Environmental impact assessment of Icelandic

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					 5th Nordic Environmental Assessment Conference
      Reykjavík, Iceland, 24 - 26th August 2003

Environmental Impact Assessment of
       Icelandic road projects



                    Hreinn Haraldsson
                 Ásdís Guðmundsdóttir
        The Public Roads Administration, Iceland
      Presentation overview
Roads in Iceland
Environmental Impact Assessment of
 road projects
  – dimensions
  – experience
Handling of projects not subject to EIA
Strategic Environmental Assessment
Conclusions
The Public Roads Administration –
     Main organization chart
The road system in Iceland



       Areal:              103.000 km2
       Population:             286.000
       The road system:      13.000 km
       Paved roads:                30%
       Pass. cars per 1000 inh.:    562
                                    Classification

                                    Primary roads     4.280 km
                                    Secondary roads   3.929 km
                                    Mountainary tracks 2.458 km
                                    Country roads     2.288 km

                                    Total             12.955 km
     The development of the road
               system
14.000
12.000
10.000
 8.000
 6.000
 4.000
 2.000
    0
     0

          5

               0

                    5

                         0

                              5

                                    0

                                         5

                                                0

                                                     5

                                                          0

                                                               5

                                                                    0

                                                                         5

                                                                              0

                                                                                   5

                                                                                        0
   ´2

         ´2

              ´3

                   ´3

                        ´4

                             ´4

                                   ´5

                                        ´5

                                             ´6

                                                    ´6

                                                         ´7

                                                              ´7

                                                                   ´8

                                                                        ´8

                                                                             ´9

                                                                                  ´9

                                                                                       ´0
                                  State roads       Paved state roads
         Distribution of funds
        The road budget 2002

                                      New state
                                       roads
Maintenance of                          53%
 state roads
     18%




          General
          service   Other       Public
           19%       4%     transportation
                                 6%
Road projects subject to an EIA
1994
 All road projects

2000
 Motorways and express roads in urban areas
 New roads outside of urban areas which are
  10 km or longer. Rebuilding of roads outside
  of urban areas where the planned construction
  is at least 10 km in length.
 Reservated areas
Number of Environmental Impact
Statements (EIS) for road projects



          14
                                      13
                 11            11
                                             8
   6
                                                       5         5
                        4



  1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000     2001    2002



                                                   }
                                                   New EIA Act
Total number of EISs in Iceland
               Road projects (%)       Other projects (%)



  14%
        33%                           38%
                 48%           45%                                 50%
                                             53%
                        67%                           72%    69%


  86%
        67%                           62%
                 52%           55%                                 50%
                                             47%
                        33%                           28%    31%



 1994   1995     1996   1997   1998   1999   2000     2001   2002 Average
                                                }   New EIA Act
    EISs for road projects 1994-2002



                     73%


                                                  41%
     27%

                                     4%                         0%

The project is   The project is     Further     Appealed   The project is
 granted an        granted a    environmental                rejected
unconditional     conditional    assessment-
  approval         approval         second
                                   appraisal
                 Road projects 1994-2002
                   Changes with new EIA Act



      90%
                    83%


                                                                      44%

  17%                                                                    20%
                        10%             5% 0%           0% 0%

The project is    The project is        Further      The project is   Appealed
 granted an         granted a        environmental     rejected
unconditional      conditional        assessment
  approval          approval

                                   1994-2000    2001-2002
Urban




Rural
                   EIS
       urban / rural road projects


                                                             40%
                                             63%    60%
        79%          75%                                             78%
83%                          82%
              91%                     92%


                                                             60%
                                             38%    40%
        21%          25%                                             22%
17%                          18%
              9%                       8%

1994   1995   1996   1997    1998     1999   2000   2001     2002   Average


                     urban          rural     }New EIA Act
  Developers of road projects
                               subject to EIA
          PRA         PRA + local authorities         Local authorities

                                                                            3%
          7%                              8%
   17%                             18%
                           25%                    25%                       18%
          21%                                              40%
                                                                  60%


                 100%
                                          92%
   83%                             82%                                      79%
          71%              75%                    75%
                                                           60%
                                                                  40%
  94


         95


                 96


                          97


                                  98


                                         99


                                                 00


                                                          01


                                                                 02


                                                                          ge
19


       19


               19


                        19


                                19


                                       19


                                               20


                                                        20


                                                               20


                                                                        ra
                                                 }
                                                                       ve
                                                                      A
                                                 New EIA Act
         Producers of road EISs
         PRA      Engineering consultants            Other consultants

                                       8%                              9%
   17%     14%
                  27%    25%
                                45%
           28%
                                               75%                     52%
                                       62%             80%   80%
                  45%
   83%
                         75%
           57%                  55%
                                                                       39%
                  27%                  31%
                                               25%     20%   20%
  94


         95


                 96


                        97


                               98


                                      99


                                              00


                                                     01


                                                            02


                                                                     ge
19


       19


               19


                      19


                             19


                                    19


                                            20


                                                   20


                                                          20


                                                                   ra
                                             }
                                                                  ve
                                                                 A
                                              New EIA Act
                   The cost of EIS
 The developer is entirely responsible for the cost of the
  EIS and the part of the EIA procedure carried out by the
  Planning Agency.
 Each project cost 1-30 m. ISK (89.000-340.000 EUR1)
 Estimated average-cost ~ 5 m.ISK. (56.000 EUR)
 Total cost 1994 – 2002 ~ 400 m. ISK (4,5 m EUR)
 On average
    – 2-3% of construction cost for smaller projects
    – 1-2% of construction cost for medium projects
    – 0,5-1% of construction cost for larger projects
1 1 EUR ~ 89 ISK
    What issues determine the
   selection of road locations ?
Land use planning (local and municipal
 plans)
Road technology / traffic conditions
Impacts on the environment
Cost
Safety
 Road projects not subject to EIA
    PRAs rules (“mini” EIA )
For those road projects not subject to
 the EIA Act, PRA has published own
 rules
  – PRA provides documentation (report and
    homepage) to inform interested parties on
    the road project and its primary
    environmental impacts
                        Mitigation measures
                             1994-2002
Measures that are neccessary to avoid, minimize or remedy
predicted adverse impacts. Total 2600 mitigation measures.
       211
                197

                            145


                                          86        85         80
                                                                           65         65          61
                                                                                                               46          40

        8%      8%          6%        3%            3%         3%          2%     2%              2%           2%       2%




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                         Mitigation measures
                              1994-2002
                                                Conditions in the
                                               Ministers decision
                              Conditions in the       <1%
                                                                PRA´s 3 answers of
                                   2
                               PAs decision                        comments
                                     5%                                2%


             General comments
                    8%




                  Comments from
                 consultative bodies
                        23%                                                    Mitigation measures
                                                                                    in the EIS 1
                                                                                        62%

1 EIS=Environmental Impact Assessment
2 PA=Planning Agency
3 PRA=Public Roads Administration
Strategic Environmental Assessment
                (SEA)
 Road plans will be subject to SEA from
  the middle of 2004
 PRA has some preparatory work
  ongoing
 This will be presented in a lecture by
  Sebastian Peters and Stefán Gunnar
  Thors
Strategic Environmental Assessment

     Transport Plan

  2003             2007         2011

    Revised Every Fourth Year

         Road Plan

  2003      2005   2007

    Revised Every Second Year
Does EIA improve the state of the
         environment?
EIA should make a better foundation for
 decisions and therefore lead to more
 rational and structured decision-making
  – inform the public (Increase environmental
    awareness)
More informed decisions
  – minimize negative consequences,
  – enlight positive consequences
                  Conclusion
 In general, road projects in Iceland have in most cases
  moderate negative influence on the environment
 The EIA has significantly improved the preparation of
  road projects
 The EIA has certainly prevented environmental damage
  in some cases
 The new EIA Act from year 2000 was a positive step
 Our main concern to-day is the open, frequently used
  and time consuming appeal opportunities at the last
  stage of the EIA process
 Overall, our review of the practice and current issues af
  EIA of Icelandic road projects has mainly given positive
  signals
 Harmonious relationship with the environment and
  community
Thank you for the attention !


           Hreinn Haraldsson
          Ásdís Guðmundsdóttir
     The Public Roads Administration

				
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