ayurveda ppt by pjwns

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									„Ayur‟„veda‟ – „Life‟„Science‟
Udai SJC – 3rd March Happy Holi Nikhil Rasiwasia

Ayurveda - Origins
 Accurate dating is uncertain
 More objectively identifiable after the advent of Buddhism (c. 500 BC)  Invasion of Darius, Alexander brought exchange

 Significant medical content can be found in Rig-Veda (presumed origin c. 1500 BC)  Early writings on perishable bhojpatra

Vedas
   It is the bedrock upon which Ayurveda rests Considered to be composed around 1500-2000 BC Four veda
    Rig-veda : lots of stuff Sam-veda : Soma sacrifice Yajur-veda : entire sacrificial rite Athar-veda : non-relegious (1200 BC), lots of medical text (fever, diarrhes, heart disease, jaundice, cough, leprosy) Brahmanas Aranyakas (“the forest books", meaning treatises for sadhus living in the wilderness.) Upnishads (self development spiritual text, philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God )

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Authoritative supplements
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End of Vedic Period (500 BC)
 Subsequent text deriving from primary vedic samhitas
 Laid more emphasis on the dharma of selfdevelopment with explicit spiritual and philosophical content

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Vedanta – derived from Upnishads Ramayana Mahabharat, Bhagavad Gita Puranas – AD 320 to 520 - "tales of ancient times"

Ayurveda and Buddhism
 Buddhism  attempt to purify, restructure and reform older vedic traditions.  Comfortable adopting Ayurveda  Jivaka, - Taxila‟s outstanding Ayurvedic physician, buddha‟s personal physicin  Ashoka (convert to buddhism established many charitable hospitals)  Spread of Buddhism == spread of Ayurveda  Nagarjuna – AD 100, brought about significant advances in Ayurveda – father of iatrochemistry – preparation of medicinal mineral substances

Westerm Medicine and Aurveda
 Hippocrates : Father of western medicine
 Humoral theory – blood, phelgm, yellow bile, black bile  Dietary therapy, influence of seasons on health

 Aristotle
 Relied heavily on empirical observation and naturalistic classification  Four prime qualities: hot, cold, wet, dry  Four fundamental essence: air, water, fire, earth

Chinese medicine and ayurveda
 Oldest extant chinese medical text – Huang-di Nei-jing or Inner classic of the Yellow Emperor (300 BC)  Similarities – because of exchange of ideas via Buddhism and trade.

Ayurveda and Arab Medicine (Unani Tibb)
 Arab medicine by Avicenna (AD 980)
 Produced Canon of Medicine, a compendium of the previous works of Hippocrates and Galen

 Mostly based on Greek medicine (Unani)  Reports of exchange of ideas – Ayurvedic physicians were invited to baghdad to teach and organize hospitals

Earliest Texts
 760 BC: Charaka Samhita – herbal or plant based pharmacopoeia  660 BC: Sushruta Samhita – Surgival approaches  7th Century : Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata of Sindh – summary of previous two  AD 100: Nagarjuna – iatrochemistry  1331: Madhava Nidana by Madhava of Kishkindha – Ayurvedic Diagnosis  14th Century - Sarangadhara Samhita – Pulse Diagnosis

Ayurveda in 19th Century
 Ayurveda flourished till 12th century, till the Muslim invasion  Not much progress from 12th to 17th century  British invasion : 1833 virtually all ayurveda schools closed, opening of British medical schools  1920: a national revival and resurgence of interest in traditional Indian culture and practices  1946: Formal govt. recognition and reacceptance of Ayurveda and resurgence of research.  Currently, however it holds a secondary place in medicine in India  Indian govt. officially recognizes as legitimate: Allopathy, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Unani Tibb, Ayurveda, and its cousins Siddha and Yoga.

Ayurveda vs Western Science
 Philosophy
  W: treats discrete disease entities A : treats subtle dysphoria, whose disruptive trends may later develop into discrete disease. W: scientific objectivity and verifiability (accumulating statistically significant data) – “experience-distant” A : pratyaksha (perceptive understanding of each individual) – “experience-near” W: Linear logic, categorical and uses a classification system of disease. A : Maintenance of optimal health by daily proactive care, continually modified according to seasonal changes A : Individual has the innate capacity for potential selfcorrection and primary self healing

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Diagnostic
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Treatment
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Belief
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Why Ayurveda?
 Health maintenance rather than disease treatment  System of diet and lifestyle  enhance the quality of life by dealing with subtle trends that might lead to actual disease  Compatible with those whose beliefs include naturalistic, spiritual and consciousness-oriented approaches  Often require intentional and sustained self-discipline, perseverance and active personal role.

Ashtanga Ayurveda
 Kayachikitsa
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Shalyatantra

Internal Medicine Surgery

Shalakya Tantra

Kaumarabhiritya

Otolaryngology(ENT), Ophthalmology Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pediatrics Toxicology Psychiatry Antiaging and rejuvenation Reproductive and aphrodisiac medicine

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Agadatantra
Bhutavidya Rasayana

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Vajikarana

Theoretical Foundations
 Darshanas – ideological systems
 Astika
      Sankhya – nontheistic creation sequence - by Kapila Yoga – Gradual liberation of human spirit to attain Samadhi – by Patanjali Nyaya Darshana – monotheistic system, logical approach of apprehending the world using reason Vaisheshika - postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms by Kanada Purva Mimamsa (inquiry) – emphsis on discipline, ritual and service Uttara Mimamsa or Advita Vedanta – spiritually oriented, emphasizes the spiritual base of reality, human misperception by Shankara (AD 780) Buddhism Jainism Lokayata

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Nastika
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Epistemology
   Knowledge Process From Nyaya Dharshana philosophy Four cognitive faculties
        Manas – mind as it experiences sensations Chitta – transmitter from manas to higher cognitive functions Ahamkara – self-identity that provides the individual with the experience of relative constancy. Buddhi – most refined, discerning ability, intellect, wisdom Pratyaksha – direct sensory perception Anumana – inference Sabda – authoritative statement Upmana - Analogy

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Four techniques of knowing

World View
 Essentially unitary and dynamic, integrated coherence with actively interdependent aspects  Dynamic aspect is fueled by constant interaction amongst three doshas –  Vata : movement  Pitta : transformation  Kapha : consolidation
 the fundamental regulatory principles of the body‟s physiological functioning

 Interplay between them modulates the interaction of the Gurvadi Gunas (10 pairs of opposite qualities)  Characterize all perceptible substances

Gurvadi Gunas
          Shita/ushna Snigdha/ruksha Guru/laghu Sthula/sukshma Sandra/drava Sthira/chala Manda/tikshna Mridu/kathina Slaksha/khara Picchila/sishada

English please.
          Shita/ushna Snigdha/ruksha Guru/laghu Sthula/sukshma Sandra/drava Sthira/chala Manda/tikshna Mridu/kathina Slaksha/khara Picchila/sishada cold/hot wet,oily/dry heavy/light gross/subtle dense/liquid stable/mobile dull/sharp soft/hard smooth/rough sticky/clear

Vedic Standards
 Four basic life goals (purushartha)
 Dharma – individual's abidance with the inherent lawfulness in universe – purpose, duty, justice  Artha – possessions  Kama – Pleasure  Moksha – liberation

Sankhya Model of Creation
 Avayakta
 pure existence in its unmanifest state  Absolutely transcendental, indescribable  Essence  Satyam – essential truth  Ritam – deep structure, self-correcting  Brihat – vast breath of its being  Two components  Purusha – primal immaterial matrix out of which all else emerge, pristine consciousness  Prakriti – when „purusha‟ spontaneously moves, then at that moment the first material energy, prakriti, comes into being.

Maha Gunas
 Three axiomatic attributes that are inherent to maha gunas (subtle)
 Sattva – pure, clear, harmony  Rajas – dynamic movement, agitation  Tamas – interita, dullness
 Highly rarefied potentials that impart direction and create a unique character.

Ahamkara
 Next step in the developmental process of prakriti  A giant leap which eventually becomes most characteristically individualized in human experience  Experience of personal sense of self.  Next all steps are material

Pancha Mahabhuti
     Ether/Space Air Fire Water Earth

Birth of Doshas - Vata

Pitta

Kapha


								
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