Fluorochemicals in the Environment Umweltbundesamt

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					                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment




Fluorochemicals in the
Environment
4th Foam Seminar


Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler
Federal Environment Agency
Umweltbundesamt
Dessau-Roßlau
Germany

Bolton, 6th July 2009

Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        1
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          The Chemistry behind…

Perfluorosulfonates
(e.g. PFOS)

Perfluorocarboxylates
(e.g. PFOA)

Fluorotelomer Alcohols
(e.g. 8:2 FTOH)

Fluoropolymeres
(e.g. Polytetrafluorethylen, PTFE)


Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        2
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          Properties of PFC


•   Chemically and thermally stable
•   Stable against UV-radiation
•   Water, dirt, and grease repellent
•   High surface tension potential
•   Very low friction resistance




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        3
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          Wide dispersive use of PFC

•   Paper, leather and textile coatings
•   Surfactants
•   Cleaning agents
•   Fire fighting foams
•   Polymers (e.g. PTFE)
•   …



Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        4
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          Problems with PFCs


•   PFCs in blood and breast milk
•   PFCs in air, nutrition, drinking water
•   PCFs in surface water
•   Persistence in the environment
•   Long range transport
•   Toxicological profile
•   Disposal of PFCs



Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        5
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


         PFCs in the Environment

                                   Air




  Biota


                                                                  Soil
Water




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009               6
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


         PFCs in the Environment

                                   Air




  Biota


                                                                  Soil
Water




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009               7
                                           Fluorochemicals in the Environment
             Mass flow of individual PFCs in surface water
             along the River Elbe




Ahrens et al., 2009 Marine Pollution Bulletin


 Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler                 4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009       8
                                                 Fluorochemicals in the Environment

                         PFCs in Water: Municipal WWTP – Rivers – Sea
     3                     4                 5            6            7                8               9
56                                                                                                                             56
                ENTE 3
                                                          Ga 419 Mai 2004


                          DTENT

                   8


55                 7                                                                                                           55
                                                 NSGR 2       NSB 2         SYLT 2   SYLT 1 LTIEF


                   6
                                                                                     AMRU 2

                   5
         ng/L




                   4                                                                          EIDER

54                                                                                                                             54
                   3
                         PFHxA
                         PFHxS                                                                      MEDEM

                         PFHpA                                 BRIFF
                   2                                                                                           Stade
                         PFOA
                         PFOS
                   1     PFNoA
                         PFDeA
53                 0     PFOSA                                                                                                 53
                                                                                                            File: db2004.dsf



     3                     4                 5            6            7                8               9

 Theobald und Caliebe (2006)
                Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler        4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009                                       14
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment

          PFCs in the River Blies after extinguishing a Fire
                          with PFC-Foam




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        10
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment

          PFCs in the River Blies after extinguishing a Fire
                          with PFC-Foam




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        11
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment

          PFCs in Bavaria‘s Groundwater (Gendorf)
          2007/2008

 PFCs                                      Concentration in ng(l)
 PFOA (C8)                                 Up to 13,000
 PFOS (C8)                                 Up to 14
 PFHpA (C7)                                Up to 490
 PFHxA (C6)                                Up to 510
 PFBS (C4)                                 Up to 9.9


         Source: Bavarian State Office for Health and Food Safety


Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009          12
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          PFCs in the Environment

                                   Air




  Biota


                                                                  Soil
Water




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009               15
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          PFC-Concentrations in Animals


Organism              PFOS*                                    PFOA*
                      [ng/kg]                                  [ng/kg]
Polar bears (1990)    454 – 1474                               0,04 – 14
Polar bears (2006)    2108 – 3868                              12 – 18
Seals, Arctic (2005)  8,0 – 44                                 12 – 16
Eels, European rivers ≤ 498                                    ≤ 23
(2005)
                                                             *concentration in liver




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009                        17
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment

        Blood Plasma 1982 – 2007 (German Specimen Database)




                                                                  arithm. mean




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009                  20
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          PFCs in the Environment

                                   Air




  Biota


                                                                  Soil
Water




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009               22
                              Fluorochemicals in the Environment


           PFCs in Air


PFC              Concentration Location
                 (pg/m3)
         51-393                        Canada, urban area (2001)
N-EtFose
         6-30                          Hamburg, Germany (2005)
         11-237                        UK, Norway, Ireland (2005-2006)
8:2 FTOH 62-275                        Hamburg, Germany (2005)
         550-2031                      Japan, three areas (2005)

    F   F F F F F F F O                      F   F   F   F   F   F   F   H   H
 F C C C C C C C C S           OH        F   C   C   C   C   C   C   C   C   C   OH
    F   F F F F F F F O                      F   F   F   F   F   F   F   H   H



 Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009                           17
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          PFCs in the Environment

                                   Air




  Biota


                                                                  Soil
Water




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009               22
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          PFCs in Soil and Sewege Sludge



                                        PFOS                  PFOA
                                        (µg/kg DW)            (µg/kg DW)
Agricultural soil#                      up to 6.5             Up to 4.5
Agricultural soil near                  < d.l.                Up to 600
Gendorf#


Sewege sludge*                          Up to 6,300           Up to 320
    # Bavarian   State Office for Health and Food Safety
     * 403 WWTP in North Rhine Westphalia

Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler    4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009                19
                               Fluorochemicals in the Environment


           Summary: PFCs in the Environment


               Precipitation
                                     Air
                                     Atmosphere
                                     Indoor Air
 Biota
 Fish
 Predators
 Humans                                                        Sewege Sludge
                                                      Plants
                                                                    Soil
Water
Waste Water
Drinking- and Ground Water
Oceans, Rivers

 Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler    4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009                   24
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          Critical Properties of PFCs


• Persistent
• Bioaccumulative
• Toxic
• Long range transport into remote areas
  (e.g. Arctic)




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        29
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          Conclusion

• Use as little PFCs as possible
• Do not use PFC-foam for trainings
• If PFC-containing foam is used, be aware that
  you contaminate the environment for a very long
  time
• If possible, collect and treat contaminated run-off
  water
• Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals replacing
  PFOS in fire fighting foams are no environment-
  friendly alternative
Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        22
                             Fluorochemicals in the Environment


          Further Informationen

• www.uba.de
     – Background paper:

Do Without Per- and Polyfluorinated Chemicals:
Prevent Emissions into the Environment




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler   4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        32
                                 Fluorochemicals in the Environment




                                       Thanks!

                             Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler
                             Annegret.Biegel@uba.de


                             www.umweltbundesamt.de




Dr. Annegret Biegel-Engler       4th Foam Seminar, Bolton 2009        33

				
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