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					THE TEXAS
 INDIANS
The Gulf Coast
COAHUILTECANS
  LOCATION
–Southern Gulf Coast
 up to San Antonio
    LIFESTYLE
Hunters   & gatherers
Nomadic
 –Followed the limited
  food supply
 –Harsh/difficult life
    SHELTER
Temporary houses
made of mud,
animal skins, and
brush
   MAIN FOODS
Gathered   food from
 land
Cacti, nuts, spiders,
 snakes, lizards, and
 grub worms
  APPEARANCE
Strong:
known for
endurance
UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
   Mitotes
    –All night celebrations
KARANKAWAS
  LOCATION
–Galveston to
 Corpus Christi
     LIFESTYLE
Bow   and Arrow
 –Hunting and fishing
Dugoutcanoes
Nomadic
 –Traveled in bands of 30-40
    SHELTER
Wooden   Hut and
Tepees
   MAIN FOODS
Oyster,
       Clams,
Scallops, Mollusks,
and Turtle
   APPEARANCE
Beautiful women
Pierced chest and lips
Tall/muscular men
Brightly painted bodies
 –No clothes (men)
ROLES: MEN AND WOMEN
 Women   took down and set up
  homes
 Women made clothing from
  deerskin and moss
 UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Wore  deerskin
 skirts(women)
Gave children special
 treatment
UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Given   two names
Rubbed on alligator
 fat to keep off
 mosquitoes
Loved dogs
THE TEXAS
 INDIANS
 East Texas
CADDOES
   LOCATION
–Northeast Texas
 along the Angelina
 and
 Neches
 Rivers
    LIFESTYLE
Richestand
 most advanced
Friendly
Willing and
 smart traders
       Lifestyle
*Matrilineal
*Farmers!!!
*chief called “caddi”
     SHELTER
Sturdy
homes
(domes)
made of
grass
(50 ft.
high)
  MAIN FOODS
Corn
Beans
Squash
Sunflower   seeds
Tobacco
ROLES: MEN AND WOMEN
Men helped women
 grow crops
Women    had a voice
 in government
Women treated with
 dignity and respect
Oldest woman
 controlled family
 UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Crop   rotation
Trotline
Beautiful pottery
Traded forest products
 for flint and turquoise
Built huge temple and
 burial mounds
Name: “Texas”
ATAKAPANS
    LOCATION
–Southeast Texas
 •Galveston Island to
  the Sabine
  River
  (marshy
  wetlands)
    LIFESTYLE
Matrilineal
Farmers
     MAIN FOODS
Corn
Farming   (farther inland)
  –Not as advanced as the
   Caddo
Wild game, nuts, berries,
 fish, shellfish and
 alligators
  UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Used alligator fat to keep
 off mosquitoes
 *Difficult to farm because
 of marshy swampland
 *Flooding with salt
 water
 ALABAMA
   AND
COUSHATTA
    LOCATION
–East Texas along
 the Trinity River
  •Migrated
  from
  Alabama
  in 1700s
       LIFESTYLE
Farming
 –Vegetables, fruit trees
Gathered      berries,
nuts
Some   hunting
Made baskets and
 crafts
   SHELTER
Wooden  cabins
surrounded by
vegetable
gardens
CHEROKEES
Latecomers (1819-1820)
     LOCATION
–East Texas along the
 Sabine, Neches, and
 Angelina Rivers
 •Migrated from
 the east in
 1819-1820
   LIFESTYLE
Cherokees
 intermarried and
 adopted a modern
 lifestyle
Owned plantations
 and slaves
    SHELTER
Log  cabins in
villages
   MAIN FOODS
Farming
 –Corn, beans,
  pumpkins,
  squash
THE TEXAS
 INDIANS
The Plains Region
All Plains tribes …
Based   lives and
 cultures on buffalo
 >Food, shelter,
  clothing, weapons,
  tools
Nomadic – followed
 buffalo
*ate elk, deer, antelope,
   & rabbits
*pemmican: dried buffalo
meat mixed w/nuts &
berries
*warriors had high status
because of bravery
MESCALERO
 APACHES
  LOCATION
     Texas
– West
 •Some
 mountains
    LIFESTYLE
Nomadic
Lived  much like the
 Pueblo Indians
Raided other groups
 to the west
Wore high leather
 boots for protection
   MAIN FOODS
Depended   less on Buffalo
 LIPAN
APACHES
  LOCATION
–Southwest Plains
        LIFESTYLE
 Nomadic
 Warfare
 Bow  and
  Arrow
 Wore high
  leather boots
  for protection
   MAIN FOODS
Buffalo
Gardening   (rancherias)
 –Corn, beans, squash, maize,
  pumpkin
   APPEARANCE
Decorated  with feathers
Pierced left ear (6-8 times)
Hair
 –Left short
 –Right Long
      ROLES:
  MEN AND WOMEN
Women  got
recognition
for gardens
 UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Rode horses
Raided by Comanche
Feared death
 –Buried their dead quickly
Buried   with possessions
COMANCHE
   LOCATION
–Plains of Texas
–Panhandle into central
 Texas
    LIFESTYLE
Nomadic
Warriors
 –Control land
 –Most feared
 –Many enemies
    SHELTER
Tepees
   MAIN FOODS
Buffalo
Skilled   traders
  APPEARANCE
Fancy  tattoos
Bright colors
Braided hair
Men wore buffalo
 headdresses
ROLES: MEN AND WOMEN
War  chief –
 best rider
Peace chief
 –older male
 –recognized
  in battle
 UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Expert horse riders
Scalp enemy –
 –Keep enemy’s
  soul from the after
  life
Traveled in bands
KIOWAS
  LOCATION
–Far east side of
 the Panhandle
    LIFESTYLE
Nomadic
Allies
     to
Comanche
    SHELTER
Tepees decorated
with pictures of
important events
   MAIN FOODS
Hunted
 –Buffalo, elk,
  antelope, deer, bear
Pemmican
  APPEARANCE
Decorated
with
feathers
 UNUSUAL CUSTOMS

SUNDANCE
 –mid June
 –Prevent
  sickness and
  disaster
KICKAPOOS
 Latecomers (1830s)
    LOCATION
–Southern Plains along
 the Rio Grande
 • Migrated from Great Lakes
   area in 1830s
    LIFESTYLE
Lived in villages
 –Raised crops
Spent periods hunting
 on the plains
Made  baskets,
 buckskin clothing,
 and fine beadwork
      SHELTER
Round structures covered
 by woven mats
Made by women
THE TEXAS
 INDIANS
The North Central Region
TONKAWAS
     LOCATION
–North central plains
 • Near present-day Austin
     LIFESTYLE
Enemy   of the Comanche
Lived in grass houses in
 villages
    MAIN FOODS
Buffalo  and deer
Birds, rabbits,
 turtles,snakes, nuts,fruit
Gardening
Fished rivers and
 springs
 APPEARANCE
Some
men
tattooed
entire
body
WICHITAS
    LOCATION
–Along Red River
 •Near present-day
  Waco and Dallas
    LIFESTYLE
Lived  along creeks
 and rivers
Matrilineal
Enemy of the
 Comanche
    SHELTER
Grass
Domes
   MAIN FOODS
Corn, squash, beans,
 pumpkin, melons
Hunted buffalo
Did not eat fish
  APPEARANCE
Tattooed
bodies
 UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Raccoon
 eye tattoos
 on face
Made jars,
 pots,
 leather
 bags
THE TEXAS
 INDIANS
Far West Texas
(Pueblo Region)
JUMANO
   LOCATION
–West Texas Along Rio
 Grande
    LIFESTYLE
Farming
 villages
Matrilineal
    SHELTER
Adobe  homes –
insulation
–Brightly painted on
 inside
   MAIN FOODS
Farmed  near rivers
 and streams
 –Corn, squash, beans
Small game
 UNUSUAL CUSTOMS
Irrigation ditches
Allies of the Apache
TIGUAS
     LOCATION
Along   Rio Grande in West
 Texas
 –Near present-day El Paso
      LIFESTYLE
Lived  in
 villages
Cooked
 food in
 round
 adobe
 ovens
   LIFESTYLE
Made  beautiful
 pottery
Grew cotton and
 wove cloth
   MAIN FOODS
Some   hunting and
 fishing
Farming
  –Corn, tomatoes,
   squash, beans, and
   grapes

				
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posted:12/9/2012
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