Pronouns الضمائر by gamalalfhd

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									


                                                   Pronouns                     ‫ﻤﺎﺋﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀ‬

        ‫ﺔ‬      ‫ﻩ ﺠ ﻪ‬                         ‫ﻨ‬         ‫ﺘ‬
‫ﻤﻠ ٍ ﺴﺎﺒﻘ ٍ ﻭﻻ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺋﺮ: ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﺀ، ﻭ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﺠﱡﺏ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻀ‬                                •
                                                                                            .‫ﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻩ، ﻟﻼﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺠﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬

                                                                                                          
                                                                                            •

                                                   :‫: ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‬Personal Pronouns‫ﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬‫)1( ﺍﻟﻀ‬
                   I, You, He, She, It, They, We -:‫ : ﻭﻫﻲ‬Subject Pronouns‫ﺃ( ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬
       me, you, him , her , it , them , us -:‫ : ﻭﻫﻲ‬Object Pronouns‫ﺏ( ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

           ‫ﻪ‬      ‫ﻪ‬                              ‫ﻻ‬                                        ‫ﺘ‬
          .ٍ ‫ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠ ٍ ﺴﺎﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫ﻣ‬                                   ü


                               Subject                                       Object                     
       
       
                         Singular             
                                                   Plural                  Singular           
                                                                                                                Plural            
          
                 I                   ‫ﺃﻨﺎ‬          We           ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬      me                   ‫ـﻨﻲ‬             us               ‫ﻨﺎ‬
     
                     He                  ‫ﻫﻭ‬                                 him                   ‫ـﻪ‬
      
             She                 ‫ﻫﻲ‬           They        ‫ﻥ‬
                                                                      ‫ﻫﻡ/ﻫ‬    her                  ‫ـﻬﺎ‬             them          ‫ـﻬﻡ/ ـﻬ‬
                                                                                                                                 ‫ﻥ‬

          It                ‫ﻫﻭ/ ﻫﻲ‬                               it                 ‫ـﻪ / ـﻬﺎ‬

            
                 You                 ‫ﺃﻨﺕ‬         You           ‫ﺃﻨﺘﻡ‬     you                   ‫ـﻙ‬            you             ‫ـﻜﻡ‬



                                                     Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

            1.     I am a doctor.                                                                                   .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ‬
            2.     Samy visited me yesterday.                                                          ‫ﺱ‬
                                                                                                      .ِ ‫ﺯﺍﺭﻨﻲ ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬
            3.     He is my friend.                                                                              .‫ﻫﻭ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ‬
            4.     I welcomed him.                                                                                  ‫ﺤﺕ‬
                                                                                                                .‫ﺒ ﹸ ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺭ‬
            5.     We visited our friend.                                                                             ‫ﺯ‬
                                                                                                           .‫ﺭﻨﺎ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬
            6.     They welcomed us.                                                                                   ‫ﺤ‬
                                                                                                               .‫ﺒﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺭ‬
            7.     I invited them.                                                                                .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺩﻋﻭﺘﻬﻡ‬
            8.     She met her uncle yesterday.                                                          ‫ﺱ‬        ‫ﻤ‬       ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                                                        .ِ ‫ﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﺕﹾ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻗﺎ‬
            9.     We shall visit you tomorrow.                                                   ‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﻜ‬        ‫ﺭﻙ‬
                                                                                                 .‫ )ﺴﻨﺯﻭﺭ ﹸﻡ( ﻏﺩﹰ‬  ‫ﺴﻨﺯﻭ‬
            10. You should help the old man.                                                  ‫ﺭﺠ‬         ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                     .‫ل ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻭﺯ‬  ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟ‬




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

                                                              -:‫ ﻭﻫﻲ‬Possessive Pronouns ‫ﺔ‬‫)2( ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴ‬

                                     Singular                             
                                                                                    Plural                    
           
          
                                  
                                            
                                                                       
                                                                                                
                                                                                                           
               
                             my                        mine                       our                       ours
            
                         his                         his
                                                                                                                  theirs
           
                         her                        hers                      their
                       its                        its
                
                            your                       yours                     your                      yours

                                                                                                                 - :‫ﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬‫| ﻣ‬
                               ‫ﺨ‬            ‫ﻜﻠ‬                   ‫ﺎ‬
                            .(‫( ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ، ﻭ ﹸﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻴ ﹸﺹ‬Possessive Adjectives) ‫1. ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
                            ‫ﺨ‬            ‫ﻜﻠ‬                                         ‫ﺎ‬      ‫ﻴ‬
                         .(‫ﺔ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺨﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ، ﻭ ﹸﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻴ ﹸﺹ‬‫2. ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜ‬


                                                     Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

              1.      It is my pen.                                                                                    ‫ﻨﻪ‬
                                                                                                                 .‫ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﹼ‬
              2.      It is mine.                                                                                ‫ﻨﻪ ﺨﺼ‬
                                                                                                              .‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ ﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺇﹼ‬
              3.      It is not yours.                                                      ‫ﻨﻪ ﺨﺼﻙ‬               ‫ﻨﻪ ﺱ‬
                                                                                          .(  ‫ ﻻ ﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﻗﻠﻤﻙ )ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ ﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﺇﹼ‬
              4.      I found his bag.                                                                       ‫ﻪ‬        ‫ﺕ‬
                                                                                                            . ‫ﻭﺠﺩ ﹸ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﹶ‬
              5.      This bag is his.                                                                 ‫ﺨﺼﻪ‬
                                                                                                      .  ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺘ ﹸ‬
              6.      This is our garden.                                                                        ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                                              .‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺤﺩﻴﻘ ﹸﻨﺎ‬
              7.      This garden is ours.                                                               ‫ﺔ ﺨﺼ‬
                                                                                                      .‫ﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﻘ ﹸ ﺘ ﹸ‬
              8.      They entered their garden.                                                           .‫ﺩﺨﻠﻭﺍ ﺤﺩﻴﻘﺘﹶﻬﻡ‬
              9.      That garden is theirs.                                                            ‫ﺔ ﺨﺼ‬
                                                                                                     .‫ﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﻘ ﹸ ﺘ ﹸ‬
              10. Did you bring your car?                                                          ‫ﻫل ﺃﺤﻀﺭﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻙ؟‬
              11. This car is yours.                                                                   ‫ﺨﺼ‬        ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                                     .‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺘ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                                                                                     

                        Reflexive or EmphasingPronouns‫ﺔ‬‫ﺄﻛﻴﺪﻳ‬‫ﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﹸﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘ‬‫)3( ﺍﻟﻀ‬
‫ﻥ‬              ‫ﻤ‬       ‫ﻀ‬         ‫ﻴ‬
 ‫ﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻔﻌـﻭل ﻷ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ :‫ﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺄﻜﻴﺩ. )ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻨﻔ ِ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻊ ﺃﺜ‬
                                             ‫ﺘ‬         ‫ﺭ‬                  ‫ﺱ‬              ‫ﺭ‬                   ‫ﺘ‬                       •
                                                                                           ‫ﺸ‬
                                                                                       .(‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﻫﻭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺨﺹ‬
                                                      ‫ﻔ‬              ‫ﻤ‬                          ‫ﻤ‬        ‫ﻀ‬
                                    .‫( ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ‬selves) (‫ﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻨ ﹸﺱ‬ ‫ ﻟﻠ‬self (‫ﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟ‬                  •
                                          ‫ﻨ‬                                 ‫ﺔ‬                    ‫ﻀ‬           ‫ﻨ‬
                         :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻤﻘﺭﻭﻨ ﹰ ﺒﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻟﻼﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻭ ﹸﺠﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟ‬                     •




 2


                                             
                     Singular                                              Plural

                                          
                                                                                              
                                                                                                              

        I              ‫ﺃﻨﺎ‬          myself        ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻲ / ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬            We          ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬             ourselves              ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                                                           ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻨﺎ / ﺒﺄﻨﻔ ِﻨﺎ‬

      He              ‫ﻫﻭ‬            himself         ‫ﺴ‬
                                                    ِ
                                                   ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻪ‬
                      ‫ﻫﻲ‬                          ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻬﺎ‬
                                                    ‫ﺴ‬                                                                      ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ / ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬ‬
                                                                                                                          ‫ﻥ‬
      She                           herself                               They     ‫ﻫ ﻫﻥ‬
                                                                                     / ‫ﻡ‬          themselves
                                                                                                                           ‫ﺴﻬﻥ‬           ‫ﺴﻬ‬
                                                                                                                          ( ِ ِ ‫)ﺒﺄﻨﻔ ِ ِﻡ / ﺒﺄﻨﻔ‬
                    ‫ﻫﻭ / ﻫﻲ‬                         ‫ﻨﻔـ‬   ‫ﻨﻔـ‬
                                                 ‫ـﺴﻪ / ـﺴﻬﺎ‬
       It                               itself
                   ‫ﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬                         ‫ﺴ‬       ‫ﺴﻪ‬
                                                    (‫)ﺒﻨﻔ ِ ِ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻬﺎ‬

                                                                                                                           ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻜﻡ / ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻜ‬
                                                                                                                          ‫ﻥ‬
     You              ‫ﺃﻨﺕ‬           yourself       ‫ﺴ‬
                                                  ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻙ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻙ‬           You     ‫ﺘﻥ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺃﻨ ﹸﻡ / ﺃﻨ ﹸ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺘ‬        yourselves
                                                                                                                           ‫ﻥ‬
                                                                                                                          ( ‫)ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴﻜﻡ / ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴﻜ‬


                                                     Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

                  1. I blamed myself.                                                              ‫ﻟ ﺕ‬         ‫ﺒ ﺕ‬
                                                                                             .‫ﺨ ﹸ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ / ﹸﻤ ﹸ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬
                  2. He blamed himself.                                                               
                                                                                                      ُ‫ﻡ ﺴ‬               ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                                                     .‫ﻪ‬ ‫ ﻨﻔ‬ ‫ﺦﹶ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ / ﻻ‬‫ﻭ‬
                  3. You blamed yourself.                                                        ‫ﺴ‬      ‫ﻟ‬     ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                                               .‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺕ / ﹸﻤﺕ ﻨﻔ‬‫ﺃﻨﺕ ﻭ‬
                  4. You blamed yourselves.                                             ‫ﻟ ﺘ ﻔ ﺴﻜ‬               ‫ﺒ ﺘ ﻔ ﺴﻜ‬
                                                                                      .‫ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ ﹸﻡ / ﺍﻨﺘﻡ ﹸﻤ ﹸﻡ ﺃﻨ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺨﹾ ﹸﻡ ﺃﻨ ﹸ‬‫ﻭ‬
                  5. They blamed themselves                                                ‫ﺴﻬ‬              ‫ﺴﻬ‬         ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                                         .‫ﻡ‬  ‫ﻡ / ﻻﻤﻭﺍ ﺃﻨﻔ‬  ‫ﺨﻭﺍ ﺃﻨﻔ‬‫ﻭ‬
                  6. Mr. Ahmed himself visited me.                                           ‫ﺴﻪ‬             ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                  .(‫ﻴﺩ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻨﻔ ِ ِ )ﻟﻠﺘﻭﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟ‬
                  7. The manager himself visited him.                                                  ‫ﺴﻪ ﻫ‬         ‫ﻩ ﻤ‬
                                                                                                    .‫ﻨﺎ‬ ِ ِ ‫ﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﻨﻔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺭ‬

                                                              : DemonstrativeAdjectives‫)4( ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺀ ﻤ‬                   ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                    .‫ﺎ ﻗﺭﻴﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻺﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺸﻲ ٍ ﺇ‬                     •
                                                                                                                   .‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬            •

                                          ‫ﺸ‬
                                  ‫ﻟ ﹼﻲﺀ‬                                    ‫ﺸ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﻟ ﹼﻲﺀ‬
                                    
                                                                                
                                                                                                       
                    this            ‫ﻫﺫﺍ / ﻫﺫﻩ‬    these           ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬          that ‫ ﺫﻟﻙ / ﺘﻠﻙ‬those ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ‬

                                                                                                                        ‫ﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫| ﻣ‬
( this, that, these, those ) ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‬DemonstrativePronouns  ü
                                    ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﻥ‬
                                                                    .(noun) ‫ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺃ‬
                             1. This pen is mine.                                                ‫ﺼ‬
                                                                                              .‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ ﻴﺨ‬
                             2. This is my pen.                                              .(‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ ) ﺒﻴﺩﻱ‬
                             3. Those are book.                                                           ‫ﻜ‬
                                                                                                       .‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ ﹸﺘﺏ‬
                                                                                                                               ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                                                   . ‫ﺎ ﻀﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‬ ‫ ﺃ‬ü

 3


                                                     Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

     1. This is my book in my hand.                                                                              .‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻴﺩﻱ‬
     2. That book on the shelf is not mine.                                                        ‫ﺼ‬       ‫ﺭ‬
                                                                                                .‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻻ ﻴﺨ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‬
     3. These pupils in this class are very clever.                                        ‫ﺓ ﺍ‬       ‫ل‬                 ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                          .‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﹼﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ ِ ﻤﻬﺭ ﹰ ﺠﺩﹰ‬
     4. Those pupils in that class are not clever.                                       ‫ﺓ‬           ‫ل‬                 ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                        .‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ ﺍﻟﹼﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ ِ ﻟﻴﺴﻭﺍ ﻤﻬﺭ ﹰ‬


                                                 Exercise No. 1                ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Choose the right answer between brackets:-                                                            ‫ﺼ‬
                                                                                      :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ‬

1.      The window is green. (He – She – It) is not yellow.
2.      Usama is standing up. (He – She – It) is not sitting down.
        The pencils are in the box. (He – They – We) are not on the table. The plane is in the air.
3.
        (She – It – He – They) is flying to Cairo.
4.      My name is Ahmed. (I – Me – My) am fifteen years old.
5.      (We – Our – Us) are students.
6.      (Yours – You – Your) are teachers.
7.      (Your – Yours – You) books are new.
8.      He is doing his work; I am doing (my – mine – me).
9.      He is doing his work; I am doing (my – mine – me) work.
10.     The girl is drinking milk. She is drinking (she – it – they – he) from the glass.
11.     The children are eating apples. They are eating (them – her – him) in the room.
12.     You should do your homework by (yourself – himself – herself).
13.     We finished our homework. We finished it by (ourselves – themselves – yourself).
14.     I always depend on (himself – myself – herself).
15.     The boys helped the old man. They helped him (ourselves – themselves – herself).
16.     The doctor told Huda and Nabil to take care of (themselves – herself – yourself).
17.     (Those – This – That) girls are playing basketball.
18.     (This – These – That) pupils are polite.
19.     (This – These – Those) bag is mine.




                                          Patience is a key to relief.

                                                                    
                                                            




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