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Desain Interface SI by UcoxJayadiningrat

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									                    Desain Interface



                     Input Design and
                        Prototyping



McGraw-Hill/Irwin    Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
       Input Design Guidelines

       • Capture only variable data.
         • Not data that can be looked up.
       • Do not capture data that can calculated
         or stored in computer programs as
         constants.
         • Extended Price, Federal Withholding, etc.
       • Use codes for appropriate attributes.


16-2
       Source Document /
       Form Design Guidelines
       • Include instructions for completing the
         form.
       • Minimize the amount of handwriting.
       • Data to be entered (keyed) should be
         sequenced top-to-bottom and left-to-
         right.
       • When possible use designs based on
         known metaphors.

16-3
       Automatic Identification:
       Bar Codes




16-4
       Bad Flow in a Form




16-5
       Good Flow in a Form




16-6
       Metaphoric Screen Design




16-7
       Internal Controls for Inputs
       • The number of inputs should be monitored (to
         minimize risk of lost transactions).
          • For batch processing
             • Use batch control slips
             • Use one-for-one checks against post-processing detail
               reports
          • For on-line systems
             • Log each transaction as it occurs to a separate audit file
       • Validate all data
          •   Existence checks
          •   Data-type checks
          •   Domain checks
          •   Combination checks
          •   Self-checking digits
          •   Format checks
16-8
       Repository-Based Prototyping
       and Development




                                  Define
                              properties and
                             constraints for a
                              reusable field


16-9
        Common GUI Controls
        (Windows and Web)
        • Text boxes
        • Radio buttons
        • Check boxes
        • List boxes
        • Drop down
          lists
        • Combination
          boxes
        • Spin boxes
        • Buttons
16-10
        Common GUI Controls Uses
        • Text boxes
           • When the input data values are unlimited in scope
        • Radio buttons
           • When data has limited predefined set of mutually exclusive
             values
        • Check boxes
           • When value set consists of a simple yes or no value
        • List boxes
           • When data has a large number of possible values
        • Drop down lists
           • When data has large number of possible values and screen
             space is too limited for a list box
        • Combination boxes
           • To provide user with option of selecting value from a list or
             typing a value that may or may not appear in the list
        • Spin boxes
           • When need to navigate through a small set of choices or
             directly typing a data value
16-11
        Advanced Controls
        (mostly Windows interfaces)
        • Drop down
          calendars
        • Slider edit
          controls
        • Masked edit
          controls
        • Ellipsis controls
        • Alternate
          numerical
          spinners
        • Check list boxes
        • Check tree
          boxes
16-12
        Advanced Controls
        (mostly Windows interfaces)




16-13
        Automated Tools for Input
        Design and Prototyping
        • Old Tools
          • Record Layout Charts
          • Display Layout Charts
        • Newer Prototyping Tools
          •   Microsoft Access
          •   CASE Tools
          •   Visual Basic
          •   Excel
          •   Visio
16-14
        Input Design Process
        1. Identify system inputs and review logical
           requirements.
        2. Select appropriate GUI controls.
        3. Design, validate and test inputs using
           some combination of:
          a) Layout tools (e.g., hand sketches, spacing
             charts, or CASE tools.
          b) Prototyping tools (e.g., spreadsheet, PC
             DBMS, 4GL)

16-15
        4. As necessary design source documents.
        A Logical Data Structure for
        Input Requirements
        ORDER =   ORDER NUMBER
                  + ORDER DATE
                  + CUSTOMER NUMBER
                  + CUSTOMER NAME
                  + CUSTOMER SHIPPING ADDRESS = ADDRESS >
                  + ( CUSTOMER BILLING ADDRESS = ADDRESS > )
                  + 1 { PRODUCT NUMBER +
                        QUANTITY ORDERED } n
                  + ( DEFAULT CREDIT CARD NUMBER )

        ADDRESS   =   ( POST OFFICE BOX NUMBER )
                  +   STREET ADDRESS
                  +   CITY
                  +   STATE
                  +   POSTAL ZONE

16-16
        Input Prototype for Video Title
        Maintenance




16-17
        Input Prototype for Member
        Order




16-18
        Input Prototype for Member
        Shopping




16-19
        Input Prototype for Web
        Shopping Cart




16-20
        Input Prototype for Web
        Interface




16-21
                    Design Interface



                    Output Design and
                       Prototyping



McGraw-Hill/Irwin    Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
        Internal Outputs
        Internal output – an output intended for system owners
        and system users within an organization.

          Detailed report – an internal output that presents information
          with little or no filtering
            • Example: A listing of all customers

          Summary report – an internal output that categorizes
          information for managers
            • Do not have to wade through details.
            • Increasingly presented in graphical formats using charts
            • Example: A count of customers by region

          Exception report – An internal output that filters data to report
          exceptions to some condition or standard.
            • Example: A listing of customers with past due accounts
15-23
        Detailed Report




15-24
        Summary Report




15-25
        Exception Report




15-26
        External Outputs

         External outputs – an output that leaves
         the organization organization.
         • Intended for customers, suppliers, partners,
           or regulatory agencies.

         Turnaround documents – an external
         output that may re-enter the system as an
         input.
         • Most “bills” and invoices include a stub to be
           returned by the customer with payment.
15-27
        External Document




15-28
        Turnaround Document




15-29
        Implementation Methods for
        Outputs
        • Printed output
            • Tabular output presents information in columns.
            • Zoned output places text and numbers into designated areas
        • Screen output
            • Graphic output is the use of pictorial charts to convey
              information and demonstrate trends and relationships that
              cannot be easily seen in tabular formats.
        •   Point-of-sale terminals
        •   Multimedia
        •   E-mail
        •   Hyperlinks
        •   Microfilm or microfiche
15-30
        Chart Types
        Line charts show one or more series of data over a period of
        time. They are useful for summarizing and showing data at
        regular intervals. Each line represents one series or category
        of data.

        Area charts are similar to line charts except that the focus is
        on the area under the line. That area is useful for
        summarizing and showing the change in data over time. Each
        line represents one series or category of data.

        Bar charts are useful for comparing series or categories of
        data. Each bar represents on series or category of data.

        Column charts are similar to bar charts except that the bars
        are vertical. Also, a series of column charts may be used to
        compare the same categories at different times or time
        intervals. Each bar represents one series or category of data.
15-31
        Chart Types (concluded)
        Pie charts show the relationship of parts to a whole. They are
        useful for summarizing percentages of a whole within a single
        series of data. Each slice represents one item in that series of
        data.

        Donut charts are similar to pie charts except that they can
        show multiple series or categories of data, each as its own
        concentric ring. Within each ring, a slice of that ring represents
        one item in that series of data.

        Radar charts are useful for comparing different aspects of
        more than one series or category of data. Each data series is
        represented as a geometric shape around a central point.
        Multiple series are overlaid so they can be compared.

        Scatter charts are useful for showing the relationship
        between two or more series or categories of data measured at
        uneven intervals of time. Each series is represented by data
        points using either different colors or bullets.
15-32
        Output Design with an Old Style
        Printer Spacing Chart




15-33
        Output Design with a Modern
        CASE Tool




15-34
        Output Design with a Report
        Writer Tool




15-35
        Output Design with a Report
        Writer Tool (continued)




15-36
        Report Customization




15-37
        Tabular Report Prototype




15-38
        Graphical Report Prototype




15-39
        Record-at-a-Time Output
        Prototype




15-40
        Web Database Output
        Prototype




15-41
        Windows/Web Media Player
        Output Prototype




15-42

								
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