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Big Idea 18 _ Matter and Energy Transformations


									Big Idea 18: Matter and Energy

                A. Living things all share basic needs for life.
B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through
   various metabolic pathways (photosynthesis and cellular respiration).
C. Matter and energy are recycled through cycles such as the carbon cycle.
            Benchmark Number &
   SC.8.L.18.1
   Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the
    roles of light, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll; production of food;
    release of oxygen.
   SC.8.L.18.2
   Describe and investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to
    provide energy and releases carbon dioxide.
   SC.8.L.18.3
   Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and
    energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and
    their physical environment.
   SC.8.L.18.4
   Cite evidence that living systems follow the Laws of Conservation of
    Mass and Energy.
Your Energy is My Energy
             Cycling of Energy

   Energy enters the ecosystem from the sun and
    exits after the organisms have taken as much as
    they need.
   Organisms release energy back into the biosphere
    as heat.
   This energy cycles round and round in order for the
    Earth to survive!
                   The Carbon Cycle
   Carbon is the basis of life on Earth.

   99.9% of all organisms on the planet need carbon to survive.

   Carbon is continuously cycled and reused.

   Carbon can be found on Earth in the following locations:

     •   in living and dead organisms found in the biosphere

     •   carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

     •   organic matter in soils

     •   sedimentary rock deposits such as limestone, dolomite, and chalk in
         the oceans as dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide and as calcium
         carbonate shells in marine organisms
        The Carbon Cycle
Photosynthesis and respiration are the key processes in the carbon
Carbon Cycle Breakdown
   Photosynthesis
   Process by which plants and other
    autotrophs store the energy of sunlight
    into sugars
   Requires sunlight, water, and carbon
   Occurs in the leaves of plants in
    organelles called chloroplasts.
   The plant’s leaves use the light to make a
    sugar called glucose.
   Chemical formula
        6 CO2 + 6 H2O + E  C6H12O6 + 6 O2
        Reactants = carbon dioxide, water, energy
        Products = glucose (sugar), oxygen
        During the process of photosynthesis,
         oxygen is produced (We use this oxygen
         to breathe).
   A closer look
Carbon Cycle Breakdown
   Respiration
   Process by which organisms
    utilize the products from the
    process of photosynthesis
   Requires glucose and oxygen
   Occurs when consumers eat
    producers to use the glucose for
    energy and utilize the oxygen
   Chemical formula
      C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 +
         6H2O + energy
      Reactants = glucose, oxygen
      Products = carbon dioxide,
         water, energy
Respiration – A Closer Look
   Respiration is the process
    by which the energy in the
    bonds of nutrients are used
    to synthesize ATP.
   Respiration occurs
    continuously in all cells of
    all organisms.
   Two main types
       Anaerobic – no oxygen
       Aerobic – requiring        Here food is broken down
        oxygen                       completely into CO2.
   Other Ways CO2 Enters the
 Decomposers    are
  also a key partner
  in the carbon
 Decomposers
  break down
  organic material
  such as dead
  animals or leaves.
                                Plants use Carbon Dioxide
CARBON                         and release Oxygen into the
•A closer look of how                                 Animals eat plants, gain
Carbon is transported                              energy (glucose), use oxygen,
through Earth’s                                     and release Carbon dioxide.
•Carbon Cycle follows
Law of Conservation of               Organisms die and
                               decompose, sending nutrients
Mass/Energy                     to soil; plants grow from soil,
     •There  is a set number       animals eat plants, etc.
     of Carbon (C) atoms in
     Earth’s atmosphere.
     •This element is
     recycled through the
     planet's resources.
Knowledge Check
 What are some of the contributors to
  atmospheric CO2?
 How is some of the CO2 removed from the
 What is the relationship between producers
  and consumers?
Knowledge Check
   What are some of the contributors to atmospheric CO2?
      Animal respiration and factories
   How is some of the CO2 removed from the atmosphere?
      Through the process of photosynthesis
   What is the relationship between producers and
      The products that producers create are used for the
       survival of consumers, visa-versa.

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