The terms that describe examples of
scientific knowledge, (e.g. "theory,"
"law," "hypothesis," and "model“)
have very specific meanings and
functions within science.
Recognize and explain the difference
between theories and laws, and give
several examples of scientific theories
and the evidence that supports them.
Identify the benefits and limitations of
the use of scientific models.
A scientific Theories may be
explanation to a supported by
pattern in the scientific evidence
natural world at the time but may
Many observations be incorrect.
and much evidence Evidence may
is needed in order change with time;
to create a valid better technology
in middle of solar
investigation is a system) to
key part when Heliocentric
creating theories. model (sun in
middle of solar
Big Bang Theory Theory of Matter
The universe has and Energy
expanded from hot, Matter and Energy
dense, gaseous are always
Tectonic Plate Cell Theory
Theory Cells form the
The surface of the foundation, the
earth is composed basic unit of all
of tectonic plates, living organisms.
which move slowly. Theory of
Atomic Theory Evolution
All matter is made All life on earth
up of atoms. evolved from simple
This is a statement of fact meant to describe, in
concise terms, an action or set of actions. It is
generally accepted to be true and universal, and
can sometimes be expressed in terms of a single
mathematical equation. Scientific laws are
similar to mathematical postulates. They don’t
really need any complex external proofs; they
are accepted at face value based upon the fact
that they have always been observed to be true.
Specifically, scientific laws must be simple,
true, universal, and absolute. They represent
the cornerstone of scientific discovery, because
if a law ever did not apply, then all science
based upon that law would collapse.
Some scientific laws, or laws of nature, include
the law of gravity, Newton's laws of motion, the
laws of thermodynamics, Boyle's law of gases,
the law of conservation of mass and energy, and
Hook’s law of elasticity.
EXAMPLES of SCIENTIFIC
Ohm’s Law Law of Segregation
I = V/R For any pair of
Relationship characteristics there
between current, is only one gene in a
voltage, and gamete even
resistance though there are
Named after Georg
two genes in
Ohm ordinary cells.
Founder – Gregor
Newton’s Law s Mendel
rest/motion stay at
rest/motion until a Ideal Gas Law
force acts on it. Combination of
Objects will Charles's and
accelerate in the Boyle’s gas laws.
direction of the Formula: pV = nRT
force (F = M*A). Relates pressure,
Action-Reaction temperature, and
forces (equal and volume of gasses
For additional laws see this website:
1. What is the difference between
a scientific theory and a
2. Can a scientific theory change
over time? Why?
3. List 2 examples of scientific
theory and scientific law.
1. What is the difference between a
scientific theory and a scientific law?
Laws are generalizations about what
has happened; Theories are
explanations of observations (or of
2. Can a scientific theory change over
time? Why? Yes, as technology
progresses, new evidence can be
discovered helping to justify or
falsify a theory.
3. List 2 examples of scientific theory
and scientific law. Theory: Atomic
theory, Big Bang theory; Law:
Newton’s Laws, Law of Segregation
Models are a visual representation
that help scientists study something
in more depth.
There are 2 general types of models:
Models that you can touch
Representation of an item they want
• Made up of math equations and data
• They allow you to calculate things.
Models can be used Scientists must
for the following: limitations of
Study objects models, especially
when reading the
that are too information
small to see obtained by them.
Study objects Because we may not
see an actual picture,
that are too large models are thoughts
to see and ideas from our
Help explain the Some calculations
past and the are very complex,
present and computers are
needed to find the
Help predict the answer.
1. Why do scientists use models?
2. Describe the two main types of
3. List 2 benefits of using models.
4. List 2 limitations when using
1. Why do scientists use models? To help create
a visual representation when studying
something in more depth.
2. Describe the two main types of scientific
models. Physical – Hands on model;
Mathematical – equation providing data
1. List 2 benefits of using models. To help
explain the past and the present, study
objects that are too small/large to see
3. List 2 limitations when using models. Some
physical models are subjective since they are
based on theories/observations; since some
theories need computers to solve them,
scientists must be able to read and interpret