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					Bus reservation system
                     M.G.M’S COLLEGE OF
             Computer Science & Information Technology

                        Kamothe Navi mumbai

                 This is to certify that the project of

          “BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM”
                           Undertaken at

     M.G.M COLLEGE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & INFORMATION
                       TECHNOLOGY

                                  By

        Miss. Maya Bhimrao Thombare (Roll No.79 )



       In partial fulfillment of B.Sc. IT degree Examination had not
been submitted for any other courses undergone by the candidate. It
is further certified that they are completed all required phases of the
project.

                                                 signature

                                                  faculty

                                              Prachi Kulkarni
                          INTRODUCTION
In bus reservation system there has been a collection of buses, agent who are
booking tickets for customer’s journey which give bus number and departure time of
the bus. According to its name it manages the details of all agent, tickets, rental
details, and timing details and so on. It also manages the updating of the objects.




       In the tour detail there is information about bus, who has been taking
customers at their destination, it also contain the detailed information about the
customer, who has been taken from which bus and at what are the number of
members he or she is taking his/her journey.




       This section also contain the details of booking time of the seat(s) or collecting
time of the tickets, this section also contain the booking date and the name of agent
which is optional, by which the customer can reserve the seats for his journey




            In Bus no category it contains the details of buses which are old/new.
New buses are added with the details with bus no, from city to the city, type of the
bus, rent of a single seat, if the bus has sleeper than the cost of sleeper, if the cabin
has the facility for sitting than the cost of cabin seats, tour timings of the new bus has
also been stored. How many buses are currently given and available in office?




            In seats specification it gives the list of given issued and currently
available seats and contain the information about seats like sleeper, cabin etc.
                          ANALYSIS
Requirement specification :
Software requirements analysis
Software requirements analysis involves requirements for both the system and the
software to be document and reviewed with the customer.

Design

Software design is data structure, software architecture, interfaces representation
and procedural actually a multi-step process that focuses on for distinct attributes of
a program: detail. The design process translates requirements into a representation
of the software that can be accessed for quality before coding begins.

Code Generation
Code-Generation phase translates the design into a machine-readable form.

Testing

Once code has been generated, program testing begins. The testing focuses on the
logical internals of the software, ensuring that all statement have been tested, and
on the functional externals; that is, conducting test to uncover errors and ensure that
define input will produce actual results that agree with required results.

Support

Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered to the customer.
Change will occur because errors have been encountered, because the software
must be adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment or because
the customer requires functional or performance enhancements.
Objectives

The objective of software project planning is to provide a framework that enables

the management to make reasonable estimates of resources, cost, and schedule.

These estimates are made within limited time frame at the beginning of a software

project and should be updated regularly as the project progresses. In addition,

estimates should attempt to define best case and worst case scenarios so that

project outcomes can be bounded.




Software Scope
The first activity in software project planning is the determination of software scope.
Software scope describes the data and control to be processed, function,
performance, constraints, interfaces, and reliability.

The most commonly used technique to bridge communication gap between
customer and the software developer to get the communication process started is to
conduct a preliminary meeting or interview. When I visited the site we have been
introduced to the Manager of the center, there were two another persons out of one
was the technical adviser and another one was the cost accountant. Neither of us
knows what to ask or say; we were very much worried that what we say will be
misinterpreted.
             System Specifications
Hardware Requirements

Server Side
   Core 2 Due 2.4GHz and Above
   2 GB of Random Access Memory and Above
     160 GB Hard Disk


Client Side
   Pentium-IV 1.5MHs and Above
   512 MB of Random Access Memory and Above
     80 GB Hard Disk




Software Requirements


   Operating System        : Windows XP
   Programming language : .NET
   Web-Technology          : ASP.NET 2.0
   Front-End               : C#.NET
   Back-End                : Sql Server 2005
                 FEASIBILITY STUDY:

Feasibility study is conducted once the problem is clearly understood.
Feasibility study is a high level capsule version of the entire system analysis and
design process. The objective is to determine quickly at a minimum expense
how to solve a problem. The purpose of feasibility is not to solve the problem
but to determine if the problem is worth solving.

      The system has been tested for feasibility in the following points.

        1. Technical Feasibility

        2. Economical Feasibility

        3. Operational Feasibility.




1. Technical Feasibility

         The project entitles "Courier Service System” is technically feasibility
because of the below mentioned feature. The project was developed in Java
which Graphical User Interface.

      It provides the high level of reliability, availability and
compatibility. All these make Java an appropriate language for this
project. Thus the existing software Java is a powerful language.
2. Economical Feasibility

                 The computerized system will help in automate the selection
leading the profits and details of the organization. With this software, the
machine and manpower utilization are expected to go up by 80-90%
approximately. The costs incurred of not creating the system are set to be
great, because precious time can be wanted by manually.




3. Operational Feasibility:

In this project, the management will know the details of each project
where he may be presented and the data will be maintained as
decentralized and if any inquires for that particular contract can be
known as per their requirements and necessaries.
          PROJECT CATEGORY
Front End Technology

  Microsoft .NET Framework

  The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies
  application development in the highly distributed environment of the
  Internet. The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives:

       To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment
        whether object code is stored and executed locally, executed locally
        but Internet-distributed, or executed remotely.
       To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software
        deployment and versioning conflicts.
       To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe
        execution of code, including code created by an unknown or semi-
        trusted third party.
       To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the
        performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments.
       To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying
        types of applications, such as Windows-based applications and Web-
        based applications.
       To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code
        based on the .NET Framework can integrate with any other code.
BACK END TECHNOLOGY:



    About Microsoft SQL Server 2005

    Microsoft SQL Server is a Structured Query Language (SQL) based,
    client/server relational database. Each of these terms describes a fundamental
    part of the architecture of SQL Server.

Database

    A database is similar to a data file in that it is a storage place for data. Like a
    data file, a database does not present information directly to a user; the
    user runs an application that accesses data from the database and presents
    it to the user in an understandable format.

    A database typically has two components: the files holding the physical
    database and the database management system (DBMS) software that
    applications use to access data. The DBMS is responsible for enforcing the
    database structure, including:

          Maintaining the relationships between data in the database.
          Ensuring that data is stored correctly and that the rules defining data
           relationships are not violated.
          Recovering all data to a point of known consistency in case of system
    failures.
Relational Database

            There are different ways to organize data in a database but relational
      databases are one of the most effective. Relational database systems are an
      application of mathematical set theory to the problem of effectively
      organizing data. In a relational database, data is collected into tables (called
      relations in relational theory).

            When organizing data into tables, you can usually find many different
      ways to define tables. Relational database theory defines a process,
      normalization, which ensures that the set of tables you define will organize
      your data effectively.



Client/Server:-

            In a client/server system, the server is a relatively large computer in a
      central location that manages a resource used by many people. When
      individuals need to use the resource, they connect over the network from
      their computers, or clients, to the server.

            Server applications are usually capable of working with several clients
      at the same time. SQL Server can work with thousands of client applications
      simultaneously. The server has features to prevent the logical problems that
      occur if a user tries to read or modify data currently being used by others.

            While SQL Server is designed to work as a server in a client/server
      network, it is also capable of working as a stand-alone database directly on
      the client. The scalability and ease-of-use features of SQL Server allow it to
      work efficiently on a client without consuming too many resources.
Structured Query Language (SQL)

To work with data in a database, you must use a set of commands and
statements (language) defined by the DBMS software. There are several
different languages that can be used with relational databases; the most
common is SQL. Both the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the
International Standards Organization (ISO) have defined standards for SQL.
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
The following DFD shows how the working of a reservation system could be smoothly
managed:




                         WORK AREAS




    DEPTT WITH ITS                      AGENT

        BUSES

                     BUSES                          RESERVED
                     RECORDS                        AGENT

                     DAILY ENTRY                    VISITING
                     REC                            AGENT

                                                    AGENT
                                                    DETAILS

                                                   REPORT TABLE
DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:

     We have STARBUS as our database and some of our tables (relation) are such as

     AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and TIMELIST


     STARBUS

                            AGENTBASICINFO



                            FEEDBACK



                            PASSANGERIFNO



                            STATIS


In our table AGENT_BASIC_INFO we have following field such as agent_id,
                            TIMELIST
agent_name, agent_name, agent_fname, agent_shop_name, agent_shop_address,

agent_shop_city, agent_phon_number etc.


AGENT_BASIC_INFO


                           AGENT_ID



                           AGENT_NAME



                           AGENT_FNAME



                           AGENT_SHOP_NAME



                           AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS



                           AGENT_SHOP_CITY
                         E-R DIAGRAM:


                         BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM



                  Give
                 services
                                                  Divided



                 BUSES


                                         Work
                                         area

            Care of

                                                DIFFERENT TYPE
examine                                                          Full of
                                                   OF BUSES
                         Works


          SLEEPER OR
           WITHOUT
                                                                  SEATS
            SLEEPER
                            DEPARTMENT
   TESTING
   Testing is a process of executing a program with the indent of finding an error.
   Testing is a crucial element of software quality assurance and presents ultimate
   review of specification, design and coding.

         The primary objective for test case design is to derive a set of tests that has
   the highest livelihood for uncovering defects in software. To accomplish this
   objective two different categories of test case design techniques are used. They
   are

 White box testing.

 Black box testing.

   White-box testing:

           White box testing focus on the program control structure. Test cases are
   derived to ensure that all statements in the program have been executed at least
   once during testing and that all logical conditions have been executed.

   Block-box testing:

   Black box testing is designed to validate functional requirements without regard
   to the internal workings of a program. Black box testing mainly focuses on the
   information domain of the software, deriving test cases by partitioning input and
   output in a manner that provides through test coverage. Incorrect and missing
   functions, interface errors, errors in data structures, error in functional logic are
   the errors falling in this category.
Unit testing:

      Unit testing is essential for the verification of the code produced during
the coding phase and hence the goal is to test the internal logic of the
modules. Using the detailed design description as a guide, important paths are
tested to uncover errors within the boundary of the modules. These tests
were carried out during the programming stage itself. All units of ViennaSQL
were successfully tested.

Integration testing :

      Integration testing focuses on unit tested modules and build the
program structure that is dictated by the design phase.



System testing:

      System testing tests the integration of each module in the system. It also
tests to find discrepancies between the system and it’s original objective,
current specification and system documentation. The primary concern is the
compatibility of individual modules. Entire system is working properly or not
will be tested here, and specified path ODBC connection will correct or not,
and giving output or not are tested here these verifications and validations are
done by giving input values to the system and by comparing with expected
output. Top-down testing implementing here.
Acceptance Testing:

This testing is done to verify the readiness of the system for the implementation.
Acceptance testing begins when the system is complete. Its purpose is to
provide the end user with the confidence that the system is ready for use. It
involves planning and execution of functional tests, performance tests and stress
tests in order to demonstrate that the implemented system satisfies its
requirements.

Tools to special importance during acceptance testing include:

Test coverage Analyzer – records the control paths followed for each test case.

Timing Analyzer – also called a profiler, reports the time spent in various
regions of the code are areas to concentrate on to improve system
performance.

Coding standards – static analyzers and standard checkers are used to inspect
code for deviations from standards and guidelines.
   Test Cases:

          Test cases are derived to ensure that all statements in the program have
   been executed at least once during testing and that all logical conditions have
   been executed.

   Using White-Box testing methods, the software engineer can drive test cases
   that

 Guarantee that logical decisions on their true and false sides.
 Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides.
 Execute all loops at their boundaries and with in their operational bounds.
 Exercise internal data structure to assure their validity.
   The test case specification for system testing has to be submitted for review
   before system testing commences.
               FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
Future scope of the project: -

The project has a very vast scope in future. The project can be implemented on
internet in future. Project can be updated in near future as and when requirement
for the same arises, as it is very flexible in terms of expansion. With the proposed
software of Web Space Manager ready and fully functional the client is now able to
manage and hence run the entire work in a much better, accurate and error free
manner. The following are the future scope for the project: -




    The number of levels that the software is handling can be made unlimited in
      future from the current status of handling up to N levels as currently laid
      down by the software. Efficiency can be further enhanced and boosted up to a
      great extent by normalizing and de-normalizing the database tables used in
      the project as well as taking the kind of the alternative set of data structures
      and advanced calculation algorithms available.
    We can in future generalize the application from its current customized status
      wherein other vendors developing and working on similar applications can
      utilize this software and make changes to it according to their business needs.
    Faster processing of information as compared to the current system with high
      accuracy and reliability.
    Automatic and error free report generation as per the specified format with
      ease.
    Automatic calculation and generation of correct and precise Bills thus
      reducing much of the workload on the accounting staff and the errors arising
      due to manual calculations.
               CONCLUSION
To conclude, Project Grid works like a component which can access
all the databases and picks up different functions. It overcomes the
many limitations incorporated in the .NET Framework. Among the
many features availed by the project, the main among them are:



           Simple editing
           Insertion of individual images on each cell
           Insertion of individual colors on each cell
           Flicker free scrolling
           Drop-down grid effect
           Placing of any type of control anywhere in the grid
                 BIBILIOGRAPHY


   Complete Reference of C#
   Programming in C# - Deitel & Deitel
   www.w3schools.com
   http://en.wikipedia.org
   The principles of Software Engineering – Roger S.Pressman
   Software Engineering – Hudson
   MSDN help provided by Microsoft .NET
   Object Oriented Programming – Deitel & Deitel

				
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