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BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL IN MEDICAL PRACTICE_1_

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					BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL
  IN MEDICAL PRACTICE




     Dr. YASER ALHUTHAIL
  Associate Professor & Consultant
  Consultation Liaison Psychiatry
  Biomedical Model:
  The application of biological science to maintain health
and treating disease.

  Engel (1977) proposed a major change in our
fundamental model of health care.
  The new model continues the emphasis on biological
knowledge, but also encompasses the utilization of
psychosocial knowledge.

               “Biopsychosocial Model”
Implications:
 Unity of mind and body:
Psychosocial factors must be taken into account
when considering all disease states

Emphasis on examining and treating the whole
patient, not just his or her disease or disorder.
Most illness, whether physical or psychological, is
 influenced and determined by biological,
 psychological, and social factors

Biological, psychological, and social variables
  influence the predisposition, onset, course, and
  outcome of the illness

Physicians who are able to evaluate the relationship of
 these variables to their patients illnesses will be able
 to develop more effective therapeutic interventions
 and to achieve better outcomes
  Psychological and Beha vioral
    Predisposition to Physical
             Illness


Life style, smoking, alcohol, substance abuse, eating
  habits, lack of exercise etc account for about 70% Of
  all cases of illness and death in the states

Obesity

Personality factors: Type A !!
            Onset of illness


The role of stress

Stress can be described as a circumstance that disturbs,
  or is likely to disturb, the normal physiological or
  psychological functioning of a person.

The adaptive capacity of the person
           THE STRESS MODEL

A psychosomatic framework.
Two major facets of stress response.
“Fight or Flight” response is mediated by
hypothalamus, the sympathetic nervous system, and
the adrenal medulla.
If chronic, this response can have serious health
consequences.
The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex
mediate the second facet.
  Neurotransmitter Responses to
             Stress
   Stressors activate noradrenergic systems in the
brain and cause release of catecholamines from
the autonomic nervous system.

   Stressors also activate serotonergic systems in
the brain, as evidenced by increased serotonin
turnover.

   Stress also increases dopaminergic
neurotransmission in mesoprefrontal pathways.
    Endocrine Responses to Stress
CRF is secreted from the hypothalamus.
CRF acts at the anterior pituitary to trigger release of
ACTH.
ACTH acts at the adrenal cortex to stimulate the
synthesis and release of glucocorticoids.
Promote energy use, increase cardiovascular activity,
and inhibit functions such as growth, reproduction,
and immunity.
           Immune Response to Stress

Inhibition of immune functioning by glucocorticoids.

Stress can also cause immune activation through a
variety of pathways including the release of humoral
immune factors (cytokines) such as interleukin-1 (IL-
1) and IL-6.

These cytokines can themselves cause further release of
CRF, which in theory serves to increase glucocorticoid
effects and thereby self-limit the immune activation.
  High level of Cortisol results in suppression of
immunity which can cause susceptibility to
infections and possibly also in many types of
cancer.

  Changes in the immune system in response to stress
are now very well established.
     Course and Outcome of
            Illness

Direct vs. Indirect effect

Stressful life events
Social support
Their combination: 4 times increased mortality post
  MI

Mental disorders: course, mortality, health care
 utilization, LOS, ER visits, etc
             Psychosocial
            Interventions

Numerous studies indicate that psychosocial
 interventions positively affect health outcomes




Supportive, educational, or psychotherapeutic
  interventions
Psychobiological
   Mechanisms

   Too many HOWs ?!!

       Theories !!..

  Exact mechanisms!!..

  Further research……...
                SUMMARY


Multidimensional Approach

Psychosocial influences are well established

Multifaceted impact

Proper communication

Education and support

				
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posted:12/5/2012
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