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Description The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, (e.g. "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model“) have very specific meanings and functions within science. Benchmark Number & Descriptor SC.7.N.3.1 Recognize and explain the difference between theories and laws, and give several examples of scientific theories and the evidence that supports them. SC.7.N.3.2 Identify the benefits and limitations of the use of scientific models. SCIENTIFIC THEORY A scientific Theories may be explanation to a supported by pattern in the scientific evidence natural world at the time but may Many observations be incorrect. and much evidence Evidence may is needed in order change with time; to create a valid better technology theory. Example: Geocentric (earth Scientific in middle of solar investigation is a system) to key part when Heliocentric creating theories. model (sun in middle of solar system) EXAMPLES of SCIENTIFIC THEORIES Big Bang Theory Theory of Matter The universe has and Energy expanded from hot, Matter and Energy dense, gaseous are always conditions. conserved. Tectonic Plate Cell Theory Theory Cells form the The surface of the foundation, the earth is composed basic unit of all of tectonic plates, living organisms. which move slowly. Theory of Atomic Theory Evolution All matter is made All life on earth up of atoms. evolved from simple forms. SCIENTIFIC LAW This is a statement of fact meant to describe, in concise terms, an action or set of actions. It is generally accepted to be true and universal, and can sometimes be expressed in terms of a single mathematical equation. Scientific laws are similar to mathematical postulates. They don’t really need any complex external proofs; they are accepted at face value based upon the fact that they have always been observed to be true. Specifically, scientific laws must be simple, true, universal, and absolute. They represent the cornerstone of scientific discovery, because if a law ever did not apply, then all science based upon that law would collapse. Some scientific laws, or laws of nature, include the law of gravity, Newton's laws of motion, the laws of thermodynamics, Boyle's law of gases, the law of conservation of mass and energy, and Hook’s law of elasticity. http://wilstar.net/theories.htm EXAMPLES of SCIENTIFIC LAWS Ohm’s Law Law of Segregation I = V/R For any pair of Relationship characteristics there between current, is only one gene in a voltage, and gamete even resistance though there are Named after Georg two genes in Ohm ordinary cells. Founder – Gregor Newton’s Law s Mendel Objects at rest/motion stay at rest/motion until a Ideal Gas Law force acts on it. Combination of Objects will Charles's and accelerate in the Boyle’s gas laws. direction of the Formula: pV = nRT force (F = M*A). Relates pressure, Action-Reaction temperature, and forces (equal and volume of gasses opposite) For additional laws see this website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_scie ntific_laws_named_after_people KNOWLEDGE CHECK 1. What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law? 2. Can a scientific theory change over time? Why? 3. List 2 examples of scientific theory and scientific law. KNOWLEDGE CHECK 1. What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law? Laws are generalizations about what has happened; Theories are explanations of observations (or of laws). 2. Can a scientific theory change over time? Why? Yes, as technology progresses, new evidence can be discovered helping to justify or falsify a theory. 3. List 2 examples of scientific theory and scientific law. Theory: Atomic theory, Big Bang theory; Law: Newton’s Laws, Law of Segregation MODELS Models are a visual representation that help scientists study something in more depth. There are 2 general types of models: Physical Models that you can touch Representation of an item they want to study Mathematical • Made up of math equations and data • They allow you to calculate things. MODELS BENEFITS LIMITATIONS Models can be used Scientists must realize the for the following: limitations of Study objects models, especially when reading the that are too information small to see obtained by them. Study objects Because we may not see an actual picture, that are too large models are thoughts to see and ideas from our heads. Help explain the Some calculations past and the are very complex, present and computers are needed to find the Help predict the answer. future KNOWLEDGE CHECK 1. Why do scientists use models? 2. Describe the two main types of scientific models. 3. List 2 benefits of using models. 4. List 2 limitations when using models. KNOWLEDGE CHECK 1. Why do scientists use models? To help create a visual representation when studying something in more depth. 2. Describe the two main types of scientific models. Physical – Hands on model; Mathematical – equation providing data 1. List 2 benefits of using models. To help explain the past and the present, study objects that are too small/large to see 3. List 2 limitations when using models. Some physical models are subjective since they are based on theories/observations; since some theories need computers to solve them, scientists must be able to read and interpret the data.
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