Multimedia Signal Processing Theory and Applications in Speech

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Multimedia Signal Processing Theory and Applications in Speech Powered By Docstoc
					Multimedia Signal
Processing
Theory and Applications in Speech, Music
and Communications




Saeed V. Vaseghi
Professor of Communications and Signal Processing
Department of Electronics, School of Engineering and Design
Brunei University, UK }




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John Wiley &. Sons, Ltd
Contents




Preface                                                           xiii
Acknowledgement                                                  xvii
Symbols                                                           xix

Abbreviations                                                    xxiii

Part I Basic Digital Signal Processing                              1

1 Introduction        ;                                             3
  1.1 Signals and Information                                       3
  1.2 Signal Processing Methods                                     5
  1.3 Applications of Digital Signal Processing                     8
  1.4 Summary                        "                             23

2 Fourier Analysis and Synthesis                                   25
  2.1 Introduction                                                 25
  2.2 Fourier Series: Representation of Periodic Signals     -     27
  2.3 Fourier Transform: Representation of Nonperiodic Signals     33
  2.4 Discrete Fourier Transform                                   48
  2.5 Short-Time Fourier Transform                                 57
  2.6 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)               "                 59
  2.7 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform (2-D DFT)                     65
  2.8 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)                              66
  2.9 Some Applications of the Fourier Transform                   68
  2.10 Summary                                                     74

3 z-Transform t                                                    79
  3.1 Introduction                                                 79
  3.2 Derivation of the z-Transform                                81
Cyijp     CONTENTS

   3.3    The z-Plane and the Unit Circle                                      83
   3.4    Properties of z-Transform                                            88
   3.5    z-Transfer Function, Poles (Resonance) and Zeros (Anti-resonance)    91
   3.6    z-Transform of Analysis of Exponential Transient Signals            100
   3.7    Inverse z-Transform                                                 104
   3.8    Summary                                                             106

4 Digital Filters                                                             111
  4.1 Introduction                                                            111
  4.2 Linear Time-Invariant Digital Filters                                   113
  4.3 Recursive and Non-Recursive Filters                                     115
  4.4 Filtering Operation: Sum of Vector Products, A Comparison of
         Convolution and Correlation                                          117
  4.5 Filter Structures: Direct, Cascade and Parallel Forms                   119
  4.6 Linear Phase FIR Filters                                                122
  4.7 Design of Digital FIR Filter-banks                                      136
  4.8    Quadrature Mirror Sub-band Filters                                   139
  4.9 Design of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters by
         Pole-zero Placements                                                 145
  4.10 Issues in the Design and Implementation of a Digital Filter            148
  4.11 Summary                                                                148

5 Sampling and Quantisation                                                   155
  5.1 Introduction                                                            155
  5.2   Sampling a Continuous-Time Signal                                     158
  5.3 Quantisation     ,                                                      162
  5.4   Sampling Rate Conversion: Interpolation and Decimation                166
  5.5   Summary               ,       ,..                                     171
Part II   Model-Based Signal Processing                                       173

6 Information Theory and Probability Models                                   175
  6.1 Introduction: Probability and Information Models                        176
  6.2 Random Processes                                                        177
  6.3 Probability Models of Random Signals                                    182
  6.4 Information Models                                                      189
  6.5   Stationary and Non-Stationary Random Processes                        199
  6.6   Statistics (Expected Values) of a Random Process                      202
  6.7 Some Useful Practical Classes of Random Processes                       212
  6.8 Transformation of a Random Process                                      225
  6.9 Search Engines: Citation Ranking                                        230
  6.10 Summary                                                                231

7 Bayesian Inference                                                          233
  7.1 Bayesian Estimation Theory: Basic Definitions                           233
  7.2 Bayesian Estimation                                                     242
                                                                 CONTENTS       QxJ)
     7.3   Expectation Maximisation Method                                       255
     7.4   Cramer-Rao Bound on the Minimum Estimator Variance               -    257
     7.5   Design of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM)                               260
     7.6   Bayesian Classification"                                              263
     7.7   Modelling the Space of a Random Process                               270
     7.8   Summary                                                               273

8 Least    Square Error, Wiener-Kolmogorov Filters                               275
   8.1     Least Square Error Estimation: Wiener-Kolmogorov Filter               275
   8.2     Block-Data Formulation of the Wiener Filter                           280
   8.3     Interpretation of Wiener Filter as Projection
           in Vector Space                                                       282
     8.4   Analysis of the Least Mean Square Error Signal                        284
     8.5   Formulation of Wiener Filters in the Frequency Domain                 285
     8.6   Some Applications of Wiener Filters                                   286
     8.7   Implementation of Wiener Filters                                      292
     8.8   Summary                                                               294

9 Adaptive Filters: Kalman, RLS, LMS                                             297
   9.1 Introduction                                                              297
   9.2 State-Space Kalman Filters                                                299
   9.3 Sample Adaptive Filters                                                   307
   9.4 Recursive Least Square (RLS) Adaptive Filters                             309
   9.5 The Steepest-Descent Method                                               313
   9.6 LMS Filter       ,                                                        317
   9.7 Summary         S          •                                              32i


10 Linear Prediction Models                                                      323
   10.1 Linear Prediction Coding      :                                          323
   10.2 Forward, Backward and Lattice Predictors                                 332
   10.3 Short-Term and Long-Term Predictors                                      339
   10.4 MAP Estimation of Predictor Coefficients                                 341
   10.5 Formant-Tracking LP Models                                               343
   10.6 Sub-Band Linear Prediction Model                         '               344
   10.7 Signal Restoration Using Linear Prediction Models                        345
   10.8 Summary                                                                  350

11 Hidden Markov Models                            "                             353
   11.1 Statistical Models for Non-Stationary Processes                          353
   11.2 Hidden Markov Models                                                     355
   11.3 Training Hidden Markov Models                                            361
   11.4 Decoding Signals Using Hidden Markov Models                              367
   11.5 HMM in DNA and Protein Sequences                                         371
   11.6 HMMs for Modelling Speech and Noise                                      372
   11.7 Summary                                                                  378
CJO      CONTENTS
12 Eigenvector Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Independent
   Component Analysis                                                     381
   12.1 Introduction - Linear Systems and Eigenanalysis                   382
   12.2 Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues                                      386
   12.3 Principal Component Analysis (PCA)                                389
   12.4 Independent Component Analysis                                    393
   12.5 Summary                                                           412

Part III Applications of Digital Signal Processing to Speech, Music and
Telecommunications                                                        415

13 Music  Signal Processing and Auditory Perception                       417
   13.1    Introduction                                                   418
   13.2    Musical Notes, Intervals and Scales                            418
   13.3    Musical Instruments                                            426
   13.4    Review of Basic Physics of Sounds                              439
   13.5    Music Signal Features and Models                               447
   13.6    Anatomy of the Ear and the Hearing Process                     451
   13.7    Psychoacoustics of Hearing                                     462
   13.8    Music Coding (Compression)                                     471
   13.9    High Quality Audio Coding: MPEG Audio
           Layer-3 (MP3)                                                  475
    13.10 Stereo Music Coding                                             478
    13.11 Summary                                                         480
                         It
14 Speech Processing                                                      483
   14.1   Speech Communication                                            483
   14.2 Acoustic Theory of Speech: The Source-filter Model                484
   14.3   Speech Models and Features                                      490
   14.4 Linear Prediction Models of Speech                                491
   14.5 Harmonic Plus Noise Model of Speech                               492
   14.6 Fundamental Frequency (Pitch) Information                         496
   14.7   Speech Coding                                                   500
   14.8 Speech Recognition                                                510
   14.9   Summary                                                         525

15 Speech Enhancement                           "                         527
   15.1 Introduction                                                      528
   15.2   Single-Input Speech Enhancement Methods                         528
   15.3 Speech Bandwidth Extension - Spectral Extrapolation               547
   15.4 Interpolation of Lost Speech Segments - Packet Loss
          Concealment                                                     553
   15.5 Multi-Input Speech Enhancement Methods                            562
   15.6 Speech'Distortion Measurements                                    565
   15.7   Summary                                                         569
                                                                   CONTENTS   Cxf)

16 Echo   Cancellation                                                         573
   16.1   Introduction: Acoustic and Hybrid Echo                               573
   16.2   Telephone Line Hybrid Echo                                           575
   16.3   Hybrid (Telephone Line) Echo Suppression                             577
   16.4   Adaptive Echo Cancellation                                           578
   16.5   Acoustic Echo                                                        581
   16.6   Sub-Band Acoustic Echo Cancellation                                  584
   16.7   Echo Cancellation with Linear Prediction Pre-whitening               585
   16.8   Multi-Input Multi-Output Echo Cancellation                           586
   16.9   Summary                                                              589

17 Channel Equalisation and Blind Deconvolution                                591
   17.1 Introduction                                                           591
   17.2 Blind Equalisation Using Channel Input Power Spectrum                  598
   17.3 Equalisation Based on Linear'Prediction Models                         601
   17.4 Bayesian Blind Deconvolution and Equalisation                          603
   17.5 Blind Equalisation for Digital Communication Channels                  611
   17.6 Equalisation Based on Higher-Order Statistics                          616
   17.7 Summary                                                                623

18 Signal Processing in Mobile Communication                                   625
   18.1 Introduction to Cellular Communication                                 625
   18.2 Communication Signal Processing in Mobile Systems                      631
   18.3 Capacity, Noise, and Spectral Efficiency                               632
   18.4 Multi-path and Fading in Mobile Communication                          634
   18.5 Smart Antennas - Space-Time Signal Processing                          639
   18.6 Summary                                                                642

Index                              '                                           643

				
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posted:12/8/2012
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