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Hazardous Waste Protection

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					Hazardous Waste Protection
           and
         Training
 The test is when the land is back to
neutral and the environment is clean
Hazardous Materials Incidents



    “Haz-Mat” incidents are unique
  incidents. They require specialized
  protective measures not normally
available to first responders AND they
    demand a different operational
                approach!
        General Requirements
• Safety and health program
• Evaluation of site’s characteristics
• Site control program to protect employees
  against contamination
• Training
• Medical surveillance
        General Requirements
• Reduce exposure below established exposure
  levels
• Air monitoring
• Informational program
• Decontamination procedure
• Emergency response plan to handle possible
  on-site emergencies
• Off-site emergency response plan
             Know the laws
• Emergency response
  program to hazardous
  substance releases
• Addresses employers
  whose workers are
  engaged in emergency
  response, no matter
  where it occurs
        What is an Emergency?
• Everybody’s definition is somewhat different
• Incidental spill
• Emergency requiring an emergency response
  team
         Emergency Action Plan
• Procedures for reporting a fire or other
  emergency
• Procedures for emergency evacuation,
  including type of evacuation and exit route
  assignments
• Procedures to be followed by employees who
  remain to operate critical plant operations
  before they evacuate
• Procedures to account for all employees after
  evacuation
         Emergency Action Plan
• Procedures to be followed by employees
  performing rescue or medical duties
• Employee alarm system
• Training
• Review of plan
         Emergency Response Plan
• Pre-emergency planning and coordination
  with outside parties
• Personnel roles, lines of authority, training and
  communication
• Emergency recognition and prevention
• Safe distances and places of refuge
• Site security and control
      Emergency Response Plan
• Evacuation routes and procedures or shelter-
  in-place
• Decontamination
• Emergency medical treatment and first aid
• Emergency alerting and response procedures
• Critique of response and follow-up
• PPE and emergency equipment
Procedures for Handling Emergency
            Response
• The senior emergency response official
  responding to an emergency shall become the
  individual in charge (Incident Commander or
  IC) of a site-specific Incident Command System
  (ICS)
• All emergency responders and their
  communications shall be coordinated and
  controlled through the Incident Commander,
  assisted by the senior official present for each
  employer
  Procedures for Handling Emergency
              Response
• The Incident Commander shall identify, to the
  extent possible, all hazardous substances or
  conditions present and shall address as
  appropriate site analysis, use of engineering
  controls, maximum exposure limits, hazardous
  substance handling procedures and use of any
  new technologies
  Procedures for Handling Emergency
              Response
• Back-up personnel shall be standing by with
  equipment ready to provide assistance or
  rescue
• Qualified basic life support personnel, as a
  minimum, shall also be standing by with
  medical equipment and transportation
  capability
         Procedures for Handling
          Emergency Response
• The Incident Commander shall
  designate a Safety Officer,
  who is knowledgeable in the
  operations being
  implemented at the
  emergency response site, with
  specific responsibility to
  identify and evaluate hazards
  and to provide direction with
  respect to the safety of
  operations for the emergency
  at hand
Procedures for Handling Emergency
            Response
• After emergency operations have terminated,
  the Incident Commander shall implement
  appropriate decontamination procedures
                Training

• Training shall be based on the duties and
  function to be performed by each member of
  an emergency response organization
• The skill and knowledge levels required for all
  new responders shall be conveyed to them
  through training before they are permitted to
  take part in actual emergency operations at an
  incident
    Mechanisms of Harm

      T.E.A.M. C.P.R.
Thermal        Chemical
Etiological    Psychological
Asphyxiation   Radiological
Mechanical
                Top Ten Reasons
          Emergency Response Plans Fail.
1.      No upper management support.
2.      Lack of employee “buy-in”.
3.      Poor or no planning.
4.      Lack of training or proper practice.
5.      No designated leader.
6.      Failure to keep the plan up-to-date.


Emergency Response
                Top Ten Reasons
          Emergency Response Plans Fail.
7. No method of communication to alert
        employees.
8. OSHA regulations are not part of the plan.
9. No procedures for shutting down critical
    equipment.
10. Employees are not told what actions to take.




Emergency Response
What are the required elements of the
              ER plan?
1.     Pre-Emergency Planning
2.     Personnel Roles, Lines of Authority, and Communication
3.     Emergency Recognition/Prevention
4.     Emergency Alerting/Response Procedures
5.     Notification
6.     Evaluation of Situation
7.     Rescue/Response Action




Emergency Response
What are the required elements of the
              ER plan?

    8.       PPE and Equipment
    9.       Safe Distances/Places of Refuge
    10.      Site Security/Control
    11.      Evacuation Routes/Procedures
    12.      Decontamination Procedures
    13.      First Aid/Emergency Medical Treatment
    14.      Reporting Requirements
    15.      Critique of Response


Emergency Response
       Public Safety “Duty to Act”
• Your level of involvement is defined by your
  employer’s Emergency Response Plan (ERP).
• The actions you are expected to take should be in
  Standard Operating Procedure format.
• NEVER exceed your level of training and
  protection!
Awareness Level Response Goals


             Recognition
             Isolation
             Protection
             Notification
                             Methods of Identification
   CAS          The Chemical Abstract Service registers and assigns known chemical compounds a CAS
  Number        number. This number is usually found on the MSDS for the product and is of little value to
                the Awareness Level Responder.


 Shipping       Shipping papers list the common name of the hazardous material and the UN/NA ID
  Papers        number. This name or number can be used to find the proper guide page in the DOT ERG.
                Awareness Level Responders should never place themselves at risk to obtain shipping
                papers.

   MSDS         The product name is listed in the first section. Hazardous ingredients may be listed by
                common name in the “Hazardous Ingredients Section.” There may be multiple hazardous
                ingredients.

Facility Pre-   If required, the Employer Emergency Response Plan or LEPC Plan identifies materials
   Plans        present at fixed facilities.


Employees/      Employees, vehicle drivers and bystanders may be able to identify the product involved.
Bystanders


Operational     Awareness level responders can make safety decisions without knowing the specific name
 Decisions      of a material. Awareness level responders should never allow the lack of the material name
                to slow their decision making process. The product’s hazard class enables you to make the
                right decision.
              Responsibilities

• MAEG employees must be able to recognize a
  hazardous
  substance release




                                               1a
               Responsibilities

• Analyzing an incident to determine the
  presence of hazardous substances

• Hands-on experience with relevant sources of
  information that addresses hazardous
  substance releases




                                                 1e
               Responsibilities

• Implementing continuing response actions
  consistent with the local emergency response
  plan

• Understanding the potential hazards of a
  hazardous release site




                                                 1f
    Types of hazards a MAEG employee may
                   encounter
• Chemical exposure

• Fire and explosion

• Oxygen deficiency

• Ionizing radiation

                                           3a
    Types of hazards a MAEG employee may
                   encounter
• Biological hazards

• Safety hazards

• Electrical hazards

• Heat stress

                                           3b
   Types of hazards a MAEG employee may
                  encounter
• Cold exposure

• Noise

• Confined space
  entry hazards



                                          3c
       Routes for chemical exposure

• Symptoms from acute exposures occur during
  or shortly after exposure to a high
  concentration
• Symptoms from chronic exposures occur over
  longer periods of time after exposures to low
  concentrations




                                                  4c
       Six Basic Clues to Recognition

1 - Occupancy and location
2 - Container shape and size
3 - Placards and labels
4 - Shipping papers/facility
    documents
5 - Markings and colors
6 - Human senses
         2 - Container Shape and Size

• Classifications
   – Portable, fixed or transportation
• Pressure
   – Non-pressurized, low or high pressure
• Vapor Pressure and Storage
   – The higher the pressure, the greater the potential for
     catastrophic failure
   – BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) a.k.a.
     Blast Leveling Everything Very Effectively
   3 - Placards and Labels

• Placards and their limitations
  – Not always required
  – The 1000/ 500kg/454l pound rule
• Placards and labels used for
  transport are based upon DOT
  Hazard Class
• Nine Hazard Classes
  – Subdivided into divisions
       Hazard Class 1 - Explosives

• Subdivided into 6 divisions
  1.1 - Mass explosion hazard
  1.2 - Projectile hazard
  1.3 - Fire, minor blast or projectile
  1.4 - Minor explosion
  1.5 - Very insensitive explosives
  1.6 - Extremely insensitive
          Hazard Class 2 - Gases

• Pressurized or liquefied
  – Compressed nitrogen and liquefied
    petroleum gases (LPG) are examples
• Product and container present
  hazards
• Three Subdivisions
  – 2.1 - Flammable gases
  – 2.2 - Non-Flammable, Non-Poisonous
  – 2.3 - Poisonous Gases
 Hazard Class 3 - Flammable/Combustible
                   Liquids


• Flammable Liquids can be
  ignited at room temperature
• Combustible Liquids require
  some degree of pre-heating to
  ignite
• Number 1 rule - eliminate
  ignition sources
     Hazard Class 4 - Flammable
               Solids

• Three subdivisions
  4.1 - Flammable Solids
  4.2 - Spontaneously Combustible
  4.3 - Dangerous when wet
    Hazard Class 5 - Oxidizers and
         Organic Peroxides


• Oxidizers release oxygen to enhance or
  intensify burn
• With strong fuels, oxidizers can create
  conditions which which can lead to
  violent combustion
• Many Organic Peroxides are very
  unstable
    Hazard Class 6 - Poisonous and
        Infectious Substances
• Poisonous to human
   – Can include severely irritating
     substances
   – “Tear Gas”, Hydrocyanic acid, Carbon
     Tetrachloride
• Infectious Substances
   – Potential to cause diseases in humans
   – Anthrax, human blood and many body
     fluids
      Hazard Class 7 - Radioactive
               Materials

• Ionizing radiation hazard
• Exposure does not always result
  in contamination
• Safety Rules:
  – Time, Distance and Shielding
• Shipped in specialized containers
Hazard Class 8 - Corrosives
    Hazard Class 9 - Miscellaneous
        Hazardous Materials

•   ORM A - Dry Ice
•   ORM B - Quick Lime, Metallic mercury
•   ORM C - Asphalt, Battery parts
•   ORM D - Consumer commodities
•   ORM E - Hazardous substances and
    hazardous wastes
4 - Shipping Papers and Facility
          Documents
         MODE       CALLED           LOCATION


  Rail          Waybill and       With crew
                Cosist

  Highway       Bill of Ladding   Driver / on seat
                                  or door pocket

  Air           Airbill           Pilot


  Pipeline      Marker            At cross with
                                  other mode of
                                  transport
 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)


• Required to be maintained by the Federal Hazard
  Communication Standard and The Florida Right-to-
  Know Law
• Found at fixed facilities
• Provides a variety of information
• Emergency Response Plans (ERP)
• Emergency Action Plans (EAP)
          5 - Markings and Colors



•   Container colors are not always standardized
•   UN/NA identification numbers
•   NFPA 704 Diamond
•   Military markings
    6 - Human Senses


        High
                 TASTE
RISK
                 TOUCH
LEVEL            SMELL
                 SIGHT
        Low      SOUND
        Methods of Identification
• Once you recognize, try to identify
• Location of material name
   – Shipping papers
   – MSDS’s (fixed facilities)
   – Facility Pre-Plans
   – Employees and bystanders
• If you cannot safely identify, try to classify the
  material into a hazard class
     You are in charge make it happen


• Identify the procedures for
  initiating your Emergency
  Response Plan.
• Identify the proper procedures for
  implementing protective action
  distances.
• Take actions necessary to
  properly isolate the incident.
   NA-ERG

• North American Emergency
  Response Guidebook
• Origin
• Goal
• Purpose & Limitations
                    Using the NAERG

 The NAERG is divided into four basic sections:

Yellow     bordered pages provide an index list of dangerous goods in
           numerical order by UN/NA ID number.


Blue       bordered pages contain a list of dangerous goods in
           alphabetical order by material name. If you know the chemical
           name, the UN/NA number can be cross-referenced in the blue
           bordered pages of the NAERG.


Orange bordered pages provide safety guidelines.

Green      bordered pages provide information on initial isolation and
           protective action distances, and lists TIH materials including
           certain chemical warfare agents and water reactive materials
           which produce toxic gases upon contact with water.

TIH materials – liquid or gases so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to
health during transportation
              Steps for Proper Use of the ERG
• Recognize & Identify Hazardous
  Materials
   – Name
   – Four digit ID number
   – Placard description
• Look up the guide page number
• Take basic protective actions
  according to the guide page
• Initiate isolation and evacuation
  according to protective action
  distances
Proper Guide Page Use
Table of Protective Action Distances
      Emergency Response Information

• Firefighting
  – Definition of “Haz-Mat Fire”
  – Defensive Vs. Offensive
  – Role of the awareness responder
• Spill / Leak Control
  – Not an awareness level role
• First Aid
  – Remember to prevent secondary contamination
      TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

THE EMPLOYER MUST PROVIDE TRAINING:
                                                  JOB
   THE USE OF EQUIPMENT.                       SAFETY
   WHAT PPE IS NECESSARY.
   WHEN PPE IS NECESSARY.
   THE LIMITATIONS OF THE PPE.
   DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES.
   PROVIDE RETRAINING AS REQUIRED.
   CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT.
   CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.
   TRAIN ALL EMPLOYEES PRIOR TO JOB ASSIGNMENT.
             DEFINITION
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS means a substance or
material which has been determined by the
Secretary of Transportation to be capable of
posing an unreasonable risk to

                 HEALTH
                 PROPERTY
                 ENVIRONMENT

when transported in commerce.
A HAZARDOUS WASTE IS ...............

   A solid waste is hazardous if it meets
   any one of the following conditions:
        IGNITABILITY
        CORROSIVITY
        REACTIVITY
        EP TOXICITY
        A LISTED WASTE
        A MIXTURE (10% RULE)
        NOT EXCLUDED
               We always do it together never alone

BUDDY SYSTEM - means a system of organizing employees
into work groups in such a manner that each employee of the work
group is designated to be observed by at least one other employee
in the work group. The purpose of the buddy system is to provide
rapid assistance to employees in the event of an emergency.




CLEAN-UP OPERATIONS - means an operation where hazardous
substances are removed, contained, incinerated, neutralized,
stabilized, cleared-up, or in any other manner processes or
handled with the ultimate goal of making the site safer for people
or the environment.
   Know what we mean, mean what we say
HEALTH HAZARDS - means a chemical, mixture of chemicals or a pathogen for which
there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in
accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may
occur in exposed employees.




IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE OR HEALTH -
means an atmospheric concentration of any toxic, corrosive or
asphyxiate substance that poses and immediate threat to life or would
cause irreversible or delayed adverse health effects or would
interfere with an individual’s ability to escape from a dangerous
atmosphere.
OXYGEN DEFICIENCY - means that concentration of oxygen
by volume below which atmosphere supplying respiratory
protection must be provided. It exists in atmospheres where the
percentage of oxygen by volume is less than 19.5 percent oxygen.


QUALIFIED PERSON - means a person with specific training,
knowledge and experience in the area for which the person has the
responsibility and the authority to control.


SITE SAFETY AND HEALTH SUPERVISOR - means the
individual located on a hazardous waste site who is responsible to the
employer and has the authority and knowledge necessary to
implement the site safety and health plan and verify compliance with
applicable safety and health requirements.
                 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Specific Gravity is an abstract or dimensionless number compared
to the mass of an equal volume of water.



 Density of water is 8.33 lbs (Note: 8.33 lbs represents 1 gallon of
                                         water).

 1 Gallon of Sulfuric Acid is 15.33 lbs.                                            mass
                                                              Density = ------------------
                                                                                  volume




                                    15.33 lb/gal (Sulfuric)
        Specific gravity = ------------------------- = 1.84
                                    8.33 lbs/gal (Water)
               SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Many chemicals are soluble in water, but when the liquid does not
appreciably dissolve in water, the term immiscible is used.


  IMMISCIBLE IN WATER                            SOLUBLE IN WATER

Float on top if the        Sink to the bottom
SG less than 1.0           if the SG greater than 1.0




                                     WATER

      WATER
                 VAPOR DENSITY
Vapor Density is the mass of gases and vapors as it is compared
to the mass of an equal volume of air or other reference gas.
Air’s density is 1.29 g/L or 0.011 lb/gallons.



  VD greater than 1.0, the                    VD less than 1.0, the
  vapors are heavier than air                 vapors are lighter than air
  and lay in low areas.                       and will rise.
                    pH
Limewater           12

Household ammonia   11

                    10     BASE
Milk of magnesia
                    9

                    8
Blood
                    7    NEUTRAL
Pure Water
Tap Water           6

Coffee              5

                    4      ACID
Wine
Vinegar             3
Lemon juice
Gastric juice       2
“ALL THINGS ARE
POISONS, FOR THERE
IS NOTHING WITHOUT
POISONOUS
QUALITIES. IT IS
ONLY THE DOSE
WHICH MAKES A
THING POISON.”
    PARACELSUS
      (1493 - 1541)
  TOXICOLOGY
TOXIN -     Any of a group of poisonous, usually unstable
            compounds generated by microorganisms,
            plants or animals. Certain toxins are produced
            by specific pathogenic microorganisms and are
            the causative agents in various diseases, as tetanus,
            diphtheria, etc.

TOXICITY   - The effect a specific quantity or dosage of a
             specific toxin (Chemical) has on a living
             microorganism. This is not an absolute!
            TOXICITY
               Swallowing of a substance through the
INGESTION      mouth and into the stomach. Generally
               followed by its entrance into the small
               intestine.



ABSORPTION     Entering the body through the skin.
               Substances that absorb through the skin
               sometime further assimilate into the
               blood system.



INHALATION     Breathing causes us to inhale substances
               which in return travels en route to the
               lungs. Our lungs are so rich in blood
               vessels that any substance inhaled into
               the lungs are readily absorbed into the
               bloodstream.
                         TOXIC EFFECTS
 ACUTE     - Is generally regarded as a severe injury caused
                       by a one time, relatively short exposure to a chemical
                       substances harmful to the human body.

 CHRONIC - Is an injury or disease that manifests itself after a
                      relatively long period of time has elapsed since the
                      initial exposure to the substance causing some type
                      of ailment.


 LATENT - Is an injury or disease that remains undeveloped until
                     an incubation period has elapsed. The period of time
                     could be hours, days, months or years.


IRRITANT - Is a chemical substance that injures the tissues of the
                    respiratory system and lungs, thereby causing
                    inflammation of the respiratory passages.
       AFFECTING FACTORS
   The Amount Entering the Body.
   The Length of Time.
   The Rate of Absorption Into the Blood.
   The Physical Nature of the Chemical.
   The Chemical Nature of the Chemical.
   The Age of the Individual.
   The Health of the Individual.
    MEASURING THE TOXICITY
    PARTS PER MILLION - ppm
    PARTS PER BILLION - ppb
    PARTS PER TRILLION - ppt
    LETHAL DOSE - LD50
    LETHAL CONCENTRATION - LC50
    THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE - TLV
    IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO
     LIFE AND HEALTH - IDLH
                     APPROXIMATIONS
         ppm                                ppb                                 ppt
    1 INCH                         1 INCH                             1 INCH
       1/2                                                               1/2
1   1/4 3/4   = 16 MILES              1/2
                                   1/4 3/4   = 16,000             1   1/4 3/4   = 16,000,000
                               1
                                                MILES                                MILES



              =                              =                                  =

1 DROP            80 FIFTHS    1 DROP              80,000         1 DROP            80,000,000
                                                   FIFTHS                             FIFTHS




              =                              =                                  =

1 PENNY           $10,000.00   1 PENNY           $10,000,000.00   1 PENNY $10,000,000,000.00
                  LETHAL DOSE - LD50
The LD50 is the amount of a material that, when administrated to laboratory animals, kill
half of them. The expression is made in milligrams of the substance administered per
body weight of the animal expressed in kilograms (mg/kg).

When extrapolated to humans, the lethal dose of an average person who weighs w
kilograms is LD50 x w.
  LETHAL CONCENTRATION - LC50

The LC50 is the concentration of a material that, normally express as parts per million
(ppm) by volume, that when administrated to laboratory animals, kill half of them during
the period of exposure.
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE - TLV
The TLV is the upper limit of a toxin concentration to which an
average healthy person may be repeatedly exposed on an all-day,
everyday basis without suffering adverse health effects.

Gaseous substances in air, the TLV is usually express as parts
per million (ppm).

Fumes or mist in air, it is expressed in milligrams per cubic meter
(mg/m3).

TLV values are set by the American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH).
         TOXINS IN OUR BODY

                               THE BRAIN
       TOXIN
                               RESPIRATORY
                               SYSTEMS
Toxins inhaled
can quickly travel
to vital organs and
the brain causing
either acute or                 THE HEART
chronic effects.

                               THE STOMACH


         THE LIVER
                              THE INTESTINE
                              SUMMARY OF TLV
TLV - Threshold Limit Value: One of three categories of chemical
          exposure levels - TLV-TWA, TLV-STEL or TLV-C.

TLV-TWA - Threshold Limit Value Time-Weighted Average: The
        time weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour
        workday and a 40 hour work week to which nearly all
        workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect.
        Should be used as an exposure guide rather than an absolute.

TLV-STEL - Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit: A
          15 minute time-weighted average exposure that should not be
          exceeded at any time during the work day.

TLV-C - Threshold Limit Value- Ceiling: The concentration that
          should not be exceeded even instantaneously.
      SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS

                  ACIDS AND BASES
    ACID                                      BASE

COMMON ACIDS (pH 0-6)    COMMON BASES (pH 8-14)

   HYDROCHLORIC ACID       SODIUM HYDROXIDE (LYE)
   HYDROFLUORIC ACID       SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE (BLEACH)
   NITRIC ACID             AQUEOUS AMMONIA
   PHOSPHORIC ACID         POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (POTASH)
   CHROMIC ACID            AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE
    SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
          ACIDS and BASES - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

   IF YOU’RE NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE CHEMICAL, FIND OUT!
   READ THE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET!
   READ THE LABELS ON CONTAINERS.
   OBSERVE WRITTEN WARNINGS!
   DON’T EAT, DRINK, OR SMOKE AROUND CHEMICALS.
   CHANGE YOUR CLOTHS! DON’T TAKE IT HOME!
   ENSURE WORK AREA IS VENTILATED.
   WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.
  SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
       ACIDS and BASES - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

 WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.
 CLEAN UP SMALL SPILLS TO PREVENT BEING MISTAKEN
  FOR WATER.
 STORE ACIDS FROM BASES TO PREVENT REACTIONS.
 KNOW THE REACTIONS THAT CAN OCCUR FROM OTHER
  MATERIALS.
 ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER, NEVER WATER TO ACID!
  SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
              CLASSES OF SOLVENTS

- ORGANIC (CARBON BEARING) SOLVENTS:

 ORGANIC SOLVENTS CONTAIN CARBON.
 ORGANIC SOLVENTS INCLUDE: ACETONE, GASOLINE,
  STODDARD SOLVENT, AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE.
 EFFECTS ON THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CAN
  OCCUR IF PROPER VENTILATION IS NOT USED.
   SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
               CLASSES OF SOLVENTS

- AQUEOUS (WATER BEARING) SOLVENTS:

 AQUEOUS SOLVENTS CONTAIN WATER.
 SOLUTIONS OF ACIDS, ALKALIS ARE CLASSED
  AS AQUEOUS SOLVENTS.
 ENGINEERING CONTROLS ARE USUALLY REQUIRED.
 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IS NEEDED WHERE VAPORS
  CANNOT BE ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED WITH ENGINEERING
  CONTROLS.
   SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
            ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTS
- INHALATION:

 MOST COMMON ROUTE OF ENTRY.
 CAUSES HEADACHE, DIZZINESS, CONFUSION, AND
  DROWSINESS.
 ODOR INTENSITY USUALLY NOT GOOD DETERMINATION
  OF TOXICITY. MORE COULD MEAN LESS, LESS COULD
  MEAN MORE.
 DIFFERENT SOLVENTS SEEK DIFFERENT TARGET ORGANS
  IN THE BODY.
   SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
               ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTS
- INGESTION:

 EATING, DRINKING, OR SMOKING WITHOUT WASHING
  HANDS FIRST.
 EATING, DRINKING, OR SMOKING CONTAMINATED
  CONSUMABLES.
 CAN CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL
  TRACT.
 EASILY PENETRATES MUCOUS MEMBRANES TO ENTER
  THE BLOOD STREAM.
    SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
                ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTS
- ABSORPTION:

 PREVENT SKIN CONTACT, WEAR GLOVES, APRONS, ETC.
 CAN OCCUR THROUGH UNBROKEN SKIN OR MUCOUS
  MEMBRANES.
 ANY ABSORPTION GENERALLY WILL CAUSE IRRITATION OF
  SKIN.
 FLUSH SKIN FOR AT LEAST FIFTEEN MINUTES, SEEK MEDICAL
  HELP.
 NEVER WASH EXPOSED SKIN WITH ANY SOLVENT.
     SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
               ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTS

- INJECTION:

   USUALLY CAUSED BY PUNCTURE WOUNDS.
   COMPRESSED AIR CAN ALSO CAUSE INJECTION OF SOLVENTS.
   RAPID INTRODUCTION OF SOLVENTS INTO BLOODSTREAM.
   MAY BE OTHER DEBRIS IN WOUND OF CONCERN.
     SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
                    SPECIFIC METALS

- METAL PARTICULATES:

 COME FROM SAND BLASTING, DEBURRING, AND LIKE
  OPERATIONS.
 METALS CAN TAKE THE FORM OF AIRBORNE DUSTS.
 ENGINEERING CONTROLS ARE USUALLY REQUIRED.
 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IS NEEDED WHERE DUSTS
  CANNOT BE ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED WITH ENGINEERING
  CONTROLS.
     SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
                  SPECIFIC METALS

- FUMES:

 FUMES ARE MADE UP OF VERY TINY SOLID METAL PARTICLES.
 PARTICLES ARE THE CONDENSATES OF VAPORIZED METAL.
 EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN BODY CAN BE DISASTROUS IF PROPER
  VENTILATION IS NOT USED.
 THINK OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF METALS AND BONDING
  MATERIALS USED USED IN A WELDING OPERATION.
     P P E CONSIDERATIONS
                      Age of the Equipment
                      Chemical Resistance
                      Cleanability
                      Comfort
                      Communication
                      Design
                      Durable
                      Flexibility
                      Temperature Resistance
                      Visibility

The actual properties of the hazard must be known to make a decision on the
specific type of equipment to be used!
                     LEVEL - A PROTECTION
Level A is used when the greatest level of skin, respiratory and
eye protection is required.

 Level A protection should be used when:

The hazardous substance has been identified and requires the highest level of
protection for skin, eyes and the respiratory system based on either the measured
(or potential for) high concentration of atmospheric vapors, gases, or particulate;
or the site operations and work functions involve a high potential for splash,
immersion, or exposure to unexpected vapors, gases, or particulate of materials
that are harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through the skin.

Substances with a high degree of hazard to the skin are known or suspected to be
present, and skin contact is possible.

Operations are being conducted in confined, poorly ventilated areas, and the
absence of conditions requiring Level A have not yet been determined.
               LEVEL - B PROTECTION
Level B is used when the highest level of respiratory protection is necessary
but a lesser level of skin protection is needed.

 Level B protection should be used when:

The type and atmospheric concentration of substances have been identified
and require a high level of respiratory protection but less skin protection.

The atmosphere contains less than 19.5 percent oxygen.

The presence of incompletely identified vapors or gases is indicated by a direct
reading organic vapor detection instrument, but vapors and gases are not
suspected of containing high levels of chemicals harmful to skin or capable of
being absorbed through the skin.

NOTE: This involves atmospheres with IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and
Health) concentrations of specific substances that present severe inhalation
hazards and that do not represent a severe skin hazard.
                    LEVEL - C PROTECTION

Level C is used when the concentration(s) and type(s) of airborne substance(s)
is known and the criteria for using air purifying respirators are met.

 Level C protection should be used when:

The atmospheric contaminants, liquid splashes, or other direct contact will
not adversely affect or be absorbed through any exposed skin.

The types of air contaminants have been identified, concentrations measured,
and an air purifying respirator is available that can remove the contaminants.

All criteria for the use of air purifying respirators are met.
                 LEVEL - D PROTECTION

Level D is used for nuisance contamination only. A work uniform affording
minimal protection.

 Level D protection should be used when:

The atmosphere contains no known hazards.

Work functions preclude splashes, immersion, or the potential for unexpected
inhalation of or contact with hazardous levels of any chemicals.
The following constitute           LEVEL - A PROTECTION:
         1. Positive pressure, full face-piece self-contained
            breathing apparatus (SCBA), or positive pressure
            supplied air respirator with escape SCBA, approved
            by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
            Health (NIOSH).

         2. Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit.

         3. Coveralls. (Optional, as applicable)

         4. Long underwear. (Optional, as applicable)

         5. Gloves, outer, chemical resistant.

         6. Gloves, inner, chemical resistant.

         7. Boots, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank.

         8. Hard hat (under suit). (Optional, as applicable)

         9. Disposable protective suit, gloves and boots (depending
            on suit construction, may be worn over totally-encapsulating suit.)
The following constitute          LEVEL - B PROTECTION:
         1. Positive pressure, full face-piece self-contained
            breathing apparatus (SCBA), or positive pressure
            supplied air respirator with escape SCBA, approved
            by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
            Health (NIOSH).

         2. Hooded chemical resistant clothing (overalls and long-
            sleeved jacket; coveralls; one or two piece chemical splash
            suit; disposable chemical resistant overalls.

         3. Coveralls. (Optional, as applicable)

         4. Gloves, outer, chemical resistant.

         5. Gloves, inner, chemical resistant.

         6. Boots, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank.

         7. Boot covers, outer, chemical resistant (disposable)

         8. Hard hat. (Optional, as applicable)

         9. Face shield. (Optional, as applicable)
The following constitute         LEVEL - C PROTECTION:
          1. Full face or half mask, air purifying respirators, approved
             by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
             Health (NIOSH).

          2. Hooded chemical resistant clothing (overalls, two piece chemical splash
             suit; disposable chemical resistant overalls.

          3. Coveralls. (Optional, as applicable)

          4. Gloves, outer, chemical resistant.

          5. Gloves, inner, chemical resistant.

          6. Boots (outer), chemical resistant, steel toe and shank.

          7. Boot covers, outer, chemical resistant (disposable)

          8. Hard hat. (Optional, as applicable)

          9. Face shield. (Optional, as applicable)

         10. Escape mask. (Optional, as applicable)
The following constitute          LEVEL - D PROTECTION:
          1. Coveralls.

          2. Gloves. (Optional, as applicable)

          3. Boots/Shoes, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank.

          4. Boot outer, chemical resistant (disposable)

          5. Safety glasses or chemical splash goggles.

          6. Hard hat. (Optional, as applicable)

          7. Face shield. (Optional, as applicable)

          8. Escape mask. (Optional, as applicable)
TIME - - -
     As with any type of exposure,
     such as a sunburn, the longer
     the exposure the more probable
     an injury will occur.
DISTANCE - - -

    The further away from the source
    the less the concentration
    available for exposure.
SHIELDING - - -
     Generally considered as a wall
     or lead shield. With reference to
     hazardous materials it also refers
     to PPE worn by the worker.
           Do a fit test.
           Receive training.
R   C      Provide proper care.
E   H      Measure hazard levels.
           Receive a Medical test.
S   E      Review exposure limits.
        
P   C   
            Select correct Respirator.
            Receive Annual Physical.
I   K      Receive Annual Training.
           Check the Oxygen levels.
R          Provide proper maintenance.
A   L      Look for signs of deterioration.
           Follow policies and procedures.
T   I      Wear only approved respirators that you have
O   S       received instruction.

R   T
Y
              CONFINEMENT
Any procedures taken to keep all the material in a defined area. These activities
will vary from plant to plant and will be determined by the company emergency
response plan. Spills or releases can be confined by our A, B, C, D materials.

                             Absorption
                             Blocking
                             Collection
                             Diking
A   Materials like dirt, sand, soda ash,
B   saw dust, vermiculite, or even kitty litter
S   can absorb the spill. The absorption
    material should be placed in front of the
O   material with consideration of any slope
R   or grade. A key note to remember, the
P   absorption materials MUST be
T   COMPATIBLE with the spilled material.
I
O
N
B   Means the protection of drains, ditches,
L   or storm sewers from run-off of any
    spilled material. These items should be
O   blocked by dams, rubber covers, pillows,
C   booms.
K
I
N
G
C
O   The collection of these materials can
L   be placed in approved DOT containers,
    or other types of containment for proper
L   disposal.
E
C
T
I
O
N
D   Diking materials like sand, earth, or
I   other similar materials can be used to
    contain the perimeter of the leak.
K   The material used for diking MUST
I   also be COMPATIBLE with the spilled
    material.
N
G
D
E
  C
   O
    N
        T
         A
             M
                 IN
                      A T I ON
     DECONTAMINATION

DECONTAMINATION is a very important part of
Training. Emergency response workers at the First
Responder, Operations Level, Hazardous Materials
Technician, Hazardous Materials Specialist, and On-
Scene Incident Commander levels are all required
to know and understand decontamination
procedures.
              DECONTAMINATION
Contamination at hazardous waste sites can occur to people, vehicles, equipment,
buildings and to the environment, both plants and animals.           By avoiding
contamination through proper positioning of people, apparatus and equipment, you
eliminate the need to decontaminate.

Decontamination is performed whenever any the following
conditions are present:

   When there is obvious contamination by a know substance.
   When there is suspected contamination by a know substance.
   When there is likelihood of exposure to a deadly substance.
   When you don’t want to spread the contamination.
   When you want to protect the environment.
  METHODS OF
DECONTAMINATION

       DILUTION
       ABSORPTION
       DEGRADATION
       ISOLATION
       NEUTRALIZATION
       DISPOSAL
                  DECONTAMINATION
                  CORRIDOR CRITERIA
 Topography - The decon corridor should be located on a level surface,
  upwind and upgrade from the site.

 Distance from spills - A minimum of 100 feet shall be maintained between
  the decon area and the spill for minor incidents. 500 feet for major incidents.
 Perimeters - An inner and outer security perimeter will be established. The
  entrance into the hot zone must be a controlled access point.
 Markings - Use stakes or cones and brightly colored perimeter tape to clearly
  identify the decon corridor.
Always Consider the Mechanisms of Harm
                             TEAM CPR
  T   Thermal         Temperature extremes.
                      Heat from fire or heat releasing chemical reactions.
                      Extremes in cold, e.g. liquefied gas and cryogenic liquids.


  E   Etiological     Injury of harm caused by human disease causing agents.
                      Bacteria and viruses.


  A   Asphyxiation    Simple – caused by an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
                      Chemical – can cause changes in the body preventing the proper use of
                      oxygen, e.g. carbon monoxide.


  M   Mechanical      Physical hazardous such as flying debris, uneven ground and/or excessive
                      noise conditions with potential for hearing damage.


  C   Chemical        Toxic or injurious effects caused by exposure to chemicals, e.g. pesticide
                      poisoning, respiratory injury (e.g. chlorine) and corrosive damage to eyes and
                      skin (e.g. acids and alkalines).


  P   Psychological   Mental stress from fear of the unknown or from witnessing a violent death.



  R   Radiological    Exposure to materials that spontaneously emit radiation.
                             Develop SOP’s for facility
                                 and emergency
                                    personnel
       Identify facilities                                      Designate
      and transportation                                    community and
            routes                                        facility coordinators




Develop timely detection                                      Maintain regional
                                   LEPC
    and notification                                         emergency response
      procedures              Responsibilities
                                                               equipment and
                                                                facilities lists



          Maintain                                        Test and exercise
      evacuation plans                                      hazmat plans


                                 Provide training
                     LEVELS OF TRAINING
There are five levels of training required under HAZWOPER:

 Awareness       Persons likely to witness or discover a haz-mat release must notify
                 appropriate authorities, deny entry into the affected and remain at a
                 safe location until emergency responders reach the scene.



Operational      Persons who respond to haz-mat incidents with defensive actions to
                 contain and prevent the release from spreading.



 Hazardous       Persons who respond to a haz-mat spill with offensive actions to
  Materials      control the spill or leak.
 Technician

 Hazardous       Persons with specialized knowledge that provide support to the
  Materials      Hazardous Materials Technician.
 Specialist

Hazardous        Persons who assume command of the incident and control all
 Materials       operations. They must have Operational Level training and additional
 Incident        training in implementing the employer’s emergency response plan.
Commander
                          BLEVE
    “Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion”
    An explosive release of expanding vapor and boiling liquid
 following the catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel holding a
   liquefied gas such as propane or LPG. A BLEVE is the worst
possible outcome when a propane or LPG tank is exposed to fire.
 BLEVE hazards include fireballs, blast, projectiles and possible
              toxic clouds or vapor cloud explosions.
                           BLEVE




BLEVE warning signs:
• Pinging sound from the metal shell
• Discoloration of the container (normally cherry red)
• Flaking of small metal pieces
• Bubble or bulge on the container
• Steam from the tank surface
• Shrill sound from the pressure relief valve
    • Especially if increasing with passage of time
• Tear in container surface
            Incident Control Zones


                                       Wind


    Incident                                                 Command
                                Entry Corridor
                                                               area,
              Safe            Decontamination                 Support
             Refuge                                          functions
       HOT
                                 WARM
                                                              COLD
Establish work zones:
        Hot Zone    Work area where chemical hazards exist
                    Separate with red barrier tape
                    Do not enter w/o appropriate PPE

        Warm Zone   Work site area where decontamination occurs
                    Separate with red barrier tape
                    Semi-contaminated area
                    Do not enter w/o appropriate PPE
        Cold Zone   Separate with yellow barrier tape
                    No chemical PPE required
         Incident Command System (ICS)

Initiate ICS to identify those authorized to enter the scene
•   Senior response official/Qualified response official implements ICS
•   Review ICS specified in ERP & SOGs
•   Must appoint safety officer
•   NIMS and HAZWOPER require ICS
     •   To be IC requires minimum of Operations Level and IC training. Fire
         Chief, Police officer or county EM may not have the required training.


Evaluate priorities for incident, life, property, environment (LIPE)

    LIFE: Health & well-                  PROPERTY: Immediate
    being, acute &                        destruction, fire, explosion,
    chronic health                        long term contamination
    hazards

                 INCIDENT: Establish                 ENVIRONMENT: Air, water,
                 ICS, hazard zones &                 land pollution, death/injury
                 take proper protective              to wildlife
                 actions

				
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Description: health and safety hm pipeline safety construction safety