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Energy System Training for Field Athletes - Bill Hartman

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Energy System Training for Field Athletes - Bill Hartman Powered By Docstoc
					An Energy Systems Primer




       Midwest Performance Enhancement
                 Seminar 2011
           Thank You
Thanks to Perform Better and EliteFTS

    Thanks to the other speakers

      Thanks to the IFAST Staff

           Thanks to you

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                Objectives
• Understand the interaction of energy systems
• Identify the difference between athletes’
  needs in regard to energy production
• Understand implications for training




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            Essential Resources
•   Adaptation in Sports Training by Viru
•   Ultimate MMA Conditioning by Jamieson
•   Exercise Metabolism by Hargreaves/Spriet
•   Block Periodization by Issurin
•   Time-motion research
•   Repeated-sprint ability research


                  Midwest Performance Enhancement
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How do you train a guy for a 10 minute round in
 MMA?

“You have to do 10 minutes of shit.”
          -Joel Jamieson, MMA Conditioning Expert
                Author, Ultimate MMA Conditioning




                 Midwest Performance Enhancement
                           Seminar 2011
               Energy Systems
• ATP-CP/Phosphagen (alactic)
   – Immediate energy
• Glycolytic (lactic)
   – Intermediate energy
• Oxidative (aerobic)
   – Long term energy



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               Contribution by sport
1974             ATP/CP                   Glycolytic        Oxidative
Basketball       80                       15                5
Hockey           80                       20                0
Soccer           60                       20                20
50 Freestyle     95                       5                 0



1998             ATP/CP                   Glycolytic        Oxidative
Basketball       60                       20                20
Hockey           50                       20                30
Soccer           50                       20                30
50 Freestyle     40                       55                5



                          Midwest Performance Enhancement
                                    Seminar 2011
Energy Systems




  Midwest Performance Enhancement
            Seminar 2011
           Energy Systems
• ATP-CP




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                         ATP-CP
• No good evidence that training will increase ATP or CP
  stores in muscles
• 6 second all-out sprint can reduce CP stores up to 55%
• Rate of CP driven ATP production decreases when CP is
  reduced
• Greater reduction of CP in fast-twitch fibers
• High power activities may create a “CP deficit” that will
  affect repeat performance even before CP is exhausted
• Without the contribution of ATP from other sources,
  CP stores could be exhausted in ~10 seconds

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                               Seminar 2011
               Energy Systems
• Glycolysis




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                   Glycolysis
• Increases in ADP/AMP activate glycolytic enzymes
  to break down glycogen
• At higher intensities, Glycolytic activity increases
  resulting in high levels of lactate and H+
• Increased concentration of strong ions (H+, Na+,
  Cl-, and Pi) at high intensities interfere with
  muscle contraction
• In a 30 second sprint, glycolysis and CP provide
  equal amounts of energy
• Repeated, high-intensity efforts rely less on
  glycolytic energy production
                   Midwest Performance Enhancement
                             Seminar 2011
Glycolysis and ATP-CP




   6 second sprints on 30 seconds rest
         Midwest Performance Enhancement
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Gylcolysis and ATP-CP




  3 – 30 second sprints with 4 minute rest

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             Energy Systems
• Beta oxidation/Kreb’s Cycle




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         Oxidative Metabolism
• Huge potential for improvement (~240%)
• The faster it turns on, the less anaerobic
  energy is required
• May contribute as much as 13% of energy
  production in a 10 second sprint and 27% in a
  20 second sprint
• With repeated, high intensity efforts, oxidative
  metabolism is primarily responsible for ATP
  regeneration
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Influence of Duration




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Oxidative Metabolism




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         Energy System Review
• All energy systems are working all the time
• ATP-CP and glycolysis contribute equally in the
  early stages of maximal efforts
• Oxidative metabolism contributes earlier and
  to a greater degree than we once thought
• With repeated, high intensity efforts, end
  products of glycolysis inhibit ATP production
  from glycolytic metabolism and oxidative
  takes a dominant role.
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     Intermittant Sprint Exercise
• Intermittent Sprint Exercise
  – Short sprint/high intensity activity ≤ 10 sec
  – Long duration of rest period (60s to 5 minutes)
  – Near full recovery
  – Little to no decrement in performance
  – Singular events




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     Intermittant Sprint Exercise
• Limiting Factors
  – Slow rate of CP breakdown
  – Slow rate of anaerobic glycolysis
  – Alactic capacity/Glycolytic capacity depending on
    duration of the sprint




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     Intermittent Sprint Exercise
• Strategies
  – Alactic power development
  – Glycolytic power development
  – Alactic/Glycolytic capacity development
    depending on duration of sprint
  – Maximum effort strength/power training
  – Aerobic development via tempo training (Charlie
    Francis style)

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       Repeated-Sprint Exercise
• Repeated-Sprint Exercise (AKA, RSA)
  – Short sprint/high intensity activity ≤ 10 sec
  – Shorter rest period (≤ 60 sec)
  – Inability to achieve full recovery
  – Almost always a performance decrement
  – Typical of most team/field sports




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Intermittant vs. Repeated




4 second sprints on either 2 minute or 30 second rest periods
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Time Motion Study - Soccer




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Time Motion Study - Rugby




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Time Motion Study - Hurling




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       Repeated-Sprint Exercise
• Limiting Factors
  – First sprint performance
  – Limited rest period/recovery time
  – Power recovery is directly correlated to CP
    resynthesis
  – Accumulation of H+ and Pi
  – Decline of anaerobic glycolysis
  – Rate and capacity of oxidative metabolism

                   Midwest Performance Enhancement
                             Seminar 2011
       Repeated-Sprint Exercise
• Strategies
  – Alactic power development
  – Alactic capacity depending on duration of sprints
  – Aerobic power and capacity development
  – Endurance-based strength training




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Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
• Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
  – Longer periods of activity mixed with variable
    periods of higher intensity
  – Variable active/pure rest periods
  – Performance depends on level of effort, duration
    of activity, and duration of rest
  – Energy production from any system is not
    necessarily maximal


                  Midwest Performance Enhancement
                            Seminar 2011
Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
• Limiting Factors
• Overreliance on glycolytic metabolism for
  longer activity periods
• Underdevelopment of oxidative metabolism
• Low anaerobic threshold
• Low power output below anaerobic threshold
• Inability to recover from brief periods of high
  power output
                 Midwest Performance Enhancement
                           Seminar 2011
Longer All-out/Mixed/Interval Exercise
• Strategies
• Alactic power/capacity for explosive bursts
• Glycolytic power/capacity development for
  shorter activity periods
• Aerobic power development*
• Anaerobic threshold training
• Optimal levels vs. maximal

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                           Seminar 2011
     Time-Motion Study - Wrestling
•   Olympic Freestyle/Greco-Roman Wrestling
•   3 – 2 minute rounds
•   Ave. 16 bursts of high-intensity activity
•   ~3 seconds per burst
•   ~23 seconds of recovery
•   Prolonged isometric activity/higher levels of
    lactate (glycolytic)

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Anaerobic Threshold




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               Training Notes
• Most field/team sports are Alactic-Aerobic in
  nature (AKA, repeated-sprint exercise)
• Repetitive sprinting requires adequate aerobic
  power and capacity for medium intensity work
  AND restoration of short-term energy substrates
  (creatine phosphate)
• Insufficient aerobic development causes
  premature fatigue due to reliance on glycolytic
  energy production
• Constant use of high intensity methods interferes
  with recovery due to SNS stimulation and does
  not address medium intensity adaptations.
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          Interval vs. Continuous
• Constant use of high-intensity methods interferes with
  recovery between sessions
• Interval training does not address medium intensity
  needs of many team sports
• Results from high-intensity interval training peak
  quickly
• Continuous aerobic training increases aerobic enzymes
  and reduces anaerobic enzymes.
• Anaerobic interval training increases both aerobic and
  anaerobic enzymes
• Increasing oxidative capacity results in less lactate
  production despite the same rate of glycogenolysis
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                              Seminar 2011
         Interval vs. Continuous
• Greater mitochondrial biogenesis occurred with
  lower power training than high-power interval
  training
• Most effective training to increase mitochondria
  resulted with continuous training near anaerobic
  threshold
• Interval training improves oxidation rate between
  bouts of activity
• FYI… intermittent isometric training also
  increases mitochondrial enzymes
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                      Tabata




Anaerobic capacity increased 23% in 4 weeks, 28% by week 6

 VO2 increased significantly to week 3 and then leveled out

    Endurance training increased maximal oxygen uptake
               steadily throughout the study
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               The Methods
• Cardiac output development
  – Major determinant of whole body aerobic power
• Alactic power and Capacity Development
• Glycolytic Power and Capacity Development
• Aerobic Power and Capacity Development




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                           Seminar 2011
    Cardiac Output Development
• Central adaptation
• COD Training results in eccentric left ventrical
  hypertrophy
• Increases oxygen delivery to working muscles
• Accelerates recovery between exercise bouts
  within a training session may contribute to
  faster recovery between sessions (sympathetic
  to parasympathetic)
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                            Seminar 2011
    Cardiac Output Development
• Not all athletes need it or need much of it
• Some need a lot
• Athletes with lower resting heart rates and/or
  those who recover quickly from intensive exercise
  may not need specific COD training
• Great initial sprint performance may need more
• Heart rates should fall into the 120-150 bpm
  range to maximize left ventricular refill
• Durations lasting 20-60 minutes 1-2x/week as
  needed

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Left Ventricular Hypertrophy




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   Cardiac Output Development
• Means
  – Continuous activity (jog, bike, aerobic equipment,
    etc.)
  – Body weight circuits
  – Jump rope
  – Medicine ball throws
  – Slide board
  – Light strength work
  – Combinations
  – Breathing exercises

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                              Seminar 2011
  Alactic Energy System Development
• Increases the rate at which alactic system can
  turn on (alactic power)
• Increases the duration that the alactic system
  can produce energy (alactic capacity)




                 Midwest Performance Enhancement
                           Seminar 2011
        Alactic Power Development
• Alactic power intervals (rate)
   –   1-3 sec ATP/6-10 seconds ATP+CP
   –   Passive/low intensity recovery (walking)
   –   Work:Rest Ratio 1:20 (max power each rep)
   –   2-5 sets x 15-30 total reps
   –   Frequency every 3rd day
   –   Development time 4-6 weeks
   –   Maintenance 1-2x/week
   –   Sprints, prowler push, sled, jumps, explosive push-
       ups, agility training

                       Midwest Performance Enhancement
                                 Seminar 2011
       Alactic Capacity Development
• Alactic Capacity Intervals
   –   8-15 seconds
   –   Passive/low intensity recovery (walking)
   –   Work:Rest Ratio 1:8 (decreasing rest for specificity)
   –   3-5 sets x 12-24 total reps
   –   Up to 1-3 times per week
   –   Development time 4-6 weeks
   –   Maintenance at 1-2x/week
   –   Sprints, prowler push, sled, jumps, jump squats,
       explosive push-ups, agility training

                       Midwest Performance Enhancement
                                 Seminar 2011
  Alactic Energy System Development
• Alactic Capacity Intervals




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Glycolytic Energy System Development
• Increase the rate of glycolytic energy production
• Increase the capacity of glycolytic energy
  production
• Improve buffering of H+ and strong ions
• Increases cardiac strength/concentric
  hypertrophy because of near maximal heart rates
• Glycolytic system can be trained quickly with
  lower volumes
• Too much is destructive to aerobic performance

                  Midwest Performance Enhancement
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   Glycolytic Power Development
• Glycolytic power intervals
  –   20-40 seconds maximal intensity
  –   Light activity/Active rest between sets
  –    4’ up to 10’ rest periods (Larger peak lactate)
  –   2-4 sets x 1-3 reps/set
  –   Frequency 2x/week
  –   Development time 4-6 weeks
  –   Maintenance 1-2x/week
  –   Sprints, shuttles, sport specific drills (muscle specific)

                       Midwest Performance Enhancement
                                 Seminar 2011
 Glycolytic Capacity Development
• Glycolytic Capacity Intervals
  – 30 sec-2 minutes at best effort
  – 1-2 minutes active rest between reps
    (incomplete); 4-6 minutes active rest between
    sets
  – 2-4 sets x 3 reps
  – Frequency 2x/week
  – Development time 4-6 weeks
  – Maintenance 1-2x/week
  – Runs and sport specific drills (muscle specific)
                   Midwest Performance Enhancement
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      Aerobic Power Development
•   Aerobic power
•   1-5 min intervals
•   Work:Rest Ratio 1:1 to 1:0.5
•   3-6 reps
•   1-2x/week
•   Slightly above anaerobic threshold


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                             Seminar 2011
      Aerobic Power Development
•   Threshold Training
•   10-20 minutes +/- anaerobic threshold
•   5-10’ rest
•   1-5 reps (fewer reps at longer durations)
•   1-3x/week
•   Runs, circuits, sport specific drills


                   Midwest Performance Enhancement
                             Seminar 2011
    Aerobic Power Development
• Gotta do it fast?
• 6-12 x 2’/1’ rest
  – 30sec/90sec rest x 8
  – 6sec/1’ rest x 15
• 2-3x/week
• Also increases buffering capacity



                  Midwest Performance Enhancement
                            Seminar 2011
     Aerobic Capacity Development
•   Aerobic Capacity
•   8-20 min at best steady state
•   1-3 reps
•   4-10 min passive rest
•   1-2x/week
•   Runs, drills, circuits, short-sided games


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                 Compatibility
• Lower level athletes
  – Inability to generate intensity
  – Large window of adaptation
  – Concurrent training
• Higher level athletes
  – Concentration of loading
  – Conflicting stimuli from differing physiological
    systems
  – Block periodization

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                             Seminar 2011
                    Compatibility
• Aerobic Development
     •   Heart chamber size
     •   Muscle capillarization
     •   Mitochondrial biogenesis
     •   Myoglobin increase
     •   Aerobic enzymes
• Glycolytic Development
     •   Heart muscle thickness
     •   Reduced capillarization
     •   Decreased mitochondria
     •   Glycolytic enzymes

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Compatibility




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Questions




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posted:12/7/2012
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