Environmental Knowledge for Disaster Risk Management

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Environmental Knowledge for Disaster Risk Management Powered By Docstoc
					      Presentation by:
Hitesh Agrawal & Naiana Jain
Nirma University, Ahmedabad
• It is a cataclysm which affects
  the vast area and leads
  human sufferings, loss of life
  and property. Disasters result
  from the combination of
  hazards,       conditions    of
  vulnerability and insufficient
  capacity or measures to
  reduce the potential negative
  consequences of risk.
    “Disasters occur when hazards meet
In addition to a hazard, vulnerability should
      be there to constitute a disaster.
Natural Disasters

 Man-made Disasters
• United Nations Development
  Programme        on    Disaster
  Management defines it as a
  body of policy, administrative
  decisions and operational
  activities required to prepare
  for, mitigate, respond to and
  prepare the effects of natural
  and man-made disasters.
• Recently Japan has faced the
  wicked disasters in the form
  of earthquake and tsunami.
• These disaster also creates
  other problems.
• The earthquake occurred in
  Kutch and Bhuj District of
  Gujarat in 2001 and
  Tsunami of 2004 are also
  the examples of the
  disasters which affected
  the development and
  Human beings at high level.
• Depletion of Ozone layer in
  the atmosphere due to the
  reckless activities of the
  industrialist which causes
  disasters and Issues       of
  global Warming are
  effecting the environment.
• Stockholm Declaration, 1972
• The Rio Conference,1992
  These two declarations also say
  about the involvement of India
  to fight against the
  environmental degradation.
• Japan’s disaster has also
  affected environment to an
• The Convention on International
  Civil Aviation (Chicago convention)
• The Convention on Facilitation of
  International Maritime Traffic, 1965
• The Convention on the
  Simplification and Harmonization of
  Customs Procedures 1973 (Kyoto
• Convention of International
  Carriage by Rail, 1980.
• The Convention on the Temporary
• Declared by the UN
• from 1990 to 1999

• The most important standards;
 Yokohama Strategy,
 Geneva Mandate
 The Tampere
  Telecommunications Convention
Yokohama Strategy - The strategy emphasized on the
need for shifting the stress on relief and rehabilitation to
prevention and mitigation.

The Geneva Mandate on Disaster Reduction - This
mandate calls for adopting and implementing policy
measures at all levels from international, regional, sub-
regional, national to local levels for establishing hazard-
resilient community.

Tampere Telecommunication Convention - This strategy
requires the signatory states to provide unrestricted use
of telecommunications in the event of disasters.
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction - The ISDR aims at building disaster
resilient communities by promoting awareness about the importance of disaster
reduction as an integral part of sustainable development which is in India’s
context, very well enshrined under Article 21.

Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 - It is aiming at an integrated, multi-
hazard approach to disaster risk reduction. These resolutions were passed on
the basis of a few considerations like importance of international co-operation
and partnership; primary responsibility of each state for sustainable
development; the measures taken for protection of people in its territory.
Section 2(e) of Disaster
Management Act, 2005 defines
disaster management.
• Initially there was no
  legislation but Tsunami made
  the legislators aware on the
  need of having a suitable
  legislation     on    disaster
  management and after that
  Disaster Management Act,
  2005 came into existence.
• The Public Liability
  Insurance Act, 1991
• Recommendation of the
  High Power Committee
• then finally Disaster
  Management Act, 2005
  came into existence
                        National Disaster Management Authority

National Institute of    Advisory     National Executive    National Disaster
Disaster management     Committee       Committee           Response Force

                                          Sub Committee

 State Disaster Management Authority

 Advisory Committee     State Executive

 District Disaster Management Authority

                Advisory Committee
In Tehri Bandh Virodhi Sangharsh Samiti V. State of UP, 1992 Supp. (1)
SCC 44 involving construction of a dam across a river in the high mountain
ranges in the Himalayas, the Supreme Court of India has held that Disaster
Management is part of the Right to Sustainable Development.

In N.D. Jayal and Union of India (2004) 9 SCC 362, it was decreed “Disaster
Management cannot be separated from sustainable development”.

M.C. Mehta v. Union of India AIR 1987 SC 1086-
It was a case of Oleum gas leak in Delhi and commonly known as Shriram
Food and Fertilizers Case. This case laid down the principle of Absolute
Liability in India.
Disaster Management Strategy
aims at the promotion of
sustainable livelihoods and their
protection and recovery during
disasters and emergencies. Where
we will be able to achieve it,
people will have a more capacity
to deal with disasters and their
retrieval is more rapid and long
lasting. In a development oriented
disaster management approach,
the objectives are to reduce
hazards, prevent disasters, and
prepare for emergencies.
• In present time, modern disaster managers stress more on
  pre- disaster approach including mitigation and prevention of
  it than on post- disaster response. There is one common
  axiom: “Prevention is better than Cure”, so it is better to
  prevent these sorts of disasters. It is indeed that one cannot
  restrict the Natural disasters but certainly by proper
  mitigation methods, by spreading awareness among the
  people that what they should do in these type of situations,
  one can have control over the effects of it.

• Disaster Management Act came in 2005 and how far this Act
  is effective is yet to be witnessed.

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