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									UNIVERSITY OF MARY
  HARDIN-BAYLOR

 SAFETY MANUAL
      Approved 6/26/2007
        Revisions 2/24/2009
        Revisions 10/7/2010
1.0 INTRODUCTION
                            . TOPIC   SECTION
President's Letter                      1.1
Office of Risk Management               1.2
Responsibilities                        1.3
UMHB Safety Manual                      1.4
Employee Safety Training                1.5
Safety Surveys                          1.6
Safety Committee                        1.7




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1.1    PRESIDENT’S LETTER




                           University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
                         900 College Street, Belton, TX 76513


The University of Mary Hardin-Baylor is committed to providing its employees, students
and visitors a safe environment in which to work, study and enjoy their surroundings.
Safety is the responsibility of everyone and can be achieved best through proper
engineering, education, training, protective equipment and enforcement of safety
standards. Each employee and student is responsible for understanding and practicing
appropriate safety procedures for their self-preservation and that of their colleagues.

All Vice-Presidents, Deans, Department Heads, Directors, Supervisors and
Chairpersons must assume an active role in the university’s safety program by initiating
all preventive measures, including department-specific policies and procedures, to
control the hazards associated with activities within their areas of responsibility. This
Safety Manual has been developed to assist you in this endeavor.

It is your positive safety attitude, knowledge of safe practices, and your actions that
determine the success of the UMHB safety program.



Dr. Randy O’Rear
President




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1.2   OFFICE of RISK MANAGEMENT
The office of Risk Management is responsible for managing safety programs for the
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor. The overall objective is to maximize the safety and
health of employees, students and visitors throughout the UMHB system.

Programs and services provided by or monitored by Risk Management include the
following:
     Monitor safety programs
     Conduct safety surveys (buildings & grounds)
     Develop policies and/or protocols concerning safety and health-safety issues
     Disseminate information concerning safety regulations, policies, and protocols
     Submit reports and other required documentation to local & state agencies
     Evaluate facilities to maintain safe work environments
     Report results of risk assessments along with recommended corrective
       measures to appropriate personnel for action
     Manage the hazardous materials & waste disposal programs
     Assist departments in planning safety, response and compliance
     Conduct safety and emergency preparedness training
     Evaluate accident and injury reports for trends and conduct investigations as
       necessary
     Assist with emergency preparedness planning for major disasters
     Conduct an annual review of the safety program with the assistance and
       cooperation of university faculty and staff

1.3   RESPONSIBILITIES
All university employees are responsible and accountable for safety performance and
environmental protection, to the best of their ability.

1.3.1 UMHB Administration

UMHB Administration is responsible for:
   Providing the facilities and equipment required for a safe work environment
   Reviewing and approving health and safety policies and protocols
   Establishing methods for disseminating safety information and policies
   Establishing criteria for implementing safety policies and protocols
   Establishing a system for safety accountability
   Correcting safety deficiencies by establishing priorities and committing resources




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1.3.2 Supervisors, Department Heads, and Directors

Supervisors, Department Heads, and Directors are responsible for:
   Promoting safety and loss prevention.
   Controlling or eliminating occupational hazards.
   Participating in safety and loss control evaluations.
   Ensuring that employees are adequately trained in safety policies and protocols.
   Ensuring that employees are provided with appropriate personal protective
      clothing and equipment for safe job performance.
   Reporting accidents and unsafe practices or conditions.

1.3.3 Faculty & Staff

Faculty and staff are responsible for:
    Performing their jobs in the safest prescribed manner.
    Eliminating and/or reporting workplace hazards.
    Reporting accidents and unsafe practices or conditions to supervisors.
    Complying with safety and health policies and protocols.

1.3.4 All Employees

It is the responsibility of all employees to;
 Maintain a clean and safe work environment.
 Use good judgment and safety practices while engaging in any activity associated
     with the university – on and off campus.
 Utilize all necessary safety precautions, devices, protective equipment, etc. in
     accordance with procedures and/or manufacturer recommendations.
 Report all accidents, unsafe conditions, and/or hazards to their respective
     Supervisor, Risk Management and/or Campus Police.
 Adhere, to best of their ability, to the guidelines, requirements and recommendations
     set forth in this safety manual.




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1.4    UMHB SAFETY MANUAL
The University of Mary Hardin-Baylor Safety Manual has been developed by Risk
Management with the cooperation, expertise and experience of representatives of
various university functions. Other sources of information such as insurance program
recommendations, state & federal guidelines, and other institutions of higher learning
were consulted. The manual is a guide that contains programs, practices, requirements
and recommendations to be followed to help ensure a safe and healthy environment.

It is the intent of the university to comply with relevant occupational and environmental
regulations and nationally recognized codes and standards. Using the manual's
protocols will complement responsible efforts to foster safe work habits and to maintain
safe work environments.

Individual departments should develop the policies and procedures necessary for
employees to safely perform their duties within each respective workplace, and should
also implement training programs for their employees to ensure that every person is
able and knowledgeable to perform in a safe, efficient and effective manner.

Any department safety plans developed should be submitted to the office of Risk
Management for review to ensure compliance with applicable standards and acceptable
practices. Risk Management is available to assist supervisors, department heads and
groups in the development and implementation of those plans.

A review of the safety program will be conducted by Risk Management annually to
ensure completeness and accuracy, with the assistance and cooperation of faculty and
staff.

1.5    EMPLOYEE SAFETY TRAINING
All new UMHB employees must attend employee safety training within the first ninety
(90) days of employment with the university. This training is important in order to
familiarize employees with the safety program and equip them to respond to various
emergencies. It is usually conducted in conjunction with new employee orientation.

UMHB employees will periodically receive safety refresher training subsequent to their
initial orientation, as needed. This training is necessary in order to ensure that
employees are made aware of revisions to safety and emergency plans and to
encourage participation in the university’s safety program.

Risk Management will maintain a training database documenting each employee’s
participation in the safety program, including initial and refresher safety training as well
as any other safety training sessions conducted, i.e. safety training conducted at the
request of a department for its employees.




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1.6    SAFETY SURVEYS
The office of Risk Management will conduct safety surveys of university buildings and
grounds, in cooperation with other departments including Facilities Services and
Campus Police, and with the cooperation of department employees in order to ensure
that a high level of safety as well as a low level of risk is maintained.

Safety surveys of each university building will be conducted periodically and all safety-
related deficiencies identified will be corrected in a prompt manner based upon
reasonable priorities. Short term solutions must be implemented when necessary to
ensure the safety of life and property while long term solutions are evaluated and
implemented.

Risk Management will cooperate with and consult agencies, such as fire department,
facilities services, health services and law enforcement officials to ensure that the
condition of university properties are in compliance with applicable regulations.

1.7    SAFETY COMMITTEE
This Safety Manual establishes a Safety Committee that will serve to promote, evaluate
and propose safety requirements for the university. Safety issues will be referred to the
Safety Committee for research and evaluation by the Sr. Vice President of Campus
Planning & Support Services.

The Risk Manager will serve as the chairperson of the Safety Committee. Members will
be selected to ensure appropriate representation.

The Safety Committee will meet quarterly or more often as deemed necessary. The
Committee will:
    Monitor accident rates and identify trends.
    Review drills and exercises conducted on campus.
    Consider safety issues and make appropriate recommendations.
    Review safety related issues referred by V.P. Business & Finance.
    Review the Safety Manual annually to ensure accuracy, completeness and
      effectiveness.




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2.0 GENERAL SAFETY
                                   TOPIC   SECTION
Reporting                                    2.1
Dress Code                                   2.2
Americans with Disabilities Act              2.3
Asbestos                                     2.4
Graphic Arts                                 2.5
Hearing Conservation                         2.6
Heat Stress                                  2.7
Cold Stress                                  2.8
Housekeeping                                 2.9
Indoor Air Quality                          2.10
Lead Paint                                  2.11
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)            2.12
Smoking                                     2.13
Preventing Slips and Falls                  2.14
Lifting                                     2.15
Visitor Safety                              2.16
Building Coordinators                       2.17
Appendix
Accident Report
Building Coordinators




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2.1   REPORTING
An accident is an unexpected occurrence that may result in personnel injury, or damage
to property, equipment, or the environment. When accidents are reported promptly,
injured employees, students, and visitors receive timely medical care and unsafe
conditions receive prompt corrective action. The office of Risk Management investigates
and/or monitors accidents to identify accident trends, determine the effectiveness of
current safety programs, and prevent future accidents.

2.1.1 Reporting Emergencies

Report all emergencies requiring law enforcement or emergency services to the UMHB
Campus Police department at 5555 and/or 911 (report to 5555 first).

Campus Police will respond to the emergency and will request other assistance deemed
necessary (i.e. medical, police, fire, etc.).

2.1.2 Reporting Accidents

1) Accidents must be reported via the appropriate Supervisor and/or Department Head
to the Campus Police and the office of Risk Management.
    o This reporting requirement does not include simple first aid (i.e. for a minor cut
       requiring only a band aid).
    o An Accident Report will be completed and each incident will be investigated to
       determine the cause, and if any conditions exist which need to be corrected to
       prevent a recurrence.
    o After business hours accidents will be reported to Campus Police for immediate
       response and investigation.

2) Life-threatening injuries and/or those requiring immediate medical assistance should
be reported immediately to 5555 and/or 911 (report to 5555 first).
    o Campus Police mobile units are equipped with automatic external defibrillators
        (AEDs).
    o Campus Police will request any additional assistance needed.

3) All employee injuries or exposures that occur on-the-job must be reported by the
Employee and/or the Supervisor to Human Resources to complete a Report of Injury
form.
   o If an employee is out of work for more than one day the incident is governed by
        Worker’s Compensation regulations.

4) Vehicular accidents that occur on campus should be reported directly to UMHB
Campus Police at extension 5555.
   o Off-campus vehicular accidents should be reported via 911.

5) Employees must report hazards which have the potential to cause an accident or
injury to Risk Management immediately.
    o After business hours such hazards should be reported to Campus Police so that
        appropriate steps can be implemented to prevent injury.

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2.2    DRESS CODE

Personnel must dress in a manner that does not impair safety. Loose clothing, long hair,
dangling jewelry, and inappropriate footwear (i.e. open toe shoes) may be dangerous
around moving equipment. Always wear clothing that is appropriate for your job.

2.3    AMERICANS with DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
UMHB complies with the requirements and guidelines of the Americans with Disabilities
Act. This means that new facilities and renovations to existing facilities are designed to
provide accessibility for handicapped personnel. Upgrades to other existing facilities will
be accomplished as scheduling and funding permits.

Handicapped parking and wheelchair ramps must remain accessible at all times. Do not
block these areas or tamper with accessibility equipment.

Report accessibility violations such as blocked wheelchair ramps and blocked
handicapped parking to the UMHB Campus Police.




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2.4    ASBESTOS
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that causes cancer and various respiratory illnesses. Older
buildings constructed prior to 1980 may contain asbestos. Asbestos is commonly found
in older appliances, insulation, shingles, siding, putties, and caulking. Generally, it is not
a problem unless the material is disturbed or if it becomes friable (crumbles, flakes, and
becomes air-borne).

The Texas Asbestos Health Protection Rules do not require building owners to conduct
inspections and identify all asbestos locations. Inspections are required, however, prior
to renovation or dismantling activities.

UMHB strives to eliminate the potential hazards associated with asbestos and handles
contracts for consultation and/or abatement prior to all building renovations.

NOTE: Work on campus that will disturb building fixtures, walls, or ceilings (e.g.,
installing computer cables) must never be done without first consulting with the
Facilities Services Department and the office of Risk Management.




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2.5   GRAPHIC ARTS

2.5.1 General
The art supplies and chemicals associated with graphic media are often extremely
hazardous. Depending on the type of art supplies used, artists can develop the same
types of occupational diseases as industrial workers. Studies show that people who
work with hazardous graphic media chemicals can develop dermatitis, lead poisoning,
silicosis, liver and kidney damage, nerve damage, reproductive problems, carbon
monoxide poisoning, cancer, and other ailments.
The risk of chemical hazards is directly linked to the following factors:
      Duration and frequency of exposure
      Chemical toxicity
      Chemical amount

Workers are exposed to graphic media hazards through skin contact, inhalation, and
ingestion.

Follow these safety guidelines for working with graphic media materials:
     Wear protective clothing and consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for
      the material.
     Use nontoxic or less toxic solvents and chemicals when possible.
     Eliminate toxic metals such as lead and cadmium. Instead, use cadmium-free
      silver solders and lead-free paint, glazes and enamels.
     Use water-based instead of solvent-based materials.
     Use liquid materials to replace powders.
     Use wet techniques (such as wet sanding) instead of dry techniques.
     Apply coatings by brushing or dipping instead of spraying.
     Eliminate cancer-causing chemicals.

2.5.2 Solvents
Solvents are used to dissolve oils, resins, varnishes, and inks. They are also used to
remove paint and lacquer. Due to their common usage, solvents are one of the most
underrated media hazards. Most organic solvents are poisonous if swallowed or inhaled
in sufficient quantities. They also cause dermatitis and narcosis.

Use the least toxic solvent possible. Denatured or isopropyl alcohol, acetone, and
odorless mineral spirits are less toxic than solvents such as chloroform or ethylene.

2.5.3 Aerosol Sprays
Aerosol sprays, such as fixatives, paint sprays, and adhesive sprays, are extremely
dangerous if someone inhales the fine mists produced by these products. Air brushes
and spray guns are equally hazardous. Use aerosol sprays in a well-ventilated area and
wear a dust/vapor mask to protect you from the hazardous vapors.

2.5.4 Acids and Alkalis
The acids and alkalis used in ceramics, photo chemicals, paint removers, and similar
materials can be very caustic to the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal
system. Likewise the acids and alkalis used to etch metals and glass can be very
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dangerous. Strong acids, such as hydrochloric, sulfuric, and perchloric acid, require
special handling as outlined in the MSDS. Alkalis, such as caustic potash, caustic soda,
quicklime, and unslaked lime, also require special treatment. Remember to add acid to
water, not water to acid, when mixing chemicals.

2.5.5 Paints and Pigments
Many paints and color pigments contain hazardous chemical compounds. Lead paint,
for example, is extremely dangerous, and should never be used in its powder form.
Other paint components, such as chromate, cadmium, and cobalt pigments, are equally
hazardous. Do not inhale powdered paint or spray paint vapors or accidentally ingest
pigment by placing the brush tip in your mouth. In addition, do not eat, drink, or smoke
while painting. Any of these activities could result in chronic poisoning.
The table below outlines common paint pigments and their hazardous chemical
component:

  Hazardous
                                      Pigment (Paint Name)
  Chemical
   Arsenic                        Emerald Green Cobalt Violet
  Antimony                             True Naples Yellow
  Cadmium                            All Cadmium Pigments
  Chromium               Zinc Yellow Strontium Yellow Chrome Yellow
   Cobalt           Cobalt Violet Cobalt Green Cobalt Yellow Cerulean Blue
    Lead             Falk White Lead White Creminitz White Mixed White
                     Manganese Blue Manganese Violet Burnt Umber Raw
  Manganese
                                       Umber Mars Brown
    Mercury                    Vermilion Cadmium Vermilion Red

2.5.6 Photography
Many of the chemicals used for photographic processing can cause severe skin and
lung problems. The greatest hazards associated with photography include the
preparation and use of concentrated chemical solutions. Never touch chemical powders
or solutions with unprotected hands. In addition, take care not to stir up and inhale
chemical dusts.

IMPORTANT: Good ventilation is essential when working with photographic
chemicals.

The following are common photographic agents and their hazards:
    Developer: May cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.
    Stop-bath: May cause burns and throat irritation.
    Fixer: Highly irritating to lungs.
    Intensifier: Very corrosive and may cause lung cancer.
    Reducer: Contact with heat, concentrated acids, or ultraviolet radiation produces
       poisonous gas.
    Toners: Highly toxic.
    Hardeners and stabilizers: Often contain formaldehyde which is poisonous, a
       skin irritant, and a known carcinogen.
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2.5.7 Plastics, Acrylics, Epoxy Resins
Plastic hazards result from making plastic and working with finished plastic. The
greatest hazards associated with making plastic come from the monomers, solvents,
fillers, catalysts, and hardeners that are commonly toxic. The hazards involved with
finished plastics result mainly from the methods used to work the plastic. For example,
overheating or burning plastic produces toxic gases. Polishing, sanding, and sawing
plastic produces harmful dusts.
Certain types of plastics, such as acrylics and epoxy resins are also hazardous. The
components in acrylic, for example, include irritants, explosives, and flammables. The
main hazard associated with acrylic compounds, however, is inhalation. Always
maintain good ventilation when working with acrylic.
The epoxy resins used in laminating, casting, glues, and lacquer coatings, are also skin
irritants, sensitizers, and suspected cancer-causing agents. Avoid skin contact and
inhalation when working with epoxy resins.

2.5.8 Pottery and Ceramics
Pottery clay contains silicates that can be hazardous if inhaled. Many low-fire clays and
slip-casting clays also contain talc, which may be contaminated with asbestos. Long-
term inhalation of asbestos can cause cancer and respiratory diseases. When mixing
clay dust or breaking up dry grog, use exhaust ventilation and/or wear a toxic dust
respirator. Work with wet clay when possible.
Pottery glazes also contain free silica, including flint, feldspar, and talc. Wear a toxic
dust respirator when mixing or spraying glazes.
Toxic fumes and gases are often produced during the firing process. Ensure that all
kilns are ventilated. In addition, use infrared goggles or a shield to look in the kiln peep
hole. Proper eye protection will help prevent cataracts.

2.5.9 Woodworking
The hazards associated with woodworking include sawdust inhalation, exposure to toxic
solvents and adhesives, and excessive noise from woodworking tools. Long term
inhalation of sawdust can cause chronic respiratory diseases. Depending on the type of
wood, short term sawdust inhalation may also produce allergic reactions. Toxic
preservatives, such as arsenic compounds and creosote, may cause cancer and
reproductive problems. Epoxy resins and solvent-based adhesives, also pose potential
hazards. Use dust collectors around woodworking machines, ensure proper ventilation,
and wear personal protective equipment, as appropriate.




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2.6    HEARING CONSERVATION

Excessive noise levels may permanently or temporarily damage a person's hearing.
Whenever possible, employees should reduce noise levels to an acceptable level. The
following table outlines OSHA limits for acceptable noise exposure indicated as decibels
(dB).

 Duration/Day (Hours) Sound Level (dB)
             8               90
             6               92
             4               95
             3               97
             2              100
              1
           1 /2             102
             1              105
            1
             /2             110
       1
        /4 or less          115

Note: Hearing loss can be permanent — employees and students must wear
protective equipment when noise levels are high.

Personal protective equipment, such as ear plugs or muffs, must be used to reduce
noise exposure and must be provided by each applicable department.

Every attempt should be made to reduce noise levels by changing work procedures.
Maintenance practices such as the following can reduce noise levels:
    Replacing worn or loose machine parts
    Performing high-noise operations during hours when people are less likely to be
      affected
    Maintaining and lubricating equipment to eliminate rattles and squeaks

The following table illustrates various noise levels:




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Engineering controls, such as the following, can also reduce noise levels:
   Replacing noisy materials
   Using large, low speed fans
   Considering the noise level of new equipment or processes before purchasing or
      implementing
   Placing heavy machines on rubber mountings
   Using sound-absorbing acoustical tiles or baffles
   Placing noisy machinery or operations in a separate area or room
   Enclosing noisy equipment

Areas that may require hearing protection include machine shops, the power plant, etc.
Observe all warning signs and wear hearing protection whenever necessary. Do not
interfere with, remove, or modify noise abatement equipment. Keep all equipment
properly maintained, and report any malfunctions immediately.

Inquiries regarding hearing conservation should be directed to Risk Management.




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2.7    HEAT STRESS

2.7.1 General
People may suffer from heat stress during hot, humid conditions. Because the climate at
UMHB is at times conducive to heat stress, people must take preventive measures to
reduce their risk. To prevent heat stress, employees should limit strenuous physical
activity during the hottest portion of the day, wear a brimmed hat when in the sun, take
frequent breaks, and drink plenty of fluids. Heat stress occurs in two forms: heat
exhaustion and heat stroke.

2.7.2 Heat Exhaustion
Heat exhaustion is usually caused by strenuous physical activity and hot, humid
conditions. Because heat exhaustion is the body's response to insufficient water and
salt, it should be treated as quickly as possible.
Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include the following:
     Exhaustion and restlessness
     Headache
     Dizziness
     Nausea
     Cold, clammy, moist skin
     Pale face
     Cramps in abdomen and lower limbs
     Fast, shallow breathing
     Rapid, weak pulse
     Falling body temperature
     Fainting

Take the following steps to administer first aid for heat exhaustion:
1. Have the victim lie down in a cool or shaded place.
2. If the victim is conscious, have him/her slowly sip cool water.
Note: If the victim is unconscious or is conscious but does not improve, seek medical
aid as soon as possible.
3. If the victim is sweating profusely, have him or her sip cool water that contains one
teaspoon of table salt per pint of water

2.7.3 Heat Stroke
Heat stroke is usually caused by exposure to extreme heat and humidity and/or a
feverish illness. Heat stroke occurs when the body can no longer control its temperature
by sweating. Heat stroke is extremely dangerous and may be fatal if not treated
immediately.
The signs and symptoms of heat stroke include the following:
    Hot, dry skin
    Headache
    Dizziness
    High temperature
    Strong pulse
    Noisy breathing
    Unconsciousness

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Immediately take the following steps to administer first aid for heat stroke:
1. If possible, move the victim to a cool place.
2. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.
3. Loosen clothing - remove tight clothing.
4. If the victim is conscious, place him/her in a half-sitting position and support the head
and shoulders.
5. If the victim is unconscious, place him/her on the side with the head facing sideways.
6. Fan the victim and sponge the body with cool water.




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2.8   COLD STRESS

2.8.1 General
People may suffer from cold stress during inclimate fall and winter periods. As a result
employees must take preventive measures to reduce their risk. To prevent cold stress,
employees should limit outside work during the coldest and/or windiest parts of the day,
wear proper clothing, take frequent breaks, and drink plenty of fluids.

Cold stress occurs in two forms: Hypothermia and Frostbite

2.8.2 Hypothermia
Hypothermia can occur even when exterior conditions seem mild and body temperature
dips below 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Heat loss can occur through respiration,
evaporation, conduction and radiation. A case of mild hypothermia can result in
frostbite or even death if not recognized and treated.

Personnel who have an increased risk are those with predisposed health conditions
such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, or those who are in poor
physical condition.

Examples of the four levels of hypothermia; mild, moderate, severe and critical are
listed below along with symptoms and first aid procedures.

Mild Hypothermia:
                Symptoms                                      First Aid
Body temp 93o - 97o                          Prevent heat loss
Shivering                                    Give warm sweet liquids
Numbness in limbs                            Apply gentle heat source
Loss of dexterity                            Exercise to generate heat
Clumsiness                                   Cover head & neck
Pain from cold

Moderate Hypothermia:
               Symptoms                                       First Aid
             o
Body temp 90 - 93o                           Same as mild but limit exercise
Same as mild exc. Shivering may              Give sips of warm liquid – if conscious
decrease or stop                             Absolutely no alcohol
                                             Seek medical help - Physician

Severe Hypothermia:
                 Symptoms                                     First Aid
              o
Body temp 82 - 90o                           Treat for shock
No shivering                                 Apply external heat source
Confusion & loss of reasoning                Avoid jarring affected areas
Slurred speech                               No food or drinks
Semi to unconscious                          Seek immediate medical help
Muscular rigidity                            (hospital or clinic)


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Critical Hypothermia:
                 Symptoms                                    First Aid
Body temp < 82o                             Handle with extreme care
Unconscious                                 Tilt head – open airway
Little breathing                            Administer CPR (if necessary)
Slow pulse                                  Stabilize temp with external heat source
Eyes dilated                                Seek immediate medical care - hospital
Body rigid

2.8.2 Frostbite
Frostbite occurs when skin layers actually freeze. Symptoms and first aid procedures
include:
                Symptoms                                       First Aid
Freezing of deep skin layers                  Move to warm dry area
Skin pale, waxy-white color                   Remove wet or tight clothing
Skin hard & numb                              Do NOT rub affected areas
Usually affects                               Place affected areas in warm water
     Fingers & hands                         Seek medical attention
     Toes & feet
     Ears & nose

2.8.3 Hypothermia in Water
Hypothermia occurring in water results in body heat loss that is 25 times greater in
water than in cold air. Swimming increases heat loss by 35%. The HELP and HUDDLE
methods of reducing heat loss extends survival time.
HELP stands for Heat Escape Lessening Posture and is accomplished by crossing the
arms over the chest and crossing the legs to prevent heat loss.
HUDDLE means simply that personnel gather together in the water and huddle together
to share warmth and slow heat loss. This method extends survival time by as much as
50% over swimming or treading water.

2.8.4 Protection from Hypothermia
To protect from the causes of hypothermia personnel should;
    Wear warm, layered clothing
    Use head covering
    Protect feet & hands
    Drink plenty of fluids

2.8.5 Protect Employees
Employers and employees can help prevent hypothermia by;
    Providing or requiring proper clothing
    Implementing frequent breaks
    Performing work in warmer parts of day
    Avoiding exhaustion and fatigue
    Using the buddy system
    Drinking warm beverages – avoid caffeine
    Eating warm high calorie foods

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2.9   HOUSEKEEPING

Good housekeeping habits are essential for personal safety. UMHB employees are
responsible for reducing potential hazards and keeping their work areas safe and
clutter-free.

Good housekeeping guidelines include keeping aisles and stairways free from clutter,
cleaning spills, minimizing combustibles in workplace and storage areas, and keeping
all exits free from obstructions.

Maintain clear and unobstructed access to emergency equipment, such as fire
extinguishers, fire alarm pull stations, emergency eye wash units & showers.

For more specific information on housekeeping, refer to the section in this manual that
corresponds to your workplace (i.e., Office Safety, Chemical Hygiene, etc.)




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2.10 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Indoor air quality refers to the condition of air within an enclosed workplace. The indoor
environment of any building is based on several factors including location, climate,
building design, construction techniques, building occupant load, and contaminants.

Four key elements contribute to the development of poor indoor air quality:
   1. Multiple contaminant sources
   2. Poor ventilation systems
   3. Pollutant pathways
   4. Building usage and occupant load

Outside sources for indoor air contaminants include pollen, dust, industrial pollutants,
vehicle exhaust, and unsanitary debris near outdoor air intake vents. Other outdoor
agents, such as underground storage tanks or landfills, may also affect indoor air quality
Indoor contaminants are classified according to these categories:
    Combustion products (e.g., smoke)
    Volatile organic compounds (e.g., solvents and cleaning agents)
    Respiratory particulates (e.g., dust, pollen, and asbestos)
    Respiratory byproducts (e.g., carbon dioxide)
    Microbial organisms (e.g., mold, mildew, fungi, and bacteria)
    Radionuclides (e.g., radon)
    Odors (e.g., perfume, smoke, mold, and mildew)

Additional examples of indoor contaminants include dust, dirt or microbial growth in
ventilation systems, emissions from office equipment, and fumes or odors.

UMHB follows recognized guidelines for new building ventilation systems and air quality
control; however, employees are also responsible for the quality of their indoor air.
Because indoor air often contains a variety of contaminants at levels far below most
exposure standards, it is difficult to link specific health problems with known pollutants.
Employees must minimize all contaminants to reduce the low-level pollutant mixtures
that commonly cause health problems.

The following are examples of items that should be reported to and/or performed by
Facilities Services to help ensure optimum indoor air quality:
    Leaks and drips. Moisture promotes microbial [i.e., mold and mildew] growth.
    Mold and mildew growths (clean with a bleach/water mixture prevents re-growth).
    Ensure that indoor ventilation filters are changed regularly.

Employees can help improve indoor air quality by:
   Keeping laboratory doors closed.
   Minimizing chemical and aerosol usage. Ventilate your area when chemical or
     aerosol usage is required. (These compounds include paint, cleaning agents,
     hairspray, perfume, etc.)
   Ensuring that air ducts are not blocked to control the temperature in work areas.
   Avoiding smoking or cooking in enclosed areas. (Smoking is strictly prohibited
     within university facilities and vehicles.)

                                                                                         22
2.11 LEAD PAINT

According to the Centers for Disease Control, lead poisoning is a leading environmental
health risk. Lead accumulation in a person's system may lead to fatigue, sudden
behavioral change, abdominal pain, anorexia, chronic headaches, joint aches,
depression, anemia, impotence, and severe fetal damage in unborn infants.

Buildings that were constructed or painted prior to the early 1980's may contain lead
paint. Because common sources of lead exposure include ingestion (lead paint) or
inhalation (lead-containing dust), it is important to identify all areas that contain lead
paint. If lead paint flakes or chips, it must be encapsulated or removed by qualified
persons.

The following locations should also be inspected for lead paint:
    Areas where young children or pregnant women are present
    Areas with flaking or deteriorating paint
    Areas that were built or painted prior to the early 1980's. Lead testing is
       particularly important before beginning renovation on older buildings.




                                                                                             23
2.12 POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are found in many oil-based items, electrical fluids,
capacitors, light ballasts, and transformers. PCBs are known carcinogens that are toxic
to humans through skin exposure, inhalation, and ingestion. PCBs can cause skin
disorders and they irritate the eyes, ears, nose, and throat.

Before shipping, handling, or disposing of oil-based products, UMHB employees must
determine if their products contain PCBs. Common trade names for PCBs include the
following:
     Aroclor and Aroclor B
     Abestol
     Askarel and Adkarel
     Chlorextol
     Chlorinol
     Clorphen
     Diaclor
     Dykanol
     Elemex
     Eucarel
     Hyvol
     Inerteen
     No-Flamol
     Pyranol
     Pyroclor
     Saf-T-Kuhl
     Sanotherm

Owners are specifically responsible for properly handling any equipment containing
PCBs. For example, PCB transformers must meet the following requirements:
   PCB transformers and owners must be registered with the local Fire Department.
   The PCB transformer and access to the PCB transformer (fences, doors, etc.)
      must be plainly marked with a PCB label.
   Combustible materials may not be stored within five meters of a PCB transformer
      or enclosure.
   If a transformer containing PCB is involved in a fire-related incident, the National
      Response Center must be notified.
   Radial PCB transformers must be equipped with high current fault protection.
      Units with secondary voltage of 480 volts or greater must be equipped with low
      current fault protection.

PCBs are considered special waste and must be disposed in accordance with local,
state and federal requirements.

Note: the UMHB campus has been surveyed and all known electrical components
containing PCB’s have been removed and properly disposed in accordance with
state & federal guidelines.


                                                                                      24
2.13 SMOKING

The United States Surgeon General has determined that:
    Breathing secondary smoke causes various diseases and allergic reactions in
     healthy non-smokers.
    Separating smokers and non-smokers within the same air space does not
     eliminate exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for non-smokers.
    Tobacco smoke and secondary tobacco smoke are Class A carcinogens.

To promote a safe, healthy, and pleasant environment for employees, students, and
visitors, UMHB has designated all buildings as smoke-free.

All university-owned buildings and vehicles are tobacco-free. This includes all foyers,
entryways, classrooms, restrooms, offices, athletic facilities (indoor and outdoor), eating
areas, and university-owned/leased housing.

Smoking is prohibited within 50 feet of all university building entries (including exits and
fresh air intakes).

Use of tobacco products are allowed in designated locations only. Disposal urns are
placed at various locations to facilitate the disposal of smoking products.




                                                                                          25
2.14 PREVENTING SLIPS & FALLS

It is easy to prevent slip and fall accidents. Employees should always follow good
housekeeping practices and pay attention to their environment to avoid slips and falls.
In addition, employees should follow these guidelines:
      Avoid horseplay.
      Avoid unnecessary haste. Do not run in work areas.
      Use ladders or step-stools to reach high places. Never use drawers, chairs or
        shelves as a ladder.
      Don’t obstruct your view when carrying objects (i.e. boxes, etc.).
      Do not wear clothing that is too long or shoes that have slippery heels or soles.
      Hold the handrail when using stairs.
      Be careful when walking on wet surfaces or when entering a building while
        wearing wet shoes.

Employees must be diligent in reporting deficiencies to either facilities services or
housekeeping which can result in accidents and injuries, such as:
    Inadequately lighted work spaces, passageways, stairs and steps.
    Emergency exits and/or stairways that are partially or entirely obstructed.
    Spills on tile or cement floors which is a slip/fall hazard.
    Uneven surfaces, such as loose or missing floor tiles.

Note: Always block off areas containing potential slip/fall hazards, such as liquid
spills or loose carpet/tile, until proper clean-up or repairs can be performed.




                                                                                           26
2.15 LIFTING

The back supports the weight of the entire upper body. When you lift objects or move
heavy loads, your back has to support even more weight. If you exceed your body's
natural limits, your back cannot support both your body and the extra load. The excess,
unsupported pressure is transferred to the lower back, where injury is imminent. By
using the muscles in your arms and legs and exercising proper lifting techniques, you
can move loads safely and protect your back from possible injury.

All employees must use proper lifting techniques to avoid injury when lifting heavy
objects. In general, employees should seek assistance when lifting objects that weigh
50 pounds or more. Use your judgment to determine if you need assistance, a dolly, or
other help to safely lift an object.

Follow these guidelines to help avoid back injuries:
     Avoid lifting heavier objects whenever possible. Plan jobs and arrange work
      areas so that heavy items may be moved with assistance.
     Avoid lifting heavy objects from below the knees or above the shoulders. Have
      someone help re-position the object to waist level before lifting.
     Keep in good physical condition.
     Think before you act. If a load looks too heavy… it probably is.
     Request help from co-workers to avoid injury.

When lifting follow these steps:
1. Test the object's weight before handling it. If it seems too heavy or bulky, get help.
2. Face the object, place one foot behind the object and one foot along its side.
3. Bend at the knees.
4. Get a firm, balanced grip on the object. Use the palms of your hands, and use gloves
if necessary.
5. Keep the object as close to your body as possible. (Pull the load in close before
lifting.)
6. Lift by straightening your legs, keeping your back straight, and your chin up.
          •Do not twist the back or bend sideways.
          •Turn by repositioning your feet.




                                                                                      27
2.16 VISITOR SAFETY

Employees must take special care to ensure visitor safety. This is particularly important
when bringing visitors to potentially hazardous areas such as construction sites,
laboratories, or other hazardous locations.

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 Office visitors should be escorted.
 Worksite visitors should be escorted, supervised, and monitored.
 Children should not be brought to the workplace without permission, but may
   attend special events where they are encouraged to attend (i.e. family events,
   athletic events).
 Pets must never be brought to the workplace unless specific permission has
   been obtained first (Div. Vice-Pres. & Risk Management).

If a visitor is injured, be sure to report the occurrence to the Campus Police at 5555 and
the office of Risk Management after attending to the injury.




                                                                                        28
2.17 BUILDING COORDINATORS

This program is intended to reduce risks by effectively identifying and reporting
hazardous conditions in a timely manner and to facilitate timely and orderly evacuations.
Safety related deficiencies will be given a high priority which will, in turn, reduce the risk
of accidents for students, staff, and visitors.

Building Coordinators will be identified for each building or department. In some cases
several Coordinators may be selected for a building based upon building size or
configuration.

In residence halls and apartment complexes the Residence Directors and Residence
Assistants serve as Coordinators and Assistant Coordinators.

Coordinators will, while performing their assigned responsibilities;
 survey their areas of responsibility to ensure safe conditions, being alert for
  conditions such as;
  o Proper lighting
  o Exit paths and doors free of obstructions
  o Fire extinguishers in place and in proper condition (fully charged)
  o Flooring materials intact and free of trip hazards
 Report unsafe conditions or violations of safety policies immediately to the office of
  Risk Management or to Campus Police after business hours.
 Assist with evacuations;
  o Ensure that all personnel evacuate immediately to designated “Emergency
      Evacuation Points”
  o Close corridor doors as they depart the area
  o Conduct a head count at the Evacuation Point and report anyone missing to the
      Incident Commander (i.e. Fire Department or Campus Police).

The office of Risk Management will schedule and conduct training for Building
Coordinators, which will include but not be limited to;
 Fire and life safety
       o Fire alarm & protection systems
       o Fire extinguishers (condition, use, etc.)
       o Emergency egress requirements
 Evacuation
       o Emergency Assembly Points
       o Evacuation procedures
 Emergency procedures
       o Fire
       o Tornado
       o Shelter-in-Place
       o Workplace Violence
 Reporting of deficiencies and/or violations




                                                                                           29
APPENDIX

Accident Report

Building Coordinators




                        30
                       University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
                           ACCIDENT REPORT

Accident Type:   Injury Property damage Other:
Accident Date                            Accident Time
Location:

Description:




INVOLVED PARTIES:
Name:                                       Faculty Staff
                                            Student Visitor
Address:                                    Home Phone:
                                            Work Phone:
Name:                                       Faculty Staff
                                            Student Visitor
Address:                                    Home Phone:
                                            Work Phone:

WITNESSES:
Name:                                       Faculty Staff
                                            Student Visitor
Address:                                    Home Phone:
                                            Work Phone:
Name:                                       Faculty Staff
                                            Student Visitor
Address:                                    Home Phone:
                                            Work Phone:

REPORT FILED BY:
Name:                                       Position:

Address:                                    Home Phone:
                                            Work Phone:
Signature:                                  Date:


                                                                31
                   University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

        ACCIDENT REPORT / RISK MANAGEMENT / FOLLOWUP

APPARENT CAUSE:




CONTRIBUTING FACTORS:




RECOMMENDATIONS:




RISK MANAGEMENT:
Printed Name:                       Location: Sanderford Suite 1213
                                    Phone: (254) 295 - 8635
Signature:                          Date:



                                                                      32
UMHB Building Coordinators
Safety Manual 2.0 Appendix (Revised 1/12/2011)
           Building                           Building Coordinators
 Andersen Field House         Recr. Coord. Secty.        Invent. Supp. Mgr.
                              Karen Goff                 Chad Widmer
 Baptist Student Ministry     BSM Director               BSM Secretary
                              Shawn Shannon              Tammy Cooke
 Campus Police Department Director                       Patrol Operations Lt.
                              Gary Sargent               Pat Duffield
 Christian Studies Center
       1st floor             Secty. Christian Studies   Dir. Church Relations
                              Linda Fuessel              Bill Muske
       2nd floor             Professors                 Professors
 Clements Building            E.R. Admin. Assistant      A.D. Secretary
                              Teresa Crothers            Janey Roush
 Davidson Building
       1st floor             Prof. – Comp. Science      Assoc. Prof. C.S.
                              Bill Tanner                Edwin Armstrong
       2 floor
          nd
                              Professors                 Professors
 Digital Media Services       DMS Director               DMS Assistant
                              George Harrison            Adina Martin
 Frazier Health Center        Event Services Mgr.        Event Coordinator
                              Susan Mraz                 Glenn Daniel
 Hardy Hall
       1st floor             Secty. Psy./Soc.           Secty. Ctr. Acad. Excell.
                              Karen Oliver               Heather Green
       2 floor – dining
          nd
                              Dir. Food Services         Res. Dining Manager
                              Dwane Drake                Adrian Ashton
 Heard Hall
       1st floor             Secty. E/MFL               Professors/Staff
                              Sandra Rodriguez
       2 floor
          nd
                              Communications             Professors/Staff
                              Professor
                              Joey Tabarlet
       3 floor
          rd
                              Secty. Humanities          Professors/Staff
                              Tami McDowell
 Mabee Student Center
       1st floor             Bookstore Manager          Bookstore Clerk
                              Debbie Cottrell            Nita Bulls
       2 floor
          nd
                              Secty. Stud. Affairs       Secty. Career Serv.
                              Joy Childress              D’Andra Lusby
       3 floor
          rd
                              Assoc. Dean of Students    Secty. Couns/Testing/Car.
                              Donna Plank                Yvette Day
 Mayborn Campus Center
       1st floor – MCC Staff MCC Director               MCC Ops Manager
                              Larry Reeves               Stephen Morton
       2 floor – Athletics
          nd
                              Athl. Admin. Assistant     EXSS Secretary
                              Claudia Nunez              Carla Moon
                                                                                33
UMHB Building Coordinators
         Building                           Building Coordinators
 Museum/Alumni Bldg.         Alumni Relations          Museum Curator
                             Secretary                 Betty Sue Beebe
                             Cheryl Garza
Parker Academic Center
     1st floor              Secty. – Education       Secty. – Business
                             Jane Roby                Rebecca Beaty
     2nd floor              Professors               Professors
Presser Hall
     Basement               Art Professor            Assoc. Art Professor
                             Hershall Seals           John Hancock
        1st floor           Secty. Vis/Perf Arts     Professors/Staff
                             Ginger Layne
       2nd floor            Faculty/Staff            Faculty/Staff
       3rd floor            Faculty/Staff            Faculty/Staff
Sanderford Admin. Complex
      1st floor East     Dir. Financial Aid          Asst. Dir. Fin. Aid
                          Ron Brown                   David Orsag
      1 floor West
        st
                          Dir. Aux. Services          Asst. to Registrar
                          Mike Frazier                Bethany Chapman
      1 floor North
        st
                          Dir. Risk Management        Dir. Human Res.
                          Larry Pointer               Susan Owens
      2nd floor          Executive Offices Mgr.      Executive Assistant
                          Phyllis Rogers              Alisha Thielepape
Townsend Library          Director                    Circulation Manager
                          Denise Karimkhani           Sandy Heller
Walton Chapel             Senior On-Site Fac./Staff   On-Site Fac./Staff
Wells Hall
      1st Floor          Dean of Nursing             Nursing Secretary
                          Sharon Souter               Stacy Carpenter
      2 Floor
        nd
                          Biology Professor           Biology Secretary
                          Kathleen Wood               Pat Freeman
      3 Floor
        rd
                          Math Professor              Math Professor
                          Peter Chen                  Max Hart
York Science
      1st Floor          Dean of Sciences            Sciences Secretary
                          Darrell Watson              Lisa Maiden
      2 Floor
        nd
                          Biology Professor           Biology Professor
                          Cathleen Early              Greg Frederick
      3 Floor
        rd
                          Chem. Supply Coord.         Chem. Lab Coord.
                          Charles Ables               Larry Carothers
Williams Service Center   Mgr. Admin.Support          Secretary
                          Joshua Oropello             Sonia Mills
York Art Studio           Professor                   Professor/Assist.
                          Philip Dunham
York House                Director                    Assistant
                          Elizabeth Tanaka
                                                                             34
Residence Halls & Apartment Buildings:
            Building                 Coordinators              Assistants
 Beall Hall                  Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Christan Hammonds
 Burt Hall                   Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Rebeka Retta
 Gettys Hall                 Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Phillip Jones
 Huckins Apartments          Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Tim Kemp
 Independence Village:       Residence Director          Residence Assistants
 Clark, Ferguson, Garner,    Julia Walker
 Grover, James, Provence,
 Taylor, Tryon, Hobby,       Asst. Residence Directors
 Tyson, Wilson, & Shannon    Donna Johnson
 Commons                     Patti Wright
 Johnson Hall                Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Gilda Traywick
 McLane Hall                 Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Wendi Fitzwater
 Remschel Hall               Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Cathy Dowling
 Stribling Hall              Residence Director          Residence Assistants
                             Mindy Fuller




                                                                                35
3.0 OFFICE SAFETY
                           TOPIC   Section
General Office Safety                3.1
Equipment Safety                     3.2
Work Station Arrangement             3.3
Prohibitions                         3.4




                                             36
3.1    GENERAL OFFICE SAFETY

A large percentage of workplace accidents and injuries occur in office buildings. Like the
shop or laboratory, the office requires a few preventive measures to ensure a safe
environment. Common causes of office accidents include the following:
     Slip, trip, and fall hazards
     Burn, cut, and pinch hazards
     Improper lifting techniques
     Unobservant and inattentive employees
     Inefficient office layout and arrangement
     Dangerous electrical wiring
     Exposure to toxic substances
     Horseplay

Important Note:
The office building is not a sterile working environment; common workplace
hazards can be especially dangerous if ignored.

3.1.1 Good Housekeeping Practices
Many office accidents are caused by poor housekeeping practices. By keeping the
office floor both neat and clean, you can eliminate most slip, trip and fall hazards. Other
good housekeeping practices include the following:
     Ensure that workspace lighting is adequate. Report burned out light bulbs, and
        request additional lighting be installed, if necessary.
     Extension cords should be used only as a temporary measure in most cases. If
        additional outlets are needed, contact Facilities Services.
     If extension cords are necessary they must be grounded (3-prong) cords only of
        sufficient size for electrical loads. If in doubt – consult Facilities Services.
     Grounded surge protected power strips should be used for electronic equipment
        (i.e. computers).
     Ensure that electrical cords and phone cords do not cross walkways or otherwise
        pose a tripping hazard. If a cord must cross a walkway it must be secured to the
        floor with cord covering strips. Do not tape cords down or run them underneath
        carpet.
     Report or repair trip hazards such as defective tiles, boards, or carpet
        immediately.
     Clean spills and pick up debris immediately.
     Keep supplies properly stored – keep storage areas neat.
     Keep office equipment, facilities, and machines in good condition.
     Keep the area around fire sprinklers clear (maintain 18” clearance).




                                                                                         37
3.1.2 Hazardous Objects and Materials
Hazardous objects such as knives and firearms are not permitted in the workplace. In
addition, hazardous chemicals and materials should not be stored in general office
spaces. Hazardous materials include, but are not limited to, the following:
    Carcinogens
    Combustibles
    Flammables
    Gas cylinders
    Irritants
    Oxidizers
    Reactives

3.1.3 Preventing Cuts and Punctures
Cuts and punctures happen when people use everyday office supplies without
exercising care. Follow these guidelines to help reduce the chance for cuts and
punctures:
    When sealing envelopes, use a liquid dispenser.
    Be careful when using kitchen knives, scissors, staplers, letter openers, and box
       openers. Improper use can cause serious injury.
    Avoid picking up broken glass with your bare hands. Wear gloves and use a
       broom and a dust pan.
    Place used blades or broken glass in a rigid container, such as a box, before
       disposing in a wastebasket.

3.1.4 Preventing Machine Accidents
Only use machines that you know how to operate. Never attempt to operate an
unfamiliar machine without reading the machine instructions or receiving directions from
a qualified employee. In addition, follow these guidelines to ensure machine safety:
    Secure machines that tend to move during operation.
    Do not place machines near the edge of a table or desk.
    Ensure that machines with moving parts have guards in place to prevent
       accidents.
    Never remove guards from equipment.
    Unplug defective machines and have them repaired immediately.
    Do not use any machine that smokes, sparks, shocks, or appears defective.
    Close hand-operated paper cutters after each use and activate the latch.
    Exercise caution when working with machines such as copiers and printers. If
       you have to open the machine for maintenance, repair, or troubleshooting,
       remember that some parts may be hot. Always follow the manufacturer's
       instructions for troubleshooting.
    Unplug paper shredders before conducting maintenance, repair, or
       troubleshooting.

IMPORTANT: Never attempt to work on equipment that you are not trained or
authorized to service. If approved to do so, use the proper tools for the job and
never service equipment unless it has first been disconnected from electrical
power and all sources of stored energy (i.e. capacitors).



                                                                                       38
Some items can be very dangerous when worn around machinery with moving parts,
such as;
    Jewelry (i.e. necklaces, bracelets)
    Long, loose hair
    Long, loose sleeves or pants
    Scarves & ties

3.1.5 Preventing Slips and Falls
As outlined in the General Safety chapter of this manual, the easiest way to avoid slips
and falls is to pay attention to your surroundings and to avoid running or rushing. To
ensure safety for others in the office, however, follow these guidelines:
    Arrange office furnishings in a manner that provides unobstructed areas for
       movement.
    Keep stairs, steps, flooring, and carpeting well maintained.
    Ensure that glass doors have some type of marking to keep people from walking
       through them.
    Clearly mark any difference in floor level that could cause an accident.
    Secure throw rugs and mats to prevent slipping hazards.
    Do not place wastebaskets or other objects in walkways.
    Never use chairs or tables as ladders. Use an appropriate step stool or ladder to
       gain access to items that are out of reach.

3.1.6 Preventing Stress
To reduce stress and prevent fatigue, it is important to take appropriate breaks
throughout the day - per employment guidelines of course.

Examples of stress-relieving exercises that can be done at your desk include:
    Head and Neck Stretch: Slowly turn your head to the left, and hold it for three
     seconds. Slowly turn your head to the right, and hold it for three seconds. Drop
     your chin gently towards your chest, and then tilt it back as far as you can.
     Repeat these steps five to ten times.
    Shoulder Roll: Roll your shoulders forward and then backward using a circular
     motion.
    Upper Back Stretch: Grasp one arm below the elbow and pull gently towards the
     other shoulder. Hold this position for five seconds and then repeat with the other
     arm.
    Wrist Wave: With your arms extended in front of you, raise and lower your hands
     several times.
     Finger Stretch: Make fists with your hands and hold tight for one second, then
     spread your fingers wide for five seconds.




                                                                                      39
3.2    EQUIPMENT SAFETY
Common office machines, such as copiers, microwaves, typewriters, and computers
sometimes require special safety considerations.

Be sure to report defective equipment and make sure that you get the proper training to
operate equipment with which you are not familiar.

3.2.1 File Cabinets and Shelves
File cabinets and shelves tend to support heavy loads. Follow these safety guidelines
for file cabinets:
     File cabinets not weighted at the bottom can be unstable, but can be secured to
         the floor or to the wall, if necessary (by Facilities Services).
     Do not block ventilation grates with file cabinets.
     Open only one drawer at a time to keep the cabinet from toppling.
     Close drawers when they are not in use.
     Do not place heavy objects on top of cabinets.
     Close drawers slowly using the handle to avoid pinched fingers.
     Keeping the bottom drawer full will help stabilize the entire cabinet.

Follow these safety guidelines for office shelving:
     If necessary shelves can be bolted to the floor or wall (by Facilities Services).
     Place heavy objects on the bottom shelves. This will keep the entire structure
      more stable.
     Ensure that there is at least 18 inches between the top shelf items and the
      ceiling. This space will allow fire sprinklers (if present) to function properly.
     Do not block ventilation grates with shelves.
     Never climb on shelves. Use an appropriate step-stool or ladder.

3.2.2 Desks
Follow these safety guidelines for office desks:
     Keep desks in good condition (i.e., free from sharp edges, nails, etc.).
     Ensure that desks do not block exits or passageways.
     Ensure that glass-top desks do not have sharp edges.
     Do not climb on desks. Use a step-stool or ladder.
     Keep desk drawers closed when not in use.
     Repair or report any desk damage that could be hazardous.

3.2.3 Chairs
Safety guidelines for office chairs include the following:
    Do not lean back to far in office chairs, particularly swivel chairs with rollers.
    Do not climb on any office chair. Use a step-stool or a ladder.
    Repair or report any chair damage that could be hazardous.
    Do not roll chairs over electrical cords.




                                                                                          40
3.2.4 Ladders
Always use an approved ladder or step-stool to reach any item above your extended
arm height. Never use a makeshift device, such as a desk, file cabinet, bookshelf, chair
or box as a substitute for a ladder.

Follow these guidelines when using ladders:
     Do not load a ladder above its intended weight capacity.
     Place ladders on slip-free surfaces even if they have slip-resistant feet.
     Avoid placing ladders in walkways, but if necessary secure the ladder if its
      location could cause an accident.
     Do not use a ladder in front of a door unless the door is locked or barricaded.
                               nd
     Never climb above the 2 rung from the top on step-ladders.
     Avoid leaning out more than a few inches on a ladder.
     Keep two feet and one hand –or- one hand and two feet on the ladder at all
      times.




                                                                                        41
3.3    WORK STATION ARRANGEMENT
With the extensive use of computers and other automated desk devices in the
workplace, employees should ensure proper work station arrangement. For the purpose
of this manual, a work station consists of the equipment and furniture associated with a
typical desk job (i.e., desk, chair, and computer components).

In recent years, computer screens or Video Display Terminals (VDTs) have received
much attention concerning non-ionizing radiation levels. Tests have proven that VDTs
do not emit harmful levels of radiation. However, improper work station arrangement
combined with repetitive motion can contribute to visual and musculoskeletal fatigue.

Cumulative trauma disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome can result from the stress
of repetitive motion. Therefore, it is very important to arrange your work station properly
and to take appropriate breaks.

The following sections offer recommendations for ensuring employee comfort through
proper work station arrangement.

3.3.1 Operator's Position
Your seating position at work is important to your comfort and safety. To reduce the
effects of repetitive motion, follow these guidelines when working with computers or
typewriters:
     Always sit up straight. Make sure your chair is adjusted to provide adequate
       support to your back.
     Place your feet flat on the floor or on a footrest. Lower legs should be
       approximately vertical, and thighs should be approximately horizontal.
     Ensure that there is at least 1 inch of clearance between the top of your thighs
       and the bottom of the desk or table.
     Keep your wrists in a natural position. They should not rest on the edge of the
       desk.
     Keep the front edge of your chair approximately 4 inches behind your knees.

3.3.2 Equipment Arrangement
By properly arranging your equipment, you can also help reduce the effects of repetitive
motion. Follow these guidelines for arranging office equipment:

3.3.2.1 Lighting:
Lighting around computer work stations should illuminate the work area without
obscuring the VDT or causing glare. Position computer screens, draperies, blinds, and
pictures to reduce glare during work hours (e.g., place the VDT screen at a right angle
to the window). Report lighting problems to Facilities Services for evaluation.

3.3.2.2 Computer Monitor Screen:
Monitor images should be clear and well-defined. Adjust the screen's brightness,
contrast and display size to meet your needs. If a screen flickers or jumps, have it
repaired or replaced. Place the monitor screen 20-28 inches away from your face. The
center of the monitor should be approximately 15 to 25 degrees below your line of
vision.

                                                                                         42
3.3.2.3 Keyboards:
Position computer keyboards so that the angle between the forearm and upper arm is
between 80 and 120 degrees. Place the keyboard in an area that is accessible and
comfortable.

3.3.2.4 Wrist Support:
Use wrist supports made of padded material. The support should allow you to type
without bending your wrists.

3.3.2.5 Document Holders:
Keep documents at approximately the same height and distance from your face as the
monitor screen.

3.3.2.6 Telephones:
Neck tension is a common problem caused by holding the telephone between the head
and neck. Use of a phone rest pad may be helpful. Using a headset or speakerphone if
you use the telephone for extended periods of time can also help.

Note: Report work station arrangement problems or questions to your
Supervisor, Department Head and/or to Risk Management for evaluation.




                                                                                     43
3.4   PROHIBITIONS

In accordance with the standards of the Life Safety Code and local fire authorities the
following are prohibited in all UMHB offices and workspaces.

1. The use of open flames (i.e. candles, deodorizers, decorations, etc.).
2. The use and storage of non-DOT certified propane tanks, such as those which can
be purchased locally at department and hardware stores (camp stove cylinders).
3. The inappropriate use of extension cords – must grounded (3-prong) cords only.
     Surge protected, grounded power strips must be used on electronic equipment
       (i.e. computers).
     Request the installation of additional electrical outlets to reduce or eliminate the
       use of extension cords.
     Be sure to report tripped circuit breakers to Facilities Services so that potential
       problems can be corrected to protect personnel and property.
4. Portable space heaters are prohibited in all university buildings. All problems
associated with building heating systems should be reported to Facilities Services.
See the Facilities Services Energy Conservation Policy posted on the Facilities Services
intranet site for more information.
5. Means of egress must never be blocked or restricted in any way. Likewise, storage
areas and mechanical spaces (i.e. air handler rooms) must be kept clean and free of
combustible/flammable materials.
6. Pets are not allowed to be brought to the workplace - unless specific permission has
been obtained from the division Vice President and the office of Risk Management.




                                                                                          44
4.0 EQUIPMENT SAFETY
                 TOPIC   SECTION
General                    4.1
Hand Tools                 4.2
Power Tools                4.3
Lockout/Tagout             4.4




                                 45
4.1    GENERAL

The hazards associated with tools require special safety considerations. Whether you
work in a shop or in an office setting, the potential hazards for personal injury are
numerous. This chapter highlights essential safety information for working with common
hand and power tools.

The following table highlights common hazards:
Potential Hazards                Hazard Sources
Physical:
                                 - Oxygen, acetylene, air
-Compressed air/gases
                                 - Grinders, saws, welders
- Flying debris
                                 - Any power tool
- Noise
                                 - Vises, power tools, hand tools
- Pinching, cutting, amputation
                                 - Wood/metal chips, electrical cords, oil, etc.
- Slipping, tripping
                                 - Welding
- UV radiation
Electrical:
                                 - Too many cords per outlet
- Overload
                                 - Frayed, damaged cords
- Fire
                                 - Ungrounded tools, equipment
- Shock
Fire:
                                 - Gasoline, degreasers, paint thinners, etc.
- Flammable chemicals
                                 - Welders, grinders
- Sparks
                                 - Ungrounded tools or solvent containers
- Static sparks
                                 - Lack of appropriate fire extinguishers
- Uncontrolled fire
Chemical:
                                 - Cleaning solvents, degreasers, etc.
- Toxic liquids
                                 - Welding, motor exhaust, etc.
- Toxic fumes, gases, dusts

It is not possible to detail all the risks involved. However, it is possible to foresee many
hazards by carefully planning each job. To prevent accidents, utilize your knowledge,
training, and common sense. Evaluate potential sources of injury, and attempt to
eliminate hazards.

4.1.1 Personal Protection
There are several measures you should take to protect yourself from hazards. For
example, do not wear the following when working around machinery:
    Loose fitting clothing
    Neckties
    Jewelry

If you must wear a long sleeved shirt, be sure the sleeves are rolled down and buttoned.
Snug fitting clothes and safety shoes are essential safety equipment. Always wear
safety glasses with side shields. Additional protection using goggles or face shields may
be necessary for the following types of work:
     Grinding, Chipping, Sandblasting
     Welding
                                                                                       46
      Glass-working

Wear approved hard hats whenever there is a chance of objects falling from above. In
addition, wear suitable gloves, preferably leather, when working with the following:
     Scrap metal or wood
     Sharp-edged stock
     Unfinished lumber
.
4.1.2 Job Safety
Before beginning work, be sure you are authorized to perform the work to be done and
inspect your tools and equipment. If a procedure is potentially hazardous to others in
the area, warn fellow workers accordingly. Use warning signs or barriers, as necessary.
Notify your supervisor if you notice any unsafe conditions such as the following:
     Defective tools or equipment
     Improperly guarded machines
     Oil, gas, or other leaks
Inform other employees if you see an unsafe work practice; however, be careful not to
distract a person who is working with power tools.

IMPORTANT: Never use “make-shift” tools (i.e. combine two tools to make one
or alter a tool) to perform work. Always use the right tool for the job.

4.1.3 Safety Guidelines
Follow these simple safety guidelines:
     Know the hazards associated with your work. Be sure you are fully educated on
      the proper use and operation of any tool before beginning a job.
     Always wear appropriate safety gear and protective clothing.
     Ensure that there is adequate ventilation to prevent exposure from vapors of
      glues, lacquers, paints and from dust and fumes.
     Maintain good housekeeping standards.
      o Keep the work area free from slip/trip hazards (oil, cords, debris, etc.).
      o Clean all spills immediately.
      o Remove sawdust, wood chips, and metal chips regularly.
      o It is recommended that electrical cords pull down from an overhead pulley
          rather than lying on the floor.
     Leave tool and equipment guards in place.
     Know where fire extinguishers are located and how to use them.
     Make sure all tools and equipment are properly grounded and that cords are in
      good condition.
      o Double-insulated tools or those with three-wire grounded cords are essential
          for safety.
      o Use extension cords that are large enough for the load and distance.
     Secure all compressed gas cylinders. Never use compressed gas to clean
      clothing or skin.
     Always use flashback arrestors on cutting/welding torches.
     Take precautions against heat stroke and heat exhaustion.
     Wear infrared safety goggles when appropriate.

IMPORTANT: To prevent accidents, always be sure to cover open holes and
block off open areas or spills that can’t be cleaned up immediately.
                                                                                     47
4.2    HAND TOOLS
Hand tools are non-powered tools that include axes, wrenches, hammers, chisels,
screw drivers, and other hand-operated mechanisms. Even though hand tool injuries
tend to be less severe than power tool injuries, hand tool injuries are more common.
Because people take everyday hand tools for granted, they forget to follow simple
safety precautions.

The most common hand tool accidents are caused by the following:
    Failure to use the right tool
    Failure to use a tool correctly (or alteration of tools)
    Failure to keep edged tools sharp
    Failure to replace or repair a defective tool
    Failure to store tools safely

Follow these hand tool safety guidelines:
     Wear safety glasses whenever you hammer or cut, especially when working with
      surfaces that chip or splinter.
     Do not use a screwdriver as a chisel. The tool can slip and cause a deep
      puncture wound.
     Do not use a chisel as a screwdriver. The tip of the chisel may break and cause
      an injury.
     Do not use a knife as a screwdriver. The blade can snap and cause injury.
     Never carry a screwdriver or chisel in your pocket. If you fall, the tool could cause
      a serious injury. Instead, use a tool belt holder.
     Replace loose, splintered, or cracked handles. Loose hammer, axe, or maul
      heads can fly off defective handles.
     Use the proper wrench to tighten or loosen nuts. Pliers can chew the corners off
      a nut.
     When using a chisel, always chip or cut away from yourself. Use a soft-headed
      hammer or mallet to strike a wooden chisel handle. A metal hammer or mallet
      may cause the handle to split.
     Do not use a wrench if the jaws are sprung.
     Do not use impact tools, such as chisels, wedges, or drift pins, if their heads are
      mushroom shaped. The heads may shatter upon impact.
     Direct saw blades, knives, and other tools away from aisle areas and other
      employees.
     Keep knives and scissors sharp. Dull tools are more dangerous than sharp tools.
     Iron or steel hand tools may cause sparks and be hazardous around flammable
      substances. Use spark-resistant tools made from brass, plastic, aluminum, or
      wood when working around flammable hazards.

Improper tool storage is responsible for many accidents.
    Have a specific place for each tool.
    Do not place unguarded cutting tools in a drawer. Many hand injuries are caused
      by rummaging through drawers that contain sharp-edged tools.
    Store knives or chisels in their scabbards.




                                                                                        48
4.3    POWER TOOLS

Power tools can be extremely dangerous if they are used improperly. Each year,
thousands of people are injured or killed by power tool accidents. Common accidents
associated with power tools include abrasions, cuts, lacerations, amputations, burns,
electrocution, and broken bones. These accidents are often caused by the following:
 Touching the cutting, drilling, or grinding components
 Getting caught in moving parts
 Suffering electrical shock due to improper grounding, equipment defects, or operator
   misuse
 Being struck by particles that normally eject during operation
 Touching hot tools or work pieces
 Falling in the work area
 Being struck by falling tools

When working around power tools, you must wear personal protective equipment and
avoid wearing loose clothing or jewelry that could get caught in moving machinery. In
additional to general shop guidelines, follow these guidelines for working with power
tools:
 Use the correct tool for the job. Do not use a tool or attachment for something it was
   not designed to do.
 Select the correct bit, blade, cutter, or grinder wheel for the material at hand. This
   precaution will reduce the chance for an accident and improve the quality of your
   work.
 Keep all guards in place. Cover exposed belts, pulleys, gears, and shafts that could
   cause injury. Never use a tool without guards in place.
 Concentrate on your work when operating power tools. Stop working if something
   distracts you.
 Do not rely on strength to perform an operation. The correct tool, blade, and method
   should not require excessive strength. If undue force is necessary, you may be using
   the wrong tool or have a dull blade.
 Before clearing jams or blockages on power tools, disconnect from power source.
   Do not use your hand to clear jams or blockages, use an appropriate tool.
 Never reach over equipment while it is running.
 Never disable or tamper with safety devices or automatic switches.
 When the chance for operator injury is great, use a push stick to move material
   through a machine.
 Disconnect power tools before performing maintenance or changing components.
 Keep a firm grip on portable power tools. These tools tend to "get away" from
   operators and can be difficult to control.
 Remove chuck keys or adjusting tools prior to operation.
 Keep bystanders away from moving machinery.
 Do not operate power tools when you are sick, fatigued, or taking strong medication.
 When possible, secure work pieces with a clamp or vise to free the hands and
   minimize the chance of injury. Use a jig for pieces that are unstable or do not lie flat.




                                                                                         49
4.3.1 Guards
Moving machine parts must be safeguarded to protect operators from serious injury.
Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, fly wheels, chains, and other moving parts must be
guarded if there is a chance they could contact an employee.

Hazardous areas that must be guarded include the following:
   Point of operation: Area where the machine either cuts, bends, molds, or forms,
      the material.
   Pinch/nip point: Area where moving machine parts can trap, pinch, or crush body
      parts (e.g., roller feeds, intermeshing gears, etc.).
   Sharp edges
   Stored potential energy

There are three types of barrier guards that protect people from moving machinery:
    Fixed guards
          o A fixed guard is a permanent machine part that completely encases
             potential hazards. Fixed guards provide maximum operator protection.
    Interlocked guards
          o Interlock guards are connected to a machine's power source. If the guard
             is opened or removed, the machine automatically disengages. Interlocking
             guards are often preferable because they provide adequate protection to
             the operator, but they also allow easy machine maintenance. This is ideal
             for problems such as jams.
    Adjustable guards
          o Self-adjusting guards change their position to allow materials to pass
             through the moving components of a power tool. These guards
             accommodate various types of materials, but they provide less protection
             to the operator.

IMPORTANT: Guards must be in place. If a guard is removed to perform
maintenance or repairs, follow lockout/tag-out procedures. Replace the guard
after repairs are completed. Do not disable or move machine guards for any
reason. If you notice that a guard is missing or damaged, contact your supervisor
and have the guard replaced or repaired before beginning work.




                                                                                     50
4.4   LOCKOUT/TAGOUT

4.4.1 General
The lockout/tagout program is a means to reduce or eliminate injuries and accidents
due to unintentional contact with live energy or a release of stored energy.

The Lockout/Tagout Program applies to any employee required to perform maintenance
or repair of machines and equipment.
 The program must include
       o procedures for shutdown and re-energizing equipment
       o training for employees
 Procedures must be followed during the servicing or maintenance of machines in
    order to;
       o Prevent unexpected energization or start up of machinery
       o or the release of stored energy
 Procedures will vary, depending upon whether the source of hazardous energy is
       o Electrical
       o Hydraulic
       o Pneumatic
       o Mechanical
       o Thermal
       o Chemical
 Affected employees should be familiar with lockout/tagout procedures.

4.4.2 Lockout/Tagout Steps
The seven basic steps of the lockout/tagout procedure include;
1. Notify all affected employees' that the equipment will be shut down.
2. Shut down the equipment by normal stopping procedures.
3. Isolate all the equipment's energy sources;
   – By turning off switches or circuit breakers
   – By closing valves or installing blank flanges
   – By physically disabling mechanical devices
4. Lockout and/or tagout the energy isolating devices (switches, valves, etc.). In some
   cases assigned, individual locks are needed to ensure safety.
5. Release or restrain any stored energy by grounding, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
6. Assure that no personnel are exposed.
7. Test the equipment to ensure will not operate.

4.4.3 Restoring Equipment to Service
After the maintenance or repairs to equipment are completed return it to service using
these steps;
1. Make sure all employees have been safely positioned or removed from the area.
2. Verify that equipment controls are in neutral.
3. Remove lockout devices and/or tags and re-energize the machine or equipment.
4. Notify affected employees that servicing is complete and the equipment is ready for
   use.

Note: Lockout/Tagout procedures are governed under OSHA - 29 CFR 1910.147.
                                                                                      51
5.0 FIRE & LIFE SAFETY
                                  TOPIC   Section
General                                     5.1
Fire Response                               5.2
Fire Scene                                  5.3
Flammable/Combustible Storage               5.4
Emergency Access and Egress                 5.5
Fire Detection and Notification             5.6
Fire Suppression                            5.7
Open Flames                                 5.8
Holiday Decorations                         5.9
Fire Drills                                5.10
Appendix
Fire & Evacuation Drill Evaluation Form




                                                    52
5.1    GENERAL

Fire and life safety involves numerous safety issues including fire prevention, fire
suppression, and emergency evacuation/response. Fire and life safety is everyone's
responsibility.

IMPORTANT:
Learn how to prevent fires and respond to fires — what you learn will be
invaluable and may save a life.

UMHB is committed, to the best of its ability, to providing a safe environment for building
occupants and visitors. UMHB uses nationally accepted codes as guidelines for
inspections, testing, and procedures.

5.1.1 The Effects of a Fire
Most fires produce an immense amount of smoke that can be highly toxic. In fact,
smoke is responsible for more fire fatalities than flames. Fire and smoke can have the
following effect on humans:
     Within 30 seconds – Disorientation
     Within 2 minutes – Unconsciousness
     Within 3 minutes – Death

Timing is critical during a fire. To ensure your safety, you must know how to prevent and
respond to any fire emergency.

5.1.2 Fire Prevention
The greatest protection against property loss and injuries from fire is prevention. Follow
these guidelines to promote fire/life safety:
    Minimize combustible storage.
    Store waste materials in suitable containers and approved storage (flammable)
       cabinets.
    Use flammable materials in well-ventilated areas.
    Use and store flammables away from ignition sources.
    Ensure that heating units are properly safeguarded.
    Report and repair all gas or other flammable material leaks immediately. Never
       search for gas leaks using an open flame. Use approved detectors.
    Test enclosed or confined spaces for flammable or dangerous atmospheres prior
       to entry.
    Open flames are prohibited in all university buildings.
    The only exceptions include Bunsen burners in labs, art labs, gas stoves/ovens
       where installed, cutting equipment used by maintenance, and heating devices
       used by food services (see 5.8).




                                                                                         53
5.2    FIRE RESPONSE
If you discover a fire or smoke remember the RACE formula:

R     Rescue              Rescue all building occupants.
A     Alarm               Sound the Alarm – pull nearest fire alarm pull station
                          and/or call 5555 (and/or 911).
C     Contain             Contain fire & smoke by closing doors as you evacuate.
E     Extinguish/Evacuate Extinguish the fire / evacuate the building.

Important Notes:
1. If you are not in immediate danger, call 5555 to report a fire. Provide the
following information:
     Building or area name
     Approximate location of the fire
     Size and type of fire
     Your name

2. If you have been trained in fire fighting techniques, the fire is small and
manageable, and are not in immediate danger you may attempt to extinguish the
fire using a portable fire extinguisher.

3. Never place yourself or others in unnecessary danger and do not allow
yourself to be cut off by fire/smoke from an exit.

4. Evacuate the building via the nearest unaffected exit to the designated
emergency evacuation point.
     Never use elevators during a fire event (actual or drill). Use the stairs.
     Use the back of the hand to test doors for heat prior to attempting to open.
     If smoke is encountered “stay low and go” to the nearest exit.
     Close doors during evacuation to limit the spread of fire and/or smoke.

5. Authorization to re-enter buildings after an alarm or emergency will be given by
the senior on-scene “Authority” (i.e. fire department, law enforcement or UMHB
administrative representative).


IMPORTANT NOTES:
1) Evacuation plans and fire drills are essential for building occupants to
respond correctly to a fire alarm.
2) If necessary, injured or handicapped personnel may be evacuated to “areas of
safe refuge” in buildings so equipped. These areas are stair landings equipped
with notification alarms & two-way intercoms.




                                                                                   54
5.3    FIRE SCENE

Access to all fire scenes will be restricted to those persons authorized by the Campus
Police and/or Fire Investigators, and will be controlled by the Campus Police.

Fire scenes must never be disturbed or altered in any way. This includes leaving all
furniture, appliances, extension cords, etc. “as is” so that investigators can effectively
determine the cause of the fire. UMHB will cooperate with local/state/federal authorities
to ascertain whether arson was involved.




                                                                                         55
5.4    FLAMMABLE/COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE
By storing excess flammable and combustible materials improperly, employees not only
increase the potential for having a fire, they increase the potential severity of a fire. To
reduce the hazards associated with combustible storage, follow these guidelines:
     Eliminate excess combustible materials such as paper and cardboard.
     Do not store flammable/combustible materials in hallways, stairwells, or
       mechanical rooms.
     Use flammable/combustible storage cabinets designed to prevent fires or reduce
       the risk of fire.
     When stacking combustible materials, leave at least 18 inches between the top
       of the stack and the ceiling.

5.4.1 LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas)
The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) regulates the sale and use of
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), including butane and propane. These regulations
govern equipment using LPG-powered including:
    Forklifts
    Laboratory equipment
    Cooking and heating equipment

Exhaust fumes may contain carbon monoxide which can present a health hazard.
Exhaust can also create smoke which may activate a smoke detector. Take special
precautions to ensure adequate ventilation when using these machines indoors.

Because LPG is extremely flammable, it is a potential fire hazard. Do not store LPG
near heat, flame, or other ignition sources. Portable LPG containers should not be
stored in any building.

Portable LPG containers and LPG equipment should be stored outside in a storage
area that is at least 25 feet away from other buildings, combustible materials, roadways,
railroads, pipelines, utility lines, and the property line. The storage area should prevent
unauthorized entry and have a portable fire extinguisher within 25 feet.

Note: Small propane tanks, such as those purchased for camp stoves and
lanterns, are prohibited by fire authorities and cannot be used or stored in
campus educational, administrative or residential buildings.




                                                                                          56
5.5    EMERGENCY ACCESS & EGRESS
5.5.1 General
Emergency access and egress are critical during an emergency situation such as a fire
or other critical situation. During a fire, timing and quick response are essential to save
lives and property. Effective emergency access ensures that fire trucks can reach a
building in time to extinguish the fire. Unobstructed emergency egress ensures that
building occupants can quickly exit a building to safety.

5.5.2 Emergency Access
Pertinent facilities and equipment must remain available and unobstructed at all times to
ensure effective fire detection, evacuation, suppression, and response. Designated fire
zones and no parking areas must be kept clear.

5.5.3 Emergency Egress
Emergency egress is a continuous and unobstructed way to travel from any point in a
building to its exterior. A means of egress may include horizontal and vertical travel
routes, including intervening rooms, doors, hallways, corridors, passageways,
balconies, ramps, stairs, enclosures, lobbies, and courtyards.

IMPORTANT:
Each location within a building must have a clear means of egress to the outside.

5.5.4 Corridors, Stairways, and Exits
An exit corridor and/or stairway is a pedestrian pathway that allows direct access to the
outside of a building and/or allows access to a building entrance and subsequent
pathways to the outside of a building (i.e., an exit corridor is the quickest, easiest, and
most direct pathway for leaving a building.) Because exit corridors or passageways are
the primary means of egress during an emergency, employees must follow the safety
guidelines outlined in this section.

Guidelines to promote safe evacuation in corridors, stairways, and exits:
   Keep all means of egress clean, clutter-free, and unobstructed.
   Do not place hazardous materials or equipment in areas that are used for
      evacuation.
   Combustibles in egress areas such as hallways and corridors must be kept
      to a minimum (i.e. bulletin boards, displays, etc.).
   Do not use corridors or stairways for storage or operations. Corridors may
      not be used as an extension of an office, classroom or workspace.
   Corridor doors must be kept closed at all times to ensure the integrity of
      the exit corridor by preventing or reducing the spread of fire and/or smoke.
   Corridors doors must not be propped open unless they are fitted with
      automatic door closures (i.e. magnetic devices) interconnected to the fire
      alarm system.

IMPORTANT: Maintain all exit corridors and stairways free of obstructions at all
times.



                                                                                          57
5.5.5 Fire Lanes
A fire lane is an area designated for emergency personnel only. It allows them to gain
access to building and/or fire protection systems. Fire lanes on the UMHB campus are
will be clearly marked and kept clear.

IMPORTANT: Do not park in fire lanes or within 15 feet of fire hydrants and other
fire equipment.

5.5.6 Fire Doors
A fire door serves as a barrier to limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement of
smoke (i.e. stairway doors, corridor doors, fire/smoke compartment doors). Unless they
are held open by automatic systems (i.e. magnetic holders connected to the fire alarm
system), fire doors should remain closed at all times. Do not tamper with fire doors or
block them with equipment, potted plants, furniture, etc.

Fire doors are normally located in stairwells, corridors, and other areas required by fire
code. The door, door frame, locking mechanism, and closure are rated between 20
minutes and three hours to prevent spread of fire.

IMPORTANT: Know which doors are fire doors and keep them closed to protect
building occupants and exit paths from fire and smoke. Never block a fire door
with a non-approved closure device (i.e. a door stop, block of wood, etc.) For fire
doors with approved closure devices, make sure that nothing around the door
can impede the closure.

Never alter a fire door or assembly in any way. Simple alterations such as changing a
lock or installing a window can lessen the fire rating of the door.

Doors to offices, laboratories, and classrooms help act as smoke barriers regardless of
their fire rating. Keep these doors closed at all times.

REMEMBER: A closed door is the best way to protect your path to safety from
the spread of smoke and fire. Close doors as you egress from a building.

5.5.7 Areas of Safe Refuge
Areas of safe refuge are located in stairwells constructed with 2 hour fire protection and
are landings on which injured or handicapped personnel can take refuge until fire
rescue personnel can remove them from the area.

Some areas of safe refuge are equipped with alarms to notify fire rescue personnel at
the fire alarm panel of the presence of personnel. Alarm panels are also equipped with
two-way intercoms for communication between the area of safe refuge and the fire
alarm panel.




                                                                                         58
5.6    FIRE DETECTION & NOTIFICATION

UMHB utilizes various types of fire detection and notification systems including heat
detectors, smoke detectors, pull stations, horns and lights.

5.6.1 Fire and Smoke Detection
Fire and smoke detectors at UMHB are not linked to a central location. Once a building
alarm system is activated, the alarm sounds both inside and outside the affected
building, at which time university staff, employees or students must notify Campus
Police at 5555 (and/or 911) to initiate a professional response.

There are two types of fire detection devices used on the UMHB campus: heat
detectors and smoke detectors. Please note the location of the detectors in your area
and prevent damage and accidental activation.
 Heat Detectors:
Heat detectors respond to the energy in hot smoke and fire gases (i.e., heat). Heat
detectors are normally located in laboratories, mechanical rooms, storage areas, and
areas that could produce high levels of dust, steam, or other airborne particles.
 Smoke Detectors:
Smoke detectors respond to the solid and liquid aerosols produced by a fire (i.e.,
smoke). Since smoke detectors cannot distinguish between smoke particles and other
particles such as steam, building occupants must be aware of detector locations and be
considerate when working around them. Smoke detectors are normally found in exit
corridors, office areas, assembly areas, and residence halls.

Note: If your work produces steam, dust, or is an environment that could damage
or activate a detector, notify Facilities Services prior to start of work. Facilities
Services personnel will protect the detector with a cover and remove the
protective covering at the end of the day or as soon as the work is completed.

5.6.2 Alarm Systems: Pull Stations
Fire alarm manual pull stations are installed to manually activate a building's alarms in
addition to the automatic fire sensing devices. When pulled manually, a pull station
activates the fire alarm system and notifies personnel that an emergency exists. Pull
stations are located near exit stairways and/or building exits.

If you smell smoke or if you discover smoke or a fire:
1. Pull a manual fire alarm pull station to initiate evacuation.
2. If you are not in immediate danger, call 5555 (and/or 911).
3. If you are trained in fire fighting and it is reasonably safe to do so, you may
attempt to extinguish the fire.

IMPORTANT: Building fire alarms are local only; they are not automatically
transmitted to emergency services. Someone must call 5555 (and/or 911) to
report the alarm.




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5.6.3 Alarm Systems: Horns and Lights
Emergency horns and lights are located throughout university buildings with fire alarm
systems. Strobe lights are used in conjunction with horns to alert the hearing impaired.
Do not block emergency horns or lights. Report damaged or defective horns and lights
to Facilities Services and/or Risk Management.

5.7    FIRE SUPPRESSION

UMHB uses various types of fire suppression equipment including portable fire
extinguishers, sprinklers, automatic systems (i.e. CO2 or dry chemical), and fire
hose/standpipe systems.

5.7.1 Classes of Fires
Fires are classified according to three basic categories. Each type of fire requires
special treatment to control and extinguish it. Therefore, all fire extinguishers are clearly
marked to indicate the fire classes for which they are designed.

Fire classifications are:
 Class                      Materials                          Extinguishing Agent
    A                 Ordinary combustibles                 Water or multi-purpose dry
             (wood, paper, rubber, cloth, trash, etc.)       chemical fire extinguisher
    B       Flammable/combustible liquids or gases         Dry chemical, carbon dioxide,
                (solvents, gasoline, paint, oil, etc.)               or foam
    C           Energized electrical equipment or                Carbon dioxide or
                            appliances                             Dry chemical

IMPORTANT: Never use a water or foam fire extinguisher on a Class C/Electrical
fire until all sources of electrical power are turned off to avoid electrocution.

5.7.2 Fire Extinguishers
There are various types of fire extinguishers; however, most of the extinguishers on
campus are dry chemical. Water and carbon dioxide extinguishers are also used in
some locations.

5.7.3 Inspection & testing of fire equipment
UMHB utilizes a licensed contractor to conduct annual inspections and servicing of its
fire alarm systems, extinguishing systems and portable fire extinguishers. Additionally,
the Facilities Services department periodically checks portable fire extinguishers and
fire safety systems. Employees should not only know the locations of fire extinguishers
in their work areas, but should report any discharged, missing or damaged
extinguishers to Facilities Serves and/or Risk Management.




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5.7.4 Using fire extinguishers
Most fire extinguishers provide operating instructions on their label; however, the time to
learn about fire extinguishers is not during a fire. The sooner you know how to use a fire
extinguisher, the better prepared you are.
NOTE: Portable fire extinguishers are located throughout all University facilities.
They are mounted in readily accessible locations such as hallways, near exit
doors and areas containing fire hazards. Never block access to fire extinguishers.

Fire extinguishers should be used to extinguish only small, manageable fires and only if
you have been trained to do so, using the PASS formula:
 P Pull             Pull the pin to release the trigger handle.
 A Aim              Aim the nozzle at the base of the flames.
 S Squeeze          Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent.
 S Sweep            Sweep the nozzle from side to side across the base of the flames.
Note: Be careful to avoid touching the nozzle of a carbon dioxide extinguisher
due to the freezing effect of the CO2. Hold the nozzle using the rubber handle.

IMPORTANT:
1) Use good judgment to determine your capability to extinguish a fire.
    Always maintain an escape route.
    Never allow a fire to block your way out.
2) Portable fire extinguishers are designed to extinguish small fires only.
3) Do not attempt to extinguish a fire unless it is small and manageable, and you
have been trained to do so.

5.7.5 Vehicle fire extinguishers
UMHB vehicles are equipped with portable fire extinguishers.

5.7.6 Sprinkler Systems
The purpose of water sprinkler systems is to help extinguish and minimize the spread of
fires. Sprinklers are normally activated only by heat. They are not connected to
emergency pull stations. To ensure that sprinklers are effective in the event of a fire,
maintain at least 18 inches of clearance between any equipment or storage items and
the ceiling. (Anything close to the ceiling can defeat the sprinkler system.) Never hang
anything from a sprinkler head. Arrange work areas to facilitate sprinklers and allow
even water distribution.

5.7.7 Fire Suppression Systems
Work areas such as computer rooms or food service areas may contain fire suppression
systems, using dry chemical or carbon dioxide systems. Employees who work in these
areas must know how the fire suppression system works (automatic and manual pull
device).

5.7.8 Fire Hoses and Standpipe Systems
Fire hose cabinets are located in some buildings near the exit stairwells and in
corridors, and are used primarily by professional firefighters. Employees who use a fire
hose to extinguish a fire must have received training to ensure proper usage and safety.



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5.8    OPEN FLAMES PROHIBITED

Open flames (i.e. candles, etc.) in UMHB buildings including offices, workspaces,
classrooms, residences and dormitories are strictly prohibited. The only exceptions are:
 Approved Bunsen burners used in Laboratories & those used by the Art Department,
   which must be used under strict standards and supervision,
 Gas stoves & ovens where installed in kitchens,
 Acetylene and/or propane devices used by Facilities Services.
 Vendors performing contracted services including food services utilizing heat
   devices (i.e. Sterno fuel used in conjunction with warming trays).

Open flames are also prohibited on all campus grounds with the exception of
 locations where permanently installed outdoor cooking grills are installed, or
 locations where cookout events are scheduled and approved.
   o the event organizer must request approval via their respective Supervisor and
       Department Head at least five working days in advance of the event to the office
       of Risk Management, and
   o if approved, must notify Campus Police of the date/time and duration of the
       event.
 Minimum safety measures will include
   o a minimum 3 ft. safety perimeter around the grill,
   o an ABC type fire extinguisher on site, and
   o at least one individual on site trained in the proper use of the extinguisher.

Notes:
 All other open flames, such as torches and fire pits, are prohibited on campus.
 Fire extinguishers may never be removed from UMHB buildings – event organizers
   must either purchase an extinguisher for the event or request via Facilities Services
   five working days prior to the event. The event organizer will be responsible for any
   cost associated with providing extinguishers.

   Portable outdoor cooking grills are allowed to be used by residents in UMHB rental
    units (i.e. houses, duplexes, etc.) provided that
     o Grills are kept a minimum of 10 ft. from buildings,
     o A portable fire extinguisher is on hand, and
     o Flammables including lighter fluid, self-lighting charcoal, and propane cylinders
         are not stored in the housing unit.

In respect to food services the following will apply:
 Heat devices (i.e. Sterno fuel) may be utilized provided that such devices are
    compatible with the warming trays being utilized and surrounding materials are flame
    proof or flame retardant.
 Heat devices may never be left completely unattended and must be monitored.
 Monitoring includes;
    o food service personnel in attendance at the location(s) where heat devices are in
       use, or
    o “host” employees working at the location, or

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    o UMHB employees working in the vicinity (i.e. offices within the same suite or
      adjacent suites).
   Monitoring will be considered adequate when
    o food services employees trained in the proper use of and recommended safety
      practices for heat devices are attending the devices, or
    o when it is necessary for food services personnel to leave the location to perform
      other duties; the food services employee shall notify adjacent occupied offices
      that a “heat device” is burning in the adjacent area and that they (the food
      services employees) will return, and must also advise the UMHB employees of
      the approximate time they will return.
    o Occupants of adjacent areas are NOT required to leave their work area to
      monitor the heat devices. Instead, they will simply be aware that the devices are
      in use and will report any obvious discrepancies (i.e. smoke) to the appropriate
      authorities (i.e. Supervisors and/or Campus Police).




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5.9   HOLIDAY DECORATIONS

Holiday decorations can be fire hazards. Follow these guidelines to improve fire safety
during the holidays:
    Do not use live Christmas trees in university buildings unless they are treated
       with fire retardants. Substitute fire resistant artificial trees.
    Do not place holiday decorations where they may block emergency egress (e.g.,
       stairways, corridors, near doors, etc.).
    Do not use lights in conjunction with combustible decorations (i.e. paper on exit
       corridor doors or walls).
    Use decorations that are flame retardant.
    Practice good housekeeping by minimizing paper and other combustible
       decorations.
    Avoid using extension cords whenever possible.
       o If you must use an extension cord, use a grounded cord of the proper size
           and place it in plain view while ensuring the cord does not pose a tripping
           hazard.
       o Never use more than 3 sets of lights in a string.
       o Consult Facilities Services if necessary to ensure compliance.
    Use only FM or UL labeled electrical decorations.
    Do not use candles or use other decorations with open flames.
    Turn off decorative lights when the room or area is unoccupied.




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5.10 FIRE DRILLS

To ensure that building occupants are prepared for an emergency evacuation, fire drills
must be conducted, as noted below. A safe and orderly evacuation is more important
than a quick evacuation.

               Dormitories                        Every Semester

Fire drills for the dormitories will be scheduled by Residence Life staff and assisted by
representatives from Campus Police.

Drill procedures:
1. Drills involve all occupants.
   o Everyone must leave the building when the fire alarm sounds.
   o Exemptions to this policy will not normally be granted, unless it can be
       proven that special circumstances exist that would cause undue hardship
       or expense.
2. Occupants will close (not lock) doors as they evacuate.
3. All building occupants must gather at their pre-designated “Emergency
Assembly Point”.
    o See Section 6.0 – Emergency Preparedness- Appendix – Designated
        Shelters & Emergency Assembly Points.
4. Never use elevators during fire drills or events. Use the stairs.

Note: Drills will be evaluated to determine whether all occupants participated in
an appropriate manner. Additional training and/or drills will be conducted as
deemed necessary.




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6.0 EMERGENCY
PREPAREDNESS
                                TOPIC                  SECTION
General                                                  6.1
Emergency Response                                       6.2
Bomb Threats                                             6.3
Emergency Power                                          6.4
Evacuation Plans                                         6.5
Fire & Life Safety                                       6.6
Weather Emergencies                                      6.7
Hazardous Materials Incidents                            6.8
Shelter-in-Place                                         6.9
Earthquake                                              6.10
Civil Protest                                           6.11
Explosion                                               6.12
Workplace Violence                                      6.13
Appendix
Telephone Bomb Threat Checklist
UMHB Designated Shelters & Emergency Assembly Points




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6.1   GENERAL

An emergency is any situation that poses immediate or extreme danger to people,
property, or process. Because most emergencies are sudden, severe, and unexpected,
it is extremely important to be prepared. Proper preparation helps ensure safety and
survival. A written emergency response or action plan coupled with exercises/drills is
the best preparation tool for handling emergencies.

NOTE: This section of the Safety Manual contains general information and
response measures designed for employee use. Additional comprehensive
information related to the management of critical incidents can be found in the
UMHB Critical Incident Management Plan.

In addition to the university emergency plans each department should develop and
maintain its own policies and procedures specific to their operations. To ensure
effectiveness, response plans must be reviewed and updated at least once annually.
Each response plan should include but not be limited to the following information:
   Procedure for department and/or campus notification
   Emergency escape procedures and escape route assignments
   Emergency procedures for employees with special needs
   Rescue and medical assistance requirements
   Names of persons or departments to contact for more information
   Method for reporting emergencies
   Provision for training on emergency procedures

Excercises should be conducted periodically to ensure that UMHB is able to;
    benchmark its level of preparedness,
    rehearse plan specifics and train personnel to respond properly and effectively,
    and build employee confidence and unity.

Excercises typically vary in design but should include;
    Tabletop drills (i.e. two per year).
    Internal (in-house) exercise involving the Critical Incident Management Team,
      selected departments and individuals (i.e. one per year).
    External drill – a “real-time” exercise involving local organizations such as
      emergency management, fire department, police department, emergency
      medical services, etc. (i.e. one every two calendar years).

6.1.1 Definitions

Building Coordinator: The individual assigned to coordinate activities in or related to
the building during emergency incidents. This individual should possess knowledge of
utility shut-off valves (bunsen burners, etc.), location of hazardous chemicals, current
evacuation plans, etc., and will be the primary building contact. This person is also
responsible for;
 disseminating information to building occupants.
 performing a head count at the Emergency Assembly Point.
 reporting results to the Command Center (missing or suspected missing personnel).
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Assistant Building Coordinator: These individuals are assigned as a back-up to the
Building Coordinators in the event of their absence in the workplace.

Critical Incident Command Center (CICC): The critical incident command center is
the location selected by the critical incident management team (CIMT) to be used by
them or their designee(s) to develop responses and manage the recovery process
related to a long-term crisis situation.

Disaster vs. Emergency: The difference between these two terms is one of magnitude
and scope. An emergency is a crisis situation of a scale that can be handled by the
existing "first responder" system (police, fire, hazardous materials team) and normal
procedures. A disaster impacts a large area and overwhelms emergency response
resources and personnel. Some specific situations include: severe weather, fire, toxic
spills, floods, and explosions.

Emergency Assembly Point: The temporary evacuation area during an emergency.
Assembly points are usually adjacent to buildings.

Emergency Refuge Areas: These areas serve as "safe havens" for people with
mobility impairments. Emergency refuge areas are typically located in the stairwells of
multi-level buildings.

Incident Command System (ICS): The incident command system provides of
responding to all levels of emergencies from simple to complex. It also provides the
flexibility to respond to an incident as it escalates in severity.

 Incident Commander: The person at the scene of the crisis incident who would also
be in charge of the emergency response. The UMHB Director of Public Safety will
normally fill this role, but other individuals may be selected as the incident commander
depending on the type of crisis and level of severity.

State of Emergency: This situation exists when a critical incident has resulted in, or
has the potential to cause substantial disruption of university functions and is likely to be
long term and it becomes necessary, for continuity of normal operations and/or the well
being of the university community to modify/alter normal functions, established
procedures and/or policies without submitting to a formal process.

UMHB State of Disaster: A formal proclamation acknowledging a campus situation of
extreme peril that is beyond UMHB's internal response capabilities. A declaration of a
state of disaster made by the university President is required to obtain local, state and
federal assistance.

6.1.2 Responsibilities

Administration:
The university president (or designee) will, if deemed necessary, declare a state of
emergency on campus;
1) as a result of a natural disaster or civil disorder that pose a threat of serious
personnel injury or significant property damage, and

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2) extraordinary measures are required to avert, alleviate, or repair damage to university
property, to protect personnel, to maintain orderly campus operations, or to restore
normal operations.

The state of emergency will be terminated by the president (or designee) when the
situation has been stabilized and no longer considered a threat to personnel.

Critical Incident Management Plan (CIMP):
The critical incident management plan is a comprehensive document designed to guide
key university personnel in successfully responding to emergency events on or near the
campus.

Critical Incident Management Team (CIMT):
UMHB administration has appointed the critical incident management team (CIMT) to
coordinate emergency preparedness efforts, including response and recovery. Consult
the critical incident management plan for additional information.

Team members include, but are not limited to, the following:
Sr. Vice-President for Campus Planning & Support Services (Chairperson)
Sr. Vice-President for Administration/Chief Operating Officer
Sr. Vice-President for Academic Affairs
Vice-President for Student Life
Vice-President for Communications & Special Projects
Dean of College of Sciences
Director of Public Safety (Incident Commander)
Administrative Assistant to the President
Director of Risk Management

Team members will be called upon as needed to help coordinate emergency response
efforts. All key members will designate alternates to take their place in the event they
are unavailable.

Chairperson:
The chairperson of the Critical Incident Management Team has ultimate responsibility
for activation, oversight and termination of the Critical Incident Command Center
(CICC).

Vice Presidents/Deans:
Personnel in positions of leadership will be called upon as needed to offer support and
advice based upon their individual knowledge and expertise. They are expected to
assist in every way possible to maintain order during times of crisis.

Director of Public Safety:
The director of public safety will normally serve as the on-scene incident commander,
unless otherwise directed by administration or the chairperson of the critical incident
management team.




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Department Directors/Managers/Supervisors:
These personnel are also expected to assist in every way possible during critical events
and will:
1) Develop and implement department-specific policies and procedures to ensure that
their respective areas of responsibility are prepared for disasters before they occur.
2) Coordinate the use of employees to assist the critical incident management team in
response and restoration efforts.
3) Cooperate with risk management to ensure that every department is prepared to
respond to emergencies in a timely and appropriate manner.
4) Provide the necessary and applicable training for their staff to ensure departmental
readiness.

Risk Management:
The Director of Risk Management will assist the critical incident management team in
response to disasters or critical events as safety officer and will manage an ongoing
safety program designed to prepare the university to respond to any unexpected
emergency event.




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6.2    EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Call, or have someone call 5555 (and/or 911) immediately for all emergencies that
threaten or effect life and property. Remain calm, notify others, and respond to the
emergency as appropriate. Do not attempt to handle any emergency situation for which
you do not have training (e.g., fire fighting, first aid, spill response, etc.).

IMPORTANT: Call 5555 (and/or 911) whenever a situation poses immediate
danger to people, property, or process.

The UMHB Campus Police will request assistance as deemed necessary from other
emergency resources.

When you call to report an emergency, provide the following information:
   Your name
   Location - building or area name
   Brief description of the emergency

NOTE: Two EMERGENCY SIRENS are located on campus to warn faculty, staff,
students and visitors of potential emergencies. The sirens will be activated for a
variety of hazards including;
      Tornado
      Haz-mat incident
      Suspect with weapon or shooting incident




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6.3    BOMB THREATS

Bomb threats and other threats of violence are serious emergencies that require prompt
attention. Although bomb threats are rare, they are historically most likely to occur
during final exams or other campus-wide events (i.e. sporting events, commencement,
etc.).

Threats can be received by various means including note, letter, fax, or phone. If a
threat is in written form try not to handle it any more than necessary so that it can be
fingerprinted. Suspicious packages should be handled cautiously or not at all. A
package could be suspect if it contains no return address, is from a source with which
you are unfamiliar, or exudes unusual odors or sounds.

6.3.1 How to Handle a Threatening Phone Call
If you receive a bomb threat over the phone, remain calm and listen carefully. If
feasible, notify another person to listen on another extension. Take notes on the caller's
threat, tone, voice characteristics, and background noise using the UMHB Bomb Threat
Checklist (see Appendix).

IMPORTANT:
1) Report the threat immediately after the call is terminated to the UMHB
department of public safety at 5555 (do not report bomb threats directly to 911).
2) If caller I.D. is available be sure to record and report any number shown.

NOTE: A copy of the Bomb Threat Checklist should be kept at or near each
telephone. See Appendix – Telephone Bomb Threat Checklist.

6.3.2 UMHB Response to Bomb Threats
UMHB regards all bomb threats as serious and will investigate each occurrence. After
learning of a bomb threat, the UMHB department of public safety will initiate a search
the building or facility for anything "suspicious" or "out of the ordinary." After interviewing
the person who received the bomb threat, public safety will advise administration if the
threat appears to be a hoax or an actual emergency.

Note: The decision to evacuate a building or facility will be made by the Director
of Public Safety (Campus Police) in consultation with the Critical Incident
Management Team and university Administration.

6.3.3 Handling Suspicious-Looking Items
If you locate a suspicious-looking item, do not handle the item. Clear the area of
personnel and notify the department of public safety immediately. Campus Police will
notify local fire and law enforcement agencies and request assistance.




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6.3.4 Bomb Threat Observations
For most bomb threats, the caller announces that a bomb is set to go off at a certain
time and then hangs up. Because routine bomb threat evacuations may spawn
numerous hoax calls, consider the following:
 Most intended explosions have no warning. Usually, after the bomb is detonated, a
   party claims credit and then explains why the bomb was set.
 With few exceptions, bomb threats on campus are hoaxes designed to avoid or
   postpone an unpleasant task (e.g., exam).

Note: Once a building is evacuated it will be re-occupied only after Administration
and/or the Critical Incident Management Team has consulted with law
enforcement authorities and authorized personnel to re-enter.

6.4   EMERGENCY POWER

The Sanderford Administrative complex and the Mayborn Campus Center are equipped
with emergency generators. All other buildings are equipped with battery backup power
to illuminate strategically placed emergency exit lighting and/or exit signs.

Employees must remember that the batteries which power emergency lighting have a
limited time period. Therefore, some departments (esp. those that may work at night)
should consider keeping a sufficient number of flashlights on hand to aid in a safe
evacuation, if deemed necessary.

Portable emergency generators can and will be utilized when deemed necessary to
sustain selected operations during the recovery phase of an emergency event.




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6.5   EVACUATION PLANS

A written plan for emergencies and fire drills is essential for each university department
or building. Evacuation exercises are particularly important for buildings with multiple
floors, including business and residence occupancies. Studies show that when
occupants discuss, plan, implement, and practice evacuation plans, they are better able
to protect themselves and others.

6.5.1 Developing a Plan
Each department is responsible for developing its own emergency plans according to
their needs and operations. The following items should be considered when developing
plans:
 Contact the Office of Risk Management and/or Campus Police for assistance in
   developing plans.
 Special attention must be given to evacuation procedures for the physically
   challenged. Even if no known building occupants have special needs, the evacuation
   plan must contain these provisions to ensure the safety of visitors or others with
   special needs.
 The “Emergency Assembly Point” (EAP), is critical in determining if anyone may still
   be in building (see Appendix).
 Personnel (i.e. Building Coordinators) should be responsible for:
   o Ensuring that personnel are aware of an emergency and the need to evacuate.
   o Ensuring that evacuation routes are clearly posted in prominently traveled areas.
   o Ensuring that new employees are familiar with evacuation and fire drill
       procedures.

6.5.2 Evacuation Drills
To ensure that building occupants are prepared for an emergency evacuation, drills
must be conducted, as noted below. A safe and orderly evacuation is more important
than a quick evacuation.

              Dormitories/Residences             Every semester

Note: Evacuation drills are normally conducted in conjunction with fire drills.
Refer to Section 5.10 Fire Drills for specific drill procedures.




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6.6    FIRE & LIFE SAFETY

6.6.1 General
An immediate response to fire events is essential in preserving life and property. Fire
prevention practices are the greatest protection in promoting life safety in occupied
buildings.

NOTE: Refer to Chapter 5.0 Fire & Life Safety for more comprehensive details
regarding fire and life safety.

6.6.2 Fire Response
If you discover a fire or smoke remember the RACE formula:

R     Rescue              Rescue all building occupants.
A     Alarm               Sound the Alarm – pull nearest fire alarm pull station
                          and/or call 5555 (and/or 911).
C     Contain             Contain fire & smoke by closing doors as you evacuate.
E     Extinguish/Evacuate Extinguish the fire / evacuate the building.

6.6.3 Fire extinguishers
Portable fire extinguishers are located throughout all university facilities. They are
mounted in readily accessible locations such as hallways, near exit doors and areas
containing fire hazards.

Fire extinguishers should be used to extinguish only small manageable fires and only if
you have been trained to do so, using the PASS formula:
 P Pull             Pull the pin to release the trigger handle.
 A Aim              Aim the nozzle at the base of the flames.
 S Squeeze          Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent.
 S Sweep            Sweep the nozzle from side to side across the base of the flames.
Note: Be careful to avoid touching the nozzle of a carbon dioxide extinguisher
due to the freezing effect of the CO2. Hold the nozzle using the rubber handle.

IMPORTANT:
1) Use good judgment to determine your capability to extinguish a fire.
    Always maintain an escape route.
    Never allow a fire to block your way out.
2) Portable fire extinguishers are designed to extinguish small fires only.
3) Do not attempt to extinguish a fire unless it is small and manageable, and you
have been trained to do so.




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6.7    WEATHER EMERGENCIES

6.7.1 General
Weather emergency concerns for the Bell County area primarily include high winds,
heavy rains, lightning, and tornadoes. At times, snow and ice can also be a threat to
safe travel or normal operations.

IMPORTANT NOTES:
1) University classes are not canceled and offices are not closed unless deemed
necessary by UMHB Administration.
2) University closure is determined as early as practical to ensure personnel
safety.
3) If classes are cancelled local radio and television stations will be notified and
notice will posted on the UMHB intranet and/or website.
4) Do not contact Campus Police for information about delays and closures.
Contact your Supervisor or Department Head, if necessary.
4) If classes are not canceled, but your local weather conditions make it
hazardous for you to travel you should remain at that location and notify your
Supervisor or Department Head.

6.7.2 Heavy Rain/High Winds
Heavy rain and high winds can cause dangerous driving conditions. Because flooding
can occur in the area, personnel should be aware of local weather conditions and avoid
roads that tend to flood in heavy rains.

Should flooding occur or threaten to occur the university president (or designee) will
announce an evacuation only if safe to do so. Public Safety will close flooded roadways
and will assist with an orderly evacuation.

 IMPORTANT: Do not drive in flooded areas or attempt to cross moving water in
an automobile. Moving water can easily capsize a car or truck.

High winds can topple trees, outdoor equipment, and electrical lines. Avoid downed
power lines and notify the utility company of power outages. If an electrical line falls
across your car, do not move the car or try to get out. Stay where you are until help
arrives.

6.7.3 Lightning
Lightning is an extremely dangerous event that can cause serious injury or death.
 Lightning need not strike a person directly to be dangerous.
 Lightning can occur in virtually clear sky.
 Stay away from open doors or windows during an electrical storm.
 Avoid using the telephone or television set and keep clear of all metal objects such
   as pipes and electrical appliances during a storm.
 Do not go outside.

If you find yourself caught in a storm away from a protected building:
 Avoid tree lines.

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   Stay away from flag poles, towers, and metal fences.
   Do not wade, swim, or go boating in a thunderstorm.
   A closed automobile provides a protective metal shell.
   If caught in the open, stay low.

6.7.4 Hurricane
Because UMHB is located approximately 200 miles inland, the main threat from a
hurricane is moderate to heavy rains and possible tornado activity.

6.7.5 Tornado
Tornadoes produce violent winds that can damage homes, vehicles, people, and
wildlife. The primary dangers associated with tornadoes are high winds and flying
debris. Severe thunderstorms and hail commonly precede a tornado. A dark funnel
cloud or roaring noise (like a train) is evidence of an actual tornado.

A tornado watch is issued when weather conditions are ideal for a tornado to form.
A tornado warning is issued when a tornado is actually identified in the immediate
vicinity and will be signaled by the UMHB campus sirens (2) and/or the Belton
emergency preparedness sirens.

If a tornado warning is issued, seek shelter immediately. Stay away from windows,
doors, and outside walls.
 Do not drive to shelter, unless you are already in a vehicle when the warning is
    issued. Drive to the nearest building or seek shelter in a ditch or ravine and cover
    your head.
 Never try to outrun a tornado in your vehicle.
 Proceed immediately to shelter in your building. Interior halls or rooms without
    windows on the lowest floors are best. Use strong furniture (i.e. desks) for
    protection if necessary.

6.7.6 Winter Weather
Even though extreme winter weather is uncommon in this area, people must still take
special precautions to ensure safety. Wear appropriate clothing for local weather
conditions and keep your vehicle in good working order. If the roads become slick with
ice, use extreme caution or avoid driving.
 Slippery streets increase stopping distances. Drive slowly in winter weather.
 Choose shoes that provide the best footing for the weather. Be sure to wipe feet
    when entering buildings to avoid slipping on tile or linoleum flooring.
 Clear walkways and steps of snow and ice.
 Use handrails where available.
 Clean snow and ice from all vehicle windows.




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6.8   HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS

6.8.1 General
Hazardous materials incidents include spills or releases of chemicals, biological agents,
radioactive materials, or dangerous gases. All must be handled in a safe and effective
manner.

Refer to the following sections for more information on the safe handling of chemicals
and other hazardous materials:
7.0 - Hazard Communication                8.0 - Hazardous Waste Management
9.0 - Personal Protective Equipment       15.0 - Chemical Hygiene
16.0 - Biological Safety

Trained department personnel are equipped to handle small spills. Large spills are
unlikely to occur on campus, but would typically be handled by a commercially licensed
contractor.

6.8.2 Spill Response
Shops, labs, and areas which utilize hazardous materials should have spill clean-up
supplies on hand. Small spills can usually be managed by UMHB personnel using the
proper personal protective equipment and spill kit, consulting the applicable Material
Safety Data Sheet and knowledgeable employees.

Potential hazards from oil spills, fuel spills, chemical spills and other hazardous
materials must be reported to Risk Management and Campus Police. If anyone has
suffered an exposure call 5555 (and/or 911) immediately and request medical
assistance.

Note: Contaminated personnel should be segregated from others to prevent
additional exposure and care exercised in treatment to avoid improper
decontamination.

In the event of a spill or release, decisions must be made quickly in order to prevent the
unnecessary spread the contaminants and to protect personnel. Use the following
response chart to determine necessary response actions.
      Spill                 Notification              Evacuation            Mitigation
   Type/Size
 Small Spills       Supervisor/Dept. Head        Evacuate personnel Contain and clean
     Low to        Risk Management (4527)         to safe area – min. up using staff and
   Moderate          Campus Police (5555)        two spaces away or        cleanup kit.
     Hazard                                         to bldg. exterior.
 Large Spills       Supervisor/Dept. Head        Evacuate personnel       Cleanup to be
    Serious        Risk Management (4527)             to primary or     done by Haz-Mat
     Hazard          Campus Police (5555)              secondary            contractor.
                          Critical Incident        evacuation point.
                        Management Team
IMPORTANT: All Haz-Mat incidents must always be managed using caution and
all available resources to ensure the health and safety of personnel.

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6.9    SHELTER-IN-PLACE

6.9.1 General
The Shelter-in-Place policy is necessary to provide a reasonable degree of protection
for UMHB faculty, staff, students and visitors in the event of a release of hazardous
materials into the atmosphere in the vicinity of or within the confines of the campus, or
other emergencies including but not limited to an act of violence nearby or on campus.

The university takes precautions necessary to properly store hazardous materials used
on campus (i.e. lab chemicals, fertilizers, refrigerants, lubricants, fuels, etc.). Although a
release of these products is unlikely, those personnel responsible for the proper use of
hazardous materials are able to respond to spills or releases in a safe, effective
manner.

Hazardous materials releases are possible from other sources that might affect the
university, including but not limited to;
 Trucking accident
 Threat of terrorism
 Railway derailment or unintentional release

In order to protect all personnel within the boundaries of the university this shelter-in-
place policy has been designed to instruct them to take shelter and take necessary
precautions to increase the level of protection afforded by the various structures.

6.9.2 Shelter-in-Place Procedures
Upon notification of, or becoming aware of a release of hazardous materials or other
emergency on campus, or in the vicinity of the university, which is either considered a
danger to personnel or has the potential to be a danger, UMHB personnel will take the
following steps:

Shelter-in-Place
 Take shelter inside nearest building immediately.
 Close all doors and windows.
 Turn air conditioning/heating/ventilation off.
  o Facilities Services will secure many buildings remotely.
  o Building Coordinators will secure manual systems, if possible.
 Seal doors and windows if necessary (tape and/or towels).
 Report incident;
     o Call 5555 – report to Campus Police.
     o You may also notify 911 if deemed necessary.
 Remain sheltered until released by local fire department/law enforcement authorities

Administer First Aid
 Call 5555 - report personnel injuries
 Treat injuries only as directed by professional medical personnel

Evacuate – only when directed to do so by emergency authorities (fire/police).

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6.10 EARTHQUAKE

6.10.1 General
Earthquakes are unpredictable and are therefore events that occur suddenly and
without warning. In the event of an earthquake all personnel must act immediately to
protect themselves and others.

6.10.2 Procedures
 If indoors stay inside and take shelter under a strong desk or other object which is
   not likely to collapse. Small interior rooms without windows are typically safer than
   large open rooms with glass windows and doors. Evacuate as soon as the tremors
   subside to the designated Evacuation Point.
 If outdoors remain outside and move away from buildings or other objects which
   might fall. Go to your emergency assembly point as soon as possible.
 If personnel are injured assist with first aid as needed and notify Campus Police at
   5555 and/or 911 immediately. Don’t move seriously injured personnel unless
   absolutely necessary.
 Keep clear of fallen or damaged electrical systems and natural gas leaks.
 Stay calm and help keep others calm.




                                                                                       80
6.11 CIVIL PROTEST

6.11.1 GENERAL
A civil protest will usually take the form of an organized public demonstration of
disapproval or display disagreement with an idea or course of action. It should be noted
that in many cases campus protests such as marches, meetings, picketing and rallies
will be peaceful and non-obstructive.

A protest should not be disrupted unless one or more of the following conditions exists
as a result of the demonstration:

   Disruption of the normal operations of the university.
   Obstructing access to offices, buildings, or other university facilities.
   Threat of physical harm to persons or damage to university facilities.
   Willful demonstrations within the interior of any university building or structure,
    except as specifically authorized and subject to reasonable conditions imposed to
    protect the rights and safety of other persons and to prevent damage to property.
   Unauthorized entry into or occupation of any university room, building, or area of the
    campus, including such entry or occupation at any unauthorized time, or any
    unauthorized or improper use of any university property, equipment, or facilities.

NOTE: If a protest develops, or any of the above conditions exist;
 Notify the UMHB Campus Police at 5555.
 Lock all exterior facility doors.

The UMHB Campus Police will be responsible for engaging protestors in
dialogue. Other employees should not engage the protestors unless requested to
do so by Campus Police.

6.11.2 Procedures

1. Peaceful, Non-Obstructive Protest

Generally, peaceful protests should not be interrupted. Protestors should not be
obstructed or provoked and efforts should be made to conduct university business as
normally as possible.

2. Non-Violent, Disruptive Protest

In the event that a protest blocks access to university facilities or interferes with the
operation of the UMHB Campus Police will go to the area and ask the protestors to
leave or to discontinue the disruptive activities.

If the protestors persist in disruptive behavior UMHB Campus Police will order
evacuation advising them of possible arrest.


                                                                                            81
3. Violent, Disruptive Protests

In the event that a violent protest in which injury to persons or property occurs or
threatens to occur, UMHB Campus Police will respond to the scene and will contact
university Administration.

Attempts will be made to communicate with the protestors to convince them to desist
from engaging in violent activities in order to avoid further escalation of possible violent
confrontation.

If necessary the Director of Campus Police or designee will call for assistance from the
Belton Police Department or other law enforcement agencies as needed.




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6.12 EXPLOSION
6.12.1 General

An explosion is caused by a rapid expansion of gas from chemical reactions or
incendiary devices. An explosion may result in a very loud noise or series of noises and
vibrations, fire, heat or smoke, falling glass or debris, or building damage.

6.12.2 Procedures
 Evacuate the building as quickly and calmly as possible.
 Notify Campus Police at 5555 and/or emergency services at 911.
 If there is a fire, stay low to the floor and exit the building as quickly as possible.
 If you are trapped in debris, tap on a pipe or wall so that rescuers can hear where
   you are.
 Assist others in exiting the building and move to designated evacuation areas.
 Do not attempt to rescue people who are inside a collapsed building. Wait for
   emergency personnel to arrive.
 If personnel are injured assist with first aid as needed and notify UMHB Campus
   Police at 5555, and/or emergency services at 911 immediately. Don’t move
   seriously injured personnel unless absolutely necessary.

Emergency services units will respond and make decisions regarding the control and
abatement of the explosion incident. The decision to re-occupy a building will be made
by the Critical Incident Management Team based upon recommendations by the local
Fire Department authorities and the UMHB Incident Commander.




                                                                                            83
6.13 WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

6.13.1 General
Violent incidents including but not limited to assaults or acts of terrorism can occur on
campus or at university hosted events with little or no warning.

6.13.2 Procedures

In the event an act of violence occurs in the workplace employees should;
     Lock and/or barricade doors and remain in the protected area until police arrive -
       unless your location is not safe.
     Turn off all lights and lay on the floor.
     Do not open the door to anyone other than the Police.
     Dial 5555 and/or 911 and provide;
          o your exact location,
          o the nature of the disruption
          o how many people are with you,
          o if anyone is injured
          o description of the suspect(s)
          o if weapons were used.
          o your phone number.
     Follow all instructions given by law enforcement officers when they enter the
       room.




                                                                                            84
APPENDIX
Bomb Threat Checklist
Designated Shelters/Emergency Assembly Points




                                                85
                       Telephone Bomb Threat Checklist

                           REMAIN CALM & COMPLETE FORM

TIME: Call received ___________am/pm                       Terminated        __________am/pm

Number from Caller I.D.                                (            )

EXACT WORDS OF CALLER:




DELAY: ASK CALLER TO REPEAT.
Questions you should ask:
A. When is the bomb set to explode? _______________________________________
B. Where is the bomb located? Floor________ Area____________________________
C. Kind of bomb? _______________________________________________________
D. What does the bomb look like? __________________________________________
E. What will cause it to explode? ___________________________________________
F. Did you place the bomb? ______________________________________________
G. Why did you place the bomb? __________________________________________
H. Where are you calling from? ____________________________________________
I. What is your name? ___________________________________________________
J. What is your address? ________________________________________________
Threat Language:
  Well Spoken (educated)          Irrational               Taped
  Foul                            Incoherent               Message read by threat maker

Voice Description:

  Male                Calm                     Rapid                Laughter         Rough
  Female              Angry                    Nervous              Crying           Refined
  Young               Excited                  Soft                 Normal           Slurred
  Middle-Aged         Slow                     Loud                 Distinct         Nasal
  Stutter             Cracking Voice           Raspy                Deep             Ragged
  Clearing Throat     Deep breathing           Lisp                 Disguised        Accent
  Familiar


                                                                                               86
Other Descriptors:

Accent ___Yes ___No Describe___________________________                       ________
Speech Impediment ___Yes ___No Describe____________                   ______________
Unusual Phrases ____________________________                   _____________________
Recognize Voice? If so, who do you think it was? _________ ______________
BACKGROUND NOISE

  Street Noise        Industrial Equipment     Cell phone        Aircraft
  PA System           Animal Noises            Local             Bells
  Music               Clear                    Long Distance     Talking
  House Noises        Static                   Traffic           Telephones
  Motor               Office Equipment         Train
  Other

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
A. Did caller indicate knowledge of the facility? If so, how? In what way?

______________________________________________________________________

B. What line did call come in on? ___________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

C. Is number listed? ___Yes ___No Private Number? Whose? _________________

______________________________________________________________________


REMARKS:




Signature________________________            Date__________________ Time _________




                                                                                         87
UMHB Designated Shelters & Emergency Assembly Points
Safety Manual 6.0 Appendix   Revised 1/12/2011
         Building                 Interior Shelter           Exterior           Protected
                                                          Assembly Point        Assembly
                                                                                  Point
 Baptist Student Ministry    Restrooms/hallway            Davidson Parking   Davidson
 Clements Building           Restrooms/hallway            Moon Parking       Moon Bldg.
 Christian Studies Center    Workroom 107                 Davidson Parking   Davidson
 Community Life Center       Restrooms                    Davidson Parking   Davidson
 Conference House            1st floor interior           Parking Lot        Shannon Com.
 Copy Center                 Restrooms/hallway            Parker Parking     Sanderford
 Davidson Building           Restrooms                    East Parking       Library
 Frazier Building            Restrooms                    Quadrangle         MCC
 Hardy Hall                  1st floor hallway            Quadrangle         Chapel
 Heard Hall                  1st floor hallway            East Parking       Library
 Intramural Fields           Adjacent Buildings           MCC Parking        MCC
 Mabee Student Center        1st floor – SUB              Quadrangle         Wells Hall
 Mayborn Campus Center       1st floor locker rooms       South Parking      Hardy Hall
 Moon Building               Restrooms                    Clements Parking   Clements
 Parker Academic Center      1st fl. Restrooms/Lord       Parking Lot        Chapel
 Police Department           Restrooms/hallway            Parking Lot        Sanderford
 Presser Hall                Art Dept. hallway            Quadrangle         Mabee
 Reading Camp                Restrooms                    Parker Parking     Parker
 Sanderford                  East 1122, 1124 & 1125       Vann Circle        Library
                             West 1360 &1363
                             North FR1212 & TR 1233
 Townsend Library            Restrooms/hallway            Vann Circle        Wells Hall
 Walton Chapel               Central auditorium           Luther Memorial    Wells Hall
 Wells/York Hall             1st fl. restrooms/Brindley   Luther Memorial    Library
 Williams Service Center     Office hallway               Parking Lot        Hardy Hall
 York Art Studio             Restroom/office              East Parking       Mabee
 York House                  Restroom                     Davidson Parking   Davidson




                                                                                          88
Residence Halls/Apartments:
        Building               Interior Shelter          Exterior             Protected
                                                      Assembly Point          Assembly
                                                                                 Point
Beall Hall                Interior Restrooms         Intramural Field       MCC
Burt Hall                 1st floor restrooms/hall   Quadrangle             Chapel
Gettys Hall               1st floor restrooms/hall   Quadrangle             MCC
Huckins Apartments        Interior restrooms         Field - 9th & Pearl    Davidson
Johnson Hall              1st floor restrooms/hall   Quadrangle             MCC
McLane Hall               1st floor restrooms/hall   Adjacent Parking       MCC
Remschel Hall             1st floor restrooms/hall   Quadrangle             MCC
Stribling Hall            1st floor restrooms/hall   Quadrangle             MCC


Independence Village Residences:
        Building               Interior Shelter          Exterior             Protected
                                                      Assembly Point          Assembly
                                                                                Point
Shannon Commons           Interior restrooms/ hall   Courtyard              MCC
Clark Hall (3)            Restrooms                  East Parking Lot       MCC
Grover Hall (1)           Restrooms                  East Parking Lot       MCC
Hobby Hall (10)           Restrooms                  North Parking Lot      MCC
James Hall (7)            Restrooms                  South Parking Lot      MCC
Ferguson Hall (2)         Restrooms                  East Parking Lot       MCC
Provence (5)              Restrooms                  South Parking Lot      MCC
Taylor (6)                Restrooms                  East Parking Lot       MCC
Tryon (8)                 Restrooms                  South Parking Lot      MCC
Tyson (11)                Restrooms                  East Parking Lot       MCC
Wilson (9)                Restrooms                  South Parking Lot      MCC
Garner Hall               Restrooms                  South Parking Lot      MCC

Sportsplex:
         Building               Interior Shelter         Exterior              Protected
                                                      Assembly Point           Assembly
                                                                                  Point
Andersen Field House       Weight/locker rooms       Parking Lot            MCC
Athletic Fields            Adjacent buildings        Parking Lot            Field House
Li Tennis Complex          Change Rooms              Parking Lot            Shannon Com.


The designated off-campus assembly points are:
Primary: Belton 1st Baptist Church – 506 N. Main Street (Gym on Pearl St.).
Secondary: Belton 1st Methodist Church - 205 East Third Street.

Additional evacuation sites will be identified by the American Red Cross.




                                                                                          89
7.0 HAZARD
COMMUNICATION
                                TOPIC   SECTION
Introduction                              7.1
Duties & Responsibilities                 7.2
Container Labeling                        7.3
Material Safety Data Sheets               7.4
Training                                  7.5
Appendix
EmployeeTraining Guidelines
Haz-Com Program Checklist
Certificate of Training
Hazardous Materials Inventory List




                                                90
7.1    INTRODUCTION

The Hazard Communication Program complies with OSHA standards (29 CFR
1910.1200) and the Texas Health Safety Code (HSC 502) for hazardous materials and
includes the following:

      Labeling procedures
      Chemical inventory list(s)
      Employee training
      Personnel responsibilities
      Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

The Hazard Communication Program must be observed by all UMHB personnel. The
program will be managed and coordinated by the office of Risk Management.

Department supervisors, to the best of their ability, will ensure that the program is
observed in all work places and will cooperate fully to ensure its success.

The program will be updated when new chemicals or hazards are introduced into the
workplace and will be reviewed annually. Those responsible for purchasing and/or
receiving chemical products must ensure that Material Safety Data Sheets are
requested, received and provided to the appropriate locations.

Note: Hazardous Materials Inventory lists are maintained by individual
departments and a copy is provided annually (or as updated) to the office of Risk
Management and to the UMHB Campus Police.




                                                                                        91
7.2   RESPONSIBILITIES

7.2.1       Department Heads
Department Heads must, to the best of their ability, ensure implementation and
compliance with the Haz-Com Program within their respective areas of responsibility as
follows:
1) Develop written procedures necessary to implement and manage the Haz-Com
      Program within their area;
2) Report any incident requiring outside medical assistance or haz-mat response to
      Risk Management.
3) Designate hazardous materials work areas within each workplace;
4) Provide to Risk Management by November 01 of each year:
      a) Hazardous Materials Inventory List for each work area (other than a research
          laboratory);
      b) inventory updates whenever a new product or additional quantity above normal
          restocking amounts of product is purchased.
      c) annual notice of training completion (e.g., memo, email);
      d) names and telephone numbers of department emergency contacts.
5) Maintain training records (minimum of 5 years);
6) Ensure that Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) on hazardous chemicals and
      other materials purchased are readily available in the department;
7) Provide employees with or otherwise require them to provide for themselves the
      appropriate personal protective equipment and ensure the equipment fits the
      individual;
8) Inform employees of any non-routine chemical/product exposure;

7.2.2     Risk Management
The UMHB Director of Risk Management administers and coordinates the Haz-Com
Program for university facilities. Duties include:
1) Maintain liaison with regulatory agencies;
2) Assist departments with the implementation of, and compliance with this Program;
3) Assist departments with employee training;
4) Ensure that departments compile and maintain hazardous materials inventory lists;
5) Ensure that chemical inventory lists are maintained (30 years);
6) Provide the names and telephone numbers of emergency contacts to the local fire
      department(s), and provide the materials inventory lists and Material Safety Data
      Sheets (MSDSs) upon request;
7) Facilitate inspections by the local and/or state fire departments or other agencies.




                                                                                     92
7.2.3 Supervisors
Supervisors will, to the best of their ability, ensure that the requirements of the UMHB
Haz-Com Program are fulfilled within their work areas. Their duties include:
1) Ensure that all employees have received appropriate training before working with
     or in an area containing hazardous products;
2) Provide to the department director all Haz-Com training records;
3) Maintain a work area inventory list;
4) Inform employees regarding the location of the work area inventory and MSDS
     manual;
5) Inform the department director whenever a new product or additional quantity
     above normal restocking amounts of product is purchased.

7.2.4 Employees
Employees will:
1) Attend training as required;
2) Use prudent practices and good judgment when using hazardous products or
   hazardous procedures;
3) Notify other individuals who might be affected by the hazardous materials used.

7.2.5 All Personnel
All personnel who work with hazardous materials are expected to assume reasonable
responsibility for the safety and health of themselves, others around them, and the
environment.

7.2.6 Contractors
Contracted Construction, Repair and Maintenance: Contractors must comply with
state and federal hazard communication regulations and the UMHB Haz-Com Program
regarding hazardous or nuisance materials used during projects on all university
facilities and property.
1) Contractors will provide to the UMHB Project Coordinator, a list of any hazardous
       or nuisance materials to be used on the project and will provide appropriate hazard
       information, including MSDSs,
2) Contractors will provide prior notification of intended use of hazardous or nuisance
       materials to the UMHB Project Coordinator, the UMHB Dir. of Risk Management,
       and the Department Director of any affected UMHB workplace.
3) The UMHB Project Coordinator will provide to the UMHB Dir. of Risk Management
       any and all pertinent information, including MSDSs for the chemicals involved.
4) The department director will ensure that individuals in the affected workplace be
       provided information on the hazards of the chemicals, measures that they can take
       to protect themselves from those hazards, and access to MSDSs.




                                                                                        93
7.3   CONTAINER LABELING

OSHA/HSC requires chemical manufacturers, importers and distributors to label all
hazardous chemicals with the identity, appropriate hazard warnings, and the name and
address of the manufacturer. The employer (UMHB) is required to ensure that each
workplace container of hazardous chemicals is clearly marked with the substance
identity and that hazard warnings appropriate for employee protection are included on
the label. Hazardous materials containers will not be used unless it has first been
checked by the appropriate supervisor, who must also ensure that if products are
transferred to other containers they are properly marked and labeled.
Note: The only exception to the labeling standard is for those portable containers
that are intended only for immediate use. However, employees are encouraged to
also label such immediate use containers.
An integral part of hazard communication is hazard identification. Everyone who works
with hazardous materials should know how to read and interpret hazard information.
UMHB utilizes the standard NFPA hazard classification code system.

7.3.1 NFPA hazard classification codes:
    Health (Blue):
        o 4 Can cause death or major injury despite medical treatment
        o 3 Can cause serious injury despite medical treatment
        o 2 Can cause injury. Requires prompt medical treatment
        o 1 Can cause irritation if not treated
        o 0 No hazard
    Flammability (Red):
        o 4 Very flammable gases or liquids
        o 3 Can ignite at normal temperatures
        o 2 Ignites with moderate heat
        o 1 Ignites with considerable preheating
        o 0 Will not burn
    Reactivity (Yellow):
        o 4 Readily detonates or explodes
        o 3 May detonate or explode with strong initiating force or heat under
           confinement
        o 2 Normally unstable, but will not detonate
        o 1 Normally stable. Unstable at high temperature and pressure.
        o 0 Normally stable and not reactive with water.
    Specific Hazards (White):
        o Oxidizer - OX
        o Acid - ACID
        o Alkali - ALK
        o Corrosive - COR
        o Use No Water - W
         o   Radioactive –




                                                                                  94
7.4   MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS)

Each department supervisor is responsible for maintaining a complete MSDS library for
the hazardous materials used in their respective departments. The MSDS system in
each department will include:
    A master MSDS inventory list indexed numerically to match the inventory list.
    The identity used on the MSDS will be the same as that on the container labels.

Each person responsible for ordering chemicals or other hazardous materials will
ensure that MSDSs are ordered for each. Procurement personnel will ensure that an
MSDS is received with each incoming order, and each department supervisor must
ensure that no hazardous products are used without having an MSDS on site. MSDSs
may commonly be obtained by fax or on-line (supplier or manufacturer web-sites).

Department supervisors will also ensure that each MSDS is reviewed for new and
significant health/safety information and will ensure that the new information is provided
to all affected personnel.

7.4.1 Each MSDS must include:
    The physical and chemical characteristics of the product including vapor
      pressure, flash point, etc.;
    The fire, explosion and reactivity hazard(s) of the product mixture including
      boiling point, flash point and auto-ignition temperature;
    Health hazards of the product mixture including signs and symptoms of exposure
      and medical conditions recognized as aggravated by exposure with primary
      route(s) of entry;
    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) or other exposure limits used or
      recommended by the manufacturer, importer or employer;
    Whether the product is listed as a carcinogen or a suspect carcinogen by the
      National Toxicology Program (NTP), International Agency for Research on
      Cancer (IARC), or OSHA;
    Control measures including fire, engineering controls, and personal protective
      equipment;
    General precautions for safe handling and use including protective measures
      during repair and maintenance procedures for clean-up of spills and leaks;
    Emergency and first aid procedures;
    Date prepared or updated;
    The name, address and telephone numbers of the responsible party to call in an
      emergency.




                                                                                        95
7.5   TRAINING

Risk Management will facilitate and coordinate the initial safety training of new
employees in accordance with safety program requirements. Each department
supervisor will be responsible for department-specific training of staff and students,
including the use/location of MSDSs and the hazardous chemicals or materials to be
used, and whenever a new hazard is introduced into the work area.
The minimum requirements for orientation and training for new personnel are as follows:
     An overview of the requirements contained in the Hazard Communication
       Standard (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200 / HSC 502);
     Hazardous chemicals and materials present in the workplace;
     Location and availability of the written Hazard Communication Program;
     Physical and health effects of the hazardous materials listed on the inventory list
       of this program;
     Methods and observation techniques used to determine the presence or release
       of hazardous materials in the work area;
     How to lessen or prevent exposure to these hazardous materials through usage
       of control/work practices and personal protective equipment;
     Steps taken by UMHB to lessen or prevent exposure to the hazardous materials
       on the inventory list;
     Emergency procedures to follow if exposed to any hazardous products;
     Location of the MSDS file and location of hazardous inventory list;
     Proper labeling requirements for containers; and
     Explanation on how to read and interpret each MSDS.

Prior to a new product being introduced into the workplace, each affected person will be
given the necessary information and training as outlined above. Training attendance will
be documented and a training database will be maintained by Risk Management.

7.5.1 Non-Routine Tasks
Prior to any non-routine tasks being performed the respective Department
Head/Supervisor must advise all affected personnel must be advised including:
     Any special precautions to follow;
     Specific product name(s) and hazard(s);
     Personal protective equipment required and safety measure to be taken;
     Measures that have been taken to lessen the hazards including ventilation,
        respirator, presence of other employees, and emergency procedures.




                                                                                      96
7.5.2 Exposure of Other Personnel (Contractors/Consultants)
The appropriate Department Head/Supervisor is responsible to provide other personnel
or outside contractors with the following information;
     Hazardous materials to which they may be exposed to while in the workplace;
     Measures to lessen the potential exposure;
     Location of MSDSs and labeling requirements for all hazardous materials;
     Procedures to follow if an exposure occurs.

Department supervisors are responsible for obtaining any information concerning
hazards that each contractor or other person might introduce into the workplace.

Department supervisors must keep the Dir. of Risk Management informed regarding
any exchange of information between UMHB and contractors, consultants or other
persons.




                                                                                   97
APPENDIX
Haz-Com EmployeeTraining Guidelines
Haz-Com Program Checklist
Hazardous Materials Inventory List (template)




                                                98
                     Haz-Com Employee Training Guidelines

  1) Prepare Objectives:

      A    Develop a safety attitude.
      B    Make personnel aware of hazardous materials in the workplace.
      C    Motivate personnel to protect themselves by preventing exposure to
           hazardous chemicals.
      D    Learn how to read and understand labeling and MSDSs.

  2) Design Training Program:

      A    Identify what and where hazardous chemicals are located in the work areas.
      B    The nature (odor and visual appearance) and hazard of the chemicals,
           including local and systemic toxicity.
      C    The specific nature of the operation involving hazardous chemicals that might
           result in employee exposure.
      D    Specific information to aid the employee in the recognition and evaluation of
           conditions and situations which may result in the release of hazardous
           chemicals.
      E    Purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices.
      F    The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices.
      G    The type, use and limitations of personal protective equipment, including
           location and availability.
      H    Review of the Hazard Communication standard (29 CFR 1910.1200).

3) Training Program Techniques:

      A    Handout material – examples of labels, MSDSs, etc.
      B    Audio Visual presentation
      C    Demonstration of protective equipment (what/when/where/how)
      D    Test or quiz
      E    Attendance Records

4) Assessing Effectiveness:

      A    Training objectives met?
      B    Program revision necessary?
      C    Program material clear, concise & complete?
      D    Refresher training interval?
      E    Learning level adequate?




                                                                                         99
                         Haz-Com Program Checklist
   1    Contains written list of all hazardous materials present in the workplace.
   2    Method in place to update the hazardous materials inventory list.
   3    Updated MSDSs for all products on the hazardous materials inventory.
   4    Hazardous materials cross-referenced with MSDSs and warning labels.
   5    Method in place to ensure all incoming hazardous materials received with
        proper labeling and MSDS.
   6    Methods in place to ensure proper labeling and/or warning signs for bulk
        storage or secondary usage containers of hazardous materials in the
        workplace.
   7    Complete list of hazardous materials and precautions available and provided
        to outside contractors/consultants.
   8    Written procedures explaining how to inform personnel of product hazards
        associated with unlabeled pipes.
   9    Personnel informed of hazards associated with performing non-routine tasks
        (i.e. repair, maintenance, confined space entry, etc.).
   10   Hazard Communication Program in writing and available to all personnel.

Information & Training:
A personnel information and training program has been developed that includes:
    11 Includes all types of harmful materials with which personnel may encounter
        under normal usage and unforeseeable emergencies.
    12 Personnel familiar with different types of hazardous products and major
        hazards associated with them (i.e. solvents, corrosives, toxins, etc.).
    13 Personnel aware of specific requirements of the Hazard Communication
        Program (HCP).
    14 Program trains personnel in: (a) operations where hazardous chemicals are
        present; (b) location and availability of written HCP, MSDSs, and chemical
        list(s).
    15 Explanation of the labeling and warning system in the workplace.
    16 Personnel understand methods to detect presence or release of hazardous
        materials in workplace(s).
    17 Information on appropriate first aid procedures in event of an emergency.
    18 Personnel trained in proper work practices and personal protective equipment
        in relation to the hazardous materials in work area(s).
    19 Explanation of MSDSs (location & availability).
    20 Method to ensure that new personnel are trained prior to initial assignment.
    21 System for purchasing and other staff to ensure that additional training is
        provided if a new hazardous material is introduced into the workplace.
    22 Method to ensure that the current (updated) MSDSs are in work areas.
    23 Method to inform personnel of new hazards associated with hazardous
        materials in use.
    24 Method to ensure use of references in appendices to Hazard Communication
        Standard to evaluate new products.




                                                                                  100
             University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
              Hazardous Materials Inventory List
         Department: _________________________________

Number           Chemical/Product Name             MSDS Date




                                                               101
8.0 HAZARDOUS WASTE
MANAGEMENT
                                   TOPIC   Section
Hazardous Waste                              8.1
Definitions                                  8.2
Types of Hazardous Waste                     8.3
Containers, Tags, and Collection             8.4
Minimization and Substitution                8.5
Segregation                                  8.6
Special Concerns                             8.7
Chemical Tables                              8.8




                                                     102
8.1   HAZARDOUS WASTE

8.1.1 General
Hazardous waste disposal is governed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) through State and
Federal regulations. The purpose of environmentally sound disposal methods is to
prevent harm to the environment in which we live; water, land, and air.

UMHB complies with hazardous waste disposal regulations by means of the Hazardous
Waste Management Program and other related UMHB policies and procedures.

8.1.2 Permits and Requirements
UMHB is a "Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator" of hazardous waste. The
Dir. of Risk Management will assist any department in assessing hazardous waste
disposal needs.

8.1.3 Penalties of Noncompliance
Noncompliance with any hazardous waste regulation may result in substantial fines and
penalties for the university. Individual generators may also be held liable. Violations
range from improperly labeling a waste container to intentionally disposing of hazardous
waste incorrectly.

8.1.4 Role of the Office of Risk Management
The Office of Risk Management administers the Hazardous Waste Management
Program at UMHB under the direction of the Dir. of Risk Management. Compliance with
this program requires full cooperation by all campus entities. The program includes, but
is not limited to disposal of the following:
     Solids; batteries, ballasts, lamps
     Liquids; oils, anti-freeze, solvents, chemicals
     Bio-hazards; bandages or sharps contaminated with blood-borne pathogens

The program does not include procedures for the management of radio-active or non-
hazardous waste, but does include bio-hazard wastes. See Sect. 17.0 – Blood-borne
Pathogens Exposure Control for more information on bio-hazards and exposure
avoidance.

The Risk Management office maintains records of all hazardous waste disposals.




                                                                                     103
8.2    DEFINITIONS

8.2.1 Accumulation Areas
Areas to be used for the storage of hazardous wastes prior to shipment to permitted
disposal facilities are designated and approved by the office of Risk Management based
upon safety, security and environmental safeguards.

8.2.2 Bio-Hazard Waste
Bio-hazard wastes include any and all wastes which are contaminated with blood-borne
pathogens.

8.2.3 Disposal
The discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, or placing of any solid waste or
hazardous waste (whether containerized or un-containerized) into or on any land or
water so that such solid waste or any constituent thereof may enter the environment or
be emitted into the air or discharged into any water, including ground waters.

8.2.4 Generator
Any person, by site, who produces municipal hazardous waste or industrial solid waste;
any person who possesses municipal hazardous waste or industrial solid waste to be
shipped to any other person; or any person whose act first causes solid waste to
become subject to regulation. A “Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator” is one
which generates not more than 1,000 kilograms/2,205 pounds of hazardous waste in
any calendar month (29 C.F.R. 1910.120).

8.2.5 Hazardous Waste
Any solid waste material listed or identified in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part
261, Subpart C or D or exhibiting the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity,
or E.P. toxicity also defined in Part 261.

8.2.6 Mixed Waste
A radioactive waste that is also a hazardous waste.

8.2.7 Sharps
Sharps include any object having sharp edges (i.e. scalpel) or sharp points (i.e.
hypodermic needle) that may be contaminated with blood-borne pathogens (blood or
other body fluids).

8.2.8 Solid Waste
Any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water treatment plant, or air
pollution control facility or other discarded material. Solid waste can be solid, liquid,
semi-solid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, municipal,
commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community and institutional
activities.

8.2.9 Waste
Any useless and valueless material that is to be discarded.


                                                                                           104
8.3   TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

 An item is considered waste when the owner determines that the material is no longer
useful and needs to be discarded. An item is considered to be hazardous waste if it
meets one or more of the following characteristics:
    A chemical component is listed on one of the Chemical Tables (40 CFR 261).
    Mixture contains a listed hazardous waste and a non-hazardous waste.
    Material meets the definition of one of the following:
                                          o       o
           o Ignitability (flashpoint < 60 C / 140 F or supports combustion)
           o Reactivity (e.g., water reactives, cyanides, explosives, unstable
              chemicals)
           o Corrosivity (ph < 4 or > 10)
           o EP toxicity (e.g., pesticides, heavy metals, poisons)
           o Material is not excluded from regulations.

Individual departments are responsible for properly identifying the hazardous waste they
generate and for following university disposal procedures.




                                                                                    105
8.4   CONTAINERS, TAGS & COLLECTION

Proper containment, tagging, collection and disposal are essential to the success of the
Hazardous Waste Program.

8.4.1 Filling Containers
Hazardous waste collection containers must be in good condition, must not leak, and
must be compatible with their hazardous contents (e.g., do not use metal containers for
corrosive waste or plastic containers for organic solvents). All containers must have
suitable screw caps or other secure means of closure.

If you are reusing a container to accumulate waste, destroy the original product label.
EPA regulations require that waste containers be labeled with the accumulation start
date, the identity of the contents, and the words "Hazardous Waste".

NOTE: Always use a new label to identify the hazardous waste (available from
Risk Management).

IMPORTANT: Never overfill hazardous waste containers. Expansion and excess
weight can lead to spills, explosion, and extensive environmental exposure.

Hazardous waste containers for liquids are generally rated by volume capacity. Allow
extra room in liquid containers to allow for contents expansion.
     Do not fill jugs and bottles past the shoulder of the container. The shoulder of the
       container is the place where the container slopes in towards the neck.
     Fill closed head cans (5 gallons or less) to leave approximately two inches of
       space between the liquid level and the top of the container.
     Fill closed head drums (larger than 5 gallons) to leave approximately four inches
       of space.

Hazardous waste containers for solids are generally rated by their weight capacity and
volume capacity. Take care not to exceed the weight capacity of a solid container.
Weight is generally not a problem for jars and open head cans (5 gallons or less), but it
can be a problem for open head drums (larger than 5 gallons). Depending on weight
requirements, you may fill containers for solids within two inches of the closure.

IMPORTANT: Keep all waste collection containers closed except when adding or
removing material.




                                                                                       106
8.4.2 Disposal Tags
When a container is ready for disposal, complete a waste tag and attach it to the
container.

NOTE: A waste disposal tag must be attached to each waste container before
disposal. Tags may be obtained from Risk Management.

Follow these guidelines for completing hazardous waste tags:
     Completely fill out the tag. This information is essential for record keeping.
     Use full chemical names or common names.
     Indicate the percent concentration of potentially explosive materials such as
      picric acid and nitro compounds.
     Notify the Dir. of Risk Management via email including;
          o the location of the container(s), and
          o the contents and amount of each container requiring disposal.

8.4.3 Collection and Disposal
Upon receiving a request from a department for disposal the Risk Management office
will contact the proper vendor to arrange pick up and disposal.

Containers with improper caps, leaks, or improper labeling will not be picked up until
these problems have been corrected.

Improper disposal methods for hazardous chemical waste include the following:
    Disposal down the drain.
    Intentional evaporation in a fume hood.
    Disposal in the regular trash.

Note: Disposal of hazardous wastes by any means other than those prescribed by
the University is strictly prohibited.

8.4.4 Disposing of Empty Containers
EPA regulations stipulate that empty containers must meet the following requirements:
     Containers must not contain free liquid or solid residue.
     Containers must be triple rinsed.
     Product labels must be defaced or removed.
     Container lids or caps must be removed.
Punch holes in the bottom of metal containers and plastic jugs before disposing of them
in the regular trash. It is not necessary to break empty glass containers.

8.4.5 Collection and Disposal of Sharps
Sharps must be collected by using approved containers only. Sharps containers and
bio-hazard containers are provided by Risk Management upon request.

Sharps used by employees or students for personal use (i.e. needles used by diabetics
to inject insulin) must be disposed using self-provided sharps containers and disposal
carried out in a legal manner (i.e. returned to supplier or personal physician).

Sharps used by UMHB employees will be collected utilizing approved sharps containers
and disposed via the hazardous materials waste program.
                                                                                 107
8.5   MINIMIZATION & SUBSTITUTION

The cost of commercial waste disposal continues to rise and the amount of waste
generated continues to increase. UMHB cannot control disposal costs, but it can reduce
the amount of waste generated. The following sections discuss how to minimize waste
sources and waste products.

8.5.1 Waste Source Reduction Techniques
Use the following techniques to reduce waste sources:

Purchasing and Inventory Control
    Use computerized tracking systems to manage purchasing and control inventory.
    Maintain current inventory records to prevent overstocking and to monitor the
     shelf life of remaining chemicals.
    Develop a campus-wide chemical exchange network to promote chemical
     sharing and avoid redundant purchases.
    Negotiate with suppliers to gain volume discounts, flexible delivery schedules,
     and delivery of fewer small-sized containers without cost penalties.
    Purchase quantities for immediate use only. Do not order quantities to obtain a
     special unit cost savings.
    Obtain compressed gases from vendors who accept return of empty or partially
     full cylinders.
    Include waste generation as a criteria in equipment selection.
    Rotate chemical stocks to use chemicals before their shelf-life expires.

Chemical Usage
   Use lab procedures that assure the integrity of chemical quality.
   Reduce spills and waste by pre-weighing chemicals for undergraduate use.
   Require proper labeling of all secondary containers. Replace all deteriorating
     labels on primary and secondary containers.
   Substitute less hazardous chemicals whenever possible (e.g., biodegradable
     scintillation cocktails instead of xylene or toluene-based cocktails).
   Minimize the use of heavy metals (e.g., silver, chromium, mercury, barium,
     cadmium, and lead).
   Substitute alcohol or electronic thermal monitors for mercury thermometers,
     unless mercury units are necessary for the experiment.
   Use "No-Chromix", detergents, or enzymatic cleaners to clean laboratory
     glassware, if practical.
   Minimize solvent waste by recycling or substitution.




                                                                                     108
Waste Minimization Techniques
Follow these techniques to reduce hazardous waste:
 Review waste streams and recommend waste minimization procedures.
 Do not mix different types of waste.
 Do not put non-hazardous waste, such as a mixture of water, sodium bicarbonate,
    and acetic acid, into a waste container of hazardous waste.
 Do not combine inorganic heavy metal waste with organic solvents waste.
 Segregate halogenated waste solvents from non-halogenated waste solvents
    Segregate waste streams by storing them in separate waste containers. Store waste
    containers separate from reagent containers being used to avoid accidental
    contamination.
 Decontaminate empty containers to make them non-hazardous.
 Neutralize dilute acids and bases to make them non-hazardous and suitable for
    drain disposal.
 When possible, redesign experimental protocols so that harmful byproducts are
    detoxified or reduced.
 Recycle chemicals via purification.




                                                                                  109
8.6   SEGREGATION

Segregated waste is safer and easier to dispose of than non-segregated waste. Mixed
waste, for example, must be handled as both radioactive waste and hazardous waste.

Each employee who generates waste is personally responsible for the following:
    Ensuring that hazardous wastes are accumulated in safe, transportable
      containers.
    Ensuring that hazardous wastes are stored properly to prevent possible
      exposure.

In addition to the guidelines for waste minimization and substitution, follow these
guidelines for waste segregation:
     Segregate waste into the following groups:
              •Halogenated solvents
              •Non-halogenated solvents
              •Acids
              •Bases
              •Heavy metals
              •Poisons
              •Reactives
     Do not mix non-hazardous waste, such as water, with hazardous waste.
     Do not combine inorganic heavy metal waste with organic solvent waste in
       hazardous waste containers.
     Double-bag dry materials contaminated with chemicals (paper, rags, towels,
       gloves, etc.) in heavy-duty plastic bags. Dispose of these items in the same
       manner as hazardous waste.
     Encapsulate sharps (e.g., needles, razor blades, etc.) for proper disposal.
           o Place all sharps in approved sharps disposal containers.
           o Bio-hazard contaminated – must be disposed as medical wastes.




                                                                                      110
8.7   SPECIAL CONCERNS

Employees who generate hazardous waste must maintain and control their hazardous
waste accumulation areas. Special concerns for hazardous waste include the following:
   Unneeded chemicals that are to be discarded must be handled and managed as
      hazardous waste.
   Unknown chemical wastes must be reported to Risk Management. The
      department may be charged for the chemical analysis to determine proper
      disposal method.
   Gas cylinders are sometimes difficult to discard. They should be returned to the
      manufacturer or distributor whenever possible. Cylinders that cannot be returned
      should be tagged as hazardous waste if they contain waste residues.
   Photographic chemicals containing silver may not be placed in the sanitary
      sewer. They must be disposed of as hazardous waste.


8.8   CHEMICAL TABLES

Chemical Tables can be found in 40 CFR Part 261.




                                                                                   111
9.0 PERSONAL
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                             TOPIC   SECTION
General                                9.1
Arm and Hand Protection                9.2
Body Protection                        9.3
Hearing Protection                     9.4
Eye and Face Protection                9.5
Foot Protection                        9.6
Head Protection                        9.7
Respiratory Protection                 9.8
Eye Wash & Shower Stations             9.9




                                             112
9.1   GENERAL

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes all clothing and work accessories
designed to protect employees from workplace hazards. Protective equipment should
not replace engineering, administrative, or procedural controls for safety — it should be
used in conjunction with these controls. Employees must wear protective equipment as
required and when instructed by a supervisor.

Personal Protective Equipment such as safety eyewear and gloves will, in most cases,
be provided by UMHB whenever required. However, other items such as footwear
(steel-toed shoes or boots) may be required to be provided by the employee.

Always consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) to determine the proper
protective equipment required for specific hazardous materials.

 IMPORTANT NOTES:
1) Always remove contaminated protective clothing before leaving the work area.
2) Contaminated re-useable clothing must be washed separately from other
clothing or items used in the workplace.
3) Contaminated disposable protective clothing must be disposed in proper
containers and in accordance with proper haz-mat disposal procedures.




                                                                                      113
9.2   ARM & HAND PROTECTION

Arms and hands are vulnerable to cuts, burns, bruises, electrical shock, chemical spills,
and amputation. The following forms of hand protection are a few examples of those
items that will be made available for employees when required:
     Disposable exam gloves
     Rubber gloves
     Neoprene gloves
     Leather gloves
     Cotton gloves
     Non-asbestos heat-resistant gloves

Always wear the appropriate hand and arm protection. You can double your hand
protection by wearing multiple gloves when necessary (e.g., two pairs of disposable
gloves for work involving biological hazards). For arm protection, wear a long-sleeved
shirt, a laboratory coat, chemical-resistant sleeves, or gauntlet-length gloves.

To ensure arm and hand safety:
    Inspect and test new gloves for defects.
    Always wash your hands before and after using gloves. Wash chemical-
      protective gloves with soap and water before removing them.
    Do not wear gloves near moving machinery; the gloves may become caught and
      result in inuury.

 IMPORTANT: Gloves are easily contaminated. Avoid touching surfaces such as
telephones, door knobs, etc. when wearing gloves. Also, avoid touching your
eyes, face, and exposed skin when wearing contaminated gloves.




                                                                                      114
9.3    BODY PROTECTION

Hazards that threaten the torso tend to threaten the entire body. A variety of protective
clothing, including laboratory coats, long pants, rubber aprons, coveralls, and
disposable body suits are available for specific work conditions.
     Rubber, neoprene, and plastic clothing protect employees from most acids and
       chemical splashes.
     Laboratory coats, coveralls, and disposable body suits protect employees and
       everyday clothing from contamination.
     Welding aprons provide protection from sparks.



9.4    HEARING PROTECTION

If you work in a high noise area, wear hearing protection. Most hearing protection
devices have an assigned rating that indicates the amount of protection provided.
Depending on your level of exposure, you may choose from the following devices:
     Disposable earplugs
     Reusable earplugs
     Headband plugs
     Sealed earmuffs

Earplugs may be better in hot, humid, or confined work areas. They may also be better
for employees who wear other PPE, such as safety glasses or hats. Earmuffs, on the
other hand, may be better for employees who move in and out of noisy areas, because
the muffs are easier to remove. Before resorting to hearing protection, attempt to control
noise levels through engineering or operational changes.

IMPORTANT: To avoid contamination when using earplugs:
    Wash your hands before inserting earplugs.
    Replace disposable earplugs after each use.
    Clean reusable earplugs after each use.




                                                                                       115
9.5   EYE & FACE PROTECTION

Employees must wear protection if hazards exist that could cause eye or face injury.
Eye and face protection should be used in conjunction with equipment guards,
engineering controls, and safe practices.

 NOTE: Safety eyewear (glasses, goggles, face shields) must be used in all
laboratories or work areas to protect personnel from injury.

Always wear adequate eye and face protection when performing tasks such as grinding,
buffing, welding, chipping, cutting, or pouring chemicals. Safety glasses with side
shields provide protection against impact and minor splashes. Safety goggles provide
protection against impact and better protection against splashes.

 IMPORTANT:
 Contact lenses should not be worn in the laboratory or other areas where
hazardous atmospheres may be present, but may be approved by the lab
professor or instructor.
Contact lenses do not provide eye protection and may reduce the effectiveness of
an emergency eyewash.

Follow these guidelines for adequate eye and face protection:
     If you wear prescription glasses, wear goggles or other safety protection over the
      glasses.
     Safety glasses with side-shields provide primary protection to eyes and are four
      times as resistant as prescription glasses to impact injuries.
     Goggles protect against impacts, sparks, chemical splashes, dust, and irritating
      mist. Wear full goggles, not just safety glasses, when working with chemicals.
     Eyecup welding goggles with filter lenses give protection from glare and sparks.
     A welding helmet protects from flash-burn due to welding, soldering, or brazing,
      but does not provide primary eye protection; safety glasses or goggles should be
      worn with the helmet.
     A face shield is designed to protect the face from some splashes or projectiles,
      but does not eliminate exposure to vapors. A face shield should be worn with
      goggles or safety glasses.
     Sunglasses are useful to prevent eyestrain from glare and to minimize ultraviolet
      light exposure.




                                                                                       116
9.6    FOOT PROTECTION

To protect feet and legs from falling objects, moving machinery, sharp objects, hot
materials, chemicals, or slippery surfaces, employees should wear closed-toed shoes,
boots, leggings, or safety shoes as appropriate. Safety shoes are designed to protect
people from the most common causes of foot injuries — impact, compression, and
puncture.

NOTE: Foot protection is particularly important in laboratory, and construction
work.

IMPORTANT: Do not wear sandals or open-toed shoes in laboratories, shops, or
other potentially hazardous areas.


9.7    HEAD PROTECTION

Accidents that cause head injuries are difficult to anticipate or control. If hazards exist
that could cause head injury, employees should try to eliminate the hazards, but they
should also wear head protection. Safety hats protect the head from impact,
penetration, and electrical shock. Head protection is necessary if you work where there
is a risk of injury from moving, falling, or flying objects or if you work near high-voltage
equipment.

Follow these guidelines for head safety:
     Check the shell and suspension of your head-ware for damage before each use.
      Look for cracks, dents, gouges, chalky appearance, and torn or broken
      suspension threads. Discard damaged hats or replace broken parts with
      replacements from the original manufacturer.
     Discard any hat that has been struck or dropped from a great height, even if
      there is no apparent damage.
     Do not wear a hard hat backwards, unless this is necessary to accommodate
      other protective equipment (e.g., welders face shield).
     Do not paint the plastic shell of a hard hat or alter it in any way.




                                                                                         117
9.8   RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

UMHB uses engineering, administrative, and procedural controls to protect people from
dangerous atmospheres, including harmful mists, smoke, vapors, and oxygen-deficient
atmospheres. When these controls cannot provide adequate protection against harmful
atmospheres, respiratory protection is necessary.

IMPORTANT NOTE: UMHB does not currently have a respiratory fit-test program.
Therefore, only loose-fit dust masks and PAPRs (Powered Air Purifying
Respirators) are authorized for use. Sections 9.8.1 through 9.8.5 are provided for
information/education only.

9.8.1 Usage Requirements
Personnel who use respiratory protection must be physically capable of using and
wearing the equipment. In some cases, a physician must determine if an employee is
healthy enough to use a respirator. In addition, all employees required to wear
respirators must be trained and instructed in proper equipment usage. This training
should include instruction on common respiratory hazards and symptoms of exposure.

9.8.2 Types of Respirators
It is important to select the right respirator for the job. There are many types of
respirators and each type protects against different hazards. Respirators are classified
according to these factors:
      Air source: supplied air or ambient air
      Pressure: positive or negative
      Mask configuration
Note: UMHB will not allow employees to enter spaces that require forced air
supply (i.e. oxygen deficient spaces) and, therefore, does not use forced air
supply respirators. Situations requiring forced air will be contracted to
professional services.

9.8.3 Air-Purifying Respirators:
    Air purifying respirators use ambient air and cannot be used in oxygen deficient
      atmospheres, IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) atmospheres, or
      areas where the identity or concentration of a contaminant is unknown.
    Ambient air is purified by a chemical cartridge, canister, or particulate filter.
      o Users must select the proper cartridge/canister/filter.
      o Cartridges and canisters must be replaced if the user notices an odor, taste,
          or throat irritation. Wet, damaged, and grossly contaminated cartridges and/or
          canisters must also be replaced.
    Powered air-purifying respirators use filtered ambient air in a positive-pressure
      continuous flow mode.
    Disposable or single-use respirators are made of cloth or paper and are primarily
      used for nuisance dusts.
    All filters (HEPA, dust pads, and disposable respirators) must be replaced if any
      of the following conditions occur:
          o Breathing becomes difficult.


                                                                                      118
         o Filter or dust respirator becomes damaged, visibly dirty, wet, or
             contaminated on the inside.
      Mask Types:
       o Full face mask covers the face from the hairline to below the chin. This type of
         mask provides eye protection.
       o Half-face mask covers the face from above the nose to below the chin.


The following table highlights various respirators and their ability to protect
against different hazards:

 RESPIRATOR TYPE                    PROTECTION                       NO PROTECTION
                               Dust
                               Fumes
                                                                       Chemical vapors or
Filter Respirator              Smoke
                                                                        gases
(HEPA cartridge)               Mist
                                                                       Oxygen deficiency
                               Microorganisms
                               Asbestos
Chemical
                           Certain gases and vapors up    Oxygen deficiency
Cartridge/Canister
                            to a particular concentration  Particulate matter
Respirators
 NOTE: Respirators that are approved by NIOSH/MSHA or the Department of
Interior-Bureau of Mines should be used.

9.8.4 Selecting a Respirator
When selecting a respirator, consider the following factors:
    Type of hazards
    Identity and concentration of the contaminant
    Time constraints
    Activity of the person wearing the respirator
    Degree of protection provided by each type of respirator

Guidelines for selecting the correct respirator include:
    Use a HEPA filtered respirator:
      * If the contaminant is a biological hazard

IMPORTANT: Respirators are available in different sizes. Always fit test a
respirator to select the correct size.

9.8.5 Using Respirators Safely

Follow these guidelines to ensure safe respirator usage:
     Make sure you have the correct respirator for the job.
     Inspect respirators before each use.
     If necessary to obtain a proper fit, shave facial hair and put in dentures (if
      applicable) to ensure a good seal with the facemask.
     If you are working in a dangerous area, have another person present.


                                                                                       119
      Remember that contaminants can harm the body as well as the respiratory tract;
       wear protective clothing as appropriate.
      Return to fresh air and remove the respirator in the following conditions:
       * You feel nauseous, dizzy, or ill.
       * You have difficulty breathing.
       * The canister, cartridge, or filter needs to be replaced.
      Properly clean and store all reusable respirators.

Respirator usage prohibitions:
   Do not use a respirator unless you have been trained and fit tested.
   Do not mistakenly use a filter respirator for protection against gases or vapors.
   Never remove a respirator in a contaminated atmosphere.
   Do not talk unnecessarily or chew gum while wearing a respirator.
   Do not wear contact lenses while wearing a respirator.
   Do not allow your hair or eyeglass frames to interfere with the respirator seal.




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9.9   EYE WASH & SHOWER STATIONS

9.9.1 Eye Wash Stations
Eye wash stations provide emergency eye treatment for people exposed to hazardous
materials. There are three common types of eye wash stations:

Eye Wash Bowls:
These stations are ANSI approved and may be attached to emergency showers. They
provide a continuous water flow and are recommended for laboratories and other
locations with hazardous materials.

Drench Hoses at Sinks:
These stations provide a continuous water flow, but they are easily contaminated with
sediment, and they do not allow the free use of both hands; the use of both hands may
be necessary. Drench hoses are not ANSI approved, and they are not preferred for
laboratory usage. If you have a drench hose in your work area, flush the hose regularly
to remove any sediment.

Plastic Eye Wash Bottles:
These stations do not provide a continuous water flow, and they do not allow free use of
both hands. They are not approved in laboratories or other hazardous areas. Plastic eye
wash bottles are ideal, however, for portable eye wash needs and short-term operations
where continuous flowing water is not immediately available. If you have a plastic eye
wash bottle in your work area, make sure it is filled with sterile water and is changed
periodically. Sterile solutions purchased from safety suppliers are often used and must
be changed per instructions provided.

 IMPORTANT: If the eyes are exposed to hazardous materials or irritating
elements, immediately flush the eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. Contact a
physician, if necessary.

9.9.2 Showers
Emergency safety showers provide emergency treatment for people exposed to harmful
materials. If a person is contaminated with harmful chemicals, the emergency shower
provides an instant deluge to protect the person from further exposure.
    Emergency showers, where required, must be located to ensure accessibility
       within 10 seconds.
    Travel distance between a shower and potential hazards may not exceed 100
       feet.

IMPORTANT: Emergency showers are for emergencies only. If a chemical spill
occurs involving personal exposure, activate the shower and remove affected
clothing immediately. Stay in the shower for at least 15 minutes.

Note: Emergency showers are periodically tested by the Facilities Services
Department.



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10.0 FIRST AID
                                 TOPIC   SECTION
General                                   10.1
First Aid Kits                            10.2
Initial First Aid                         10.3
Bleeding                                  10.4
Burns                                     10.5
Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation            10.6
Chemical Exposures                        10.7
Choking                                   10.8
Eye Injury                                10.9
Insect Bites                              10.10
Poisoning                                 10.11
Seizures                                  10.12
Shock                                     10.13
Snake Bites                               10.14
Heat-Related Emergency                    10.15
Diabetes/Low Blood Sugar                  10.16




                                                  122
10.1 GENERAL

First aid training is necessary to prevent and treat sudden illness or accidental injury.
The primary objective of first aid is to save lives. This objective is achieved with the
following:
 Preventing heavy blood loss
 Maintaining breathing
 Preventing further injury
 Preventing shock
 Getting the victim to a physician or Emergency Medical Service (EMS)

People who provide first aid must remember the following:
 Avoid panic.
 Inspire confidence.
 Ask for the victim’s permission to help (if conscious and coherent).
 Do only what is necessary until professional help is obtained.

IMPORTANT:
When reporting an injury or illness requiring medical assistance, or any life-
threatening situation, make sure that someone calls 5555 and/or 911 immediately
in order to initiate an emergency services response.

10.2 FIRST AID KITS

First aid kits are made available at designated locations based upon anticipated need.
Suitable contents for kits include, but are not limited to sterile bandages, tape, scissors,
cold packs, plastic gloves, and a mouth-to-mouth breathing mask.

First aid kit locations should be marked by signs where deemed necessary or feasible.
Designated personnel will be responsible for inventory and restocking supplies.




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10.3 INITIAL FIRST AID

If you are the first one on the scene of a health related emergency, your first priority is to
remain calm. Your action will vary depending upon the nature of the situation, but the
following four rules apply to any medical emergency:

1. Assess the Situation:
     Can you safely approach the victim? If not, what can you do to help without
      threatening your own safety? Use universal precautions – gloves, etc.
     Determine what is wrong with the victim.
     If victim is conscious and coherent ask permission to help.

2. Set Priorities:
     Is the victim conscious?
     How serious is the emergency?
     Can someone else call for help? If no one else is available, decide if it is more
       important to administer first aid immediately or to call 5555 / 911 first and then
       attend to the victim.

3. Check the ABCs (unconscious victims only):

A. Airway - Place the victim on his/her back. Place one hand on the forehead and one
hand under the chin and tilt the head back. Open the victim's mouth and check for
obstructions. If the victim is unconscious and an obstruction is visible, remove it with
your fingers.

IMPORTANT: Never move a victim if you suspect back or neck injury.

B. Breathing - Place your ear above the victim's mouth and look at the chest. Listen for
breathing – feel the breath on your cheek - and look for the rise and fall of the chest. If
the victim is not breathing, someone formally trained in mouth-to-mouth breathing
should begin resuscitation.

C. Circulation - Check for signs of circulation, i.e. normal breathing, movement or
coughing. If no signs are detected, someone formally trained in CPR should begin
cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

4. Administer first aid and/or call 5555 and/or 911, as appropriate.




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10.4 BLEEDING

Most bleeding injuries are minor; however, heavy external bleeding can cause death in
three to five minutes.

In addition to the procedures for initial first aid, follow these steps for external bleeding:

1. Using a sterile gauze/dressing, clean cloth, or other material and apply pressure
directly over the wound. If necessary, ask the victim to apply the pressure over bleeding
area while rescuer puts on gloves.

IMPORTANT: Direct contact with a victim's blood may expose you to various
communicable diseases. You should wear plastic gloves when assisting a
bleeding victim to avoid potential exposure.

2. If possible, elevate the bleeding area. Otherwise, lay the victim flat, and elevate the
legs.

3. Keep the victim lying down. If no leg pain or injury raise feet 12 inches.

4. Treat the victim for shock, if necessary. Cover with a blanket or suitable substitute.

5. Do not release pressure or lift the bandage until you are sure the bleeding has
stopped. If blood soaks through bandage, apply new dressing over the blood-soaked
one.

6. Call or have someone call 5555 and/or 911.

IMPORTANT:
 Do not use a tourniquet unless an arm or leg has been amputated.
 Do not cover the tourniquet and mark the time applied.
 Amputated parts should be placed in a plastic bag and kept cool.

NOTES:
1) For deep chest wounds, use a heavy dressing to keep air from passing
through the wound. For gaping stomach wounds, use a damp dressing; do not
move or try to replace protruding organs.

2) Teeth that have been knocked out should be rinsed with water and reinserted
in mouth if victim is conscious. If not conscious, rinse tooth and place in milk if
possible. Be careful to avoid touching the root of the tooth.




                                                                                            125
10.5 BURNS

Thermal and chemical burns require immediate attention. In addition to the procedures
for initial first aid, follow these steps for thermal burns:

For first and second degree burns:
1. Immerse the burned area in cool or cold water for 15 to 20 minutes.
2. You may cover the burned area with a dry non-sticking sterile or clean dressing (or
clean cloth).
3. Treat the victim for shock, if necessary.
4. Do not apply butter, oil, or cream to a burn.

For serious burns (e.g., large area burns and charred skin):
1. Remove clothing from the injured area. Cut around clothing that adheres to the skin.
2. Place an approved burn blanket or the cleanest available cloth over the entire burn
area.
3. Treat the victim for shock, if necessary.
4. If the victim is conscious, provide non-alcoholic fluids.
5. Call or have someone call 5555 and/or 911 as soon as possible.




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10.6 CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)

A person experiencing chest pain may also have nausea, sweating, fast breathing and
pain in their arms or neck, feeling of great fatigue and discomfort between the shoulder
blades. These symptoms may indicate the person is having a “heart attack”.
    Tell the victim to sit or lie quietly.
    Call or have someone call 5555 and/or 911, even if the victim tells you not to
       call. If possible, ask someone to get a first aid kit and an AED.
       Note: Campus Police have two vehicles equipped with AEDs.
    Stay with the victim. If he/she becomes unresponsive, be ready to give CPR and
       use an AED.

When a person stops breathing, immediate assistance is necessary. If the person stops
breathing due to choking, follow the first aid instructions for choking victims. If the
person stops breathing due to a hazardous atmosphere, move the victim to fresh air
immediately.

CPR Procedures:
Someone formally trained in CPR should provide assistance to victims who are not
breathing and victims who do not have a pulse, as follows:
1. Try to arouse the victim. Call 5555 and/or 911 and administer first aid.
2. Place the victim on their back. Open the victim's airway by placing one hand on the
forehead and one hand under the chin and tilting the head back. Check for any
obstructions in the mouth or throat.
IMPORTANT: Do not move a victim suspected of having neck and/or back
injuries, unless absolutely necessary to protect the victim from further injury.
3. Look, listen, and feel for breathing.
4. If the victim is not breathing, pinch the victim's nose closed and use a mouth-to-
mouth breathing - give two slow, deep breaths; one breath every 5 seconds.
5. Check for signs of circulation (i.e. movement, coughing, breathing) and look, listen,
and feel for breathing. If a pulse is present but the victim does not start breathing,
continue rescue breathing as follows:
     Adult: one breath every five seconds
     Child: one breath every four seconds
     Infant: one breath every three seconds
6. If no signs of circulation are detectable, have someone formally trained in CPR begin
mouth-to mouth breathing and chest compressions as follows:
     Adult: 30 compressions using heel of hand / two breaths
     Child: 30compressions using heel of hand / two breaths
     Infant: 30compressions using two fingers / two breaths

Note: Persons trained in CPR will be able to ascertain whether the use of an AED
is necessary (refer to section 14.0 Automatic External Defibrillator policies and
procedures).

Continue this procedure until the victim starts breathing or EMS arrives.



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10.7 CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

Chemical exposures to the skin require immediate attention. Follow these steps:
1. Go to emergency shower or sink.
2. Remove contaminated clothing.
3. Wash area with water thoroughly for 15 to 20 minutes.
4. Seek medical attention.

10.8 CHOKING

Choking victims cannot speak, breathe, or cough forcefully.

Follow these steps for conscious choking victims:
1. Ask the victim if he/she is choking. If the victim indicates yes; ask if you may help
them; if yes, begin the Heimlich Maneuver, as follows;
     Get behind the victim and make a fist with one hand. Grasp your fist with the
       other hand and place your hands slightly above the victim's navel.
     Give quick, upward thrusts backwards until the object is expelled or the victim
       loses consciousness and then begin CPR checking mouth for obstruction.
     If the victim declines your help, have them sit down – if they go unconscious,
       begin CPR.

IMPORTANT: For pregnant or obese victims, use a chest thrust. Place your fist on
the sternum, and thrust backwards repeatedly.

Follow these steps for unconscious choking victims:
1. Call 5555 and/or 911. Locate first aid kit.
2. Place the victim on his/her back. Open the victim's airway by placing one hand on
the forehead and one hand under the chin and tilting the head back. Check for any
obstructions in the mouth or throat and, if seen, remove the obstruction. Otherwise
begin CPR.

IMPORTANT: Do not move a victim suspected of having neck and/or back
injuries, unless absolutely necessary to protect the victim from further injury.

3. Attempt mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing. Chest may not rise.
4. If the airway remains blocked, place the heel of your hand slightly below the victim's
ribs - begin chest compressions.

IMPORTANT:
For pregnant or obese victims, use a chest thrust. Place your fist on the sternum,
and thrust backwards repeatedly.
If pregnant and unconscious – raise the right hip a few inches to increase baby’s
blood flow if no neck or spine injury is suspected.

5. Continue this procedure until the object is dislodged or the victim starts breathing and
be sure to contact 5555 and/or 911 - even if the person is saying they are ok they
should be checked out by a health professional.
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10.9 EYE INJURY

If hazardous liquid, particles, or gas irritate a person's eyes, have the victim flush the
eye with water for at least 15 minutes. Use an eye wash station, sink, or water fountain.
Seek medical assistance.

If a foreign object (e.g., glass, pencil lead, etc.) is embedded in the eye, place a plastic
cup or gauze over the affected eye. This will keep the eye from moving and inflicting
further damage. Seek medical assistance.


10.10 INSECT BITES

Refer the injured to medical assistance (EMS or a physician) whenever someone
suffers multiple stings (or suffers adverse effects from a single sting) from wasps, bees,
fire ants, or other stinging insects. For a single insect sting, remove the stinger by
scraping the skin. Do not use tweezers or your fingers to remove a stinger. Removing a
stinger in this manner may release more venom.
     Wash the bite areas with soap and water.
     Put an ice bag wrapped in a towel or cloth over the bite areas
     Watch the victim for at least 30 minutes for signs of a bad allergic reaction, such
        as trouble breathing, swelling of the tongue and face, or shock.
     Phone or ask someone to phone the emergency response number if the victim
        shows any signs of a bad allergic reaction or has a history of previous bad
        allergic reaction.

Note: People who are extremely allergic to certain insect bites should carry
appropriate medication and inform others of their allergy.

10.11 POISONING

There are many poisons that react differently to various treatments. This section only
covers the most basic first aid. If you suspect a victim has been poisoned through
ingestion, inhalation, or skin exposure;
    Try to determine what the poisoning agent is, and
    Call emergency services by dialing 5555 and/or 911, or
    Call the Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for specific first aid
       instructions.
    Remove topical chemicals and wash with large amounts of water.
    Victims should not drink anything unless directed to do so by the Poison Control
       Center.




                                                                                          129
10.12 SEIZURES/VIOLENT SHAKING

Do not try to restrain seizure victims. Remove any objects that could harm the victim,
and wait for the seizure to end. Call 5555 and/or 911.

IMPORTANT:
 Note the time when seizure began. Seizures lasting 5 minutes or more are a
   medical emergency.
 Do not place anything in a seizure victim's mouth.


10.13 SHOCK

Shock commonly accompanies severe injury or emotional upset. Symptoms of shock
include the following:
 Cold, clammy skin
 Pale skin tone
 Shallow breathing - restlessness/confusion
 Chills; shivering

Follow these steps to assist shock victims:
1. Call 911.
2. Keep the victim still and lying down and raise the victim’s feet about 12 inches unless
there is pain or a leg injury.
3. Maintain an open airway. If vomiting occurs, turn the head sideways and chin
downward.
4. Keep the victim warm; cover with a blanket.
5. Reassure the victim – tell them help is on the way.

10.14 SNAKE BITES

Most snake bites are not fatal. If a snake bite occurs, follow these steps:
 Make sure the area is safe for you and the victim. Get the victim and bystanders
  away from the snake.
 Call or ask someone to call 5555 and/or 911, and get a First Aid Kit.
 Keep the victim still and calm. Tell the victim not to move the part of the body that
  was bitten and keep lower than the heart if possible.
 Gently wash the bite area with soap and water.
 Snugly wrap the extremity if bitten by a coral snake; two fingers should be able to go
  easily underneath the dressing otherwise leave uncovered.

Important Notes:
    Do not make any incisions or attempt to suck out the poison.
    Do not cool the bitten area.




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10.15 HEAT-RELATED EMERGENCY

Signs of heat stress are muscle cramps, sweating, headache, nausea, weakness, and
dizziness.
    Move the victim to a cool or shady area.
    Loosen or remove tight clothing.
    Encourage the victim to drink water.
    Sponge or spray the victim with cool (not ice-cold) water and fan the victim.

Signs of heat stroke include confusion; shallow breathing; red, hot, and dry skin; and
inability to drink or hold down fluids.

IMPORTANT:
Heat Stroke is a medical emergency – call or have someone call 5555 and/or 911
and request medical assistance.


10.16 DIABETES – LOW BLOOD SUGAR

Symptoms include sleepiness, sweating and pale skin.

First aid actions for low blood sugar:
     Give sugar by mouth if he can swallow. Give soda, fruit juice, or even a packet
        of sugar. Don't give diet products or artificial sweeteners.
     Have victim sit quietly or lie down - be sure the area is safe.
     If the victim can't swallow or does not feel better within a few minutes after eating
        sugar or if he becomes unresponsive, call or have someone call 5555 and/or
        911.




                                                                                        131
11.0 CONSTRUCTION
SAFETY
                                  TOPIC   SECTION
General Construction Guidelines            11.1
Barriers and Guards                        11.2
Heavy Equipment Safety                     11.3




                                                  132
11.1 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES

Construction work can be particularly hazardous. Personal protective equipment, fire
safety, electrical safety, and other precautions are essential for safe construction work.
Follow these guidelines when visiting or working at construction sites:
     Don’t enter construction areas unless you are authorized.
     Wear all necessary safety equipment;
           o hard hat
           o safety glasses
           o gloves
           o steel-toe footwear
     Don’t walk, stand, or work under suspended loads.
     Avoid placing unusual strain on equipment or materials.
     Be prepared for unexpected hazards. BE ALERT!

11.2 BARRIERS & GUARDS

University employees must use barriers and guards as necessary to protect employees,
students, contractors, and visitors from physical hazards. If you suspect a hazard is not
sufficiently protected, notify the appropriate supervisor and/or Risk Management.
Contact the Campus Police after business hours for assistance.

11.2.1 Types of Barriers and Guards

Standard types of barriers and guards include the following:
    Tape
    Cones
    Guardrails
    Other physical barriers and solid separators (dust barriers, hazard barriers,
      temporary walkways, etc.)

NOTE: Signs that state DANGER, WARNING, or CAUTION are also important
when barriers or guards are necessary. Remember to make signs legible, visible,
and brief.

11.2.2 Areas that Need Barriers or Guards

Any area that poses a physical threat to workers and/or pedestrians requires barriers or
guards. Areas that typically require permanent or temporary protection include the
following:
     Stairways
     Hatches
     Open Manholes
     Elevated platforms
     Excavation sites
     Renovation/Construction sites
     Areas with moving machinery
     Temporary wall or floor openings


                                                                                        133
11.2.3 Using Barriers and Guards
The following list provides guidelines for using barriers and guards:
    When necessary, reroute pedestrian and vehicular traffic to completely avoid a
       construction site.
    Guard any permanent ground opening into which a person could fall with a
       guardrail, load-bearing cover, or other physical barrier.
    Ensure that temporary floor openings, such as pits and open manholes, are
       guarded by secure, removable guardrails or other appropriate barriers. If
       guardrails are not available, have someone guard the opening.
    Ensure that all stairways, ladder-ways, hatchways, or floor openings have
       handrails or covers.
    Ensure that enclosed stairways with four or more steps have at least one railing,
       and that open stairways with four or more steps have two railings.
    Ensure that all platforms and walkways that are elevated or located next to
       moving machinery are equipped with handrails, guardrails, or toe-boards.
    Barricade any wall openings through which a person or tools could fall. Use
       gates, doors, guardrails, or other physical barriers to block the opening.
    Mark and guard all excavations regardless of depth.
    Mark and/or guard potholes and sidewalk damage as appropriate.
    Protect smoke detectors with some type of cover when construction work, such
       as dust or fume producing activities, may affect smoke detectors. Remove
       protectors immediately at the end of the activity or at the end of the work day.

11.3 HEAVY EQUIPMENT SAFETY
Every employee that operates heavy equipment must fully understand how to operate
the equipment and be familiar with the manufacturer’s recommendations for the safe
operation of the equipment.
Employees operating heavy equipment must follow these basic guidelines to ensure
safety:
1. Know how to properly operate the equipment you are using.
    o Never get on or off moving equipment.
    o Do not attempt to lubricate or adjust a running engine.
    o Turn the engine off before refueling.
    o Keep all shields and safety guards in place.
    o Avoid underground utilities and overhead power lines.
2. Do not use heavy machinery when you are drowsy, or under the influence any
prescription or non-prescription medications that can cause drowsiness.
3. Use only equipment that is appropriate for the work to be done.
4. Inspect equipment to ensure that it is in good condition before beginning each job.
5. Ensure that regular inspections and maintenance are conducted and make sure that
safety devices work and are never bypassed.
6. Do not stress or overload your equipment.
7. Ensure the following before leaving equipment unattended;
    o All buckets, blades, etc. are on the ground.
    o Transmission is in neutral.
    o Engine is off.
    o Equipment is secure against movement.
8. Each operator must know the equipment’s limitations (i.e. load capacity, reach limits,
etc.).

                                                                                      134
12.0 CONFINED SPACE
ENTRY
                    TOPIC   SECTION
General                      12.1
Definitions                  12.2
Responsibilities             12.3
Trenching/Shoring            12.4




                                    135
12.1 GENERAL

A confined space is any enclosed area with the following characteristics:
    Limited means of entry or exit
    Structure that is not designed for extended human occupation
    Atmosphere that is actually or potentially hazardous
    Potential for other hazards (i.e. low O2, chemicals, vapors, etc.)

Because confined spaces offer limited means of entry or exit and may contain hazards,
employees must comply with 29 CFR 1910.146 and with UMHB policies & procedures
when working in these areas.

Most confined spaces are hazardous or potentially hazardous. These confined spaces
require permits for permission to enter because they have one or more of the following:
    Hazardous atmosphere or the potential to contain hazardous atmosphere
    Materials that could engulf workers
    Internal structure or contents that could trap or asphyxiate employees
    Other recognizable hazards

Examples of confined spaces include the following:
    Manholes
    Crawl spaces
    Tunnels
    Tanks
    Trenches




                                                                                    136
12.2 DEFINITIONS

12.2.1 Confined Space: Any enclosed space with limited means of entry or egress,
which is not designed for continuous occupation.

12.2.2 Permit-Required Confined Space: Confined space that contains a dangerous
or potentially hazardous atmosphere or the potential for engulfment by particulate
matter or liquid.

12.2.3 Entry: Physical act of entering a confined space. An entry occurs when a
worker's face breaks the plane of the confined space opening.

12.2.4 Authorized Entrants: Properly trained workers with the authorization to enter
confined spaces.

12.2.5 Authorized Attendant: Properly trained worker who is positioned outside a
confined space. This person monitors the entrants within a confined space and the
external surroundings.

12.2.6 Person Authorizing Entry: Worker who is properly trained in administrative,
technical, and managerial aspects of confined space entry. This person authorizes entry
and has the authority to terminate entry when conditions become unfavorable.

12.2.7 Hazardous Atmosphere: Atmosphere that is oxygen enriched, oxygen deficient,
combustible, toxic, or otherwise immediately dangerous to life or health.

12.2.8 Hotwork: Operations that could provide a source of ignition, such as riveting,
welding, cutting, burning, or heating.

12.2.9 Trench: a narrow excavation below ground level.

12.2.10 Shoring: structure that supports the sides of an excavation.




                                                                                        137
12.3 RESPONSIBILITIES
All employees and contractors must follow the UMHB confined space entry guidelines
and other required programs to ensure safe entry into confined spaces.

12.3.1 Facility Services Department:
    Designate a competent person to authorize entry.
    Develop and maintain confined space operations safety procedures.
    Facilities Services does not have atmospheric testing or monitoring equipment on
       hand. This service, if necessary, will be contracted to professional, certified,
       licensed contractors.
    Employees must use any required personal protective equipment.
    Provide manpower and monitoring for any confined space entry operation.
    Ensure that all confined spaces are properly identified with signs as required.

12.3.2 Office of Risk Management:
    Monitor program compliance.
    Assist with training employees.
    Assist with identifying confined spaces.
    Assist with the development of safety and entry procedures.




                                                                                   138
12.4 TRENCHING & SHORING

Some operations such as trenching result in confined spaces. Shoring systems are
necessary to protect these spaces and reduce the chance for cave-ins.

A trench is a narrow excavation below the ground. Trenches are typically deeper than
they are wide; however, the width of a trench is less than 15 feet.

A shoring system consists of a structure that supports the sides of an excavation and is
designed to prevent cave-ins.

Employees must follow all the requirements associated with confined spaces when
working within trenches.




                                                                                     139
13.0 VEHICLE SAFETY
                     TOPIC   SECTION
General                       13.1
Accidents                     13.2
Railroad Crossings            13.3
Cart Safety                   13.4
Bicycle Safety                13.5




                                     140
13.1 GENERAL

Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death and crippling injury in the United
States. Traffic safety laws are important components of vehicle safety, but the most
important aspect of vehicle safety is the driver.

 IMPORTANT:
1) All UMHB employees or volunteers who operate a motor vehicle for university
   business ( UMHB vehicle, rental vehicle, or personal vehicle) must;
    must be 21 years of age, and
    possess a valid state driver's license for the vehicle class.
2) In order to become an authorized UMHB driver each individual must
    authorize Risk Management to conduct a Motor Vehicle Record (MVR)
       check,
    attend the UMHB STARS (Saders Traveling All Roads Safely) defensive
       driving safety presentation, and
    demonstrate knowledge and ability to safely drive the respective university
       vehicle (sedan, van, or van and trailer).

The university’s Campus Police department is responsible for regulating moving
vehicles on university property and adjoining streets. To ensure driving safety, follow
these driving practices:
    Never drive while impaired (incl. alcohol, medications, fatigue, etc.).
    Obey all traffic laws, signs, and signals.
    Respond to dangerous driving conditions as appropriate.
    Maintain a safe distance between your car and any car in front of you (2 secs.).
    Keep alert. Scan ahead and behind your vehicle.
    Always use your turn signals to indicate your intended action.
    Do not use cell phone or engage in other similar distractions while driving.

13.1.1 Defensive Driving
By taking defensive driving courses, employees can promote driving safety and lower
their insurance rates. The principles of defensive driving include the following:
 Knowledge: Know your vehicle and know the law.
 Control: Always maintain control of your vehicle. To improve your control, perform
   routine vehicle maintenance and respond to road conditions as appropriate.
 Attitude: Be willing to obey all laws and be willing to yield to all other vehicles and
   pedestrians.
 Reaction: Respond to driving conditions appropriately. Do not impede your reaction
   time by driving when tired or under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
 Observation: Be aware of potential accidents and take preventive measures.
   Always try to anticipate the actions of other drivers.
 Common Sense: Do not risk your safety to save time. Do not respond to rude or
   obnoxious drivers by violating traffic laws.




                                                                                      141
13.1.2 Backing Vehicles
Backing any vehicle can be dangerous especially when your view is blocked by blind
spots, other vehicles or objects such as trees or shrubs. Backing a large vehicle can be
especially difficult. Follow these tips:
    Get out of the vehicle and inspect the area you want to back into.
    If possible, have someone outside help guide your vehicle into position.
    If your vehicle does not automatically sound a horn when in reverse, sound the
       horn once or twice before moving backwards.
    Back slowly and carefully, using interior and side-view mirrors.



13.2 ACCIDENTS

If you are involved in a vehicle accident, follow these guidelines.
1) Check vehicle occupants for injuries. Assist injured but do not move anyone
    suspected of having neck or back injuries unless absolutely necessary.
2) Move vehicles out of the flow of traffic if possible and safe to do so.
3) Turn on emergency flashers and shut down the vehicle
4) Report, or have someone report the incident;
     a. On campus – 5555
     b. Off campus - 911
5) Set out warning devices (i.e. reflectors)
6) Report incident to the university as soon as possible.
     During business hours call your Supervisor.
     After business hours contact the Campus Police.

If you strike an unattended vehicle report to law enforcement authorities. If the owner
cannot be located get the vehicle’s make, model, and license plate number and leave
your name along with the university name, address, and phone number on the vehicle.

Additional reporting:
  o If UMHB personnel are injured in the accident those injuries should be reported
       to Risk Management as soon as possible.
  o Upon return to the university the vehicle driver must complete an accident report
       with the office of Risk Management.

Note: Accident Procedure Checklists are provided in all university vehicles along
with a copy of the university’s proof of vehicle insurance.




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13.3 RAILROAD CROSSINGS

Compared with other types of collisions, train/motor vehicle crashes are 11 times more
likely to result in a fatal injury. On the average, there are more train-car fatalities each
year than airplane crashes. Unfortunately, driver error is the principal cause of most
grade crossing accidents. Many drivers ignore the familiar tracks they cross each day,
and some drivers disregard train warning signals and gates.
All public highway-rail grade crossings are marked with one or more of the following
warning devices:
 Advance Warning Signs:
Advance warning signs indicate that a railroad crossing is ahead. These signs are
positioned to allow enough room to stop before the train tracks.
 Pavement Markings:
 Pavement markings may be painted on the pavement in front of a crossing. Always
    stay behind the stop line when waiting for a passing train.
 Crossbuck Signs:
Railroad crossbuck signs are found at most public crossings. Treat these signs as a
yield Sign. If there is more than one track, a sign below the crossbuck will indicate the
number of tracks at the crossings.
 Flashing Lights and Gates:
Flashing lights are commonly used with crossbucks and gates. Stop when the lights
begin to flash and the gate starts to lower across your lane. Do not attempt to cross the
tracks until the gate is raised and the lights stop flashing.

IMPORTANT: You must stop at least 15 feet from a train track when: (1) warning
lights flash; (2) a crossing gate or flag person signals an approaching train; (3) a
train is within 1500 feet of the crossing; or (4) an approaching train is plainly
visible and in hazardous proximity.

Follow these guidelines when you encounter a railroad crossing:
     Always expect a train.
     When approaching a crossing, LOOK, LISTEN, & LIVE.
     Be sure all tracks are clear before you proceed. Remember, due to their large
      size, it is easy to misjudge the speed and distance of an oncoming train. If you
      have any doubts, stop and wait for the train to pass.
     Watch for vehicles, such as school buses, that must stop before train tracks.
     Never race a train to a crossing.
     Always stop for flashing lights, bells, and gates. Never drive around a gate.
      (State law requires pedestrians to stop when a railroad crossing gate is down.)
     Do not allow yourself to be boxed in on a track with cars in front and behind you.
     Never stop on train tracks. If your car stalls on train tracks, call 911 immediately
      and leave the vehicle. If a train approaches, immediately abandon the vehicle
      and move well clear of the area.
     When driving at night, slow down when approaching train crossings and ensure
      that no train is present.

Note: One third of all train-car collisions occur at night when cars run into
moving trains.

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13.4 CART SAFETY

The following safety precautions should be observed when operating carts on university
streets. Operation of carts on non-university streets should be avoided whenever
possible:
     Always obey all traffic laws, signs and signals.
     Use hand turn signals when turning or changing lanes.
     Never overload a cart. Carry only the allowable number of passengers and
       cargo.
     Passengers must remain seated and keep limbs within the confines of the cart at
       all times.
     Always yield to vehicular traffic and pedestrians.
     Avoid operating carts on sidewalks and grass areas.
     Ensure that strobe lights are working.
     Carts used at night must be equipped with lighting (i.e. headlights, tail lights,
       brake lights, etc.)
     Use the parking brake and remove keys from unattended carts.

Note: Students may be authorized to operate carts if they are at least 18 years of
age, possess a valid state driver’s license and are trained by their respective
supervisor or sponsor using the Student Cart Driver Authorization form.

13.5 BICYCLE SAFETY

Bicyclists must take precautions when driving on city and university streets.

Follow these safety precautions when riding a bicycle:
     Always obey all traffic laws.
           o Yield to traffic
           o Observe signs & signals.
     Do not ride on sidewalks.
     Wear an approved helmet.
     Use hand signals when turning, changing lanes or stopping.
     Stay as far right as possible on the street pavement and watch for opening car
      doors, sewer gratings, debris, etc.
     If riding at night, bicycles must be equipped with a light on the front and either a
      red reflector or red light on the rear. Side reflectors are also recommended.
     Wear bright, reflective clothing.




                                                                                        144
14.0 AUTOMATIC
EXTERNAL
DEFIBRILLATOR (AED)
                                TOPIC        SECTION
Definitions                                   14.1
Responsibilities                              14.2
Training                                      14.3
Documentation                                 14.4
Post Event Review                             14.5
AED Maintenance                               14.6
Annual Program Evaluation                     14.7
Appendix
A – AED Inventory & Locations
B – AED Procedures
C – AED Site Information Form
D – AED Incident Use Form
E – AED Maintenance Procedures & Checklist




                                                     145
14.1 DEFINITIONS

Automated external defibrillator (AED):
An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a device used to treat victims of sudden
cardiac arrest (SCA). These devices are only used on victims who are unconscious, not
breathing normally and exhibiting no signs of circulation (i.e. normal breathing, coughing
and/or movement). An AED will analyze heart rhythm and advise the operator whether
or not to deliver a shock.

Authorized AED User:
Those individuals who have been trained in CPR, AED use and blood-borne pathogens
and are listed in Appendix A on the List of Authorized AED Users.

Medical Advisor:
A licensed physician who has agreed to provide medical oversight for the university
AED program.

Volunteer AED User:
Any individual who has been trained in CPR and AED use and volunteers to assist an
authorized AED user or administer emergency first aid to a victim in the absence of an
Authorized AED User.

14.2 RESPONSIBILITIES

Health Services Coordinator:
   Coordinate all purchases and management of AEDs.
   Coordinate all required training (CPR, AED, BBP, etc.).
   Ensure that all routine AED maintenance is performed at required intervals.
   Maintain records of personnel training and AED maintenance.
   Communicate with the medical advisor on issues related to the AED program
      and medical emergencies.

Risk Management:
    Ensure that the AED program is conducted in accordance with local, state and
      federal regulations and UMHB policies.
    Conduct risk oversight of the AED program.
    Conduct a post event review of each incident in which an AED is used.

Medical Advisor:
   Provide medical direction for the use of AEDs.
   Provide prescriptions/orders for the purchase of AEDs, if required.
   Review policies, procedures and guidelines for AED use.
   Evaluate post-event reports and digital files downloaded from the AEDs.

AED Responsible Parties:
   Perform weekly maintenance checks on AED unit(s).


                                                                                      146
      Report problems, malfunctions or need for supplies to Health Services
       Coordinator.

Switchboard Operator:
    Upon notification of an SCA emergency on campus, will notify;
       o UMHB Campus Police at 5555
            Campus Police will request other emergency services as needed.
       o Health Services Coordinator
       o Risk Management

UMHB Campus Police:
   Ensure that 911 is notified of SCA emergencies.
   Respond to the scene of each SCA to provide an AED (if necessary).
   Administer first aid assistance as needed (in the absence of other Authorized
    Users).

14.3 TRAINING

Initial Training:
All authorized users must successfully complete a training program to include CPR,
AED use and the hazards associated with blood-borne pathogens. All training must
meet the minimum requirements of the Texas Department of Health.

Refresher Training:
Authorized user refresher training (CPR, AED, BBP) is required in accordance with the
governing agency requirements, which is typically either annually (American Red Cross)
or every two years (American Heart Assoc.).

14.4 DOCUMENTATION

Training Records
All training of authorized users must be documented and maintained by the Health
Services Coordinator.

AED Location Notification
The location and type of AEDs must be reported by the Health Services Coordinator to
the local Emergency Medical Services using the UMHB AED Site Information Form
found in Appendix C.

Post Event Documentation
All SCA events must be documented using the UMHB AED Incident Use form found in
Appendix D. A copy of the form will be provided to EMS and the Medical Advisor by
Risk Management within 72 hours of the event along with any data captured by the
AED.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)
HIPPA was designed to ease the reluctance of an employee to move from one job to
another for fear of losing health benefits. HIPPA ensures that health plans cannot deny
your application based solely on your health status and gives workers who change or
                                                                                     147
lose jobs better access to health insurance, limits exclusions for pre-existing conditions,
and guarantees renewability and availability of health coverage to certain employees
and individuals.

14.5 POST EVENT REVIEW

Risk Management will conduct a review of each use of an AED, including the following
elements:
      Identification of actions
      Opportunities for improvement
      Incident de-briefing
All involved parties will participate in the review session including first responders,
authorized AED users, and any others involved in the event.

14.6 AED MAINTENANCE

General
All AED equipment and accessories will be maintained in a state of readiness. The
Health Services Coordinator will coordinate maintenance and equipment replacement
activities.

AED maintenance will be performed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Routine Maintenance
AED units typically perform a self-diagnostic test every 24 hours which includes an
evaluation of its internal components and battery strength.

Each Responsibly Party (ref. Appendix A) will perform maintenance on the AED unit(s)
assigned to their area on a weekly basis, will maintain maintenance documentation
provided (see Appendix E) and provide a copy of maintenance records to the Health
Services Coordinator.

Problems or malfunctions will be reported immediately to the Health Services
Coordinator so that the unit can be repaired and/or replaced.


14.7 ANNUAL PROGRAM EVALUATION

The AED program will be evaluated by Risk Management and Health Services annually
to ensure that the following program elements are being properly conducted and
managed including:
     AED procurement and distribution
     Training (CPR, AED, BBP) and documentation
     Equipment operation and maintenance recordkeeping

Revisions to the AED Procedures (Appendix B) will require a review by the Medical
Advisor.


                                                                                        148
APPENDIX
A – AED Inventory & Locations
B – AED Procedures
C – AED Site Information Form
D – AED Incident Use Form
E – AED Maintanance Procedures & Checklist




                                             149
                                APPENDIX A
                       AED Inventory & Locations



               Unit                      Location             Responsible
                                                                   Party
1   Medtronic LifePak CR Plus     Mayborn Campus Center        Billy Laxton
    Ser.# 32425961                Athletics Training Room
                                           #1115
2   Heartstart FR2                 Andersen Field House        Billy Laxton
    Ser.# 040130605                    Training Room

3   HeartSine Mod. SAM 300P        Andersen Field House      Elizabeth Maybin
    Ser.#08a00038128                  Training Room

4   HeartStream Forerunner        Mayborn Campus Center      Stephen Morton
    Ser.# 000000248               Fitness Center Reception

5   Medtronic LifePak CR Plus      Dept. of Public Safety      Pat Duffield
    Ser.# 32425960                   Vehicle – Unit 2

6   Medtronic LifePak CR Plus      Dept. of Public Safety      Pat Duffield
    Ser.# 37877715                   Vehicle – Unit 3

                                          Updated December 7, 2012




                                                                              150
                              APPENDIX B
                    University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
                                 AED Procedures
Important Notes:

      If an AED is not immediately available trained personnel should perform
       CPR until an AED arrives at the scene of a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)
       event.
      Use of an AED on the UMHB campus is authorized only for those personnel
       who have been trained in CPR and AED use.
      Volunteers (personnel not listed on the UMHB list of Authorized AED
       Users) may use AEDs on campus only if they have received CPR and AED
       use training and can provide valid documentation.

Initial Response/Evaluation:

Trained responders will;
    Assess the scene for safety. Be sure to move victim out of water and/or off of any
      metallic objects, and quickly remove any metallic jewelry.
    Determine unresponsiveness.
    Have someone dial 5555 and/or 911 and report the incident providing the name
      (if known) and location of victim.
    A - Open the airway.
    B – Check for breathing; if not breathing or breathing is ineffective give two
      slow breaths.
    C – Check for signs of circulation; i.e. pulse, coughing, movement. If no signs
      of circulation, apply an AED immediately.
           o If arrest is un-witnessed; perform 2 minutes – 5 cycles – of 30:2 CPR prior
              to using the AED.
           o If arrest is witnessed; use the AED immediately and follow instructions.
    Open the lid or cover and follow the voice prompts. Do not touch the victim
      unless instructed to do so.
    Follow voice prompts to apply electrode pads. Shave victim’s chest hair if
      necessary to achieve a good seal between the electrodes and the skin. If
      victim’s chest is wet or dirty clean and wipe dry.
    Stand clear of victim while AED evaluates victim’s heart rhythm.

Shock Advised:
   Clear the area ensuring that no one is touching the victim.
   Push the SHOCK button when instructed by the voice prompt. AED will evaluate
     the victim’s heart rhythm and shock up to three times.
   After three shocks the unit will prompt to check pulse (or for breathing or signs of
     circulation) and if absent, start CPR.
   If pulse or signs of circulation (i.e. normal breathing or movement) are absent
     perform CPR for one minute. AED will countdown one minute of CPR and
     automatically re-evaluate victim’s heart rhythm when time is over.
                                                                                     151
No Shock Advised:
    AED will prompt to check pulse, or for breathing or signs of circulation) and if
     absent, start CPR.
        o If pulse or sings of circulation such as breathing and movement are
           present, check for normal breathing.
        o If victim is not breathing give rescue breaths at a rate of 12 per minute.
           AED will automatically evaluate victim’s heart rhythm after one minute.
    Continue cycles of heart rhythm evaluations, shocks (if advised) and CPR until
     professional help arrives on scene.
        o Victim must be transported to hospital.
        o Leave AED attached to victim until EMS arrives and disconnects AED.

After Use:
    AED data must be downloaded (within 24 hours) and copies provided to;
         o EMS
         o Physician
    AED must be cleaned in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and the unit
       made ready for use.
          Change pads, electrodes, battery pack as required.
          Replenish resuscitation supplies as needed.


Medical Advisor Review:

Name: Walton George Bartels, MD

Address: 1505 N. Main St., Belton, TX 76513

Telephone: (254) 933-4040

Texas License #: F6421

Signature: (Signed 4/14/08)             Date: 4/14/08
(Original document on file at Risk Management office)

  Note: Revisions to the AED Procedures require review by the Medical Advisor.




                                                                                    152
                             APPENDIX C
                   University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
                           AED Site Information Form


Company Name:     University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

Site Address:     900 College St., Belton, Texas

Business Type:    Educational Institution

AED Program Coordinator:        Debbie Rosenberger, RN, BSN

Telephone: (254) 295-4623       Email: drosenberger@umhb.edu

Total number of AED’s: 6

AED Locations:
            Department                               Location
1 Athletics                       Mayborn Campus Center – Training Room #1115
2 Athletics                       Andersen Field House
3 Athletics                       Andersen Field House
4 Fitness Center                  Mayborn Campus Center – Reception Counter
5 Campus Police                   Vehicle
6 Campus Police                   Vehicle

Training Program: CPR, AED use, Blood-borne Pathogens

Name of Instructor: D. Rosenberger

Medical Advisor: George Bartels, M.D. Telephone: (254) 933-4040




                                                                            153
                               APPENDIX D
                     University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
                              AED Incident Use Form

Incident                             Estimated Time of
Date                                 Collapse

Patient Information:
Name
Gender       Male       Female          SSN:

Age:                                         Date of Birth:

 Employee  Student  Visitor  Other:

Exact location of Incident:


Witnesses:
Name:
Address:

Telephone:
 Employee  Student  Visitor  Other:

Name:
Address:

Telephone:
 Employee  Student  Visitor  Other:

Name:
Address:

Telephone:
 Employee  Student  Visitor  Other:

Name:
Address:

Telephone:
 Employee  Student  Visitor  Other:

Was CPR performed before the AED was connected to patient?  Yes  No

Did patient complain of any of the following before collapsing?

                                                                        154
 Chest Pain  Difficulty Breathing  Nausea  Weakness  Dizziness
 Other:


Did AED instruct you to shock?  Yes  No

Was patient transported from UMHB by ambulance?  Yes  No

Name of destination hospital:

Did patient exhibit any of the following after collapse and prior to departure from UMHB?
 Pulse  Breathing on own  Eye opening  Confusion  Combativeness
 Vomiting  Movement of arms/legs  Talking  Other:


Name of Person Completing
form
Telephone Number(s)
Signature
Date




                                                                                     155
                              APPENDIX E
                    University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
                 AED Maintenance Procedures & Checklist

Department/Area                                  Location

AED Make/Model                                   Serial #

     Month                                         Year


General:
   All AED maintenance will be performed in accordance with manufacturer’s
     guidelines.
   Designated responsible parties will perform maintenance at required intervals,
     maintain a copy of maintenance records and provide one copy of records to the
     Health Services Coordinator.



Week One:
              Task                     Recommended Action            Initial   Date
1 Check readiness display for:
  a. OK indicator                None
  b. Charge indicator            Replace electrode/charge
                                 packet(s)
  c. Attention indicator         See operating instructions.
  d. Wrench indicator            Contact authorized service.
2 Check “use by” dates           Replace electrode packets if
                                 expired.
3 Check additional supplies      Replenish as needed.
4 Check defibrillator for:
  a. damage                      Contact authorized service.
  b. foreign substances          Clean device.
5 Other:




                                                                                156
Week Two:
              Task                    Recommended Action        Initial   Date
1 Check readiness display for:
  a. OK indicator                None
  b. Charge indicator            Replace electrode/charge
                                 packet(s)
  c. Attention indicator         See operating instructions.
  d. Wrench indicator            Contact authorized service.
2 Check “use by” dates           Replace electrode packets if
                                 expired.
3 Check additional supplies      Replenish as needed.
4 Check defibrillator for:
  a. damage                      Contact authorized service.
  b. foreign substances          Clean device.
5 Other:

Week Three:
              Task                    Recommended Action        Initial   Date
1 Check readiness display for:
  a. OK indicator                None
  b. Charge indicator            Replace electrode/charge
                                 packet(s)
  c. Attention indicator         See operating instructions.
  d. Wrench indicator            Contact authorized service.
2 Check “use by” dates           Replace electrode packets if
                                 expired.
3 Check additional supplies      Replenish as needed.
4 Check defibrillator for:
  a. damage                      Contact authorized service.
  b. foreign substances          Clean device.
5 Other:

Week Four:
              Task                    Recommended Action        Initial   Date
1 Check readiness display for:
  a. OK indicator                None
  b. Charge indicator            Replace electrode/charge
                                 packet(s)
  c. Attention indicator         See operating instructions.
  d. Wrench indicator            Contact authorized service.
2 Check “use by” dates           Replace electrode packets if
                                 expired.
3 Check additional supplies      Replenish as needed.
4 Check defibrillator for:
  a. damage                      Contact authorized service.
  b. foreign substances          Clean device.
5 Other:


                                                                           157
Week Five:
              Task                    Recommended Action        Initial   Date
1 Check readiness display for:
  a. OK indicator                None
  b. Charge indicator            Replace electrode/charge
                                 packet(s)
  c. Attention indicator         See operating instructions.
  d. Wrench indicator            Contact authorized service.
2 Check “use by” dates           Replace electrode packets if
                                 expired.
3 Check additional supplies      Replenish as needed.
4 Check defibrillator for:
  a. damage                      Contact authorized service.
  b. foreign substances          Clean device.
5 Other:


 Responsible                                            Date
Party Signature




                                                                           158
15.0 CHEMICAL HYGIENE
                              TOPIC                              SECTION
General Principles                                                15.1
Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities                                 15.2
Laboratory Facility Design                                        15.3
Chemical Procurement, Distribution, and Storage                   15.4
Environmental monitoring                                          15.5
Housekeeping, Maintenance, and Inspections                        15.6
Medical Program                                                   15.7
Protective Apparel and Equipment                                  15.8
Records                                                           15.9
Signs and Labels                                                  15.10
Spills and Accidents                                              15.11
Information and Training Program                                  15.12
Waste Disposal Program                                            15.13
Basic Rules and Procedures for Working with Chemicals             15.14
Working with Allergens and Embryotoxins                           15.15
Work with Chemicals of Moderate Chronic or High Acute Toxicity    15.16
Work with Chemical of High Chronic Toxicity                       15.17
Animal Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity               15.18
Safety Recommendations                                            15.19
Material Safety Data Sheets                                       15.20




                                                                           159
15.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES

When working with Laboratory Chemicals:

1. It is prudent to minimize all chemical exposures because few laboratory chemicals
    are without hazards. General precautions for handling all laboratory chemicals
    should be adopted rather than specific guidelines for particular chemicals. A
    substantial part of the time spent by students in instructional laboratories is used in
    learning how to handle the materials and conduct routine operations with them
    safely. The hazards of handling chemicals in the laboratory may be classified
    broadly as physical or chemical. Physical hazards include those of fire, explosion,
    and electric shock, which are extremely serious and not unfamiliar in most
    laboratories. Chemical hazards are associated with their toxic effects and may be
    sub-classified as acute or chronic. Skin contact with chemicals should be avoided as
    a cardinal rule.
2. Avoid underestimation of risk. Even for substances of no known significant hazard,
    exposure should be minimized; for work with substances which present special
    hazards, special precautions should be taken. One should assume that any mixture
    will be more toxic than its most toxic component and that all substances of unknown
    toxicity are toxic.
3. Provide adequate ventilation. The best way to prevent exposure to airborne
    substances is to prevent their escape into the working atmosphere by use of hoods
    and other ventilation devices.
    Institute a chemical hygiene program. A mandatory chemical hygiene program
designed to minimize exposures is needed; it should be a regular, continuing effort, not
merely a standby or short-term activity. Past experience has shown that voluntary safety
programs are often inadequate. Good laboratory practice requires mandatory safety
rules and programs. To achieve safe conditions for the laboratory worker, a program
must include (a) regular safety inspections at intervals of no more than 3 months (and at
shorter intervals for certain types of equipment, such as eyewash fountains), (b)
disposal procedures that ensure disposal of waste chemicals at regular intervals, (c)
formal and regular safety programs that ensure that at least some of the full-time
personnel are trained in the proper use of emergency equipment and procedures, and
(d) regular monitoring of the performance of ventilations systems. Its recommendations
should be followed in academic teaching laboratories as well as by full-time laboratory
workers. The most severe limitation on protective equipment in instructional laboratories
is usually the general laboratory ventilation and especially, auxiliary local exhaust
ventilation hoods or their equivalent. It is unlikely that we will be able to provide a
laboratory hood for every two students; therefore, the work done and the chemicals
used in any laboratory should be adjusted according to the quality of ventilation
protection that is available in that laboratory. Unless adequate hood space can be
provided, it seems prudent to avoid work with substances whose toxicity has not been
studied. The selection of the particular substances to use among those whose
toxicological properties are known should be based on the quality of ventilation system
available.

Observe the PELs, TLVs. The permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) of OSHA and the
Threshold Limit Values (TVL) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial

                                                                                       160
Hygienists should not be exceeded. In general, use of a hood or some equivalent form
of local ventilation is desirable when working with any appreciable volatile substance
having a TLV of less than 50 ppm.


15.2 CHEMICAL HYGIENE RESPONSIBILITIES

First and foremost, the protection of health and safety is a moral obligation. An
expanding array of federal, state, and local laws and regulations makes it a legal
requirement and an economic necessity as well. In the final analysis, laboratory safety
can be achieved only by the exercise of judgment by informed responsible individuals. It
is an essential part of the development of scientists that they learn to work with and to
accept the responsibility for the appropriate use of hazardous substances. Liability for a
laboratory misadventure (accident, illness, environmental damage) may lie with the
individual experimenters, their immediate supervisors, other officers of the institution, or
the institution itself, depending on the circumstances and applicable laws-federal, state,
and local.

Responsibility for chemical hygiene rests at all levels including the;
1. The President, UMHB, has ultimate responsibility for chemical hygiene within the
university and must, with other administrators, the Provost, Vice-President for Business
and Finance, Deans and Chairpersons, provide continuing support for institutional
chemical hygiene and ensure that an effective safety program is in place.
2. Supervisor of the department or other administrative unit who is responsible for
chemical hygiene in that unit. The supervisor of the laboratory has overall safety
responsibility and should provide for regular formal safety and do housekeeping
inspections (at least weekly) in addition to continual informal inspections. Laboratory
supervisors have the responsibility of ensuring that (a) workers know safety rules and
follow them, (b) adequate emergency equipment in proper working order is available, (c)
training in the use of emergency equipment has been provided, (d) information on
special or unusual hazards in non-routine work has been distributed to the laboratory
workers, and (e) an appropriate safety orientation has been given to individuals when
they are first assigned to a laboratory space.
3. Risk Manager and committee (Dean of College of Sciences, Chairperson of Biology
Department, Chairperson of Chemistry and Geology & Environmental Science
Department, Designated Art Department Faculty Member, Designated Chemistry,
Geology and Environmental Science Department Faculty Member, Designated
Microbiology Instructor, Director of Auxiliary Enterprises, and Director of Facility
Services, whose appointment is essential and who must:
     Work with administrators and other employees to develop and implement
        appropriate chemical hygiene policies and practices;
     Monitor procurement, use and disposal of chemicals used in the labs;
     See that appropriate audits are maintained;
     Help project directors develop precautions and adequate facilities;
     Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances and
     Seek ways to improve the chemical hygiene program.
4. Laboratory Supervisors have overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in the
laboratory including responsibility to:

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      Ensure that workers know and follow the chemical hygiene rules, and that
       protective equipment is available and in working order, and that appropriate
       training has been provided.
    Provide regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping inspections,
       including routine inspections of emergency equipment.
    Know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances;
    Determine the required levels of protective apparel and equipment
    Ensure that facilities and training for use of any material being ordered are
       adequate.
5. Course instructor who has primary responsibility for chemical hygiene procedures for
that course. Careful attention must be paid to the appropriateness of the experimental
work conducted in relation to the adequacy of the physical facilities available and the
personnel involved. Once these are established, it is the role of the safety coordinator
and the representative group to assist in the development of adequate guidelines for
operations. For example, the ventilation facilities available in a given laboratory may
preclude certain kinds of work or the use of certain materials.
6. Laboratory worker, who is responsible for
    Planning and conduct of each operation in accordance with the chemical hygiene
       procedures and
    Developing good personal chemical hygiene habits:
           o eye protection should be worn at all times
           o exposure to chemicals should be kept to a minimum
           o food and beverages are prohibited in areas where chemicals are present


15.3 LABORATORY FACILITY

1. Design. The laboratory facility should have:
    An appropriate general ventilation system (see C4 below) with air intakes and
       exhausts located so as to avoid intake of contaminated air.
    Adequate, well-ventilated stockrooms/storeroom.
    Laboratory hoods and sinks
    Other safety equipment including eyewash fountains and drench showers
    Arrangements for waste disposal and temporary storage.
2. Maintenance. Chemical hygiene-related equipment (hoods, etc.) should undergo
   continuing appraisal and be modified if inadequate.
3. Usage. The work conducted and its scale must be appropriate to the physical
   facilities available and especially to the quality of ventilation.
4. Ventilation.
    General laboratory ventilation. This system should provide a source of air for
       breathing and for input to local ventilation devices. It should not be relied on for
       protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory: ensure that
       laboratory air is continually replaced, preventing increases of air concentrations
       of toxic substances during the working day; direct air flow into the laboratory from
       non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.
    Hoods. Laboratory hoods with 2.5 linear feet of hood space per person should
       be provided for every 2 workers if they spend most of their time working with
       chemicals; each hood should have a continuous monitoring device to allow
       convenient confirmation of adequate hood performance before use. If this is not
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       possible, work with substances of unknown toxicity should be avoided or other
       types of local ventilation devices should be provided.
      Modifications. Any alteration of the ventilation system should be made only if
       thorough testing indicates that worker protection from airborne toxic substances
       will continue to be adequate.
      Performance. Rate: 4-12 room air changes/hour is normally adequate general
       ventilation if local exhaust systems such as hoods are used as the primary
       method of control.
      Quality. General airflow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform
       throughout the laboratory with no high velocity or static areas; airflow into and
       within the hood should not be excessively turbulent; hood face velocity should be
       adequate (typically 60-100 lfm).
      Evaluation. Quality and quantity of ventilation should be evaluated regularly
       monitored (at least every 3 months) and reevaluated whenever a change in local
       ventilation devices is made.


15.4 CHEMICAL PROCUREMENT, DISTRIBUTION & STORAGE

1. Procurement. Before a substance is received, information on proper handling,
storage, and disposal should be known to those who will be involved. No container
should be accepted without an adequate identifying label. Preferably all substances
should be received in a central location.
2. Stockrooms/storerooms. Toxic substances should be segregated in a well identified
area with local exhaust ventilation. Stored chemicals should be examined periodically
(at least annually) for replacement, deterioration and container integrity.
Stockroom/storeroom should not be used as preparation or repackaging areas, should
be opened during normal working hours, and should be controlled by one person.
3. Distribution. When chemicals are hand-carried, the container should be placed in an
outside container or bucket.
4. Laboratory storage. Amounts permitted should be as small as practical. Storage on
bench tops and in hoods is inadvisable. Exposure to heat or direct sunlight should be
avoided. Periodic inventories should be conducted with unneeded items being
discarded or returned to the stockroom/storerooms.

15.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Regular instrumental monitoring of airborne concentrations is not usually justified or
practical in laboratories but may be appropriate when testing or redesigning hoods or
other ventilation devices or when a highly toxic substance is stored or used regularly.




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15.6 HOUSEKEEPING, MAINTENANCE & INSPECTIONS

1. Cleaning. Floors should be cleaned regularly.
2. Inspections. Formal housekeeping and chemical hygiene inspections should be held
at least quarterly for units which have frequent personnel changes and semiannually for
others; informal inspections should be continual.
3. Maintenance. Eye wash fountains should be inspected at intervals of not less than 3
months. Respirators for routine use should be inspected periodically by the laboratory
supervisor. Safety showers should be tested routinely. Other safety equipment should
be inspected regularly (e.g. every 3-6 months)
4. Passageways. Stairways and hallways should not be used as storage areas. Access
to exits, emergency equipment, and utility controls should never be blocked.

15.7 MEDICAL PROGRAM

1. Compliance with regulations. Regular medical surveillance should be established to
the extent required by regulations .
2. Routine surveillance. Anyone whose work involves regular and frequent handling of
toxicologically significant quantities of a chemical should consult a qualified physician to
determine on an individual basis whether a regular schedule of medical surveillance is
desirable. Anyone who has or develops a health condition which could be adversely
affected by chemical exposure (allergy, pregnancy, et al) is required to consult a
physician for approval to work with chemicals.
3. First aid. Medical facilities are available locally.

15.8 PROTECTIVE APPAREL & EQUIPMENT

These items should be provided for each laboratory:
1. Protective apparel which are compatible with the required degree of protection for
substances and respective quantities being handled. In the event of emergencies,
campus police should be contacted at extension 5555 or 254.760.5000.
2. An easily accessible ceiling-mounted or drench-type safety shower
3. An eye wash fountain
4. A fire extinguisher (in or near each laboratory).
5. Fire alarm and telephone for emergency use should be available nearby and
6. Other items designated by the laboratory supervisor.


15.9 RECORDS

1. Accident records will be written and retained.
2. Chemical Hygiene Plan records should document that the facilities and
precautions were compatible with current knowledge and regulations.
3. All records will be retained in accordance with the university’s Record Retention
Policy.



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15.10 SIGNS & LABELS

Prominent signs and labels of the following types should be posted:
1. Emergency telephone numbers of emergency personnel/facilities, supervisors, and
laboratory workers
2. Identity labels, showing contents of containers (including waste receptacles) and
associated hazards
3. Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid
equipment, and exits.
4. Warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist.

15.11 SPILLS & ACCIDENTS

1. A written emergency plan should be established and communicated to all personnel;
it should include procedures for ventilation failure, evacuation, medical care, reporting,
and drills.
2. There should be an alarm system to alert people in all parts of the facility
3. A spill control policy should be developed and should include consideration of
prevention, containment, cleanup, and reporting.
4. All accidents or near accidents should be carefully analyzed with the results
distributed to all who might benefit.

15.12 INFORMATION & TRAINING PROGRAM

1. Aim. To assure that all individuals at risk are adequately informed about the work in
the laboratory, its risks, and what to do if an accident occurs
2. Emergency and Personal Protection Training: Every laboratory worker should know
the location and proper use of available protective apparel and equipment. Some of the
full-time personnel of the laboratory should be trained in the proper use of emergency
equipment and procedures. Such training as well as first aid instruction should
be available to and encouraged for everyone who might need it.
3. Receiving and stockroom/storeroom personnel should know about hazards, handling
equipment, protective apparel, and relevant regulation
4. Frequency of Training: The training and education program should be a regular,
continuing activity – not simply an annual presentation
5. Literature/Consultation: Literature and consulting advice concerning
chemical hygiene should be readily available to laboratory personnel, who should be
encouraged to use these information resources.




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15.13 WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAM

1. Aim: To assure that minimal harm to people, other organisms, and the environment
will result from the disposal of waste laboratory chemicals
2. Content: The waste disposal program should specify how waste is to be collected,
desegregated, stored, and transported and include consideration of what materials can
be incinerated. Transport from the institution must be in accordance with DOT
regulations.
3. Discarding Chemical Stocks: Unlabeled containers of chemicals and solutions should
undergo prompt disposal; if partially used, they should not be opened. Before a worker’s
employment in the laboratory ends, chemicals for which that person was responsible
should be discarded or returned to storage.
4. Frequency of Disposal: Waste should be removed from laboratories to a central
waste storage area at least once a week and from the central waste storage area at
regular intervals.
5. Method of Disposal: Incineration in an environmentally acceptable manner is the
most practical disposal method for combustible laboratory wastes. Indiscriminate
disposal by pouring waste chemicals down the drain or adding them to mixed refuse for
landfill burial is unacceptable. Hoods should not be used as a means of disposal for
volatile chemicals. Disposal by recycling or chemical contamination should be used
when possible.

15.14 BASIC RULES & PROCEDURES for WORKING with
CHEMICALS

The Chemical Hygiene Plan should require that laboratory workers know and follow its
rules and procedures. In addition to the procedures of the sub programs mentioned
above, these should include the rules listed below

1. General Rules. The following should be used for essentially all laboratory work with
chemicals:
   a. Know the safety rules and procedures that apply to the work that is being done.
   Determine the potential hazards (e.g. physical, chemical, biological) and appropriate
   safety precautions before beginning any new operation
   b. Know the location of and how to use the emergency equipment in your area, as
   well as how to obtain additional help in an emergency, and be familiar with
   emergency procedures.
   c. Know the types of protective equipment available and use the proper type for
   each job.
   d. Be alert to unsafe conditions and actions and call attention to them so that
   corrections can be made as soon as possible. Someone else’s accident can be as
   dangerous to you as any you might have.
   e. Avoid consuming food or beverages or smoking in areas where chemicals are
   being used or stored
   f. Avoid hazards to the environment by following accepted waste disposal
   procedures. Chemical reactions may require traps or scrubbing devices to prevent
   the escape of toxic substances.

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    g. Be certain all chemicals are correctly and clearly labeled. Post warning sings
    when unusual hazards, such as radiation, laser operations, flammable materials,
    biological hazards, or other special problems exist.
    h. Remain out of the area of a fire or personal injury unless it is your responsibility to
    help meet the emergency. Curious bystanders interfere with rescue and emergency
    personnel and endanger themselves
    i. Avoid distracting or startling any other worker. Practical jokes or horseplay cannot
    be tolerated at any time
    j. Use equipment only for its designed purpose
    k. Position and clamp reaction apparatus thoroughly in order to permit manipulation
    without the need to move the apparatus until the entire reaction is complete;
    combine reagents in appropriate order and avoid adding solids to hot liquids
    l. Think, act, and encourage safety until it becomes a habit
2. Accidents and spills - Eye Contact: Promptly flush eyes with water for a prolonged
period (15 minutes) and seek medical attention.
     Ingestion: encourage the victim to drink large amounts of water.
     Skin Contact: Promptly flush the affected area with water and remove any
        contaminated clothing. If symptoms persist after washing, seek medical attention.
     Clean-up. Promptly clean up spills, using appropriate protective apparel and
        equipment and proper disposal.
3. Avoidance of “routine” exposures: Develop and encourage safe habits: avoid
unnecessary exposure to chemicals by any route. Do not taste or smell chemicals. An
exception could occur if the experiment requires cautiously smelling a chemical. Vent
apparatus which may discharge toxic chemicals (vacuum pumps, distillation columns,
etc.) into local exhaust devices.
4. Choice of chemicals: Use only those chemicals for which the quality of the available
    ventilation system is appropriate.
5. Food handling: Contamination of food, drink and smoking materials is a potential
    route for exposure to toxic substances. Food should be stored, handled, and
    consumed in an area free of hazardous substances.
    a. Well-defined areas should be established for storage and consumption of food
        and beverages. No food should be stored or consumed outside of this area
    b. Consumption of food or beverages and smoking is not to be permitted in areas
        where laboratory operations are being carried out
    c. Glassware or utensils that have been used for laboratory operations should
        never be used to prepare or consume food or beverages. Laboratory
        refrigerators, ice chests, and such should not be used for food storage; separate
        equipment should be dedicated to that use and prominently labeled
    d. Smoking is not allowed for personnel on duty in the Wells-York Science Complex
        at any time.
6. Glassware
    a. Careful handling and storage procedures should be used to avoid damaging
        glassware. Damaged items should be discarded or repaired
    b. Adequate hand protection should be used when inserting glass tubing into rubber
        stoppers or corks or when placing rubber tubing on glass hose connections.
        Tubing should be fire polished or rounded and lubricated, and hands should be
        held close together to limit movement of glass should fracture occur. The use of
        plastic or metal connectors should be considered.
    c. Glass-blowing operations should not be attempted unless proper annealing
        facilities are available
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    d. Vacuum-jacketed glass apparatus should be handled with extreme care to
        prevent implosions. Equipment such as Dewar flasks should be taped or
        shielded. Only glassware designed for vacuum work should be used for that
        purpose.
    e. Hand protection should be used when picking up broken glass. (small pieces
        should be swept up with a brush into a dustpan)
    f. Proper instruction should be provided in the use of glass equipment designed for
        specialized tasks, which can represent unusual risks for the first-time user. (For
        example, separator funnels containing volatile solvents can develop considerable
        pressure during use.
7. Exiting: Wash areas of exposed skin well immediately after leaving the laboratory
8. Horseplay: Avoid practical jokes or other behavior which might confuse, startle or
distract another worker
9. Shielding for safety. Safety shielding should be used for any operation having the
potential for explosion such as (a) whenever a reaction is attempted for the first time
(small quantities of reactants should be used to minimize hazards), (b) whenever a
familiar reaction is carried out on a larger than usual scale (e.g. 5-10 times more
material), and (c) whenever operations are carried out under non-ambient conditions.
Shields must be placed so that all personnel in there are protected from hazard
10. Guarding for safety. All mechanical equipment should be adequately furnished with
guards that prevent access to electrical connections or moving parts (such as the belts
and pulleys of a vacuum pump). Each laboratory worker should inspect equipment
before using it to ensure that the guards are in place and functioning. Careful design of
guards is vital. An ineffective guard can be worse than none at all, because it can give a
false sense of security. Emergency shutoff devices may be needed, in addition to
electrical and mechanical guarding.
11. Housekeeping. There is a definite relationship between safety performance and
orderliness in the laboratory. When housekeeping standards fall, safety performance
inevitably deteriorates. The work area should be kept clean, and chemicals and
equipment be properly labeled and stored.
    a. Work areas should be kept clean and free from obstructions. Clean-up should
        follow the completion of any operation or at the end of each day.
    b. Wastes should be deposited in appropriate receptacles.
    c. Spilled chemicals should be cleaned up immediately and disposed of properly.
        Disposal procedures should be established and all laboratory personnel should
        be informed of them; the effects of laboratory accidents should also be cleaned
        up promptly
    d. Un-labeled containers and chemical wastes should be disposed of promptly by
        using appropriate procedures. Such materials, as well as chemicals that are no
        longer needed should not accumulate in the laboratory.
    e. Lab floors should be cleaned regularly; accumulated dust, chromatography
        absorbents, and other assorted chemicals pose respiratory hazards.
    f. Stairways and hallways should not be used as storage areas
    g. Access to exits, emergency equipment, controls, and such should never be
        blocked
    h. Equipment and chemicals should be stored properly; clutter should be minimized
12. Health and hygiene: Laboratory workers should observe the following health
practices
    a. Wear appropriate eye protection at all times in the lab.

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    b. Use protective apparel, including face shields, gloves and other special clothing
        or footwear as needed.
    c. Confine long hair and loose fitting clothing when in the laboratory
    d. Do not use mouth suction to pipette chemicals or to start a siphon; a pipette bulb
        or aspirator should be used to provide vacuum.
    e. Avoid exposure to hazardous gases, vapors, and aerosols. Use appropriate
        safety equipment whenever such exposure is likely.
    f. Wash well before leaving the laboratory area. However, avoid the use of solvents
        for washing the skin. They remove the natural protective oils from the skin and
        can cause irritation and inflammation. In some cases, washing with a solvent
        might facilitate absorption of a toxic chemical.
    g. Wear appropriate gloves when the potential for contact with toxic material exists;
        inspect the gloves before each use, wash them before removal, and replace
        them periodically or if damaged.
    h. Use appropriate respiratory equipment when contaminant concentrations are not
        sufficiently restricted by engineering controls, inspecting the respirator before
        use.
    i. Use any other protective and emergency apparel and equipment appropriate.
    j. Avoid use of contact lenses in the laboratory unless necessary; if they are used,
        inform supervisor so special precautions can be taken.
    k. Remove laboratory coats immediately if significantly contaminated.
13. Planning: Seek information and advice about hazards, plan appropriate protective
procedures, and plan positioning of equipment before beginning any new operation.
14. Unattended operations: Leave lights on, place an appropriate sign on the door, and
provide for containment of toxic substances in the event of failure of a utility service
(such as cooling water) to an unattended operation.
15. Use of a hood: Use the hood for operations which might result in release of toxic
chemical vapors or dust. As a rule of thumb, use a hood or other local ventilation device
when working with any appreciably volatile substance with a TLV of less than 50 ppm.
Confirm adequate hood performance before use; keep hood closed at all times except
when adjustments within the hood are being made; keep materials stored in hoods to a
minimum and do not allow them to block vents or air flow. Hoods in York Science
Building remain on at all times since they are part of the general laboratory ventilation.
16. Vigilance: Be alert to unsafe conditions and see that they are corrected when
detected.
17. Waste disposal: Assure that the plan for each laboratory operation includes plans
and training for waste disposal. Deposit chemical waste in appropriately labeled
receptacles and follow all other waste disposal procedures. Do not discharge to the
sewer concentrated acids or bases: highly toxic, malodorous, or lachrymatory
substances: or any substances which might interfere with the biological activity of waste
water treatment plants, create fire or explosion hazards, cause structural damage or
obstruct flow.
18. Working alone. No one should work alone in a laboratory while conducting a
hazardous operation.
19. Equipment maintenance: Good equipment maintenance is important for safe,
efficient operations. Equipment should be inspected and maintained regularly. Servicing
schedules will depend on both the possibilities and the consequences of failure.
Maintenance plans should include a procedure to ensure that a device that is out of
service cannot be restarted.

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20. Flammability hazards: Because flammable materials are widely used in laboratory
operations, the following rules should be observed:
   a. Do not use an open flame to heat a flammable liquid or to carry out a distillation
       under reduced pressure
   b. Use an open flame only when necessary and extinguish it when it is no longer
       actually needed.
   c. Before lighting a flame, remove all flammable substances from the immediate
       area: Check all containers of flammable materials in the area to ensure that they
       are tightly closed.
   d. Notify other occupants of the laboratory in advance of lighting a flame.
   e. Store flammable materials properly
   f. When volatile flammable materials may be present, open flames are prohibited.

21. Warning signs and labels: Laboratory areas that have special or unusual hazards
should be posted with warning signs. Standard signs and symbols have been
established for a number of special situations, such as radioactivity hazards, biological
hazards, fire hazards, and laser operations. Other signs should be posted to show the
locations of safety showers, eyewash stations, exits, and fire extinguishers.
Extinguishers should be labeled to show the type of fire for which they are intended.
Waste containers should be labeled for the type of waste that can be safely deposited.
The safety-and-hazard-sign systems in the laboratory would enable a person unfamiliar
with the usual routine of the laboratory to escape in an emergency (or help combat it, if
appropriate. When possible, labels on containers of chemicals should contain
information on the hazards associated with use of the chemical. Unlabeled bottles of
chemicals should not be opened; such materials should be disposed of promptly and
will require special handling procedures.

22. Accident Reporting: Emergency telephone numbers to be called in the event of fire,
accident, flood, or hazardous chemical spill should be posted prominently in each
laboratory. Laboratory Supervisors should be notified immediately in the event of an
accident or emergency. Every laboratory should have an internal accident-reporting
system to help discover and correct unexpected hazards. This system should include
provisions for investigating the causes of injury and any potentially serious incident that
does not result in injury. The goal of such investigations should be to make
recommendations to improve safety, not to assign blame for an incident. Relevant
federal, state, and local regulations may require particular reporting procedures for
accidents or injuries.




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15.15 WORKING with ALLERGENS & EMBRYOTOXINS

1. Allergens (examples: diazomethane, isocyanates, dichromates): Wear suitable
gloves to prevent hand contact with allergens or substances of unknown allergenic
activity.
2. Embryotoxins (examples: organomercurials, lead compounds, formamide): if you are
a woman of childbearing age, handle these substances only in hood whose satisfactory
performances has been confirmed, using appropriate protective apparel (especially
gloves) to prevent skin contact. Review each use of these materials with the research
supervisor and review continuing uses annually or whenever a procedural change is
made. Notify supervisors of all incidents of exposure or spills: consult a qualified
physician when appropriate.

15.16 WORK with CHEMICALS of MODERATE CHRONIC or HIGH
ACUTE TOXICITY>

(Examples: disopropylfluorphosphate, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen cyanide.)
Supplemental rules to be followed in addition to those mentioned above.

1. Aim: To minimize exposure to these toxic substances by any route using all
   reasonable precautions
2. Applicability: These precautions are appropriate for substances with moderate
   chronic or high acute toxicity used in significant quantities.
3. Location: Use and store these substances only in areas of restricted access with
   special warning signs. Always use a hood (previously evaluated to confirm adequate
   performance with a face velocity of at least 60 linear feet per minute) or other
   containment device for procedures which may result in the generation of aerosols or
   vapors containing the substance: trap released vapors to prevent their discharge
   with the hood exhaust.
4. Personal protection: Always avoid skin contact by use of gloves when necessary
   (and other protective apparel as appropriate). Always wash hands and arms
   immediately after working with these materials.
5. Records: Maintain records of the amounts of these materials on hand.
6. Prevention of spills and accidents: Be prepared for accidents and spills. Assure that
   at least 2 people are present at all times if a compound in use is highly toxic or of
   unknown toxicity.If a major spill occurs outside the hood evacuate the area; assure
   that clean-up personnel wear suitable protective apparel and equipment.
7. Waste: Thoroughly decontaminate or incinerate contaminated clothing or shoes. If
   possible, chemically decontaminate by chemical conversion. Store contaminated
   waste in closed, suitable labeled impervious containers.

15.17 WORK with CHEMICALS of HIGH CHRONIC TOXICITY

(Examples: human carcinogens or substances with high carcinogenic potency in
animals.) further supplemental rules to be followed, in addition to all these mentioned
above, for work with substances of known high chronic toxicity (in quantities above a
few milligrams to a few grams, depending on the substance).

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1. Access: Conduct all transfers and work with these substances in a “controlled area”:
    a restricted access hood, glove box, or portion of a lab, designated for use of highly
    toxic substances for which all people with access are aware of the substances being
    used and necessary precautions.
2. Approvals: Prepare a plan for use and disposal of these materials and obtain the
    approval of the laboratory supervisor.
3. Non-contamination/Decontamination: Protect vacuum pumps against contamination
    by scrubbers or HEPA filters and vent them into the hood. Decontaminate vacuum
    pumps or other contaminated equipment, including glassware, in the hood before
    removing them from the controlled area. Decontaminate the controlled area before
    normal work is resumed there.
4. Exiting: On leaving a controlled area, remove any protective apparel (placing it in an
    appropriate, labeled container) and thoroughly wash exposed areas.
5. Housekeeping: Use a wet mop or a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter
    instead of dry sweeping if the toxic substance was a dry powder.
6. Medical surveillance: If using toxicologically significant quantities of such a
    substance on a regular basis (e.g. 3 times per week), consult a qualified physician
    concerning desirability of regular medical surveillance.
7. Records: Keep accurate records of the amounts of these substances stored.
8. Signs and labels: Assure that the controlled area is conspicuously marked with
    warning and restricted access signs and that all containers of these substances are
    appropriately labeled with identity and warning labels.
9. Spills: Assure that contingency plans, equipment, and materials to minimize
    exposures of people and property in case of accident are available.
10. Storage: Store containers of these chemicals only in ventilated, limited access area
    in appropriately labeled.
11. Glove boxes: For a negative pressure glove box, ventilation rate must be at least 2
    volume changes/hour and pressure at least 0.5 inches of water. For a positive
    pressure glove box, thoroughly check for leaks before each use. In either case, trap
    the exit gases or filter them through a HEPA filter and then release them into the
    hood.
12. Waste: Use chemical decontamination whenever possible: ensure that containers of
    contaminated waste (including washing from contaminated flasks) are transferred
    from the controlled area in a secondary container under the supervision of
    authorized personnel.




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15.18 ANIMAL WORK with CHEMICALS of HIGH CHRONIC TOXICITY

1. Access: For large scale studies, special facilities with restricted access are
   preferable.
2. Administration of the toxic substances: When possible administer the substance by
   injection or gavage instead of in the diet. If administration is in the diet, use a caging
   system under negative pressure or under laminar air flow directed toward HEPA
   filters.
3. Aerosol suppression: Devise procedures which minimize formation and dispersal of
   contaminated aerosols, including those from food, urine, and feces (e.g. use HEPA
   filtered vacuum equipment for cleaning, moisten contaminated bedding before
   removal from the cage, mix diets in closed containers in a hood.)
4. Personal protection: When working in the animal room, wear plastic or rubber
   gloves, fully buttoned laboratory coat or jumpsuit and, if needed because of
   incomplete suppression of aerosols, other apparel and equipment (shoe and head
   coverings, respirator.)
5. Waste Disposal: Dispose of contaminated animal tissues and excrete by incineration
   if the available incinerator can convert the contaminant to non-toxic products:
   otherwise, package the waste appropriately for burial in an EPA-approved site.
6. Additional requirements are available in the UMHB Faculty Handbook, Section VII F.

15.19 SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

The above recommendations do not include those which are directed primarily toward
prevention of physical injury rather than toxic exposure. However, failure of precautions
against injury will often have the secondary effect of causing toxic exposures.

Therefore, listed below are some of the major categories of safety hazards which also
have implications for chemical hygiene:
    Corrosive agents
    Electrically powered laboratory apparatus
    Fires, explosions
    Low temperature procedures
    Pressurized and vacuum operations (including use of compressed gas cylinders)

15.20 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS

Material safety data sheets are on hand in the Chemistry Department Office, 301 York
Science Complex , as well as in 322 York Science Complex .




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16.0 BIOLOGICAL SAFETY
                                 TOPIC        SECTION
Bio-safety Principle                           16.1
General Biosafety Guidelines                   16.2
CDC and NIH Bio-safety Levels                  16.3
Disinfection and Sterilization                 16.4
Biological Safety Cabinets                     16.5
Clean Benches                                  16.6
Importing and Shipping Biological Materials    16.7
Biological Spill Response                      16.8
Biological Waste Disposal                      16.9
Blood-borne Pathogens                          16.10




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16.1 BIO-SAFETY PRINCIPLE

The primary principle of biological safety (i.e., bio-safety) is containment. The term
containment refers to a series of safe methods for managing infectious agents in the
laboratory. The purpose of containment is to reduce or eliminate human and
environmental exposure to potentially harmful agents.

16.1.1 Primary and Secondary Containment
There are two levels of biological containment — primary and secondary.

16.1.1.1 Primary Containment
Primary containment protects people and the immediate laboratory environment from
exposure to infectious agents. Good microbial techniques and safety equipment provide
sufficient primary containment. Primary barriers include safety equipment such as
biological safety cabinets, enclosed containers, and safety centrifuge cups.
Occasionally, when it is impractical to work in biological safety cabinets, personal
protective equipment, such as lab coats and gloves may act as the primary barrier
between personnel and infectious materials.

16.1.1.2 Secondary Containment
Secondary containment protects the environment external to the laboratory from
exposure to infectious materials. Good facility design and operational practices provide
secondary containment. Examples of secondary barriers include work areas that are
separate from public areas, decontamination facilities, hand-washing facilities, special
ventilation systems, and airlocks.

16.1.2 Elements of Containment
Ultimately, the three key elements of biological containment are laboratory practices,
safety equipment, and facility design. To ensure minimal exposure, employees must
assess the hazards associated with their work and determine how to apply the bio-
safety principle appropriately.

IMPORTANT: Employees working with infectious agents or potentially infectious
materials must be aware of the hazards associated with their work. These
workers must be trained and proficient in bio-safety procedures and techniques.




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16.2 GENERAL BIO-SAFETY GUIDELINES

Bio-hazardous materials require special safety precautions and procedures. Follow
these guidelines when working with infectious agents:

16.2.1 Personal Hygiene Guidelines:
Wash your hands thoroughly, as indicated below:
- After working with any biohazard
- After removing gloves, laboratory coat, and other contaminated protective clothing
- Before eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics
- Before leaving the laboratory area
- Do not touch your face when handling biological material
- Never eat, drink, smoke, or apply cosmetics in the work area

16.2.2 Clothing Guidelines:
    Always wear a wrap-around gown or scrub suit, gloves, and a surgical mask
      when working with infectious agents or infected animals.
    Wear gloves over gown cuffs.
    Never wear contact lenses around infectious agents.
    Do not wear potentially contaminated clothing outside the laboratory area.
    To remove contaminated clothing, follow these steps:
      1. Remove booties from the back.
      2. Remove head covering from the peak.
      3. Untie gown while wearing gloves.
      4. Remove gloves by peeling them from the inside out.
      5. Remove the gown by slipping your finger under the sleeve cuff of the gown.

16.2.3 Handling Procedures:
    Use mechanical pipetting devices.
    Minimize aerosol production.
    Add disinfectant to water baths for infectious substances.
    Use trunnion cups with screw caps for centrifuging procedures. Inspect the tubes
      before use.
    Use secondary leak-proof containers when transporting samples, cultures,
      inoculated petri dishes, and other containers of bio-hazardous materials.

16.2.4 Syringes:
Avoid using syringes and needles whenever possible. If a syringe is necessary,
minimize your chances of exposure by following these guidelines:
    Use a needle-locking or disposable needle unit.
    Take care not to stick yourself with a used needle.
    Place used syringes into a pan of disinfectant without removing the needles.
    Do not place used syringes in pans containing pipets or other glassware that
      require sorting.
    Do not recap used needles.
    Dispose of needles in an approved sharps container.




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16.2.5 Work Area:
    Keep laboratory doors shut when experiments are in progress.
    Limit access to laboratory areas when experiments involve bio-hazardous
      agents.
    Ensure that warning signs are posted on laboratory doors. These signs should
      include the universal biohazard symbol and the approved bio-safety level for the
      laboratory.
    Ensure that vacuum lines have a suitable filter trap.
    Decontaminate work surfaces daily and after each spill.
    Decontaminate all potentially contaminated equipment.
    Transport contaminated materials in leak-proof containers.
    Keep miscellaneous material (i.e., books, journals, etc.) away from contaminated
      areas.
    Completely decontaminate equipment before having maintenance or repair work
      done.

16.2.6 Universal Precautions:
Clinical and diagnostic laboratories often handle specimens without full knowledge of
the material's diagnosis; these specimens may contain infectious agents. To minimize
exposure, observe universal precautions when handling any biological specimen.
Consider all specimens to be infectious and treat these materials as potentially
hazardous.

See Section 17 – Blood-borne Pathogen Exposure Control in the Safety Manual for
more information.




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16.3 CDC & NIH BIO-SAFETY LEVELS

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have
established four bio-safety levels consisting of recommended laboratory practices,
safety equipment, and facilities for various types of infectious agents. Each bio-safety
level accounts for the following:
    Operations to be performed
    Known and suspected routes of transmission
    Laboratory function

16.3.1 Bio-safety Level 1
Bio-safety Level 1 precautions are appropriate for facilities that work with defined and
characterized strains of viable organisms that do not cause disease in healthy adult
humans (e.g., Bacillus subtilis and Naegleria gruberi).

Level 1 precautions rely on standard microbial practices without special primary or
secondary barriers. Bio-safety Level 1 criteria are suitable for undergraduate and
secondary education laboratories.

16.3.2 Bio-safety Level 2
Bio-safety Level 2 precautions are appropriate for facilities that work with a broad range
of indigenous moderate-risk agents known to cause human disease (e.g., Hepatitis B
virus, salmonellae, and Toxoplasma spp.). Level 2 precautions are necessary when
working with human blood, body fluids, or tissues where the presence of an infectious
agent is unknown.

The primary hazards associated with level 2 agents are injection and ingestion.

16.3.3 Bio-safety Level 3
Bio-safety Level 3 precautions apply to facilities that work with indigenous or exotic
agents with the potential for aerosol transmission and lethal infection (e.g.,
Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The primary hazards associated with level 3 agents are
autoinoculation, ingestion, and inhalation.

Level 3 precautions emphasize primary and secondary barriers. For primary protection,
all laboratory manipulations should be performed in a biological safety cabinet or other
enclosed equipment. Secondary protection should include controlled access to the
laboratory and a specialized ventilation system.

16.3.4 Bio-safety Level 4
Bio-safety Level 4 precautions are essential for facilities that work with dangerous and
exotic agents with a high risk of causing life-threatening disease, the possibility of
aerosol transmission, and no known vaccine or therapy (e.g., Marburg or Congo-
Crimean viruses).

Level 4 agents require complete isolation. Class III biological safety cabinets or full-body
air-supplied positive-pressure safety suits are necessary when working with level 4


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agents. In addition, isolated facilities, specialized ventilation, and waste management
systems are required.

16.4 DISINFECTION & STERILIZATION

Biological safety depends on proper cleanup and removal of potentially harmful agents.
Disinfection and sterilization are two ways to help ensure biological safety in the
laboratory.

16.4.1 Disinfection
Reduction of the number of pathogenic organisms by the direct application of physical
or chemical agents.

16.4.2 Sterilization
Total destruction of all living organisms.

16.4.3 General Guidelines
Choosing the best method for disinfection and sterilization is very important. The proper
method depends on the following:
    Target organisms to be removed
    Characteristics of the area to be cleaned

Once you have chosen the proper method for disinfection or sterilization, follow these
guidelines to ensure laboratory safety:
    Frequently disinfect all floors, cabinet tops, and equipment where bio-hazardous
       materials are used.
    Use autoclavable or disposable materials whenever possible. Keep reusable and
       disposable items separate.
    Minimize the amount of materials and equipment present when working with
       infectious agents.
    Sterilize or properly store all bio-hazardous materials at the end of each day.
    Remember that some materials may interfere with chemical disinfectants — use
       higher concentrations or longer contact time.
    Use indicators with autoclave loads to ensure sterilization.
    Clearly mark all containers for biological materials (e.g., BIO-HAZARDOUS - TO
       BE AUTOCLAVED.).

16.4.4 Types of Disinfectant
Use the following table to aid in the selection of disinfectants:

 Disinfectant                                    Uses
                 Ethyl or isopropyl alcohol at 70-80% concentration is a good
   Alcohols      general purpose disinfectant; not effective against bacterial
                 spores.
                 Effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses
    Phenols
                 containing lipids; unpleasant odor.
                 Concentration of 5-8% formalin is a good disinfectant against
Formaldehyde
                 vegetative bacteria, spores, and viruses; known carcinogen;
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                 irritating odor.
 Quaternary      Cationic detergents are strongly surface active; extremely
 Ammonium        effective against lipoviruses; ineffective against bacterial spores;
 Compounds       may be neutralized by anionic detergents (i.e., soaps).
                 Low concentrations (50-500 ppm) are active against vegetative
                 bacteria and most viruses; higher concentrations (2,500 ppm)
   Chlorine      are required for bacterial spores; corrosive to metal surfaces;
                 must be prepared fresh; laundry bleach (5.25% chlorine) may be
                 diluted and used as a disinfectant.
                 Recommended for general use; effective against vegetative
                 bacteria and viruses; less effective against bacterial spores;
     Iodine
                 Wescodyne diluted 1 to 10 is a popular disinfectant for washing
                 hands.

16.4.5 Sterilization Methods
There are three common methods for sterilizing laboratory materials: wet heat, dry heat,
and ethylene oxide gas.

16.4.5.1 Wet Heat
When used properly, the damp steam heat from an autoclave effectively sterilizes bio-
hazardous waste. Sterilization occurs when contaminated materials reach 15 psi
pressure at 250°F or 121°C for at least 30 minutes.
IMPORTANT: For the autoclave process to be effective, sufficient temperature,
time, and direct steam contact are essential.

Any UMHB department that autoclaves bio-hazardous waste should have written
documentation to ensure the waste is sterile. Documentation will be maintained in the
department as required by university retention policies. Parameters for sterilization and
standard operating procedures should include requirements for verifying sterilization.

Potential problems with wet heat sterilization and autoclaves include the following:
    Heavy or dense loads require higher temperature for sterilization.
    Poor heat conductors (e.g., plastic) take longer to sterilize.
    Containers may prevent steam from reaching the materials to be sterilized.
    Incomplete air removal from the chamber can prevent contact between the steam
      and the load.
      • Deep trays can interfere with air removal.
      •Tightly stacked loads can impede steam circulation and air removal.
    Double-bagging will impede steam penetration.
    Carcasses do not allow steam penetration.
    Some bags and containers rated as autoclavable have thermal stability but they
      do not allow steam penetration.

To ensure that all materials are sterile, always test autoclave loads. Remember,
however, that some sterilization indicators are incomplete. Autoclave tape, for example,
verifies sufficient external temperature exposure, but it does not indicate internal
equipment temperature, exposure time, or steam penetration. Thermocouples or other
instrumentation can also indicate temperature, but they do not verify sterility. A
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biological indicator is the most effective monitor to ensure sterility. Commercially
available strips or vials of Bacillus species endospores, for example, are suitable
biological indicators.

16.4.5.2 Dry Heat
Dry heat is less effective than wet heat for sterilizing bio-hazardous materials. Dry heat
requires more time (two to four hours) and a higher temperature (320–338°F or 60–
170°C) to achieve sterilization. A Bacillus species biological indicator can verify dry heat
sterilization.

16.4.6 Ethylene Oxide Gas
Ethylene oxide gas is lethal to all microorganisms. Because it is also a known
carcinogen and potentially explosive (freon and carbon dioxide mixtures are stable),
minimize your exposure and use extreme care when working with this gas. Ethylene
oxide sterilizers and aerators must be properly vented. Ethylene oxide gas is most
effective with heat-resistant organisms and heat sensitive equipment. The effectiveness
of ethylene oxide gas may be affected by the following:
     Temperature:
     The antimicrobial activity of ethylene oxide increases with increased temperature.
        Normal sterilization temperature is 120–140°F or 49–60°C.
     Ethylene Oxide Concentration:
     Sterilization time decreases with increased gas concentration. Normal
        concentration is 500-1000 mg/L.
     Humidity:
     Relative humidity of 30-60% is necessary.
     Exposure Time:
     Follow the manufacturer's recommendations.




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16.5 BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS

A biological safety cabinet is a primary barrier against bio-hazardous or infectious
agents. Although biological safety cabinets surround the immediate workspace involving
an agent, they do not provide complete containment (i.e., aerosols can escape).
Therefore, careful work practices are essential when working with agents that require a
biological safety cabinet.

NOTE: A biological safety cabinet is often referred to by other names such as:
bio-hood, tissue culture hood, or biological fume hood.

All biological safety cabinets contain at least one High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)
filter. These cabinets operate with a laminar air flow (i.e., the air flows with uniform
velocity, in one direction, along parallel flow lines).

Biological safety cabinets must be inspected and certified:
    When newly installed
    After filter or motor replacement
    After being moved
    Annually

Contact the Facilities Services Department for more information about inspections.

16.5.1 Types of Cabinets
The following table outlines various types of biological safety cabinets:

Type of
                                           Operation and Use
Cabinet
               Only exhaust air is filtered. The user and environment are protected but
               the experiment is not. Operator's hands and arms may be exposed to
   Class I
               hazardous materials inside the cabinet. This cabinet may be used with
               low to moderate-risk biological agents.
               Vertical laminar air flow with filtered supply and exhaust air. The user,
   Class II
               product, and environment are protected.
               Recirculates 70% of the air inside the cabinet. Do not use with
   Type A
               flammable, radioactive, carcinogenic, or high-risk biological agents.
               Recirculates 30% of the air inside the cabinet and exhausts the rest to
   Type B1     the outside. May be used with low to moderate-risk agents and small
               amounts of chemical carcinogens or volatiles.
   Type B2     Offers total exhaust with no recirculation.
   Type B3     Same as Class II Type A, but vented to the outside of the building.
               Gas-tight and maintained under negative air pressure. Used to work with
Class III or
               highly infectious, carcinogenic, or hazardous materials. All operations
 Glovebox
               are conducted through rubber gloves attached to entry portals.

16.5.2 Using Biological Safety Cabinets
                                                                                           182
Follow these guidelines for using biological safety cabinets properly:

16.5.2.1 Preparation
    Leave safety cabinets on at all times. Otherwise, turn the blower on and purge
       the air for at least five minutes before beginning work.
    Never turn off the blower of a biological safety cabinet that is vented to the
       outside.
    Turn off the UV light if it is on. Never work in a unit with the UV light illuminated.
       (UV light will damage your eyes.)
    Do not depend on the UV germicidal lamp to provide a sterile work surface; wipe
       down the surface with a disinfectant (70% alcohol is usually suitable).
NOTE: For more information on ultraviolet lights, refer to the Radiation Safety
chapter.

      Place everything needed for your procedure inside the cabinet prior to beginning
       work. Arrange the equipment in logical order.
      Provide a container for wastes inside the cabinet. (Remember, nothing should
       pass through the air barrier until the entire procedure is complete.)
      Never place any items on the air-intake grilles.
      Place a disinfectant-soaked towel on the work surface to contain any splatters or
       spills that occur.
      Keep the laboratory door shut and post signs stating "CABINET IN USE" on all
       the doors. Restrict activities that will disturb the cabinet's airflow, such as entry,
       egress, and walking traffic.

16.5.2.1 Cabinet Use
    Conduct work at least four inches from the glass view panel. The middle third
       area is ideal.
    Limit arm movement and avoid motions that could disturb airflow.
    If a burner is necessary, use the Touch-O-Matic type with a pilot light. Since
       flames cause air turbulence, place burners to the rear of the workspace.
    Never use flammable solvents in a biological safety cabinet unless it is a total-
       exhaust cabinet (e.g., Class II B2).

16.5.2.2 Experiment Completion
    Enclose or decontaminate all equipment that has been in direct contact with the
       infectious agent.
    Cover all waste containers.
    To purge airborne contaminants from the work area, allow the cabinet to operate
       for five minutes with no activity inside the cabinet.
    Remove all equipment from the cabinet.
    Decontaminate interior work surfaces.
IMPORTANT: Biological safety cabinets are not a substitute for good laboratory
practices. Because aerosols can escape, take precautions to minimize aerosol
production and to protect yourself from contamination.




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16.6 CLEAN BENCHES

A clean bench has horizontal laminar air flow. The HEPA-filtered air flows across the
work surface towards the operator, providing protection for the product, but no
protection for the user. Because clean benches offer no protection, use a clean bench
only to prepare sterile media. Do not use clean benches when working with pathogenic
organisms, biological materials, chemicals, or radioactive materials.

16.7 IMPORTING & SHIPPING

The Public Health Service provides Foreign Quarantine regulations for importing
etiologic agents and human disease vectors. Other regulations for packaging, labeling,
and shipping, are administered jointly by the Public Health Service and the Department
of Transportation. The U.S. Department of Agriculture regulates the importation and
shipment of animal pathogens. It prohibits the importation, possession, and use of
certain animal disease agents that pose a serious threat to domestic livestock and
poultry.

16.8 BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE

The exact procedure for responding to a biological spill depends on the material,
amount, and location of the spill.

In general, follow these steps immediately after a biological spill occurs:
    1. Warn others.
    2. Leave the room; close the door.
    3. Remove contaminated garments.
    4. Wash your hands.
    5. Notify your supervisor.

Follow these steps to clean up a biological spill:
    1. Wait for any aerosols to settle.
    2.   Put on protective clothing, as appropriate.
    3. Apply disinfectant to the contaminated area.
    4. Cover the area with paper towels to absorb the disinfectant.
    5. Wipe up the towels and mop the floor.
    6. Autoclave all contaminated wastes.
NOTE: Spill cleanup must be appropriate for the hazards involved. Call the
Environmental Health & Safety Department for assistance.

If a spill occurs inside a biological safety cabinet, follow these steps:
1. Decontaminate materials while the cabinet is operating to prevent contaminants from
escaping.
2. Spray or wipe all affected equipment with an appropriate disinfectant. (Wear gloves
while doing this.)
3. If the spill is large, flood the work surface with disinfectant and allow it to stand for 10
 to 15 minutes before removing it.

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16.9 BIOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL

16.9.1 General
The Texas Department of Health (TDH) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation
Commission (TNRCC) regulate the disposal of bio-hazardous waste. Waste that
contains infectious materials and waste that may be harmful to humans, animals, plants,
or the environment is considered bio-hazardous.

Examples of bio-hazardous waste include the following:
    Waste from infectious animals
    Bulk human blood or blood products
    Microbiological waste (including pathogen-contaminated disposable culture
     dishes, and disposable devices used to transfer, inoculate, and mix pathogenic
     cultures)
    Pathological waste
    Sharps
    Hazardous rDNA and genetic manipulation products

NOTE: Refer to 8.0 – Hazardous Waste Management for more information.

Bi-hazardous waste should meet strict safety requirements for the following:
     Segregation
     Treatment
     Labels
     Packaging
     Transportation
     Documentation

16.9.2 Segregation
Segregation is necessary when working with hazardous biological agents.
    Any waste that could cause a laceration or puncture must be disposed of as
      "Sharps." Sharps must be segregated from other waste.
    Do not mix waste that requires incineration with glass or plastics.
    Do not mix biological waste with chemical waste or other laboratory trash.
    Segregate hazardous biological waste from non-hazardous biological waste.

16.9.3 Handling and Transport
Follow these guidelines for handling and transporting bio-hazardous waste:
     Contain and label all waste before transporting it to the designated storage area.
     Properly trained personnel (not the custodial staff) are responsible for
      transporting biological waste to the designated storage area. Only properly
      trained technical personnel may handle untreated bio-hazardous waste.
     Avoid transporting untreated bio-hazardous materials and foul or visually
      offensive materials through non laboratory areas.
     Do not use trash/laundry chutes, compactors, or grinders to transfer or process
      untreated bio-hazardous waste.



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16.9.4 Labeling Bio-hazardous Waste
Follow these guidelines for labeling bio-hazardous waste:
     Clearly label each container of untreated bio-hazardous waste and mark it with
      the Biohazard Symbol.
     Label autoclave bags with special tape that produces the word "AUTOCLAVED"
      upon adequate thermal treatment. Apply this tape across the Biohazard Symbol
      before autoclaving the bag.
     Label all containers for sharps as "ENCAPSULATED SHARPS."
     It is recommended to label non-hazardous biological waste as "NON-
      HAZARDOUS BIOLOGICAL WASTE."

16.9.5 Disposal Methods
Different materials require different disposal methods to ensure safety. Follow these
guidelines for physically disposing of biological waste.
     Animal Carcasses and Body Parts: Incinerate the materials or send them to a
       commercial rendering plant for disposal.
     Solid Animal Waste: All animal waste and bedding that is infectious or harmful to
       human, animals, or the environment should be treated by incineration, thermal
       disinfection, or chemical disinfection.
     Liquid Waste: Liquid waste, including bulk blood and blood products, cultures
       and stocks of etiological agents and viruses, cell culture material, and rDNA
       products should be disinfected by thermal or chemical treatment and then
       discharged into the sanitary sewer system.
     Metal Sharps: All materials that could cause cuts or punctures, must be
       contained, encapsulated, and disposed of in a manner that does not endanger
       other workers. Needles, blades, etc. are considered bio-hazardous even if they
       are sterile, capped, and in the original container.
     Pasteur Pipets and Broken Glassware: Place in a rigid, puncture resistant
       container. Disinfect by thermal or chemical treatment, if contaminated. Label the
       container as "Broken Glass" and place it in a dumpster.
NOTE: If broken glass is commingled with metal sharps, encapsulation is
required for disposal.
     Plastic Waste:Contaminated materials must be thermally or chemically treated
       and placed in a properly labeled, leak-proof container for disposition in the
       dumpster.
     Microbiological Waste: Solids must be thermally or chemically treated and placed
       in a properly labeled, leak-proof container for disposition in the dumpster. Liquids
       must be thermally or chemically treated and then discharged into the sanitary
       sewer system.
     Human Pathological Waste: Human cadavers and recognizable body parts
       must be cremated or buried. Other pathological waste from humans and primates
       must be incinerated.
     Genetic Material: Materials containing DNA or genetically altered organisms must
       be disposed of in accordance with NIH Guidelines and the UMHB Biological
       Waste Disposal Program.




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16.9.6 Non-hazardous Biological Waste
Most biological waste that is not infectious or otherwise hazardous to humans, animals,
plants, or the environment may be discarded as regular waste or sewage. The only
exceptions are animal carcasses and body parts. These wastes must be incinerated or
sent to a commercial rendering plant for treatment. In addition, there are no record-
keeping requirements for non-hazardous biological waste.

Follow these guidelines for non-hazardous biological waste:
     It is recommended to autoclave or disinfect all microbial products, even if they
      are not bio-hazardous.
     Avoid disposing of waste in a manner that could cause visual or odorous
      problems.
     Do not label non-hazardous biological waste as hazardous (e.g., do not use the
      Biohazard Symbol, red bags, etc.). Instead, it is recommended to label the
      container as "NON-HAZARDOUS BIOLOGICAL WASTE."
     Use non-hazardous animal bedding and manure for compost or fertilizer when
      possible.

16.9.7 Recordkeeping Requirements
Each UMHB department that generates bio-hazardous waste must comply with the
recordkeeping requirements of the UMHB Biological Waste Disposal Program and State
regulations. Written records must contain the following information:
    Date of treatment
    Amount of waste treated
    Method/conditions of treatment
    Name (printed) and initials of person performing the treatment

If a department generates more than 50 pounds per calendar month of bio-hazardous
waste, the records must also include a written procedure for the operation and testing of
any equipment used and a written procedure for the preparation of any chemicals used
in treatment. The records must also include either the results of a biological indicator or
a continuous readout (e.g., strip chart) to demonstrate proper parameters for effective
treatment.




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16.10 BLOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS

Blood-borne pathogens are biological agents that cause human disease. Examples of
blood-borne diseases include the following:
    Hepatitis
    Syphilis
    Malaria
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Two significant and deadly blood-borne diseases are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV.
These pathogens may be present in the following:
    Human blood
    Body fluids, such as saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, phlegm, and other body
      fluids visibly contaminated with blood
    Unfixed human tissues or organs other than intact skin
    HIV or HBV cultures
    Blood, organs, or other tissues from experimental animals infected with HIV or
      HBV.

Blood-borne pathogens may enter the body and infect you through a variety of means,
including the following:
     Accidental injury with a sharp object contaminated with infectious material.
     Open cuts, nicks, and skin abrasions that come into contact with infectious
       materials. Other potential sites of transmission includes acne sores and the
       mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, or eyes.
     Unprotected sexual activity with someone who is infected with the disease.
     Indirect transmission, such as touching a contaminated object and then
       transferring the pathogen to the mouth, eyes, nose, or open skin.

If you suspect you have been exposed to a blood-borne pathogen, report the incident to
your supervisor immediately.

NOTE: For more information see 17.0 – Blood-borne Pathogen Exposure Control.




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17.0 BLOOD-BORNE
PATHOGENS EXPOSURE
CONTROL
                                  TOPIC                        SECTION
General                                                         17.1
Definitions                                                     17.2
Exposure Determination                                          17.3
Methods of Compliance                                           17.4
Hepatitis B Vaccination Program                                 17.5
Post Exposure Evaluation & Follow Up                            17.6
Interaction with Health Care Professionals                      17.7
Use of Biohazard Labels                                         17.8
Training                                                        17.9
Recordkeeping                                                   17.10
Contaminated Sharps Injury Log                                  17.11
                               APPENDIX
Job Titles of Employees with Potential Occupational Exposure
Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination Statement




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17.1 GENERAL

Utilizing the standards of the OSHA 1910.1030 Blood-borne Pathogens Standard, the
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor uses this Exposure Control Plan to prevent or
minimize the exposure of employees to blood-borne pathogens.

17.2 DEFINITIONS

Blood – human blood, human blood components, and products made from human
blood.

Blood-borne Pathogens – pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human
blood and that can cause diseases in humans, including hepatitis B virus (HBV),
hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Employer – for the purposes of the Blood-borne Pathogens Exposure Control
Plan, an employer is considered to be the department or unit in which the employee
is employed.

Occupational Exposure– a reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane,
or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may
result from the performance of an employee's duties.

Other Potentially Infectious Materials (OPIM) - include the following:

      Human body fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial
       fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in
       dental procedures, any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood, and all
       body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate
       between body fluids and blood
      Any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a human, living or
       dead
      HIV-containing cell or tissue cultures, organ cultures, and HIV- or HBV-
       containing culture medium or other solutions; and blood, organs, or other
       tissues from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.




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17.3 EXPOSURE DETERMINATION

OSHA standards require employers to perform an exposure determination for
employees who have occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious
materials (OPIM). The exposure determination is made without regard to the use of
personal protective equipment. This exposure determination is required to list all job
classifications in which employees have occupational exposure, regardless of
frequency.

The university job titles / classifications in which employees in those positions have
occupational exposure are listed in Appendix I.




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17.4 METHODS OF COMPLIANCE

Universal precautions are observed to prevent contact with blood or other
potentially infectious body fluids. Under circumstances in which differentiation
between body fluid types is difficult or impossible, all body fluids shall be considered
potentially infectious.

Engineering controls are important in eliminating or minimizing employee exposure
to blood-borne pathogens, and reduce employee exposure in the workplace by
either removing or isolating the hazard or isolating the worker from exposure.
Engineering controls shall be examined and maintained or replaced on a regular
schedule to ensure their effectiveness.

17.4.1 Engineering control equipment includes:
 sharps disposal containers
 autoclave
 disposable resuscitation equipment
 disposable pipette bulbs
 biological safety cabinet (a.k.a., bio-hood)
 needle-less systems
 sharps with engineered sharps injury protection for employees

17.4.2 Additional engineering controls used throughout the facility include:
 Hand-washing facilities which are readily accessible to all employees who have
exposure to blood or OPIM.
 Antiseptic towelettes or waterless disinfectant when proper hand-washing
facilities are not available.

17.4.3 Work Practice Controls establish standard practices by which a task is
performed:
o Employees wash hands and any other potentially contaminated skin area
   immediately after glove removal. As soon as possible wash hands with soap
   and water when waterless disinfectants have been used first.
o Whenever an employee's skin or mucous membranes have been exposed to
   blood or OPIM, the affected area is washed with soap and water or flushed with
   water as appropriate as soon as possible.
o Contaminated needles and sharps are not to be bent, broken, recapped,
   removed, sheared or purposely broken. They are discarded immediately in a
   container that is closable, leak-proof, puncture resistant, and biohazard labeled
   or color-coded.
o Contaminated, reusable sharps are placed in a puncture-resistant, leak-proof
   container, properly labeled or color-coded, until they can be processed. The
   employee shall use the appropriate protective equipment to remove these
   reusable sharps for decontamination.
o During use, containers for contaminated sharps are easily accessible to
   personnel; located as close as is feasible to the immediate area where sharps
   are being used or can be reasonably anticipated to be found; maintained upright
   throughout use; are not allowed to over-fill; and replaced routinely.
                                                                                           192
o Eating, drinking, applying cosmetics or lip balm, smoking or handling contact
  lenses is prohibited in working areas where occupational exposure may occur.
o Mouth pipetting/suctioning is prohibited.
o Food and drink are not kept in refrigerators, freezers, shelves, cabinets, or on
  countertops or bench-tops where blood or OPIM are present.
o All procedures in which blood or OPIM are present are performed in such a
  manner as to minimize splashing, spraying, spattering, and generation of
  droplets of these materials.

17.4.4 Collection of Specimens:
Blood and other body fluids are not normally collected on campus. However, should
it become necessary to do so the following procedures must be observed:
 Specimens of blood or OPIM are placed in a container, which prevents leakage
    during the collection, handling processing, storage, transport, or shipping of the
    specimens.
   The container used to collect specimens is labeled with a biohazard label or
     color-coded unless universal precautions are used throughout the procedure
     and the specimens and containers remain in the facility. If the specimen
     containers are sent to another facility, a biohazard or color-coded label is
     affixed to the outside of the container.
   Specimens of blood and other potentially infectious body substances or fluids
     are usually collected within a clinic, doctor’s office, or laboratory setting. These
     specimens are appropriately labeled to indicate the contents and other
     pertinent information.
   If outside contamination of the primary container occurs, the primary container
     is placed within a secondary container, which prevents leakage during the
     handling, processing, storage, transport, or shipping of the specimen. The
     secondary container is labeled with a biohazard label or color-coded.
   Any specimen that could puncture a primary container is placed within a
     secondary container that is puncture proof.

17.4.5 Contaminated Equipment
 Equipment must always be decontaminated prior to handling or servicing,
   unless the decontamination of the equipment is not feasible.
 Contaminated equipment must be labeled with a biohazard label.

17.4.6 Personal Protective Equipment
Where occupational exposure remains after institution of engineering controls and
work practice controls, personal protective equipment is used.
 Personal protective equipment is provided by the employer without cost to the
   employee.
 Personal protective equipment is considered appropriate only if it is fluid
   resistant and does not permit blood or OPIM to pass through or reach the
   employee's clothing, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes under
   normal conditions of use and for the duration of time which the protective
   equipment is used.
 Examples of personal protective equipment include:
       o Gloves
       o Gowns
                                                                                            193
        o laboratory coats
        o masks
        o face shields
        o eyewear with side shields
        o mouthpieces
        o resuscitation bags, pocket masks, or other ventilation devices
        o aprons
        o shoe covers.
   All personal protective equipment is cleaned, laundered, and disposed of by the
    employer at no cost to employees. Likewise, all repairs and replacements are
    made by the employer at no cost to employees.
   Personal protective equipment shall be utilized whenever contact with blood or
    OPIM may occur.
        o Gloves are worn whenever it is reasonably anticipated that hand
            exposure to blood, OPIM, non-intact skin, or mucous membranes may
            occur.
        o If the employee is allergic to certain kinds of gloves, hypoallergenic
            gloves or other alternatives will be provided.
        o Disposable gloves will not be re-used and will be replaced as soon as
            practical when they become contaminated or as soon as feasible if they
            are torn, punctured, or compromised.
        o Utility gloves can be decontaminated for re-use only if the gloves do not
            have any punctures, cracks, or tears. They are discarded if they are
            cracked, peeling, torn, punctured, deteriorated, etc.
        o Masks in combination with eye protection devices are worn whenever
            splashes, spray, splatter, or droplets of blood or OPIM may be generated
            and eye, nose, or mouth contamination can reasonably be anticipated.
        o Appropriate protective body coverings such as gowns, aprons, caps,
            and/or shoe covers are worn when gross contamination can be
            reasonably anticipated.
        o All garments that are penetrated by blood are removed immediately or as
            soon as feasible.
        o Personal protective equipment is removed before leaving the work area
            and after a garment becomes contaminated.
        o Used protective equipment is placed in appropriately designated areas or
            containers when being stored, washed, decontaminated, or discarded.

17.4.7 Housekeeping

   Employers shall ensure that the work site is maintained in a clean and sanitary
    condition.
   The employer shall determine and implement an appropriate written schedule
    for cleaning and method of decontamination based upon the location with the
    facility, the type of surface to be cleaned, type of soil present, and tasks or
    procedures being performed in the area.
   All contaminated work surfaces are decontaminated after completion of
    procedures, immediately or as soon as feasible after any spill of blood or OPIM,
    and at the end of the work shift.
   Protective coverings (e.g., plastic wrap, aluminum foil, etc) used to cover

                                                                                       194
    equipment and work surfaces are removed and replaced as soon as feasible
    when they become contaminated or at the end of the work shift.
   Bins, pails, cans, and similar receptacles are inspected and decontaminated on
    a regularly scheduled basis.
   Any broken glassware that may be contaminated is not picked up directly with
    the hands. A tool such as forceps is used to pick up the glass fragments.

17.4.8 Regulated Waste Disposal
   All contaminated sharps are discarded as soon as feasible in sharps
      containers located as close to the point of use as feasible in each work area.
   Regulated waste other than sharps is placed in appropriate containers that
      are closable, leak resistant, labeled with a biohazard label or color-coded,
      and closed prior to removal. If outside contamination of the regulated waste
      container occurs, it is placed in a second container that is also closable, leak
      proof, labeled, and closed prior to removal.
   All regulated waste is properly disposed in accordance with the Hazardous
      Waste Management section of the UMHB Safety Manual.

Note: Employees who must use sharps in the workplace (i.e. diabetics)
should provide their own bio-medical sharps disposal container (or needle
clipper disposal device). Sharps must never be thrown into the regular (non-
bio-med) trash containers. If necessary, employees may dispose of sharps
used during the workday via sharps containers at the following locations:
     Health & Wellness Center (Frazier Building)
     College of Nursing (Wells Science & Nursing Hall)
     Risk Management (Sanderford)

17.4.9 Laundry Procedures
   All laundry contaminated with blood/bloody body fluids or OPIM must be
      placed in a biohazard bag or color-coded laundry bag.
   Contaminated laundry is not normally decontaminated on campus. Should
      decontamination on site ever become necessary it should be washed using
      hot soapy water and bleach, or another acceptable method of treatment.




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17.5 HEPATITIS B VACCINATION PROGRAM
     All employees who have been identified as having potential occupational
      exposure to blood or OPIM are offered the hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) by the
      employer at no cost to the employee.
     The vaccination program is administered under the supervision of a licensed
      physician or licensed healthcare professional.
     The HBV is offered after blood-borne pathogen training and within 10
      working days of their initial assignment to work unless the employee has
      previously received the complete HBV series, antibody testing has revealed
      that the employee is immune, or that the vaccine is contraindicated for
      medical reasons.
     UMHB employees may receive the HBV at a healthcare facility contracted
      by the university.
     Vaccination is offered with post vaccination laboratory screening to assess
      immune status.
     Employees who decline the HBV vaccine will sign a Declination of
      Vaccination Statement (Appendix II). Employees who later elect to receive
      the HBV may then have the vaccine provided at no cost.
     Employees should be periodically tested (i.e. during annual wellness
      physicals) to assess their immunity. Any necessary booster doses ordered
      by their physician will be provided by the employer at no cost to the
      employee.

17.5.1 HEPATITIS A VACCINATION

     In addition to the hepatitis B vaccine, all employees identified as plumbers,
      or other personnel, who may be potentially exposed to feces or other
      similar wastes should be considered to also receive the hepatitis A
      vaccine.




                                                                                      196
17.6 POST EXPOSURE EVALUATION & FOLLOW-UP

If an employee suffers an occupational exposure, the employee must report the
incident to his/ her supervisor and complete a TWCC-1 First Report of Injury or
Illness form with the office of Risk Management.

The employee is offered a confidential medical evaluation and follow up that
includes:
     Documentation of the route(s) of exposure and the circumstances related to
       the incident.
     Identification and documentation of the source individual, unless the
       employer can establish that identification is infeasible or prohibited by state
       or local law. After obtaining consent, unless law allows testing without
       consent, the blood of the source individual should be tested for HIV/HBV
       infectivity, unless the employer can establish that testing of the source is
       infeasible or prohibited by state or local law.
     The results of testing of the source individual are made available to the
       exposed employee with the employee informed about the applicable laws
       and regulations concerning disclosure of the identity and infectivity of the
       source individual.
     The employee is offered the option of having his/her blood collected for
       testing of the employee’s HIV/HBV serological status. The blood sample is
       preserved for at least 90 days to allow the employee to decide if the blood
       should be tested for HIV serological status. If the employee decides prior to
       that time that the testing will be conducted, then testing is done as soon as
       feasible.
     The employee is offered post exposure prophylaxis in accordance with the
       current recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service.
     The employee is given appropriate counseling concerning infection status,
       results and interpretations of tests, and precautions to take during the period
       after the exposure incident. The employee is informed about what potential
       illnesses can develop and to seek early medical evaluation and subsequent
       treatment.
     The unit head or supervisor of an employee with occupational exposure is
       designated to assure that the UMHB Exposure Control Plan is followed and
       maintains records required by the Plan.




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17.7 INTERACTION WITH HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS

17.7.1 A written opinion is obtained from the healthcare professional when a
UMHB employee is sent to obtain the HBV, or when a university employee is
evaluated after an exposure incident. In order for the healthcare professional to
adequately evaluate the employee, the healthcare professional is provided with:
    a copy of the UMHB Exposure Control Plan
    a description of the exposed employee’s duties as they relate to the
       exposure incident
    documentation of the route(s) of exposure and circumstances under which
       the exposure occurred
    results of the source individual’s blood tests (if available)
    medical records relevant to the appropriate treatment of the employee.

17.7.2 Healthcare professionals should limit their written opinions to:
    whether the HBV is indicated
    whether the employee has received the vaccine
    the evaluation following an exposure incident
    whether the employee has been informed of the results of the evaluation
    whether the employee has been told about any medical conditions resulting
       from exposure to blood or OPIM which require further evaluation or
       treatment (all other findings or diagnosis shall remain confidential and shall
       not be included in the written report)
    whether the healthcare professional’s written opinion is provided to the
       employee within 15 days of completion of the evaluation.




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17.8 USE OF BIOHAZARD LABELS

Biohazard warning labels and/or color-coding are used to identify any work area or
object that has the potential to be exposed to blood or other infectious materials.
Labels are placed on such objects as: sharps containers; specimen containers;
contaminated equipment; regulated waste containers; contaminated laundry bags;
refrigerators and freezers containing blood or OPIM; and containers used to store,
transport, or ship blood or OPIM.


17.9 TRAINING

Bloodborne Pathogen training is included in initial employment safety orientation for
all employees and is conducted prior to initial assignment to tasks where
occupational exposure may occur.

Occupational training is conducted by a person knowledgeable in the subject matter
and includes an explanation of the following:
    OSHA Blood-borne Pathogen Exposure Control – 1910.1030
    epidemiology and symptomatology of blood-borne diseases
    modes of transmission of blood-borne pathogens
    how to recognize tasks and activities that may place employees at risk of
       exposure to blood or OPIM
    the UMHB Blood-borne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan
    the use and limitations of work practices, engineering controls, and personal
       protective equipment
    the types, selection, proper use, location, removal, handling,
       decontamination, and disposal of personal protective equipment
    the employee’s responsibility to reduce the risk of exposure to blood-borne
       pathogens for himself/herself and for co-workers
    the UMHB Hepatitis B Vaccination Program
    procedures to follow in an emergency involving blood or OPIM
    procedures to follow if an exposure incident occurs to include U.S. Public
       Health Service Post Exposure Prophylaxis Guidelines
    post exposure evaluation and follow up
    warning labels and signs, where applicable, and color coding
    an opportunity to ask questions with the person conducting the training

Additional training is given as new information is acquired or job duties change.




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17.10 RECORDKEEPING

Employee medical records shall include:
1. the employee's name and social security number
2. Hepatitis B vaccination status, including the dates of all the HBV vaccinations
3. a copy of all results of examinations, medical testing, and follow-up procedures related
    to an occupational exposure
4. the employer’s copy of the healthcare professional’s written opinion
5. a description of the employee’s duties as they related to the exposure incident
6. a description of the route of exposure and the circumstances under which exposure
    occurred
7. results of the source individual’s blood testing, if available.

Confidentiality of medical records is maintained. All employee medical information
collected at the university level is maintained under strict security measures and in
accordance with the UMHB Records Retention Schedule.

Training records are maintained by the employer in the employee’s personnel files
for at least three years from the date on which the training occurred. Training
records include:
    1. the dates of the training sessions
    2. the contents or a summary of the sessions
    3. name(s) and qualifications of the person(s) conducting the training
    4. names and job titles of those in attendance.




                                                                                        200
17.11 CONTAMINATED SHARPS INJURY LOG

A contaminated sharp includes, but is not limited to, a needle, scalpel, lancet,
broken glass, broken capillary tube used or encountered in a health care setting
that is contaminated with human blood or body fluids.

In accordance with the requirements of the blood-borne pathogens regulations,
UMHB is not required to maintain a log or report injuries from contaminated sharps.
However, if a log is maintained it should be done in accordance with the
requirements listed below:
    1. name and address of the facility where the injury occurred
    2. name and address of the reporting official
    3. date and time of the injury
    4. age and sex of the injured employee
    5. type and brand of sharp involved
    6. original intended use of the sharp
    7. whether the injury occurred before, during, or after the sharp was used for its
             original intended purpose
    8. whether the exposure was during or after the sharp was used
    9. whether the device had engineered sharps injury protection, and if yes, was
             the protective mechanisms activated and did the exposure incident occur
             before, during, or after activation of the protective mechanism
    10. whether the injured person was wearing gloves at the time of the injury
    11. whether the injured person had completed a hepatitis B vaccination series
    12. whether a sharps container was readily available for disposal of the sharp
    13. whether the injured person received training on the exposure control plan
             during the 12 months prior to the incident
    14. the involved body part
    15. the job classification of the injured person
    16. the employment status of the injured person
    17. the location / facility / agency and the work area where the sharps injury
             occurred
    18. a listing of the implemented needle-less systems and sharps with
             engineered sharps injury protection for employees provided by the
             employer

Most of the information listed above will be included on a TWCC-1 First Report of
Injury or Illness form that is filed by the employer of the injured employee. The
employer must attach an addendum to the TWCC-1 form with the remainder of the
required data (e.g., #5 –13 and #18). Human Resources will report to the Texas
Department of Health (TDH) any incident in which a UMHB employee sustains a
contaminated sharps injury.

The required information is reported to TDH not later than ten working days after
the end of the calendar month in which the contaminated sharps injury occurred.




                                                                                         201
APPENDIX
Job Titles of UMHB Employees with Potential Occupational
Exposure to Blood-borne Pathogens
Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination Statement




                                                           202
Job Titles of UMHB Employees with Potential Occupational Exposure
                    to Blood-borne Pathogens

                      Department                           Total Personnel
Athletics                                                         6
Trainers & Assistants
Auxiliary Services                                              N/A
Housekeeping (contracted)
Food Services (contracted)
Dept. of Public Safety                                           8
Director
Lieutenant
Officers
Exercise & Sport Science                                         6
Staff
Facility Services                                                35
Director – 1
Grounds – 10
Plumber – 1
Maintenance – 12
Support Services – 5
Electro-Mechanical - 6
Health Center                                                    2
Nurse
Secretary
Business & Finance                                               1
Risk Manager
Mayborn Campus Center                                            24
Staff & Life Guards
Nursing – College                                                18
Staff
Residence Life                                                   62
Residence Directors - 11
Residence Assistants – 51
                                             Total              162

Note: Plumbers should also have the hepatitis A vaccine.




                                                                             203
                      University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

                  Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination Statement


I understand that due to my occupational exposure to blood or other potentially
infectious materials I may be at risk of acquiring the hepatitis B virus infection. I have
been given the opportunity to be vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine, at no cost to
myself. However, I voluntarily decline the hepatitis B vaccination at this time.

I understand that by declining this vaccine, I continue to be at risk of acquiring hepatitis
B, a serious disease. If, in the future, I continue to have occupational exposure to blood
or other potentially infectious materials and I choose to be vaccinated with hepatitis B
vaccine, I understand that I can receive the vaccination series at no cost to myself.

Printed Name__________________________________________________

Department___________________________________________________

Job Title______________________________________________________

Signature_____________________________________________________

Date ____________________________________________________________




                                                                                         204
                    UMHB SAFETY MANUAL
                      Table of Contents

1.0 INTRODUCTION                                 2

 1.1   PRESIDENT’S LETTER                        3
 1.2   OFFICE of RISK MANAGEMENT                 4
 1.3   RESPONSIBILITIES                          4
 1.4   UMHB SAFETY MANUAL                        6
 1.5   EMPLOYEE SAFETY TRAINING                  6
 1.6   SAFETY SURVEYS                            7
 1.7   SAFETY COMMITTEE                          7

2.0 GENERAL SAFETY                               8

 2.1    REPORTING                                9
 2.2    DRESS CODE                              10
 2.3    AMERICANS with DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)   10
 2.4    ASBESTOS                                11
 2.5    GRAPHIC ARTS                            12
 2.6    HEARING CONSERVATION                    15
 2.7    HEAT STRESS                             17
 2.8    COLD STRESS                             19
 2.9    HOUSEKEEPING                            21
 2.10 INDOOR AIR QUALITY                        22
 2.11 LEAD PAINT                                23
 2.12 POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)          24
 2.13 SMOKING                                   25
 2.14 PREVENTING SLIPS & FALLS                  26
 2.15 LIFTING                                   27
 2.16 VISITOR SAFETY                            28
 2.17 BUILDING COORDINATORS                     29
 APPENDIX                                       30
 Accident Report                                30
 Building Coordinators                          30

3.0 OFFICE SAFETY                               36

 3.1   GENERAL OFFICE SAFETY                    37
 3.2   EQUIPMENT SAFETY                         40
 3.3   WORK STATION ARRANGEMENT                 42
 3.4   PROHIBITIONS                             44

4.0 EQUIPMENT SAFETY                            45

 4.1   GENERAL                                  46
 4.2   HAND TOOLS                               48
                                                205
 4.3    POWER TOOLS                                      49
 4.4    LOCKOUT/TAGOUT                                   51

5.0 FIRE & LIFE SAFETY                                  52

 5.1    GENERAL                                          53
 5.3    FIRE SCENE                                       55
 5.4    FLAMMABLE/COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE                    56
 5.5    EMERGENCY ACCESS & EGRESS                        57
 5.6    FIRE DETECTION & NOTIFICATION                    59
 5.7    FIRE SUPPRESSION                                 60
 5.8    OPEN FLAMES PROHIBITED                           62
 5.9    HOLIDAY DECORATIONS                              64
 5.10   FIRE DRILLS                                      65

6.0 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS                              66

 6.1   GENERAL                                           67
 6.2   EMERGENCY RESPONSE                                71
 6.3   BOMB THREATS                                      72
 6.4   EMERGENCY POWER                                   73
 6.5   EVACUATION PLANS                                  74
 6.6   FIRE & LIFE SAFETY                                75
 6.7   WEATHER EMERGENCIES                               76
 6.8   HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS                     78
 6.9   SHELTER-IN-PLACE                                  79
 6.10 EARTHQUAKE                                         80
 6.11 CIVIL PROTEST                                      81
 6.12 EXPLOSION                                          83
 6.13 WORKPLACE VIOLENCE                                 84
 APPENDIX                                                85
 Telephone Bomb Threat Checklist                         86
 UMHB Designated Shelters & Emergency Assembly Points    88

7.0 HAZARD COMMUNICATION                                90

 7.1    INTRODUCTION                                     91
 7.2    RESPONSIBILITIES                                 92
 7.3    CONTAINER LABELING                               94
 7.4    MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS)               95
 7.5    TRAINING                                         96
 APPENDIX                                                98
 Haz-Com Employee Training Guidelines                    99
 Haz-Com Program Checklist                              100
 University of Mary Hardin-Baylor                       101
 Hazardous Materials Inventory List                     101

8.0 HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT                          102
                                                        206
 8.1     HAZARDOUS WASTE                        103
 8.2     DEFINITIONS                            104
 8.3     TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE               105
 8.4     CONTAINERS, TAGS & COLLECTION          106
 8.5     MINIMIZATION & SUBSTITUTION            108
 8.6     SEGREGATION                            110
 8.7     SPECIAL CONCERNS                       111
 8.8     CHEMICAL TABLES                        111

9.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT               112

 9.1     GENERAL                                113
 9.2     ARM & HAND PROTECTION                  114
 9.3     BODY PROTECTION                        115
 9.4     HEARING PROTECTION                     115
 9.5     EYE & FACE PROTECTION                  116
 9.6     FOOT PROTECTION                        117
 9.7     HEAD PROTECTION                        117
 9.8     RESPIRATORY PROTECTION                 118
 9.9     EYE WASH & SHOWER STATIONS             121

10.0 FIRST AID                                  122

 10.1    GENERAL                                123
 10.2    FIRST AID KITS                         123
 10.3    INITIAL FIRST AID                      124
 10.4    BLEEDING                               125
 10.5    BURNS                                  126
 10.6    CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)   127
 10.7    CHEMICAL EXPOSURES                     128
 10.8    CHOKING                                128
 10.9    EYE INJURY                             129
 10.10   INSECT BITES                           129
 10.11   POISONING                              129
 10.12   SEIZURES/VIOLENT SHAKING               130
 10.13   SHOCK                                  130
 10.14   SNAKE BITES                            130
 10.15   HEAT-RELATED EMERGENCY                 131
 10.16   DIABETES – LOW BLOOD SUGAR             131

11.0 CONSTRUCTION SAFETY                        132

 11.1    GENERAL CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES        133
 11.2    BARRIERS & GUARDS                      133
 11.3    HEAVY EQUIPMENT SAFETY                 134

12.0 CONFINED SPACE ENTRY                       135

                                                207
 12.1   GENERAL                                                136
 12.2   DEFINITIONS                                            137
 12.3   RESPONSIBILITIES                                       138
 12.4   TRENCHING & SHORING                                    139

13.0 VEHICLE SAFETY                                            140

 13.1   GENERAL                                                141
 13.2   ACCIDENTS                                              142
 13.3   RAILROAD CROSSINGS                                     143
 13.4   CART SAFETY                                            144
 13.5   BICYCLE SAFETY                                         144

14.0 AUTOMATIC EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATOR (AED)                    145

 14.1 DEFINITIONS                                              146
 14.2 RESPONSIBILITIES                                         146
 14.3 TRAINING                                                 147
 14.4 DOCUMENTATION                                            147
 14.5 POST EVENT REVIEW                                        148
 14.6 AED MAINTENANCE                                          148
 14.7 ANNUAL PROGRAM EVALUATION                                148
 APPENDIX                                                      149
 AED Inventory & Locations                                     150
 AED Procedures                                                151
 AED Site Information Form                                     153
 AED Incident Use Form                                         154
 AED Maintenance Procedures & Checklist                        156

15.0 CHEMICAL HYGIENE                                          159

 15.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES                                       160
 15.2 CHEMICAL HYGIENE RESPONSIBILITIES                        161
 15.3 LABORATORY FACILITY                                      162
 15.4 CHEMICAL PROCUREMENT, DISTRIBUTION & STORAGE             163
 15.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING                                 163
 15.6 HOUSEKEEPING, MAINTENANCE & INSPECTIONS                  164
 15.7 MEDICAL PROGRAM                                          164
 15.8 PROTECTIVE APPAREL & EQUIPMENT                           164
 15.9 RECORDS                                                  164
 15.10 SIGNS & LABELS                                          165
 15.11 SPILLS & ACCIDENTS                                      165
 15.12 INFORMATION & TRAINING PROGRAM                          165
 15.13 WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAM                                  166
 15.14 BASIC RULES & PROCEDURES for WORKING with CHEMICALS     166
 15.15 WORKING with ALLERGENS & EMBRYOTOXINS                   171
 15.16 WORK with CHEMICALS of MODERATE CHRONIC or HIGH ACUTE
 TOXICITY>                                                     171
                                                               208
 15.17   WORK with CHEMICALS of HIGH CHRONIC TOXICITY                               171
 15.18   ANIMAL WORK with CHEMICALS of HIGH CHRONIC TOXICITY                        173
 15.19   SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS                                                     173
 15.20   MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS                                                173

16.0 BIOLOGICAL SAFETY                                                              174

 16.1    BIO-SAFETY PRINCIPLE                                                       175
 16.2    GENERAL BIO-SAFETY GUIDELINES                                              176
 16.3    CDC & NIH BIO-SAFETY LEVELS                                                178
 16.4    DISINFECTION & STERILIZATION                                               179
 16.5    BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS                                                 182
 16.6    CLEAN BENCHES                                                              184
 16.7    IMPORTING & SHIPPING                                                       184
 16.8    BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE                                                  184
 16.9    BIOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL                                                  185
 16.10   BLOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS                                                      188

17.0 BLOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS EXPOSURE CONTROL                                         189

 17.1 GENERAL                                                                       190
 17.2 DEFINITIONS                                                                   190
 17.3 EXPOSURE DETERMINATION                                                        191
 17.4 METHODS OF COMPLIANCE                                                         192
 17.5 HEPATITIS B VACCINATION PROGRAM                                               196
 17.6 POST EXPOSURE EVALUATION & FOLLOW-UP                                          197
 17.7 INTERACTION WITH HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS                                    198
 17.8 USE OF BIOHAZARD LABELS                                                       199
 17.9 TRAINING                                                                      199
 17.10 RECORDKEEPING                                                                200
 17.11 CONTAMINATED SHARPS INJURY LOG                                               201
 APPENDIX                                                                           202
 Job Titles of UMHB Employees with Potential Occupational Exposure to Blood-borne
 Pathogens                                                                          203
 Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination Statement                                          204




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