Introduction_to_the_History_of_Buddhist_Thought

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					          Introduction to the History of Buddhist Thought

                               The Buddha (1)
• A. Who and what was the Buddha?
    – A divinity?
    – A philosopher?
    – An ascetic?
• B. The word buddha is not a name but a title. (Gethin, p. 8)
    – It means “one who has woken up,” hence, “the awakened one/the
      enlightened one.”
    – Other titles of the Buddha include a Blessed one (Bhagavan), an Arhat, one
      who understands the world, the teacher of both gods and men, etc.

                               The Buddha (2)
• C. Siddhartha Gautama died at the age of eighty.
    – Shakyamuni means “the sage of the Shakya people.”
• D. What is the nature of a buddha? (Gethin, pp. 27-34)
    – A Buddha is a being who has in some way transcended and gone beyond
      the round of rebirth.
    – A Buddha is a being sui generis.
    – A Buddha is one whose body is Dharma.


                           The Buddha (3)
• E. If the Buddha is not God or a god, can we count Buddhism as a
  religion? (Siderits, pp. 5-8)
    – If we expect all religions to be theistic, then Buddhism might not qualify as a
      religion.
    – Since the Buddha acknowledged the existence of a multiplicity of gods,
      should we think of Buddhism as polytheistic?
    – Buddhism is a religion if by this we mean that it is a set of teachings that
      address soteriological concerns.

                               The Dharma (1)
• Buddhism cannot be reduced to a collection of theoretical writings
  nor a philosophical system of thought. (Gethin, p. 35)
• It should be noted that the Buddha explicitly refuses to engage in
  philosophical speculations.
• The Buddha declined to answer such questions as “whether the
  world is everlasting or not,” “whether the world is finite or infinite,”
  “whether the living being is identical with the body or separate from
  it,” “whether the Blessed One lives on after death or not,” etc.
• Buddhism is more a soteriology than a philosophy.
•   It is concerned with bringing about for its practitioners liberation,
    freedom, from states and experiences held to be negative,
    unpleasant, not wanted. (Williams, p. 2, pp. 34-37)

                               The Dharma (2)
• What lies at the heart of Buddhism is dharma.
• According to Indian thought, Dharma is that which is the basis of
  things, the underlying nature of things, the way things are; in short,
  it is the truth about things, the truth about the world.
• Dharma is the way we should act.
• The various schools of Indian religious and philosophical thought
  and practice all offer slightly different visions of Dharma—different
  visions of the way things are and the way to act.

                               The Dharma (3)
• The aim of the Buddha’s teachings is to put into practice a particular
  way of living the “holy life” or “spiritual life” that involves training in
  ethical conduct (sila), meditative and contemplative techniques
  (samadhi), and the direct realization of the very knowledge (prajna).
  (Gethin, p. 36)
• A sense that knowledge is not properly communicated by the
  written word colors the traditional Indian attitude to learning in
  general: knowledge must be passed from teacher to pupil directly.
  (Gethin, p. 37)

                               The Dharma (4)
• Where do the Buddhist canons come from?
    – Immediately after the Buddha’s death, his teachings are said to have been
      recited.
    – They were then assembled into some sort of corpus appropriate for
      memorization and oral transmission.
    – They were not written down for some centuries. (Williams, p. 30)
    – According to the Buddhist tradition, the first “communal recitation” took place
      some three months after the Buddha’s death at the town of Rajagrha in
      northern India where 500 arhats took part in this Buddhist council. (Gethin, p.
      40)

                               The Dharma (5)
    – In this meeting, the Buddha’s teachings were divided into two classes: the
      general discourses of the Buddha (the sutras) and his prescriptions for the
      lifestyle of the Buddhist monk (the vinaya).
    – Later canonical collections of Buddhist writings were often referred to as “the
    three baskets” (tripitaka): the basket of discipline, the basket of discourses,
    and the basket of “further dharma” (abhidharma).
  – Over the years, different schools of Buddhist transmission and sometimes
    understanding developed a number of different versions of the canonical
    corpus.

                                  The Dharma (6)
  – Thus, we have the Theravada (Pali) Canon, the Mahasamghika Canon, the
    Sarvastivada Canon, and so on.
  – The only complete canon of an early Buddhist school surviving in its original
    Indian language is the Pali Canon.
  – Three principle “canons” of Buddhist scriptures survive today corresponding
    to the three main traditions of Buddhism:
     • 1. the Pali or Theravada canon of the southern tradition of Sri Lanka and Southeast
       Asia,
     • 2. the Chinese Tripitaka of the eastern tradition of China, Korea, and Japan, and
     • 3. the Tibetan Kanjur and Tenjur of the northern tradition of Tibet and Mongolia.


                                  The Dharma (7)
  – The Sutra Pitaka is divided into four sections: Nikayas (collections) or
    Agamas (books of textual tradition).
  – There are differences among scholars on how far we can use these sources
    to know exactly what the Buddha himself taught. (Williams, pp. 32-33)
     • The first position stresses the Pali Nikayic materials to be the canonical texts containing
       the authentic doctrine of the Buddha himself.
     • Scholars of the second group express extreme scepticism about retrieving the doctrines
       of earliest Buddhism, especially of the Buddha himself.
     • The third group maintains that it is possible to tetect in the texts that now exist earlier
       and later segments and thus sometimes earlier and later doctrines.


                                  The Dharma (8)
  – In the centuries following the Buddha’s death, various schools of Indian
    Buddhism began to evolve, preserving their distinctive recensions of the
    Sutra and Vinaya Pitakas, and developing their characteristic
    understandings of Abhidharma.
  – Against this background, the Mahayana sutras began to appear.
  – The production of Mahayana sutras spans a period of some six or seven
    centuries.
  – Nagarjuna, Asanga and Vasubandhu are the three most famous writers of
    treatises and commentaries on the Mahayana sutras.

                                  The Dharma (9)
• Siderits divides the development of Buddhist philosophy into the
  following three phases:
  – 1. Early Buddhism: the teachings of the Buddha and his immediate
    disciples;
    – 2. Abhidharma: the development of rigorous metaphysical and
      epistemological theories by various school, the most famous of which are
      Sarvastivada (Vaibhasika), Sautrantika, and Theravada;
    – 3. Mahayana: philosophical criticism of aspects of Abhidharma doctrines,
      together with an alternative account of Buddhist metaphysics and
      epistemology. The major schools are the Madhyamaka and the Yogacara
      schools.

                              The Sangha (1)
• In the early phase of their transmission, the only access to Buddhist
  “texts” was by hearing them directly from someone who had heard
  and learnt them from someone else.
• This oral transmission of the texts was an activity that went on
  primarily within the Sangha, the community of ordained monks
  (bhiksu) and nuns (bhiksuni).
• Members of the Sangha taught not only other members of the
  Sangha but also lay people as well.
• The study of Buddhist theory always took place in a context of
  practice.

                              The Sangha (2)
• The Sangha did not remain united for long and soon fell apart into a
    number of schools.
•   About one hundred years after the death of the Buddha, a dispute
    among the Sangha arose concerning ten points of Vinaya. (Gethin,
    pp. 51-54)
•   A group of senior monks convened at Vaisali, decided against the
    ten points, and initiated a second communal recitation of the
    scriptures.
•   After this meeting, the Sangha formally divided into two schools: the
    reformist sthaviras (“elders”) and the majority mahasamghikas
    (“those of the great community”).
•   In the century or so following this fundamental division of the
    Sangha, further schools emerged.

                              The Sangha (3)
• The primary sub-schools of the Sthaviras focus on certain technical
  points of Abhidharma.
• The Vatsiputriyas and their sub-schools adopted a particular
  position on the ontological status of “the person” (pudgala).
• Another group developed a particular understanding of the way
  things exist in past, present, and future time; they were known as
  “advocates of the doctrine that all thins exist” (sarvastivadin).
• Another group were known as “advocates of the doctrine of
  analysis” (vibhajyavadin).
• Indian Buddhist tradition generally speaks of “eighteen” such
  schools, but more than thirty are known to us, at least by name.

                                 The Sangha (4)
• After the emergence of the Mahayana, the practitioners of
    Buddhism are often referred to as followers of the Bodhisattva path,
    leading to the attainment of the samyak-sambuddha, and followers
    of the sravaka (“disciple”) path, leading to the attainment of
    arhatship.

                           Some Technical Terms
•   Sramana: 1. one who strives (Gethin, p. 9); 2. the renouncer of society, the
    “drop-out” (Williams, p. 9); 3. a wandering renunciant, one whose life is
    dedicated to finding answers to certain spiritual questions (Siderits, p. 15); 4.
    the ascetic (Kalupahana, p. 12).
•   Yathabhutam: as it is.
•   Bhiksu: one who begs his alms.
•   Dhyana: meditation.
•   Samadhi: concentration.
•   Bodhi: awakening, enlightenment.
•   Samsara: wandering, the round of rebirth.
•   Varna: the caste system.
•   Brahmanas: brahmins, priests.
•   Ksatriyas: rulers, warriors.
•   Vaisyas: generators of wealth.
•   Sudras: servants.

				
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