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									

       Active Voice and Passive Voice

                                                                   ‫ﻀ‬       ‫ﺘ‬
                          .‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬subject) ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫( ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ‬Active Voice) ‫1. ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬

                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                      ç
                                                                                                                                          



                                                            


1. Ahmed rides a bicycle.                                                   ‫ﺔ‬
                                                                           .‫ﻴﺭﻜﺏ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺠ ﹰ‬
2. Huda plays games.                                                          ‫ﺎ‬        ‫ﻫ‬
                                                                             .‫ﺩﻯ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺒﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬

                                                           ‫ﻀ‬       ‫ﺘ‬
        .‫( ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬Object) ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ‬ ‫( ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ‬Passive Voice) ‫2. .ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬

                                                                                                
                                                                                                     ç


                                                             
                                            Verb To Be                      by  

                              ‫ﻨ ﻭ‬
‫ل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل، ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻨﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ، ﹸﺤ‬ ‫* ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﻀ‬       ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                                     .‫ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬               ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬

1. A bicycle is ridden by Ahmed.                                                 ‫ﺩ‬        ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                .‫ﺭﺍﺠﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺏ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﹸﺭ‬
2. Games are played by Huda.                                        ‫ﻫ‬                  ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                 .‫ﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﹸﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬


                                                                            ç


               Active & Passive Voice



                      
                                                                                                    
                                                                 
              (Statement)                                   (Order)               (Question)




 1
‫‪‬‬

                                         ‫‪ 1. Statement‬‬

                                                                                     ‫‪‬‬       ‫‪‬‬
                                                        ‫‪ :Passive Active   ‬‬                                ‫7‬
             ‫ﺓ‬                                      ‫ﺎﻴ‬                          ‫ﺠ‬          ‫ﻼ‬
          ‫1. ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل )ﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰ ‪‬ﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩﻩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ (.‬
                                                    ‫ﺠ‬                              ‫ﻤ‬
     ‫2. ﻨﻀﻊ ) ‪ ( Verb To Be‬ﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺯﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ )ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ(.‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺜ‬       ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                  ‫3. ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ) ‪.( Verb To Be‬‬
‫4. ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﹰ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ ،by‬ﻭﻗﺩ ‪‬ﺸﻁﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻀﻤﻴﺭﹰ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ‪‬ﻀﻴﻑ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠـﺔ،‬
     ‫ﺠ‬             ‫ﺎ‬       ‫ﻴ‬               ‫ﺍ‬                       ‫ﻴ‬               ‫ﺎ‬
  ‫ﻀ‬                ‫ﺭ‬                              ‫ﻟ‬                                         ‫ﺠ‬             ‫ﻥ ﺩ‬
‫ﻷ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻫﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﹼﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻭﺀ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﻴ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻷﻫﻤ ‪‬ﺘﻪ.‬


       ‫‪ ‬‬                                       ‫‪‬‬        ‫‪‬‬
                             ‫‪Verb To Be    ‬‬                             ‫‪by‬‬     ‫‪ ‬‬


                                                                                                            ‫| ‪   ‬‬
                                                                                    ‫‪‬‬       ‫‪‬‬                     ‫‪‬‬
                                                               ‫1‪    ‬‬
                                                                                                                             ‫ﺃ( ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل.‬
                                          ‫ﺀ‬                     ‫ﺠ ﻴ‬           ‫ﻥ‬           ‫ﻴ‬               ‫ﺠ‬
     ‫ﺏ( ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺯﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ‪‬ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻴﻪ، ﻷ ‪ ‬ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ‪‬ﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﺍ ‪ ‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل.‬
                    ‫ﺓ‬     ‫ﻤ‬                           ‫ﺎ‬                           ‫ﺠ‬
                  ‫ﺝ( ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ، ﻟﻜﻲ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭل ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل. )ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ(.‬
    ‫ﻨ‬                                          ‫ﺔ‬                      ‫ﺘ‬
‫2. ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﹸﺼﺒﺢ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗ ﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ‪ by‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﹸﺠﻤـل‬
                                                                          ‫ﺩ‬
                        ‫ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤ ‪‬ﺙ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﻤﻥ ‪ active‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪-:passive‬‬

                         ‫‪I‬‬       ‫‪he‬‬        ‫‪she‬‬         ‫‪it‬‬       ‫‪we‬‬        ‫‪they‬‬       ‫‪you‬‬      ‫‪ ‬‬

                       ‫‪me‬‬       ‫‪him‬‬        ‫‪her‬‬         ‫‪it‬‬       ‫‪us‬‬       ‫‪them‬‬        ‫‪you  ‬‬

                                                                                   ‫‪‬‬         ‫‪‬‬
                                          ‫‪To Be  ‬‬                                   ‫‪ç‬‬
                                                                                                                                           ‫‪‬‬




                      ‫‪ Tenses‬‬                                    ‫‪Verb To Be‬‬
           ‫‪Present Simple‬‬                                      ‫ﻤ‬
                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬         ‫‪am, is, are‬‬
           ‫‪Past Simple‬‬                              ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬           ‫‪was, were‬‬
           ‫‪Present Continuous‬‬                          ‫ﻤ‬        ‫ﻤ‬
                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬        ‫‪am being, is being, are being‬‬
           ‫‪Past Continuous‬‬                              ‫ﻤ‬
                                                    ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬         ‫‪was being, were being‬‬
           ‫‪Present Perfect‬‬                             ‫ﺘ‬       ‫ﻤ‬
                                                     ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ‬         ‫‪has been, have been‬‬
           ‫‪Past Perfect‬‬                                 ‫ﺘ‬
                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻡ‬         ‫‪had been‬‬
           ‫‪Future Simple‬‬                                        ‫ﻤ‬
                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬        ‫‪shall be, will be‬‬




 ‫2‬

                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       ç
                                                                                                                                               




               be                       am, is, are               was, were                     being                         been
‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻌل ﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﻓـﻲ‬          ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ‬          ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ‬         ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ ﺯﻤـﻥ‬            ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤـﻥ‬
                               ‫ﺠ‬
                      :‫ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬          .‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬          .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬             ‫ﻤـ‬
                                                                                           ‫ ـﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﻤـ‬          ‫ ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘ ـﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                                                                              ‫ﹼـ‬        ‫ﻤـ‬
will, would, shall, should can,                                                                   ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                                             .‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ‬           .‫ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‬
could, must, had to, ought to


                                                      Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

        Active Voice                          Passive Voice
         Shadi studies English.                    English is studied by Shadi.
 1.
                         ‫ﻴ‬                 ‫ﻴﺭ‬
                      .‫ﺔ‬‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺩﻱ‬                                      ‫ﻴ‬                ‫ﺘ ﺭﺱ‬
                                                                         .‫ﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺸﺎﺩﻱ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬  ‫ﹸﺩ‬
         She bought many books.                    Many books were bought by her.
 2.
                        ‫ﻜﺘﺏ‬
                       .ِ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹸﹸ‬                                     ‫ﻜﺘﺏ‬                ‫ﺸ ﻱ‬
                                                                             .‫ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹸ ﹸ ِ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹸﺭ‬
         They visited the farm.                    The farm was visited by them.
 3.
                                 .‫ﻫﻡ ﺯﺍﺭﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻋﺔ‬                                                 ‫ﻡ‬
                                                                               .‫ ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺘ‬
         Samia is studying the map.              The map is being studied by Samia.
 4.
                                           ‫ﺘﺭ‬
                           .‫ﺱ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﹸﺩ‬                                                 ‫ﺘ ﺭﺱ‬
                                                                           .‫ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬  ‫ﹸﺩ‬
 5.      She is cooking dinner. .‫ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ‬Dinner is being cooked by her. .‫ﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬
         She was arranging them.                   They were being arranged by her.
 6.
                                      ‫ﺘ ﺘ‬
                                 .‫ﻫﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸﺭ ﹼﺒﻬﻡ‬                                                    ‫ﻴ ﺘ‬
                                                                                     .‫ﺭ ﹼﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ‬
         They were watching television.            Television was being watched by them.
 7.
                                ‫ﺘ‬         ‫ﻴﺸ‬
                           .‫ ﹶﺎﻫﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ‬                                         ‫ﻴ ﻫﺩ‬             ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                 .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬  ‫ﺸﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
         Huda is writing the letters.              The letters are being written by Huda.
 8.
                                     ‫ُ ﺭ‬
                              .‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻯ ﺘﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟ‬                                     ‫ﻫ‬               ‫ﺘ ﺏ ﺭ‬
                                                                                 .‫ﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﹸﻜﺘ‬
 9.  They congratulated us.              ‫ﻨ‬
                                 .‫ ﻫ ﹼــﺎﺅﻨﺎ‬We were congratulated by them. .‫ﻨ ﱢ ِﻨﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻫ ـﺌ‬
     He has mended a chair.                  A chair has been mended by him.
 10.
                             ‫ﺼﻠﺢ ﻜ ﻴﺎ‬
                            .‫ﹰ‬‫ ﹸﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬                                          ‫ﺼﻠﺢ ﻜ ﻴﺎ‬
                                                                            .‫ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ ﹸﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬
     They have built the road.               The road has been built by them.
 11.
                                ‫ﻁ‬
                           .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻕ‬                                             ‫ﺒﻨ ﻁ‬
                                                                           .‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬
 12.      He drives a car.                  ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻴ ﺩ‬
                                           .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻘﻭ‬ ‫ ﻫﻭ‬A car is driven by him.                                    ‫ﻪ‬
                                                                                                                      .ِ ‫ﹸﻘ ﹸﺩ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘ‬
                                                                                                                                ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﺘ ﺎ‬
 13. We met them.                            .‫ ﻨﺤﻥ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻨﺎﻫﻡ‬They were met by us.                                                         ‫ﻗﺒ‬
                                                                                                                           .‫ﹸ ِﻠﻭﺍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻨﺎ‬
         She had prepared everything.         Everything had been prepared.
 14.
                                  ‫ﺩ‬
                        .‫ﺕ ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋ‬                                                                      ‫ﺃﻋﺩ‬
                                                                                                                  . ِ ُ ‫ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ‬
         It was making much noise.                Much noise was being made by it.
 15.
                         ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﺔ‬    ‫ﺘ ﺩﺭ‬
                        .‫ ﻀﺠ ﹰ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﹰ‬ ِ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸﺼ‬                      .‫ﺍ ِﻬﺎ‬  ‫ ﻀﺠ ﹰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬ َ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸﺼ‬
                                                                          ‫ﺠﺭ ﺌ‬      ‫ﺔ‬      ‫ﺔ‬    ‫ﺘ ﺭ‬
 16. I have remembered it.                    ‫ﺘﺫ ﻜ ﺘ ﻪ‬
                                             . ‫ ﹶ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﹶ ﹶ ﹼـﺭ‬   It has been remembered by me.                               ‫ﻜﺭﻩ‬         ‫ﻡ‬
                                                                                                                            .  ‫ ﻟﻲ ﺘﺫ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘ‬
         The government will build a bridge. A bridge will be built.      .‫ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﺭ‬
 17.                       ‫ﺍ‬
                          .‫ﺴﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺠﺴﺭﹰ‬
                                                             ‫ﺤ‬
                                                        .(‫ﺫﻓﺕ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬the government ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬)

 3

                                                                                                              |
                 ‫ل ﻴ‬           ‫ﺠ‬                         ‫ﻥ‬                                      ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬
     :‫ﺼﺒﺢ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ِ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭ‬ ‫ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻓﺈ‬Defective Verb) ‫ﻤﻠ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻓﻌل ﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒ‬

                                             The Defective Verb + be + P.P
                                                                                
                                              be  

                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                      ×
                                                                                                                                           




     will – would – shall – should – can – could – may – might – must - ought to (had to).

                   Active Voice                 Passive Voice
                   He may bring them.                                They may be brought by him.
             1.
                                                      ‫ﻴ ﻀﺭﻫ‬
                                                    .‫ﻡ‬  ِ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺩ‬                ‫ﺘﻪ‬           ‫ﺤﻀ‬
                                                                                   .ِ ِ ‫ﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ‬  ‫ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﻴ‬
                   They will cross the lake.                   The lake will be crossed by them.
             2.
                                         ‫ﻥ ﺒ ﺓ‬
                                        .‫ﺤﻴﺭ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺴﻴﻌﺒﺭﻭ‬             ‫ﻬ‬             ‫ﻋ‬          ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                         .‫ﺒﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘ ِﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺭﺓ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬
                   She can not carry it.                  It can not be carried by her.
             3.
                                       .‫ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬                   ‫ﺘ‬           ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                         .‫ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺤﻤلَ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ ِﻬﺎ‬

                                                                                          ‫ﺘ‬                      ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                            -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻜﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل‬


                               have to / has to / (am, is, are + going to) +

                                                                              ‫ﺘ‬                           ‫ﺘ‬          ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                  -: ‫( ﹸﺼﺒﺢ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬Passive) ‫ﻓﺈﹼﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬

                                                                                       
                       have to / has to / (am, is, are + going to) + be +   


       Active Voice                             Passive Voice
      Everyone has to follow the orders.          The orders have to be followed. .‫ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﺘﺒﺎ‬        ‫ﻉ‬
1.                         ‫ﺘ‬      ‫ﺩ‬
                 .‫ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻓﺭ ٍ ﺃﻥ ﻴ ﹼﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ‬The ‫( ﻷ‬have) ‫ل ﺇﻟـﻰ‬‫( ﺘﺤﻭ‬has) ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬
                                                                                                                            .‫ ﺠﻤﻊ‬orders
   They are going to carry out the new The new project is going to be carried out.
2. project.                                                                     ‫ﺫﻩ‬
                                                                               . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴ ﹸ‬
                                  ِ
                .‫ﺴﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬       ‫ﻤ‬                    ‫ﻥ‬
                                                 (‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬ project ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ ﻷ‬is ‫ ﺘﺤﻭﻟﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬are 
   I am going to prepare the new lessons. The new lessons are going to be prepared.
3.
                                ‫ﺄ ﻀﺭ ﺩ ﺱ‬
                       .‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﺴُﺤ‬                              ‫ﺭ‬                        ‫ﺩ ﺱ‬
                                                                           .‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬

                                             ‫ﺘ‬                            ‫ﻥ‬                    ‫ﺠ‬
                  .(Passive) ‫ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﻨﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬Verb To Be  ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﻨﻔﻲ ﻓﺈ‬ ‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل‬

               Active Voice                      Passive Voice
             He does not make the mistake.                                    The mistake is not made by him.
        1.
                                               ‫ﻴﻘ‬
                                      .‫ ﹸﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ‬                                 .‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬
             I did not write the lesson.                                      The lesson was not written by me.
        2.
                                                      ‫ ﺩ ﺱ‬ ‫ﺘ‬
                                                     . ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﻜﹾ ﹸﺏ ﺍﻟ‬                           ‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                                          .‫ُ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻲ‬             ‫ﺩ ﺱ‬

4

             They have not met Ali.                                         Ali has not been met by them.
       3.
                                                       ‫ﻴﺎ‬         ‫ﻴ‬
                                                      .‫ﹰ‬‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﻭﺍ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬                              ‫ﻴﺎ‬       ‫ﻴ‬
                                                                                          .‫ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻘﺎﺒل ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻟﻡ‬
             She won't write the letter.                                    The letter won't be written by her.
       4.
                                      ‫َ ﺭ ﺔ‬
                                     .‫ﺴﺎﻟ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻥ ﺘﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟ‬                                             ‫ﺘ‬             ‫ﺭ‬
                                                                                       .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔﹶ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﹸﻜﹾﺘﹶﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬

                ‫ﺘ‬            ‫ل‬         ‫ﻨ‬                       ‫( ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻴﻤﺘِﻙ ﻜﻔﻌل‬Verb to Have) ‫5. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬
‫( ﻓﺈﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤ ُ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨـﻲ‬Passive) ‫ٍ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ‬     ‫ﻠ‬
                                                                                                                          -:‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬


                           
                         possess  own  belong to + P.P 


                  Active Voice          Passive Voice
                 1.    I have a car.                ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻠﻙ‬
                                                   .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬ ِ ‫ ﺃﻤﺘ‬A car is had by me.               XX ‫ﺨﻁﺄ‬
                                                                   A car is owned by me.
                                                                   Or: A car is possessed by me.
                                                                                       ‫ﻗ‬        ‫ﺓﻤ ﺔ‬
                                                                                  .(‫ﻤﺘﻠﻜ ﹰ ﻟﻲ )ﻤﻥ ِﺒﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬
                                                                   Or: A car belongs to me.
                 2.    I had a car.              ‫ﺓ‬       ‫ﺕ‬
                                                .‫ ﺍﻤﺘﻠﻜ ﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬A car was owned by me.
                                                                   Or: A car was possessed by me.
                                                                   Or: A car was belonged to me.
                                                                                           ‫ﻗ‬        ‫ﺓ ﺘﻠ‬
                                                                                       .‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺍﻤ ﹸ ِﻜﺕ ﻤﻥ ِﺒﻠﻲ‬

    ‫ﺜ‬        ‫ﺘ‬               ‫ﻥ ﻅ‬                 ‫ﻴ‬         ‫ﺠ‬
‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻑ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﹼـﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟـﺙ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ، ﻓﺈ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨ‬ ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬Adverb of Manner) ‫6. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻅﺭﻑ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
                                                                                                                               ‫ﻤ ﺓ‬
                                                                                                                              .‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ‬

       Active Voice                            Passive Voice
     The teacher punished the lazy boy severely.                  The lazy boy was severely punished by the teacher.
1.
                        ‫ﺓ‬             ‫ﻗﺏ ﺩ‬           ‫ﻤﺭ‬
                       .ٍ ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻭل ﺒﻘﺴﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻋﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬                              ‫ﺔ ﻤﺭ‬            ‫ﺓ‬                   ‫ﻋ ﻗﺏ‬
                                                                                        .‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻭﻟﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻭل ﺒﻘﺴﻭ ٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ِ ‫ﻭ‬
   Mother cooks the food excellently.               The food is excellently cooked by mother.
2.
                 ‫ﺓ‬       ‫ﺓ‬        ‫ﺦ ﻁ ﻡ‬
                .ٍ ‫ ﺒﺼﻭﺭ ٍ ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺘﻁﺒ ﹸ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎ‬ ُ
                                                ‫ﺃﻤ‬                        ‫ﺃﻤ‬         ‫ﺓ ﺓ‬
                                                                        .‫ﻲ‬ ُ ‫ ﺒﺼﻭﺭ ٍ ﺠﻴﺩ ٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺒ ﹸ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻴ ﺦ ﻁ ﻡ‬
   He speaks English well.                          English is well spoken by him.
3.
                          ‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﻴ‬           ‫ﻠ‬
                         .‫ﺔ ﺠﻴﺩﹰ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬                                          ‫ﺍ‬    ‫ﻴ ﺘ ﻠ‬
                                                                                .‫ﺔ ﹸﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺠﻴﺩﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬

‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﹰ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌ ِ ﻋﻨﺩ‬  ‫( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل، ﻓﺈﹼ‬Preposition) ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ‬ ِ ‫7. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭ‬
    ‫ل‬         ‫ﺜ‬        ‫ﺘ‬        ‫ﺍ‬      ‫ﻨﻪ ﻴﻅل‬                                                 ‫ﺔ‬        ‫ﺠﺩ‬
                                                                                                                           ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                                                               .‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬

             Active Voice               Passive Voice
                 They are looking for the map.         The map is being looked for by them.
            1.
                              ‫ﺔ‬                     ‫ﻨ‬
                             .ِ ‫ﺇﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﺒﺤﺜﻭﻥَ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁ‬                                  ‫ﻴ ﺤﺙ‬
                                                                         .‫ ﹸ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔﹶ‬
                 She looks after her children.      Her children are looked after by her.
            2.
                                    .‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﺭﻋﻰ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﺎ‬                                 ‫ﻴ ﻋ ﻥ‬
                                                                          .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﺎ‬
                 I looked at the picture carefully.          The picture was carefully looked at by me.
            3.
                        ‫ﻡ‬         ‫ﺔ‬       ‫ﺼ ﺓ‬
                      .(ٍ ‫ﻭﺭ ِ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴ ٍ )ﺒﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭ ﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ‬
                                                       ‫ﺕ‬                            ‫ﺔ‬              ‫ﻨﻅ‬     ‫ﺼ‬
                                                                           .‫ﻭﺭﺓ ﹸ ِﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴ ٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬

 5
‫‪‬‬
                       ‫ﻤ‬        ‫ل‬         ‫ل‬
‫8. ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤل ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭ ٍ ﺒﻪ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﺘﺄﹼ ‪ ‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌ ِ(، ﻭﻤﻔﻌﻭ ٍ ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﺴـﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻀـﻤﻴﺭ‬
                                                  ‫ٍ‬    ‫ٍﻤ‬       ‫ﺜﺭ‬         ‫ل ﻤ‬                     ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ل‬       ‫ٍ‬          ‫ٍ‬       ‫ﺜ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺘﺄﹼﺭ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌ ِ(.‬
                     ‫ﻱ‬                ‫ﺤ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺠ ﻤ‬          ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬          ‫ﺠ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻓﺈ ‪ ‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ‪‬ﻁﻠﻕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃ ‪ ‬ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻟﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬                              ‫§‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﻓﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل.‬
‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻼﺤﻅ ﺍﻻﻀﻁﺭﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ ‪ to‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ }ﺃ ‪ ‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺍﺌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻲ‬
                       ‫ﺠ‬               ‫ﻱ‬       ‫ﺜ‬                                                            ‫ﻴ‬                             ‫§‬
                                                                                                                 ‫ﻟ‬
                                                                ‫)ﺍﹸﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ( ﻨﻀﻊ ‪ to‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﻭل )ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ({.‬

                         ‫.‪They gave me a present‬‬                                              ‫ﻴﺔ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻫﻡ ﺃﻋﻁﻭﻨﻲ ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ.‬

                          ‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )1(‬            ‫ﻤ‬
                                                    ‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )2(‬


             ‫ﻤ‬                                                          ‫ﺓﻴ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺍﻷﻭل( ﻭﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ.‬                                     ‫§‬

        ‫‪ Active Voice‬‬                       ‫‪ Passive Voice‬‬
          ‫.‪They gave me a present‬‬            ‫.‪A present was given to me by them‬‬
                                ‫ﻴﺔ‬
                               ‫ﺃﻋﻁﻭﻨﻲ ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ.‬                                            ‫ﻴﺔ ﺃ ﻁ‬
                                                                        ‫ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ ُﻋ ِﻴﺕ ﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ.‬
       ‫.1‬
                                             ‫.‪Or: I was given a present by them‬‬
                                                                                  ‫ﻴﺔ‬         ‫ﺃ‬
                                                                        ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ُﻋﻁﻴﺕ ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ.‬
            ‫.‪He taught them many lessons‬‬                        ‫.‪They were taught many lessons by him‬‬
                             ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻠﻤﻬ ﺩ ﺎ‬
                            ‫ﻋﹼ ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ.‬                                        ‫ﺘﻪ‬        ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻋﻠ ﺩ ﺎ‬
                                                                                        ‫‪‬ﱢﻤﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ ِ ِ.‬
       ‫.2‬
                                                                ‫.‪Or: Many lessons were taught to them by him‬‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺓ ﻋﻠﻤ‬    ‫ﺩ ﺎ‬
                                                                                    ‫‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ ‪‬ﱢ ‪‬ﺕﹾ ﻟﻬﻡ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ.‬

        ‫ﻼ‬                             ‫ٍ‬       ‫9. ﻻ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺒﺄﻱ ﺤﺎ ٍ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼﻭﻍﹶ ﺠﻤﻠ ﹰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻭﻤﺴﺒﻭﻕ‬
‫ٍ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل، ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ ﻻ ﻴﺠـﻭﺯ‬                        ‫ﺔ‬              ‫ل‬
                                                                                                                  ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼﻭﻍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل:‬

                         ‫.‪Samy went to school‬‬                                        ‫ﺔ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ ِ.‬

                                  ‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ‬

                                  ‫ﺠ‬                                   ‫ﻥ‬
‫01. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل )ﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ‪ ،(to‬ﻓﺈ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻴﻅل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬـﻭل، ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻴـﺄﺘﻲ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﻟ‬
                                                                                              ‫)ﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ‪ (to‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻔﻌﻭِﻬﺎ ، ﻤﺜل:-‬

‫‪tell‬‬                  ‫ﻴ‬
                   ‫‪ advise‬ﺨﺒﺭ‬                     ‫‪ send‬ﻴﻨﺼﺢ‬                     ‫ﻴ ﺴ‬
                                                                                ‫‪‬ﺭ ِل‬
‫‪ask‬‬                ‫‪ expect‬ﻴﺴﺄل‬                      ‫ﻗ‬
                                                   ‫‪ offer‬ﻴﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ‬                ‫ﻴﻌﺭﺽ‬


            ‫‪ Active Voice‬‬                       ‫‪ Passive Voice‬‬
       ‫.‪He advised me to give up smoking‬‬                  ‫.‪I was advised to give up smoking‬‬
                          ‫ﺘ ﻥ‬          ‫ﺃﻠ‬
                         ‫ﻫﻭ ﻨﺼﺤﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ُ ‬ﻗ ِﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﺨﻴ ِ.‬                  ‫ﺘ ﻥ‬          ‫ﺃﻠ‬        ‫ﻨﺼ ﺕ‬
                                                                          ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﹸ ِﺤ ﹸ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ُ ‬ﻗ ِﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﺨﻴ ِ.‬




 ‫6‬

                                                                                                              ‫ﺎﻴ‬
                                                                                    -:‫ﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨ ﹰ‬                   §

          Active Voice                            Passive Voice
 I never expected the police to arrest the thief.           I never expected the thief to be arrested.
               ‫ﻟﺹ‬        ‫ﺽ‬         ‫ﺸ‬
              .ِ ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺒ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
                                           ‫ﺘ‬       ‫ﻗ‬                           ‫ﻪ‬           ‫ﻗ ﻥ ﻟ ﺹ ﺃ ﻘﻲ‬
                                                                              .ِ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻴ‬ ِ ‫ ُﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺒﺄ‬

           ‫ﺠ‬          ‫ﻱ‬            ‫ﺎ‬       ‫ﻴ‬                          ‫ﻴ‬          ‫ﻴ‬         ‫ﺠ‬
‫ﻤﻠـﺔ ﻤﺠﻬـﻭل‬ ‫ ﻓﺎﻋـل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀﻴﻑ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻨـﻰ )ﺃ‬ ‫ﻔﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ، ﺃﻭ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨ‬ ‫11. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺘ‬       ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬         ‫ﻪ‬        ‫ﻨ ﻴ‬          ‫ﺸ‬
                              -:‫( ، ﻤﺜل‬Passive) ‫ﻤﻠ ِ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺨﺼﻴﺔ(، ﻓﺈﹼﻪ‬

people               ‫ﻨ‬
                   ‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ‬somebody                  ‫ﺹ‬
                                                ‫ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ ﺸﺨ‬nobody                                  ‫ﻻ ﺃﺤﺩ‬
someone              ‫ﺩ‬
                  ‫ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ ﺃﺤ‬the police                 ‫ﺸ‬
                                                  ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ‬the government                          ‫ﺤ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬


      Active Voice                            Passive Voice
   The police arrested the thief.             The thief was arrested.
1.            ‫ﻟ‬                          ‫ﺸ‬
         .‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﺕ )ﺃﻟﻘﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ( ﺍﹼﻠﺹ‬                                             ‫ﺃ ﻗ ﺃﻘ‬         ‫ﻟ‬
                                                                            .(‫ﺍﹼﻠﺹ ُﻭ ِﻑ )ُﻟ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
                                                 ‫ﺎ‬              ‫ﻨ‬     ‫ﺤﺫ‬
                                                .‫ ِﻓﺕ ﻷ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﺔ ﻀﻤﻨ ﹰ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬The police ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬
     Someone stole her jewels yesterday.        Her jewels were stolen yesterday.
                    ‫ﺱ‬              ‫ﻕ‬       ‫ﺩ‬
                   .ِ ‫ ﻤﺎ ﺴﺭ ﹶ ﺠﻭﺍﻫﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﺤ‬                                 ‫ﺱ‬        ‫ﺴﺭ‬
                                                                               .ِ ‫ ِﻗﺕ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻫﺭﻫﺎ‬
2.
                                                                      ‫ﺘ‬    ‫ﺎ‬                    ‫ﺤ‬
                                                                  ‫ﺫﻓﺕ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﺔ ﻀﻤﻨ ﹰ ﻭﻻ ﹸـﻀﻴﻑ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬Someone ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ 
                                                                                                                                ‫ﺎ‬
                                                                                                                               .‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺸﻴﺌ ﹰ‬
   Nobody has attacked him yet.                He has not attacked yet.
3.                             ‫ﻪ ﺍ‬        ‫ﻴ‬
                .(‫ ﺃﺤﺩﹰ ﺒﻌﺩ )ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬                                              ‫ﻴ ﺠ‬
                                                                           .(‫ﻡَ ﺒﻌﺩ )ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ‬
                                                                      ‫ﺤﺫ‬
                                                                  .‫ ِﻓﺕ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬Nobody ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

                                                                                                                  ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                               -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﺒﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫21. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟ‬

People say                          ‫ﻨ‬
                           ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬   Scientists know         ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ‬   One newspaper reports                  ‫ﺤﻑ ﺘﻨﺸ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                                                                          ‫ﺭ‬       ‫ﺼ‬

Doctors believe         ‫ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ‬     People think                     ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                  ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ‬The police allege                            ‫ﺩ‬      ‫ﺸ‬
                                                                                                                            ‫ﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘ‬


                                                                                                    ‫ﺀ ﺠ‬             ‫ﻨ ﺘ ﻭ‬
                                                                                 -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﺈ ﹼﻬﺎ ﹸﺤ‬

           Active Voice                    Passive Voice
     People say….                                           ‫ﻨ‬
                                                   ‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬It is said....                                         ‫ﻥ‬       ‫ﻴ‬
                                                                                                                  ....  ‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄ‬
     People said ….                                           ‫ﻨ‬
                                                      ‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻟﻭﺍ‬It was said ….                                        ‫ﻥ‬
                                                                                                                   ....  ‫ﻗﻴل ﺒﺄ‬
     Doctors believe....                   ‫ﻥ‬
                                            ‫ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄ‬It is believed ….                                      ‫ﻥ‬        ‫ﻴ‬
                                                                                                                 ....  ‫ﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺒﺄ‬
     People knew.…                            ‫ﺭ‬        ‫ﻠ‬    ‫ ﻨ‬I
                                           ‫ ً ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻋِﻤﻭﺍ / ﻋ ِﻓﻭﺍ‬t was known ….                                   ً
                                                                                                              .... ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺎ‬
     The police allege….                            ‫ﺩ‬      ‫ﺸ‬
                                                  ‫ﻋﻲ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘ‬It is alleged….                                             ‫ﺃﺩ‬
                                                                                                                     .... ‫ﻋﻲ‬ ُ




 7


                                                     Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

         Active Voice                            Passive Voice
   People say that he is mad.                         It is said that he is mad.
1.                               ‫ﻨﻪ‬           ‫ﻨﺱ‬
                          .‫ ﻤﺠﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎ‬ Or: He is said to be mad.
                                                                                                    ‫ﻨﻪ‬       ‫ﻴ‬
                                                                                           .‫ ﻤﺠﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄﹼ‬ / َ‫ِﻴل‬ ‫ﻗ‬
   People say that peace will prevail soon.                It is said that peace will prevail soon.
2.                ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﻥ ﺴ ﻡ ﻌﻡ‬                   ‫ﻨﺱ‬
                 .‫ ﻗﺭﻴﺒﹰ‬  ‫ ﺴﻴ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎ‬Or: The peace is said to be prevailed soon.
                                                                                        ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﻥ ﺴ ﻡ ﻌﻡ‬
                                                                                       .‫ ﻗﺭﻴﺒﹰ‬  ‫ ﺴﻴ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄ‬‫ﻴ‬
   The police allege that the thief escaped.           It is alleged that the thief escaped.
3.                             ‫ﻥ ﻟﺹ‬        ‫ﺩ‬      ‫ﺸ‬
                         .‫ ﻫﺭﺏ‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻲ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘ‬Or: The thief is said to be escaped.
                                                                                            ‫ﻥ ﻟﺹ‬          ‫ﻪ ﻴﺩ‬
                                                                                     .‫ ﻫﺭﺏ‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻰ ﺒﺄ‬   ‫ﺇﻨ‬
   People think that the Earth is not exactly round. It is thought that the Earth is not exactly round.
4.       ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﺓ‬             ‫ﺽ‬      ‫ﻥ‬              ‫ﻨ‬
        .‫ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭ ﹰ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄ‬Or: The Earth is thought to be not exactly round.
                                                                        ‫ﺎ‬           ‫ﺽ ﺭﻤ‬         ‫ﻨﻪ ﻴ ﺩ ﻥ‬
                                                                       .‫ﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰ‬  ‫ ﻏﻴ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺭ‬ ‫ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻌﺘﻘ‬  ‫ﺇ ﹼ‬

‫( ﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬Reflexive Pronoun) ‫ﻨﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ َ(، ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻀﻤﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ /    ) Let ‫31. ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ، ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﻤﻊ‬
                             ‫ﻤ‬               ‫ﻴ ﺩﻉ ﻴ ﻌ ل‬
                                                                                                                        -:‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬


         Active Voice                            Passive Voice
   Don't let people hear you.                      Don't let yourself (or: yourselves) be heard.
1.
                                  ‫ﻌ‬        ‫ﻨ‬
                             .‫ﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﺩﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﺴﻤ‬                          ‫ﺔ‬
                                                                          .‫ﻻ ﺘﺩﻉ ﻨﻔﺴﻙ )ﺼﻭﺘﻙ( ﻤﺴﻤﻭﻋ ﹰ‬
   He let people cheat him.                        He let himself be cheated.
2.
                               ‫ﻩ‬
                              . ‫ﻫﻭ ﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻐﺸﻭ‬
                                        ‫ﻨ‬                                               ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                    .‫ﻫﻭ ﺠﻌل ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﹸﻐﺵ‬




                               Smile . . . tomorrow may be worse.

                                                             
                                             .    




 8


                                                   2.Order

                   ‫ﻴ‬        ‫ﺠ‬                               ‫ﻠ‬                              ‫ﻴ‬             ‫ﻥ ﺀ‬
                 .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ، ﺇﺫ ﻴﻐﹸﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ ﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬                        §
                                                                 ‫ﻥﺠ‬                        ‫ﻴ‬        ‫ﺠ‬
                               -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬  ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ، ﻓﺈ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬                           §

                                                Let + object + be + P.P
                                                                               
                                      be  


         Active Voice                            Passive Voice
     Open the window.                                                  Let the window be opened.
1.
                                                     ‫ﻨ ﺓ‬
                                                    .‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻓـﺫ ﹶ‬                       ‫ﺔ‬            ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                         .‫ﺍﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻓﺫﺓﹶ ﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤ ﹰ‬
   Keep this medicine away from heat.                 Let this medicine be kept away from heat.
2.
                             ‫ﺍ‬        ‫ﺩ‬
                 .‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬                            ‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﺎ‬             ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                     .‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﺤﻔﻭﻅﹰ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﺩ‬
   Clean the room.                                    Let the room be cleaned.
3.
                                      ‫ِ ﻐ ﺔ‬        ‫ﻅ‬
                                     .‫ﻨ ّﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹸﺭﻓـ ﹶ‬                                        ‫ﺔ‬          ‫ﻐ‬
                                                                                          .‫ﺍﺠﻌل ﺍﻟ ﹸﺭﻓﺔﹶ ﻨﻅﻴﻔ ﹰ‬
     Give me your book.                            .‫ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬        Let your book be given to me.
                                                                                                             ‫ﻴ‬
                                                                                                   .‫ﻌﻁﻰ ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﺩ‬
4.
                                                                       Or: Let me be given your book.
                                                                                                                ‫ﺃ‬
                                                                                                      .‫ﻋﻨﻲ ُﻋﻁﻰ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬‫ﺩ‬




            If you think education is expensive -- try ignorance.

                                                                             
                   .                




9
 

                                   3. Question                                                       
                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                             
                                                                                           ç
                                                                                                                                            




                                                                   
                                         Question  



                   begins with a question word                            begins with a helping verb
                         (Yes, NO question)                                      (Wh- question)
                                                          

                                                                          
                    (Yes, NO question)                                   ç
                              ‫ﺘ‬       ‫ﻤ‬                                    ٍ‫ﻴ‬    ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬       ‫ﻴ ﻭ ﺴ‬
        .(‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ، ﻭﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟‬ ‫ﺔ، ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺅﺍل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠ ٍ ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ .1
                                                                                             ‫ﻴ‬         ‫ﺘ ﻭ ﺠ‬
                                                     .‫( ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ‬Passive ) ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫2. ﹸﺤ‬
                      ‫ﻤ‬                                  ‫ﺔ‬                 ‫ﻴ‬       ‫ﻴ‬          ‫ﺘ ﻊ ﺠ‬
‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـل، ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐ ِ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ، ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫3. ﹸﻭﻀ‬
                                                                               ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬
                                                                              .ِ ‫ﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ‬

                                                  
                                                                             
    (Wh- question)                                ç
                                                                                                    
                                                                                        
    ‫ﺘ‬        ‫ﻤ‬                        ‫ﻨ ﺘ ﻭ‬                 ‫ﻤ‬                           ‫ﺴ‬
‫( ﻤﻊ ﺇﹼﺒـﺎﻉ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫( )ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬By whom) ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋل ( ﻓﺈﹼﻬﺎ ﹸﺤ‬‫ﻥ‬ ) (Who) ‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                          (By whom                        ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                                Who) .‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟ‬
    ‫ﺘ‬                  ‫ﻤ‬              ‫ﻨ ﺘ ﻭ‬                 ‫ﻤ‬                            ‫ﺴ‬
‫ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋـل( ﻤـﻊ ﺇﹼﺒـﺎﻉ‬‫ـﻥ‬ ) (Who) ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻭل( ﻓﺈﹼﻬﺎ ﹸﺤ‬‫ﻥ‬ ) (Whom) ‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                             (Who                       ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                             Whom) .‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟ‬

          Active Voice                             Passive Voice
      Did she help him?                                          1. She helped him.
                                                   ‫ﻪ‬
                                                  ‫؟‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘ‬He was helped by her.
1.                                                               3. Was he helped by her?
                                                                                                  ‫ﺴ ﻋ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﻭ ِﺩ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﻫل‬
      Can anyone answer this question?               1. Anyone can answer this question.
                    ‫ﺴ‬                  ‫ﻱ‬
                ‫ﺅﺍل؟‬ ‫ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃ‬This question can be answered.
2.                                                   3. Can this question be answered?
                                                                                  ‫ﺴ‬           ‫ﻥ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺅﺍل؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎ ِ ﺤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬
      Does she break the plates?                    1. She breaks the plates.
                                        ‫ﺘﺴ‬
                               ‫ﺭ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ؟‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﹸﻜﹶ‬The plates are broken by her.
3.                                                  3. Are the plates broken by her?
                                                                                                ‫ﺘﺴ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺭ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﹸﻜ‬
      Were they playing football?                     1. They were playing football.
                                    ‫ﻜ‬
                           ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ؟‬Football was being played by them.
4.                                                    3. Was football being played them by?
                                                                                                ‫ﻟﻌ ﻜ‬
                                                                              ‫ﻫل ﹸ ِﺒﺕ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ؟‬

 10

     Have they painted the walls?                   1. They have painted the walls.
                                ‫ﺠ‬
                           ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻥ؟‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻫﻨﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ‬The walls have been painted by them.
5.                                                  3. Have the walls been painted by them?
                                                                                       ‫ﺠ‬      ‫ﺩﻫ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ؟‬ ‫ ِﻨﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻗﺩ‬
     Why are you making a fuss?                        1. You are making a fuss.
                                ‫ﺘ ﺜ ﻥ ﺠﻠﺒﺔ‬
                               ‫ ﹰ؟‬ ‫ﹶ‬  ‫ﺩ ﹸﻭ‬‫ .2 ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﹸﺤ‬A fuss is being made by you.
6.                                                     3. Why is a fuss being made by you?
                                                                                          ‫ﺘ ﺩﺙ ﺠ ﺒﺔ‬
                                                                                ‫ ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻜﻡ؟‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﹸﺤ‬
     Will Ali write the lesson?                       1. Ali will write the lesson.
                                 ‫ﺘﺏ ﻲ ﺩ‬
                              ‫ﺭﺱ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﺴﻴﻜ ﹸ‬The lesson will be written by Ali.
7.                                                    3. Will the lesson be written by Ali?
                                                                                    ‫ﻜﺘﻭﺒﺎ‬           ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺭﺱ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤ ً ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﺍﻟ‬
     Where did she hide it?                           1. She hid it.
                                      ‫ﺒ ﻪ‬
                                     ‫؟‬ ‫ـﺄﺘ‬ ‫ .2 ﺃﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺨ‬It was hidden by her.
8.                                                    3. Where was it hidden by her?
                                                                                                    ‫ﺨﺒ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﺊ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻥ ﹸ‬
     Who killed the cat?                               1. The cat was killed.
                                      ‫ﻁ‬
                                    ‫ .2 ﻤﻥ ﻗﹶﺘﹶلَ ﺍﻟﻘِ ﹼﺔ؟‬Was the cat killed?
9.                                                     3. By whom was the cat killed?
                                                                                       ‫ﻘﻁ‬       ‫ﻤ ﻗﺘ‬
                                                                                     ‫ ﹸ ِﻠﺕ ﺍﻟ ِ ﹼﺔ؟‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬
    Who will carry out the project?                    1. The project will be carried out.
                                          ‫ﻴ ﻔﺫ‬
                               ‫ﻨ ﹼ ﹸ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ؟‬ ‫ ﺴ‬‫ .2 ﻤﻥ‬Will the project be carried out?
10.                                                    3. By whom will the project be carried out?
                                                                                         ‫ﻤ ﻴ ﺫ‬
                                                                                ‫ﻨﻔ ﹸ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ؟‬ ‫ ﺴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬
    Whom did you meet?                                 1. I met someone.
                                       َ             ‫ﻤ‬
                                      ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺕ؟‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ .2 ﺒ‬Someone was met by me.
11.                                                    3. Was someone met by me?
                                                       4. Who was met by you?
                                                                                                        ‫ﻤ ﻗ ﺒ‬
                                                                                          ‫ ﹸﻭ ِلَ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻙ؟‬‫ﻥ‬




                      All great discoveries are made by mistake.

                                        
                                       . 

                                                                  




11

                                                                     




                                                Exercise No. 15                 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬


            General Exercises on Active Voice and Passive Voice
                                                       
                     


Change Into Passive Voice:                                                                                                    ‫ﻭ‬
                                                                                                         :‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﺤ‬

1.   Kamel wrote many letters.                                                                                 ٍ     ٍ           ‫ﺏ‬
                                                                                                              .‫ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﹶﺘﹶ‬
2.   They may have to cancel the meeting.                                                               ‫ﻤ‬               ‫ﺭ‬       ‫ﺭﺒ‬
                                                                                                  .‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ ﻷﻥ ﻴﻠﻐﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻴﻀﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬
3.   He was carrying two big bags .                                                                          .‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺤﻤل ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻴﻥ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬
4.   I shall help him.                                                                                                          ‫ﺄ ﺩﻩ‬
                                                                                                                               .  ‫ﺴـُﺴﺎﻋ‬
5.   She ate an apple.                                                                                                    ‫ﺘ ﺔ‬
                                                                                                                         .‫ ﹰ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻜﹶﻠﹶﺕﹾ ﹸﻔﹶﺎﺤ‬
6.   Passing cars have crushed it.                                                                            ‫ﺭ‬           ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                                            .‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺩﻫﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ‬
7.   The man is carrying a heavy box.                                                                         ‫ﺭﺠ ﺼ ﺎ ﻼ‬
                                                                                                             .‫ﻨﺩﻭﻗﹰ ﺜﻘﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ل‬  ‫ﻴﺤﻤل ﺍﻟ‬
8.   Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.                                      ‫ﺎ‬              ‫ﻴ‬       ‫ﻠﻤﻪ‬       ‫ﺹ‬
                                                                                              .‫ﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﻁﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺴﹰ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴ‬  ‫ ﻤﺎ ﻋﹼ‬ ‫ﺸﺨ‬
9.   She was washing clothes.                                                                                       .‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺒﺱ‬
10. You can keep these papers.                                                          .‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ )ﺘﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ( ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
11. They could not open the door.                                                                          .‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻌﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻔﺘﺤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
12. She has written twenty letters to her friends.                                                             ‫ﺔ‬              ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                                                     .‫ﺕﹾ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﹶﺘﹶ‬
13. He is looking for his bag.                                                                                       ‫ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                                    .ِ ِ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﺒ‬
    He gave them many useful lessons.                                                                         ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻫ ﺩ ﺎ‬
                                                                                                             .‫ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ ﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﺎ‬
14. a) Begin with: They……..
      b) Begin with: Many useful lessons…….
    I showed him my new book.                                                                                                       ‫ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                                      .‫ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻴ ﹸ‬
15. a) Begin with: He………
      b) Begin with: My new book…….
    He offered us a big house in Gaza.                                                                       ‫ﺯ‬      ‫ﺎ‬    ‫ﻻ‬          ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                           .‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻤﻨﺯ ﹰ ﻀﺨﻤﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻏ‬ ‫ﻗ‬
16. a) Begin with: We…….
      b) Begin with: A big house in Gaza………..
17. People say that there is no water on the moon.                                            ‫ﺭ‬                     ‫ﻨﻪ‬             ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                             .ِ ‫ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﹼ‬
18. I am having a car.                                                                                                     ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻙ‬
                                                                                                                          .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺍﻤﺘﻠ‬
19. Don't open the door.                                                                                                               ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                                                            .‫ﻻ ﹸﻐﻠﻕﹶ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
20. Give this book to Emad.                                                                                               ‫ﺏ‬           ‫ﻁ‬
                                                                                                                   .‫ ﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻋ ِ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎ‬
21. I don't want any buildings here.                                                                                    ‫ﻥﻫ‬         ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                                     .‫ﻨﺎ‬ ٍ ‫ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﺭﻴ‬
22. You must leave everything as it is.                                                                        ‫ﺀ‬
                                                                                                       .‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﻜل ﺸﻲ ٍ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬
23. They have not cleaned the room.                                                                                         ‫ﺤ‬       ‫ﻴﻅ‬
                                                                                                                        .‫ﺠﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨ ِﻔﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬


12

24. I have looked up this word.                                                            ‫ﺱ‬                              ‫ﺕ‬
                                                                                          .ِ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺸﻔ ﹸ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻤﻭ‬
25. People say that she is innocent.                                                                              ‫ﺔ‬        ‫ﻨ‬      ‫ﻨﺱ ﻘ‬
                                                                                                                 .‫ ﻴ ﹸﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺇﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﺭﻴﺌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﺎ‬
26. People said that she is innocent.                                                                                 ‫ﺔ‬        ‫ﻨﺱ ﻨ‬
                                                                                                                     .‫ ﺇﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﺭﻴﺌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﹼﺎ‬
27. Bring all necessary things.                                                                             ‫ﻀ ﻴ‬                  ‫ﻀ‬
                                                                                                          .‫ﺔ‬‫ﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ ِﺭ ﻜلَ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺃﺤ‬
28. Where have you left my car?                                                                                        ‫ﺃﻴﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﺕﹶ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻲ؟‬
29. Do people speak English all over the world?                                                               ‫ﻴ‬            ‫ﻨﺱ ﻟ‬
                                                                                         ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﺘﻜﻠﻡ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎ‬

30. Will they allow us five minutes break?                                                       ‫ﺔ‬             ‫ﺔ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻫل ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺤﻭﻥ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﺨﻤﺴ ِ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺤ ِ؟‬
31. Did you buy any spare parts?                                                                             ‫ﺭ‬             ‫ﻱ‬
                                                                                                            ‫ ﻗﻁﻊ ٍ ﻟﻠﻐﻴﺎ ِ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻴﺕﹶ ﺃ‬
32. Who asked both boys to leave?                                                                                        ‫ﻭ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﻟﹶﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻴﻐﺎﺩﺭﺍ؟‬ ‫ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
33. Who showed him the way?                                                                              ‫ﻁ ﻕ ﻁ ﺔ‬                 ‫ﻩ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴ ِ )ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻘ ِ(؟‬ ‫ ﺃﺭﺸﺩ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
34. Who has cooked the food?                                                                                         ‫ﺒﹶ ﻁ‬
                                                                                                                 ‫ﺦ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎﻡ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻁﹶ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
35. Who told this story?                                                                                               ‫ﺼ‬
                                                                                                                     ‫ﺔ؟‬ ‫ ﺃﺨﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
36. When did they find the ring?                                                                                        ‫ﻤﺘﻰ ﻭﺠﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺘﻡ؟‬
37. Is Ali writing the letter now?                                                                                    ‫ﻲ ﺭ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﻠ‬
38. Has anybody answered your question?                                                                                   ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                                ‫ ﻤﺎ ﺴﺅﺍﻟﻙ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﺠﺎﺏ ﺃﺤ‬
39. Do they gain much money?                                                                                       ‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﻻ‬      ‫ﺤ‬
                                                                                                                  ‫ﻭﻥ ﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﺭﺒ‬
40. Why did not they tell me the truth?                                                                         ‫ﺔ‬            ‫ﺭ‬
                                                                                                               ‫ﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘ ِ؟‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺨﺒ‬




                      For a "TRUE" problem, there is no solution.

                                                         
                                               .   




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