 69-74. Resigns-
                                                                                          multinational businesses
Watergate, imperial presidency, détente,
                                             New Federalism-Revenue sharing-              “Evil Empire”-Reagan called the USSR
opens China, end VNam war. New
                                             Nixon-shift federal monies to state          “Axis of Evil”-What W. Bush said US
Federalism. Southern strategy.
                                             control with few strings                     would wage war on following 9/11
Gerald Ford-Prez74-77. Rep. Pardons
                                             Entitlements- Gov’t programs paying $$       Welfare State-Conser. View of what
Nixon,Only appointed prez. Fall of
                                             to citizens. EX: Soc Sec./welfare            New Deal/Great Society Programs
Saigon. Helsinki Acc.
                                             Affirmative Action-Active efforts to         created-society dependant on gov’t.
Jimmy Carter-Prez.77-81. Dem/GA
                                             encourage part. by minorities/women in       “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell”-Clinton policy
farmer-Wash. Outsider/honest. Human
                                             school, work                                 to allow gays in military
Rights, Iran hostage crisis
                                             Détente-Relax Cold War tensions
Ronald Reagan-Prez81-89 Rep//CA,
                                             (1970s)
Supply side econ. Reag“Revolution”-
                                             OPEC-Organization of Petroleum               Documents, Laws, Treaties, Court
Return to conservatism, small gov,
                                             Exporting Countries-controls oil prices
deregulation, USSR“Evil Empire”
                                             Realpolitik-practical view toward foreign    Roe v. Wade 1972-abortion rights based
George H. W. Bush-Prez 89-93 Rep./TX
                                             relations. Kissinger/Nixon                   on right to privacy
End Cold War. Desert Storm
                                             Executive Privilege-Prez can keep            Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg
Bill Clinton-Prez 93-01. Dem/AR Tech
                                             secrets from Congress/people for nat.        1971-court ordered bussing of students if
boom, impeached, not removed
                                             security                                     necessary to achieve integrated schools
George W. Bush-Prez 01-09 Rep/TX
                                             Moral Majority-Jerry Falwell’s coalition     US. V. Nixon- 1974 Affirms Prez has
9/11. War on Terror. Cut taxes
                                             of Christian conservatives who worked to     executive privilege BUT not to cover up
                                             unseat elected liberals                      crime. Nixon must give up
Henry Kissinger- Sec of State/Nixon.
                                             Sunbelt-south and west                       tapes/Watergate/ resigns
Realpolitik, Nobel Peace-Vietnam,
                                             Rustbelt-industrial northeast                Regents of UC v. Bakke- 1978 Reverse
Sam Ervin-US Sen from NC. Heads
                                             Energy Crisis(Arab Oil Embargo)-             discrimination recognized result from
Watergate Committee 73
                                             1972-75. OPEC embargoes oil to US b/c        affirmative action. No racial quotas
Jesse Jackson-Af-Am, Rainbow
                                             of US support of Israel. Long                Texas v. Johnson- 1989 Flag burning as
coalition(minorities), Ran for Prez. 84/88
                                             lines/shortage of gasoline                   political protest is protected under 1st
Warren Burger-Ch. Justice, Nixon,
                                             The “New Right”-cultural conservatives,      Amend.
strict constructionist
                                             came together as voting bloc in 1980s        Bush v. Gore- 2000 S. Ct. stopped the
William Rehnquist-Ch. Just. Nixon-
                                             Silent Majority-Nixon’s name for             recount of Florida votes in close election,
Bush
                                             moderate mainstream Americans who            giving presidency to Bush
Sandra Day O’Connor-1st woman on
                                             quietly supported his Vietnam war            Title IX-Women’s athletic programs
Sup Ct.
                                             policies                                     must equal men’s at schools getting
Douglas Wilder-1st Af-Am Gov (VA)
                                             Stagflation-Inflation/ high                  federal $$
Phyllis Schlafly-Anti feminist. Anti-
                                             unemployment 70s                             Consumer Product Safety Comm- gov
ERA
                                             Nixon’s Southern Strategy-1968 effort        agency to test products/issue recalls
Bob Woodward/Carl Bernstein-Wash
                                             to attract conservative southern dems        Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)-
Post reporters. Broke Watergate story
                                             who were unhappy with S. Ct. and             Const amendment making discrimination
Jerry Falwell-Baptist preacher/Moral
                                             desegregation                                on basis of gender unconstitutional. Fails
Majority
                                             EPA-Environmental Protection Agency-         by 2 states
Geraldine Ferraro-1st woman to run for
                                             1970-Regulates water/air pollution, toxic    SALT I -1972 Stategic Arms Limitation
VP (w/Mondale ’84) Dem. lost
                                             wastes,                                      Treaty. US & USSR limit ICBMs
Newt Gingrich-Rep. Speaker of House
90s. Led Contract w/America.                 SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative, “Star     Helsinki Accords-1974.Ford. 35 nations
                                             Wars”)-Reagan plan for missile defense       incl. USSR sign agreement of
Conservative
                                             system (technologically unworkable)          cooperation
Bill Gates-founded Microsoft. innovator
                                             Apartheid-S. African system of               Panama Canal Treaty.1977-Return
Ross Perot-Ran/lost for Prez ’92 on third
                                             segregation. Ended in 1990. Nelson           Canal to Panama 1/1/2000.
party ticket. Billionaire. Anti-
                                             Mandela led cause                            Camp David Accords- 1978Carter
Washington. 20% of pop vote
                                             Amnesty-Pardon for large group. Carter       brings Begin(IS.) &Sadat(Egypt) together
Al Gore-VP 93-01 for Clinton. Dem.
                                             did this for Vietnam draft evaders           for Peace Treaty
Lost to Bush 00/closest election. Nobel
                                             Taliban-Militant Islamic fundamentalist      SALT II -1979 more arms control w/
Peace Prize
                                             government fought in War in                  USSR. BUT Senate never ratified
                                             Afghanistan.                                 because USSR invades Afghanistan
Leonid Brezhnev-USSR Premier during
                                             WIN-Whip inflation Now, campaign             INF Treaty- 1987 Intermediate Nuclear
détente/perestroika
                                             slogan of Gerald Ford                        Forces . US/USSR. Arms reduction
Mikhail Gorbachev-USSR Premier who
                                             NASDAQ-Stock Exchange, primarily for         w/inspections
ends Cold War.
                                             newer companies not listed on NYSE           Immigration Policy Act-1986. Punish
Ayatollah Khomeini – Iran. Radical
                                             Reverse Discrimination- unfair               employers of illegal immigrants,
Islam. Am. Hostages 1979
                                             treatment of a majority group as result of   Amnesty for those in US by 1982
Shah of Iran-deposed, asylum in US,
leads to hostage crisis
                                                                 7
27th Amendment-1992 Congress cannot           Operation Desert Storm – Persian Gulf        Economics
receive pay increase until after elections    War (1991) Coalition of countries stop
following vote on pay increase.               Iraq’s takeover of Kuwait.                   Reaganomics (Supply Side)-Cut taxes
Brady Act-1993 5 day wait period on                                                        (on businesses/wealthy) to increase jobs,
handguns                                      War in Afghanistan (2001-present)            savings, investment, money will “Trickle
Americans With Disabilities Act                 Coalition forces to oust Taliban          Down” to everyone through more jobs
(ADA) requires handicapped access to             from power because of their support       and a stronger economy
public buildings                                 of Islamic terrorism
NAFTA- 1993. North American Free                                                           Growth of National Debt. Tax cuts +
Trade Agreement. Lowers tariffs. Hurt         War in Iraq – Operation Iraqi Freedom        growth in military spending + growth of
US manufacturing                              (2003-present)                               entitlement programs
Contract With America- 1994 Rep                   US invades Iraq because Hussein
promise, led by Gingrich, set forth                said to have WMDs/ brutality.           Government Deregulation – Reagan.
conservative Legislative agenda. Rep              No WMDs (weapons of mass                Cut size of gov. deregulate to increase
won majority in mid term elections                 destruction)                            competition
Patriot Act -2001 Antiterrorism law               Hussein deposed/executed.               ______________________________
giving gov’t broad powers of                      Insurgents resist new govt and US
surveillance/ detention                            presence                                Literature
ESEA-No Child Left Behind – 2001
mandatory testing requirements for all        Bosnia/Kosovo – 1995 US sends troops         Unsafe at Any Speed- Ralph Nader
states                                        to stop ethnic cleansing/civil war           exposes Corvair (car) as unsafe. Leads to
Department of Homeland Security-                                                           consumer protection laws
Created after 9/11, border patrols, airport
security, etc.                                                                             Ms. Magazine-Gloria Steinem. Feminist
                                              Science/Technology/Social Trends
                                                                                           Silent Spring-Rachel Carson. Danger of
Military/Foreign Policy                       AIDS Epidemic- 1981 -Virus assoc w/          pesticides. Leads to EPA and
                                              sharing needles and sexual contact. Many     environmental legislation
Cold War                                      deaths affected homosexual men in high
Nixon to China 1972.                          numbers                                      A Nation At Risk- Report criticizing
   Opens talks                               Gay Liberation- movement toward              public schools. Leads to increased
   Ping-Pong Diplomacy                       liberalization of laws/attitudes toward      funding for education and testing
   Détente                                   homosexuality 1970s-present
                                              Personal Computers/Internet-1990s
Nixon to USSR 1972                                                                         Scandals
                                              Growth of Service Sector-increase in
   SALT treaties attempt to limit arms       non-manufacturing jobs                       Watergate (1972-1975)
                                              Laser Technology – 1980s. CDs,
                                                                                             Break in at Dem Hqtrs linked to
US Recognizes China 1979                      surgery
                                                                                              Nixon reelection campaign
                                              Cable Television/Educational
Cold War Ends - 1989                                                                         Cover up by Nixon White House
                                              programming -1970s
   Gorbechev/USSR end domination of          Challenger disaster – 1986. Explosion          impeachment hearings and battle
      eastern Europe.                         of space shuttle causes US to investigate       over tape recordings.
   Berlin Wall torn down                     NASA                                           Nixon resigns. Pardoned by Ford
   Reunification of Germany                  Three Mile Island – 1979 Failure of
                                                                                           Iran-Hostage Crisis (1986)
   USSR breaks apart 1991                    nuclear reactor cooling. Evacuation. US
                                              questions safety of nuclear power                Arms sold to Iran (against law)
Israel                                        Movement to Sunbelt - Movement of                Payment goes to Nicaraguan
Arab-Israeli Wars 1948-1973. US               jobs, people, political influence to south        Contras fighting communism
supports Israel                               and western US                                   Scandal, Reagan embarrassed,
                                              Graying of America – US population is             “Teflon” (didn’t affect his
Camp David Accords 1978 Carter                aging. Baby Boomers(1945-1965) +                  popularity)
mediates summit between Israel/Egypt          increased life expectancy
resulting in Peace Treaty. Carter’s           Silicon Valley – Northern California.        Impeachment of Bill Clinton (1998)
triumph                                       Center of computer tech                         Perjury/obstruction of justice
                                              New Immigration – from Central and               charges
Iran/Iraq/Afghanistan/Middle East             Latin America, particularly Mexico              Related to civil case regarding
                                              Global Warming – incr. greenhouse gas,           sexual harassment
Iran Hostage Crisis- 1979-1981.               incr. overall global temperatures, melting      Impeached but not removed
    US Embassy workers held hostage          of polar ice-caps (An Inconvenient Truth
     for over a year because US gives         by Al Gore
     refuge to deposed Shah of Iran.
    Rescue fails                                                                          THE END!
    Released when Reagan inaugurated.
    Carter’s low point
                                                                                           GOOD LUCK 
                                                                  8

								
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