Environmental Issues and Business Ethics - Revision Station

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					Environmental Issues and
     Business Ethics
      OCR GCSE A293

Team activity: who can
think of the most
environment issues?

Example: climate change
How many did your team get?
     Possible Issues for Lathom’s
• Air pollution from methane gas – causing
  greenhouses gasses and therefore global
• Manure disposal – could be an excellent crop
• Looking closely at animal feed to prevent nitrates
  (through manure) leaking into the ground
• Flushing urine down drains with high pressure
  jets could pollute the nearby rivers.
Cows and flatulence
• Farming is responsible for about 14% of the world's
  greenhouse gases.
• A large amount of these emissions come from
  methane, which, in terms of its contribution to global
  warming, is 23 times more powerful than carbon
• The world's 1.5 billion cows and billions of other
  grazing animals emit dozens of polluting gases,
  including lots of methane.
• Two-thirds of all ammonia comes from cows.
• They belch more than they emit flatulence – fact!
Link includes 6 min audio
              Cows and manure
• There is the potential to
  convert manure into
  biogas which can
  generate electricity, or
  (with a little
  modification) and fuel
How consumers have responded to pressure for
     greater environmental responsibility
• Consumers can use their
  power to protect limited
  natural resources
• Customers choices drive
  the marketplace

• See the Directgov website
  (click the ie pix) for
  greener funerals,
  weddings, travel, home,
  garden and leisure.
                              Link to direct.gov   precycling
            Consumer responsibility
• Reduce
   – Less packaging

• Reuse
   – Milk bottles and bags for life

• Recycle
   – Blue and brown bins
                                      Watch this slideshow to see many examples
 There are lots more that             Of where packaging has been reduced.
 you can add to this list.
 Create a table with three
 columns and lets put
 some detail in...
 Result of consumer responsibility
• Reduction in demand
  for raw materials

• Using recycled materials
  to make new products
  uses less energy and
  fewer emissions

• Reduction of waste
  going to landfill
How business has responded to pressure
for greater environmental responsibility
           Cadbury’s environmental
• In 2008, we launched the
  award winning Eco Egg
  range; yummy Easter eggs
  wrapped simply in foil. The
  range includes Cadbury
  Treasure Eggs, with a 68%
  reduction in packaging and
  the Cadbury Egg Heads,
  with a 39% reduction.
• Water is a scarce
  commodity and we have
  looked at ways to reduce
  water consumption across
  the business.
                    M&S Plan A

• “The five pillars
  represent the key areas
  where we believe we
  can tackle the biggest
  challenges facing us as a
• These five areas are:
  Climate Change, Waste,
  Sustainable Raw
  Materials, Health and
  being a Fair Partner”
                            Environmental policy

To avoid the risk of
dangerous climate change,
it is generally accepted that
it will be necessary to limit
the concentration of CO2
and other greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere.

This will require substantial
reductions in global
emissions over the coming
      Unilever’s Environmental policy
• Environmental
  responsibility underpins
  our activities wherever
  we operate, such as
  product and packaging
  innovation, promoting
  greater use of recycling,
  teaching children and
  contributing to
  Climate change – co2 emissions and
            global warming
• Climate change is the
  term used to explain
  the changing weather
  patterns the earth is
• Because of climate
  change, the UK is
  seeing hotter summers,
  milder winters, higher
  sea levels and
  increased flooding.
  Climate change – co2 emissions and
            global warming
• Human activity is
  contributing to climate
  change through the
  production of
  greenhouse gases.
• These gases - particularly
  CO2 - are being released
  into the earth's
  atmosphere, where they
  form a layer, which
  prevents heat from
  escaping, causing a
  warming effect.
  Climate change – co2 emissions and
            global warming
• Businesses can help to tackle   • How are extra greenhouse
  climate change by reducing        gases produced?
  the levels of greenhouse          Extra greenhouse gases are
  gases they produce.               produced through activities
• Some businesses, particularly     which release carbon dioxide,
  those that are energy-            methane, nitrous oxide and
  intensive, will have              ozone CFCs
  requirements to reduce their      (chlorofluorocarbons). These
  greenhouse gas emissions as       activities include:
  a result of the UK's            • Burning coal and petrol,
  commitment to the Kyoto           known as 'fossil fuels'
  Protocol.                       • Cutting down of rainforests
                                    and other forests
                                  • Animal waste which lets off
  Global warming what could happen?
If Earth gets hotter, some of the    • Lakes and rivers could dry up.
    important changes could          • There would be more droughts
    happen:                            making hard to grow crops.
• Water expands when it's            • Less water would be available
    heated and oceans absorb           for drinking, showers and
    more heat than land, so sea        swimming pools.
    levels would rise.               • Some plants and animals
• Sea levels would also rise due       might become extinct because
    to the melting of the glaciers     of the heat.
    and sea ice.                     • Hurricanes, tornadoes and
• Cities on coasts would flood.        other storms which are caused
• Places that usually get lots of      by changes in heat and water
    rain and snowfall might get        evaporation may get more
    hotter and drier.                  common.
       How can the consumer help stop
              global warming?
•   There are ways you can help cut greenhouse     •   Put a brick in a plastic bag into your toilet
    gases and help stop global warming. They are       cistern, then the toilet will use less water
    simple things, but can make a difference if        each time you flush. Don't worry that's
    everyone does them!                                plenty of water to get rid of...
•   Re-cycle glass bottles, jars, newspapers and   •   Use paper on both sides. Try and buy
    magazines and tin cans. Save them and take         products that don't use much packaging.
    them to local re-cycling centres.              •   Give unwanted gifts and clothes to a charity
•   Re-use plastic shopping bags and envelopes,        shop.
    don't get new ones                             •   Only fill the kettle up with the amount of
•   Persuade you mum or dad (or whoever does           water you need to boil that time.
    the gardening) to have a compost heap.         •   Don't leave the TV or video on standby.
                                                   •   If you get lift to school in a car, take your
                                                       mates along for the ride.
                                                   •   Ask whoever does your washing to use the
                                                       machine at 40 degrees, this helps conserve
                                                   •   Switch lights off when you're not in the room
                                                   •   Get a clockwork mobile phone recharger
                                                   •   Cycle to places!
                                                   •   Have showers instead of baths.

       How many are you already doing? Who is the greenest in the class?
       Ways a business can be more
        environmentally friendly
• As a group brainstorm
  as many ways as
  possible that you think
  a company can go

• See if you can beat the
  list on the next slide.
Going green....

1. Recycling ink cartridges
2. Producing goods with less packaging
3. Using solar energy
4. Switching to energy saving light bulbs
5. Using a smaller font (less paper)
6. Using web based technology – less paper
7. Becoming a paperless office
8. Online marketing
9. Switching off lights at night (shop windows)
10.Using recycled batteries
11.Buying vehicles of the business with less co2
12.Using conference call instead of travelling to a
13.Encourage staff to cycle to work or car share
14.Switching to a wind turbine *see next slide as it
   appears in the case study
    Wind turbine (appears in the case study)
•   Producing your own energy could be cheaper
    than buying it from energy companies. In
    addition, you can also sell any excess energy
    you generate to energy companies, using
    Feed-in Tariffs
•   Wind turbines can have a life of up to 22.5
    years but need service checks every few
    years to make sure they work efficiently.
•   A 2.5kW system will cost around £14,900 to
    buy and install.
•   You also have to consider conservation and
    planning issues, such as the visual impact
    and noise. You normally need permission
    from the local authority to install a system.
  Social costs and benefits of business
Costs                               Benefits
• Air pollution – you may           •
                                        Reducing your energy use can save you money.
                                        Reducing your use of raw materials can cut
  need to invest in lorries that        your costs, minimise your waste and lower
                                        your waste disposal bills.
  emit less co2                     •   Reducing your water use can cut your water
• Water pollution – it is illegal       bills and also lower your waste water disposal
  to pollute rivers, streams,       •   Recycling equipment and materials could make
                                        you money and save on disposal costs - you
  sea etc                               may be able to sell old equipment or parts to
                                        subsidise the cost of buying new ones.
• Soil pollution – you may          •   Taking steps to prevent environmental damage
  need to invest in removal of          will reduce the risk of having to carry out
                                        potentially expensive repairwork in the event
  toxins that leak into the soil        of an environmental incident. (BP)

                                    •   From Business Link
                    BP – oil spill
• April 20 2010 BP drilling
  explodes kills 11 people
• 39 millions tonnes of oil
  spill into the sea
• Massive impact on the
  environment - birds
• Fishermen now becoming
  ill- blaming the dispersing
• Cost BP £3.1 billion to
  clean it up
                                What happened?   (The fix)   (Cost)
      Environmental issues and the
       opportunities for business
1. Communication
  – Opportunity to
    genuinely engage with
    consumers on green
    issues. People want east
    straightforward ideas
    that can make a positive
    green contribution.

                               Sainsbury's video 6 mins
      Environmental issues and the
       opportunities for business
• Government
  – Huge opportunity for
    Government - the
    countries biggest
    consumer – to make
    millions of smaller
    greener buying decisions
  – Spends over £220 billion
    a year on goods and
      Environmental issues and the
       opportunities for business
• Waste
  – An opportunity to save
    costs by minimising
  – An oppprt7unity to gain
    sales by redesigning
    packaging – helping the   One simple solution
    consumers to go greener   How many types of costs
                              Can be saved?
• Living and working in ways that do not jeopardise
  our current and future social, environmental and
  economic resources

• social and environmental practices that protect
  and enhance the human and natural resources
  needed by future generations to enjoy a quality
  of life equal to or greater than our own.

                  Sustainable Development Commission
      Ethical business behaviour
• Includes working towards the ending of child
  labour, forced labour, and sweatshops, and
  looking at health and safety, labour conditions
  and labour rights.

• The branch of ethics that examines questions of
  moral right and wrong arising in the context of
  business practice or theory

         Bitesize ethical behaviour video 5 mins
Ethical business behaviour

                             Sheet to
                             In Word

 Primark child
 Labour –
                  ETHICAL TRADE
• Ethical trade means that
  retailers, brands and their
  suppliers take responsibility
  for improving the working
  conditions of the people who
  make the products they sell.
• Most of these workers are
  employed by supplier
  companies around the world,
  many of them based in poor
  countries where laws designed
  to protect workers' rights are
  inadequate or not enforced.

                                   Ethical Trade Initiative
ETI – the last decade

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