25-1 The Element Carbon

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25-1 The Element Carbon Powered By Docstoc
					Ch. 25 Carbon and Its
     Compounds
  25-1: The Element Carbon
Importance of Carbon
   Carbon forms the backbone of nearly
    every molecule living organisms make
    or use.
Allotropes of Carbon

 allotropes: forms of the same
  element that have different bonding
  patterns or arrangements
 Diamond:
       Each carbon atom bonds to 4 other carbon
        atoms.
       Extremely strong and hard bonds (hardest
        natural substance on Earth)
       Uses: jewelry, coat some surfaces,
        cutting tool
Allotropes of Carbon

   Graphite:
       Carbon atoms arranged in sheets or
        layers, held together by weak attractive
        forces
       Soft, comes off in sheets
       Uses: pencil “lead”, lubrication (graphite
        spray)
Allotropes of Carbon

   Amorphous carbon:
       No predictable arrangement
       Produced when carbon compounds
        decompose
       Ex: charcoal, soot, bone black
Allotropes of Carbon

   Fullerenes: “Buckyballs”
       Soccer ball shaped arrangement of
        carbon, consisting of alternating
        pentagons and hexagons.
       Named for Buckminster Fuller, architect
        (see pg. 807).
       Uses: medical research (AIDS), storage
        of hazardous materials
Unique Bonding of Carbon

 Smallest atom that is halfway filled
  with valence electrons
 Forms exactly four short, strong,
  covalent bonds (can be single, double
  or triple covalent)
Unique Bonding of Carbon

 Forms long chain molecules (sugars,
  DNA, proteins, carbohydrates)
  {remember, it acts a backbone for
  molecules}
 Why is carbon not diatomic?
 It would have to have a quadruple
  bond, which is too unstable to exist.

				
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posted:12/9/2012
language:English
pages:8