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                         BASICS OF PLANETOLOGY

   Part two
                                                        Holodenko A.
                                                        18.01.2005

        Planetology is the science studying the development of planets.

              The formation of planets and their satellites.
           Construction of the planetary system of a single star

    In order to understand how and from what planets and their satellites are
formed, it is necessary to examine in more detail the components of plasma
bubble, the stages of the start of a young nucleus and its exit into outer space. As
to now, we will examine the surface starting of a single young nucleus formed at
the initial stage of disintegration of the Black Hole.
    So, we see a plasma bubble inflated by the young nucleus, which is in the
state of readiness for the formation of critical volume. See Fig. 14-1.




    At the moment before the critical volume is achieved the plasma bubble
comprises a volume of the order of 5 billion km in height narrowed to 1 billion
km in diameter in its lower part and expanded to 2 billion km in its upper part.
The distance from the BH surface to the dome of the bubble is of the order of 1.5
billion km. Besides, in the area of exit of the plasma bubble to the surface,
swelling the BH surface to the height of the order 0.1 billion km above its level
                                         2


takes place. I have designated the place of swelling with letters АВС, the top
being in the point «В».
    In the lower part of the bubble, near the central vertical line of the bubble O-
O, there is a young individual nucleus of about 1400 km in diameter. At its birth
it was of somewhat larger size, but a lot of matter was spent for the formation of
the plasma bubble. The surface of the nucleus undergoes Nuclear Peeling, which
turns the nearest area around the nucleus into an endless nuclear explosion. The
area of nuclear peeling creates a certain Buffer Zone around the nucleus, which
is an integral component of the nucleus. Thickness of this buffer zone is of the
order of 10 million km.
    The nuclear explosion stops when the nuclear substance splits to a level of
stable nuclei, which are unable to further spontaneous split. It is a level of
isotopes of nuclei of heavy metals and further up to a level of uranium substances
with an increased content of neutrons. These substances in the form of high-
temperature plasma, with the temperature of about 1010 degrees, are constantly
dumped from the buffer zone to the following zone that can be called the
Accumulation Zone.
    The accumulation zone fills the lower part of the bubble. Its expansion is
restrained by the attraction of the nucleus. It is as though a dense and heavy
plasma deposit which, together with the nucleus and the buffer zone, weights
down the lower part of the bubble. High-temperature plasma in the accumulation
zone is under pressure of about 1.5 kg/cm2, and it behaves like boiling water
which boils and throws steam upwards. Plasma in the accumulation zone
undergoes self-sublimation, and more high-speed particles formed in the process
leave upwards, into the Zone of Sublimation of plasma.
    The high-speed particles of plasma limited by the volume of the bubble, are
restrained by the internal envelope which is retained from outside by the
masses of the Black Hole. The surface of the envelope made of the Second Level
nuclear matter is subjected to nuclear forces of the Latent matter creating a
surface tension to form a surface of sufficient durability. The nuclear matter of
the Black Hole behaves as a liquid which creates pushing away forces FP which,
by their weight, tend to compress and push away a foreign matter from their
environment. These forces work in the same way as and in the water
environment, so that with increase of immersion, pushing away forces grow.
    The density of particles in the zone of sublimation is many times lower than in
the accumulation zone. But the particles already possessing very high energy
continue self-sublimation and gradually leave to higher levels of the bubble
where pushing away forces weaken and pressures are lower. The higher particles
leave, the less their density and the higher their temperature and speed. In the
upper part of the bubble, the temperature can increase up to 1016 degrees and
more. Pressure is about 0.5 kg/cm2.
    Parameters of self-sublimation can be and are many times higher than in the
given superficial disintegration of BH that we now consider, for example, in the
                                         3


variants of disintegration 3/3 and 3/4, with the birth of nuclei in depth. In any
case there is a balance of forces in the plasma bubble, which is achieved between
pushing away forces depending on the depth of immersion of the bubble and the
level of parameters of plasma. As far as the parameters of plasma increase, the
expansion of volume of the bubble occurs, which restrains the growth of
temperature and creates the necessary balance of forces.
    The next stage comprises forming the critical volume A-B-C-D-E. See Fig.
14-2. The volume of the Black Hole which should pass into the condition of
critical one, passes a certain stage of Fixing the Volume. To achieve the critical
value, the masses of Latent Matter should undergo regrouping the volume.
During regrouping, the volume cannot pass into the condition of critical one.
Passing into the condition of critical volume occurs after completing the motion
of masses, with some delay and as though with fixing the final volume.
    In this volume, there is a simultaneous falling out of some particles of the
Latent matter, which get an additional materialization and a minimal
vibration by the First Level and become the matter of the visible World.
Materialized particles become neutrons in which nuclear forces of the First
Level start to work. Neutrons start to interact with each other and are drawn
together into a single lump. There is a collapse of neutrons resulting in the
formation of an Individual Neutronic Atom.
    The latent matter within the critical volume is broken into large atoms and
loses its Solidity. Having lost its solidity, the Latent matter found within the area
of critical volume is at once limited by a surface which coincides with the surface
of the plasma bubble. Now the critical volume and the plasma bubble is the same
volume which has found, through the critical volume, an exit into outer space.
    Plasma from the plasma bubble starts to move upwards thereby blowing off
the Latent matter into space. The second, young nucleus starts sinking
downwards, peeling and scattering its matter into the integrated plasma bubble,
thereby supplementing the mass of plasma in the plasma bubble.
    With the beginning of blowing through the channel and then, as a result of
emission of plasma into space, parameters of plasma in the plasma bubble start to
fall and the rate of self-sublimation is reduced. The balance of forces is upset, and
pushing away forces start to compress the plasma bubble and to push it upwards.
    At a certain stage of emission, when the first nucleus, pressed from below by
the bottom of the plasma bubble, has already started its movement upwards, the
second nucleus, which in the meantime has already gained significant speed, falls
on it from above.
    Both nuclei are in the area of the central vertical line O-O, therefore they
necessarily should collide in the lower part of the bubble (Fig. 14-3). The direct
impact of nuclei certainly does not occur. Their buffer zones prevent the impact.
The nuclei pass around and push apart each other in opposite directions. The first
nucleus is thrusted to a lateral wall of the bubble, and the second, more high-
                                        4


speed nucleus, changes somewhat the trajectory of its falling, breaks through the
bottom and leaves into BH.
    The plasma bubble is blown off for more than 100 years. The pressure in it
falls down to vacuum. Therefore it becomes easier for the masses of the Black
Hole to push out the bottom of the bubble together with its contents. By the end
of emission, the nucleus and its environment, the buffer zone and the
accumulation zone lying in the bottom bowl of the bubble, gather the escape
speed and are thrown out into space (see Fig. 14-4). As this takes place, the first
nucleus, after collision with the second nucleus, has no time to return to the
former position and consequently it flies up being somewhat shifted aside from
the center of the bottom bowl of the bubble.
    The masses of BH, which have pushed out the bottom of the bubble, continue
their upward movement by coasting, rising like a hump above the level of BH
surface. Height of swelling of these masses is about 1.5 billion km above the BH
level. Within this volume, critical nuclear relationships for the nuclear matter of
the Second Level change. The volume passes into the condition of critical one,
loss of neutrons begins and they collapse with the formation of a secondary
nucleus (see Fig. 14-5). In our case, this is the third nucleus.




   By the time of the emergence of the nucleus onto the level of BH surface, the
nucleus enclosed in the buffer zone and the plasma in the accumulation zone,
which fills the bottom bowl of the bubble, have identical speed. According to the
prompt, it is about 3.2 km/sec. However, at the exit from the Black Hole, plasma
from the accumulation zone, having been released from the closed volume,
begins to swell and to be pushed in all directions. Therefore this plasma extends
and leaves into space not vertically upwards, as a nucleus, but somewhat aside in
                                          5


all directions, turbulently swirling like a multitude of curls of various sizes. When
this happens, its speed grows. See Fig. 15-1.
     All the masses of plasma in the accumulation zone are under the gravitational
influence of the nucleus and cannot scatter into a free space. Swirling clots and
single particles, under the action of gravitation, start to change the direction of
their flight, receiving circular movement around the nucleus.
     Each plasma particle finds its own orbit of rotation around the central
nucleus and its own linear speed of flight over this orbit VO. The vector of
initial speed of a particle VP and the straight line connecting the particle with
the center of the nucleus O1 lie in the plane of this orbit.
     When the plasma particles, which simultaneously take part in some vortex
flows, start to be drawn by gravitation to their orbits, they, as a result of changing
the direction of flight, receive circular orbits and increase their speed.
     The further from the nucleus is a particle after exiting to space and initial
expansion, the weaker are the forces of gravitation of nucleus FN acting upon it,
the greater is the radius of its orbit and the less is the added speed.
     In Fig. 15.2, the nucleus with the center O1 and several orbits with different
radii around it are shown. Initial speeds of particles VP, after exiting to space
almost identical, are somewhat higher than the speed of nucleus VN. In this figure,
it is shown how are changing the linear orbital speeds of particles VO flying over
different orbits. In this case plasma particles fly to the left and to the right of
the nucleus, over the same orbits, towards each other.
     The first nucleus, by the moment of emerging onto the BH surface after its
collision with the second nucleus, has not time to return to its former position in
the central part of the bottom bowl of the bubble. Let's designate the center of the
nucleus as O1 and the center of the bottom of the bowl as O2. If to look at the
emission of the nucleus and the plasma from above, Fig. 16-1, then the center of
the nucleus O1 does not coincide with the center of the bowl O2. However, the
plasma from the accumulation zone before the emission to space completely fills
this bowl, therefore the center of emission of the plasma mass from the
accumulation zone is the point O2.
     All particles get their orbits and start to rotate around the nucleus. Let’s
divide the area of the bowl into several sectors of rotation of particles (see Fig.
16-1). At first, we shall draw a straight line А-O1-O2-Е which will divide this area
into two identical parts. Now, through the center of the nucleus O1 which is the
center of rotation of orbits, we shall draw straight lines В-O1-В1, С-O1-С1 and D-
O1-D1 that will divide the area into 8 sectors. Arrows show the direction of
movement of particles in the sectors.
     The particles from sector А-O1-В – in our case, it is the first sector – fly
towards the particles from the fifth sector. The particles from the second sector
fly towards the particles from the sixth sector and so on. The areas of the sectors
show the comparative relationship of masses of particles in these sectors.
                                          6


    We see that particles in the first sector are less numerous than in the fifth
sector. The second sector contains less particles than the sixth one. The third
sector contains more particles than the seventh one, the fourth sector more than
the eighth one. Thus, masses of particles in the counter flows from sectors 3, 4, 5
and 6 prevail over the flows from sectors 1, 2, 7 and 8.
    Particles from the opposite sectors occupying the same orbits start to collide
and scatter in the different directions. Certainly each of these particles, after
collisions with an opposite particle in its orbit, moves aside and takes part even in
many collisions with other particles. But in the lump of collisions, this leads to
that counter flows of particles break each other. As this takes place, masses from
smaller sectors break the identical masses from larger opposite sectors.




    A part of particles, overcoming the attraction of the nucleus, exit to free space,
and another part of them fall onto the buffer zone of the nucleus resulting in the
beginning of creation of the slag layer of the star, which afterwards continues to
increase its thickness using the matter of peeling, to a certain critical value for
the given star.
    Owing to counter impacts, there are only flows of particles from larger sectors
that remain around the star. In this case basic masses of particles remain in the
remote parts of the fourth and the fifth sectors, which form a common sector of
flows of particles, which is parallel to the straight line А-Е, these particles
rotating in the same direction. See Fig. 16-2.
    Now, we still have a sector in which particles fly only in one direction. The
flows of these particles form an area of the Belt of Rotation around the
central star where the center of all the orbits will be the center of the nucleus
of this star. These are very significant masses of particles, which, except for
rotation around the star, continue to participate in every possible turbulent
rotations of different sizes.
                                          7



    Turbulent clots of particles become the centers of large enough masses of
a matter which start to draw to themselves other particles from their
environment. Particles flying near these centers of masses have the same
speeds and the direction of flight that allows them to be compressed into
planets of different sizes in two-three hundreds of millions of years.
    Here, I would like to notice that the accumulation zone at the exit to outer
space has occupied a huge volume filled with dense enough masses of high-
temperature plasma. After leaving into outer space, plasma starts to cool down
quickly. Before getting orbits, it has time to extend around the nucleus up to a
diameter of the order of 10 billion km and more, and, being in a cold condition in
the form resembling smoke, occupies all this volume.
    Masses of particles in the Belt of Rotation are distributed in such a manner
that with distance from the star the quantity of a matter considerably increases up
to the maximal density in the middle part and then goes down to the periphery.
Therefore there is a corresponding tendency of changing the sizes of planets with
increasing the distance from the star.
    The formation of planets in the nearest environment of the star is strongly
influenced by the buffer zone of the star. Although with going out to space, the
buffer zone has considerably lowered its capacity and its thickness has decreased,
but nevertheless, being not covered with a slag layer, it intensively bombards the
nearest space around the star. Therefore in the nearest environment of the star,
there are no masses of particles which could turn into planets.
    The beginning of shaping the planetary system of the star starts already at the
stage of forming large clots of matter. All the small vortical clots of matter and
individual particles are drawn to the nearest, larger centers of mass. As a result of
such closing on, the entire mass of particles from the belt of rotation is grouped
into about 10 thousand and more centers of rotation of masses of matter of
different sizes.
    Each of formed centers of rotation of masses will be subsequently compressed
into a spherical planet. Thus, the Belt of Rotation is filled by the Centers of
Rotation of Masses of different sizes – I think, we can, for simplicity, already call
them planets. In this case, large planets start to pull on themselves smaller
planets from the nearest environment that fly near them in the same
direction and with the same speed.
    Fine planets get orbits of rotation around of the large planet and become its
satellites. They receive additional linear speed for flight on the orbit around of the
central planet. The higher an orbit of the satellite in relation to the central planet,
the less its linear orbital speed.
    After joining planets into Planetary Systems, it may be thought that the
Planetary System of the star is formed.
    All the large and small planets are formed in the area of the belt of rotation.
Therefore the planes of all the planet orbits are close to a certain averaged plane
of the belt of rotation. See Fig. 17.
                                          8


    The direction of axial rotation of planets should resemble balls rolling over
the external part of the orbit in the direction of their flight. Planets satellites
should run around the planet in the same way as when the planet runs around the
star. However, the axes of rotation of planets and their satellites can be inclined
under different angles to the plane of their orbits. The period of their daily
rotation can be various. It is connected to particular events in the process of
formation of masses of each planet.
    During the formation of planetary system of a single star all the planets,
together with the systems of their satellites, rotate around the star in circular
orbits since the mass of the star in the process of formation of planetary system
considerably exceeds the total mass of planets which are relatively uniformly
distributed around the star.




    Planetary systems, except for their rotation around the star, make complex
movement within the system. The planetary system consisting of a central large
planet and a satellite, rotate around the common center of mass. It means that the
central planet makes some oscillatory movement in relation to its orbit, depending
on the location of its satellite. If the number of satellites is more than one, then
the planet and its satellites make more complex movement since the common
center of mass constantly changes its position.
    The whole system of planets together with their satellites, making complex
movement around the central star, at the same time participates, together with its
star, in the movement of flight and expansion of the galaxy.

Structure of a planetary system of a double star

    Now we shall consider the structure of a planetary system which was formed
as a result of simultaneous start of two nuclei. As in the first variant, we consider
a surface start at the initial stage of disintegration of BH.
                                          9


    Let’s assume that the plasma bubble contains two nuclei of different sizes,
that is, a primary and a secondary ones. Let’s call a large, primary nucleus the
first nucleus or the first star, and a secondary nucleus, respectively, the second
nucleus or the second star.
    Let's assume that the given start of a double star occurs in identical conditions
as the start of the above-considered single star. In this case, the volume of the
bubble in which two nuclei are found, will be by 5-10 % more than in the first
variant, resulting in the birth of a new nucleus having a somewhat larger size.
    Nuclei at the bottom of the bubble lie almost side-by-side, divided by their




buffer zones and by a small layer of plasma of the accumulation zone. Under the
weight of nuclei, the bottom of the bubble is slightly stretched in the shape of
ellipse. As for the rest, the structure of the plasma bubble and the process of rise
of nuclei to the surface are similar to the first variant. At the moment the nuclei
emerge onto the BH surface, they, after collision with a young nucleus, are
slightly shifted aside, from the center of the bottom bowl of the bubble.
    At the exit to outer space, plasma from the zone of accumulation, as in the
previous variant, starts to extend, thereby scattering slightly in all directions. See
Fig. 18-1. The plasma located between the nuclei and replenished with plasma
from the buffer zones also starts to extend. As this takes place, nuclei are slightly
pushed apart in different directions and receive a direction of rise under a small
angle to the vertical. In the scattering process, the speed of plasma VPL and the
speeds of nuclei VN1 and VN2 at the exit from BH somewhat increase.
    The scattering plasma having received an additional speed, begins to swirl
turbulently and envelop the nucleus on all sides. See Fig. 18-2.
    The nuclei having received new movement cannot scatter indefinitely. The
gravitation transforms their scattering into rotary movement. The nuclei are as
                                         10


though bonded by the gravitation at a certain distance from each other and start to
rotate like a common system of masses with a certain angular speed WRO around
of the common center of rotation СRO, in the plane perpendicular to the direction
of flight. See Fig. 19 – the top view.
    The first, large nucleus has therewith received a smaller radius of rotation СRO
– ON1 and a smaller linear speed of rotation VN1, whereas the second, minor
nucleus has received a radius of rotation СRO-ON2 and a higher linear speed VN2.
Now the nuclei fly away from the Black Hole while having a spiral advance
motion.
    All the masses of plasma which have flied away to space together with the
nuclei, are linked to them by gravitation. They, with some delay, start to be
entrained by the rotation of nuclei.




    Now let's define where we would obtain the belt of rotation of prevailing
masses of plasma. In Fig. 20, top view, I have shown in somewhat exaggerated
manner how the nuclei are arranged in relation to the masses of plasma in the
accumulation zone which before leaving to space has occupied the bottom bowl
of the bubble. I have divided the zone of the bowl into zones of rotation relative
to each star where the direction of movement of plasma masses is shown.
    Zones of near gravitation which are proportional to masses of stars are shown
around each star. In the area of convergence of the zones of near gravitation,
forces of gravitation relative to each of stars are identical.
    We see that the plasma masses, which in our figure are located on the right, in
sectors Y - ON1 - A1 and A1 - ON1 - D1, prevail over other masses which break
each other.
    In Fig. 21, top view, arrows show the direction and the arrangement of
prevailing plasma masses. These masses of cooling down plasma are in the
remote parts of the prevailing sectors. Therefore in the general rotation,
                                         11



particles from these sectors start to rotate around the two-star system,
repeating spiral rotation of the star system.

   As a result of this, large planets moving in elliptic orbits around a common
system of their stars are formed of the belt of rotation. See Fig. 22. Small
planets-satellites will rotate in circular orbits around their central planets.
   In the following, we shall name planetary systems, which rotate around a
common system of stars, ‘External Planets’.




    Masses of plasma, which have appeared in the zone of near gravitation of
stars, should completely break each other. However, during the encounters of
counter-flows of particles and their scattering, a part of the prevailing mass gets
into the zone of near gravitation. These masses added from the external layers
prepare, by mixing with flows from the zones of near gravitation, the conditions
for the creation of small planets around which smaller planets-satellites would
rotate.
    Planetary systems, which rotate in the zone of near gravitation around one of
the stars of the system, we shall name ‘Internal Planets’.
    Forming the orbits of the internal planets is greatly influenced by the
gravitation of the heighboring star. When the internal planet passes the area
between two stars, the neighboring star starts to draw the orbit of the foreign
planet to itself.
    Moreover, the outermost internal planets which are closer to the foreign star
begin, using their gravitation, to pull with themselves planets which are in lower
orbits. In such a way they slow down their escape to the foreign star and increase
the escape of the lower planets. Therefore, the ellipticity of the outermost internal
planets is less than the ellipticity of the lower internal planets.
    Thus, all the orbits of the internal planets of double stars should be
elliptic.
                                          12


   Planets-satellites of the internal planets rotate in circular orbits about the
central planets.

    Our Solar system has been born as a double star, therefore the planets of
the Solar system rotate in elliptic orbits.
    We shall talk about the Solar system in more detail somewhat later.
    Except for the double star systems consisting of two stars, star systems
consisting of three stars and, very seldom, of four and five stars are likely to be
formed in the train of the disintegration of Black Holes. Principles of structure of
planetary systems in such star systems are identical to those we have applied in
the consideration of structure of the planetary systems of single and double stars.




    In this article, we shall not consider the schemes of structure of the planetary
systems of such constellations. They are complex and can have a lot of variations.
Stars in such constellations are bonded like atoms in a molecule.
    Of great importance is the mass of stars, that is, of what stars consists the
system, of primary or secondary stars only, or there are both kinds of stars. It is of
importance what location they have occupied relative to the bottom bowl of the
bubble at the moment of ejection to space, which factor influences the
configuration of the constellation, the formation of the belt of rotation and the
structure of the planetary system.
    In such constellations several belts of rotation are likely to be formed
simultaneously. It means that planets can simultaneously rotate around certain
stars in different planes. This is not at all to say that they would constantly collide
with each other. It’s so because already at a stage of their formation they
distribute among themselves the levels of their orbits. The total number of planets
in such systems, however, can be somewhat less than in the systems with one
star.
                                         13


     Besides, if the structures considered above are classical and the planetary
systems of single stars should correspond to our scheme, so really during the
forming-up of planetary systems, deviations from the norm start to appear already
in the double constellations.
    For example, at the initial stage nuclei are ejected to space and expansion of
plasma begins. There are vortical flows which get axial rotation in the direction of
gravitational forces of that nucleus which renders the greater influence on these
flows. But the formed vortical flows still continue to extend in space. The
outermost vortical flows, which have been formed in the area between the nuclei,
can be drawn by the neighboring nucleus into their orbits.




    In Fig. 23 is shown a vortical flow which has received rotation about the first
nucleus, but then it has been drawn into the orbit of the second nucleus.
    Transfer of vortical flows from one nucleus to another at the initial stage of
the exit to space in the area between the nuclei is of a rather widespread character,
although the masses of matter in these flows are relatively insignificant.
    The flows, whose directions have not matched the belt of rotation, will be
broken. If these flows have received the direction of rotation matching that of the
prevailing masses, they can have some influence in the formation of the internal
planets in terms of the axial inclination of planets and the speed of axial rotation.
    If any clot has turned out to be large enough, so a planet can be formed on its
base, which would have the axial rotation opposite to that of the other internal
planets of the given star. An example of such planet is the planet Venus in our
Solar system.

Red and Brown Dwarfs.

   In space there are stars, which scientists have named Red and Brown Dwarfs.
                                          14


    Red and brown dwarfs are supergiant planets, whose mass is 10-50 times
more than that of Jupiter. These planets are formed under certain conditions
during the disintegration of the Black Hole.
    For such a planet to be born during the disintegration of the Black Hole, there
should be a number of events at which the scheme of birth of the Red Dwarf
would be realized. See Fig. 24.
    Let's assume we have a nucleus, we shall name it the First nucleus, which
rises to the BH surface and before long it has to exit to space. By the moment of
described events the lower part of the plasma bubble together with the first
nucleus is still in the depth of BH, and only the top part of the accumulation zone
of BH has risen to its surface.




    Near the first bubble, there rises another bubble in which the Second nucleus
is located. The new bubble with the second nucleus, cooperating with the BH
surface, forms the critical volume in which a young nucleus is born. We shall
name this young nucleus the Third nucleus.
    We remember that at the collapse the latent matter is broken, loses its solidity,
and all the critical volume is at once limited by a surface. Thus, with the birth of
the third nucleus, a vertical surface has suddenly appeared near the first bubble.
This surface starts to interact with the rests of the surface of the first bubble, and
between them the small-sized Second critical volume is formed.
    In the second critical volume, the birth of a small nucleus takes place. We
shall name this nucleus the Fourth nucleus. Lateral parts of the second critical
volume join with a lateral part of the first critical volume and with a lateral part of
the bottom of the first bubble.
    In this case, a situation arises when the small nucleus, whose size is less than
the critical for the White Dwarf and therefore it is close to blowing up now, has
                                         15


been found nearly under the accumulation zone which is at the initial stage of
exiting to space.
    The fourth nucleus blows up. When this happens the area of explosion covers
the outermost part of the accumulation zone and throws it up at some angle to the
plane of the BH surface.
    This explosion snatches out significant enough masses of matter from the
accumulation zone so that they receive powerful turbulence in the central part.




    Thereafter in the central part of such a turbulence, a huge planet will be
formed by compression, which will start to behave as a star. That is, a belt of
rotation will be formed around the huge planet, from which then the planetary
system will be generated, whereas all other masses will be broken and will scatter
to the surrounding space.
    Red and brown dwarfs may be actually considered as stars since the planetary
system has been formed around them. True, it is less multiple than around stars,
and there are no very large planets, such as our Jupiter, around the dwarfs.
    Since dwarfs always fly at some angle to the general direction of scattering of
stars, so they in some way wander in the galaxy, gradually moving from one star
to another.
    A host of planets wandering in the galaxy certainly can cause collisions, but in
the course of time, while scattering of stars, this probability steadily decreases.
    Explosion of the small fourth nucleus does not cause significant damage to the
first nucleus. It will fly up and a normal planetary system will be formed around
it. As to the second and third nuclei, this explosion would not make any impact.
                                          16




      Development and life of planets

  Thermal processes of planets

    The thermal processes proceeding on planets depend on many factors, but
basically they depend on the sizes of planets and on the external conditions.
    So, Red Dwarfs are formed as a result of the explosion of a small nucleus.
There is an emission of dense masses of plasma from the accumulation zone of a
foreign nucleus which, swirling like a huge ball, leave to space at some angle.
With the passage of time, the plasma cools down, and under the action of
gravitational forces of particles, masses of matter start to be pressed into a dense
spherical object in the central part of the ball.
    Thus, in the central part of the vortex, there appears a clot of matter, a certain
dense material center which starts to grow and to draw to itself particles
surrounding it more and more strongly.
    Now let's recollect what are the masses of particles in the accumulation zone,
from which our future Red Dwarf, and all other planets as well, are made up.
    Plasma in the accumulation zone is a result of nuclear disintegration of pieces
which have come off from the basic nucleus. The nucleus formed as a result of
the collapse of neutrons, is a formation made of neutrons only. Thus, the pieces
are also nuclei, but of much smaller sizes, which come off from the big nucleus,
and they are also made of neutrons only.
    With changing nuclear critical mass, some neutrons in the pieces that have
come off start to pass into a mode of proton with the emission of an electron for
the charge neutralization. With the emergence of protons, the neutron nuclei that
have come off start to be divided into smaller ones, in which, in turn, new
protons appear, and the division proceeds. The spontaneous division of nuclei
will stop when the quantity of nucleons in nuclei will become less than a certain
critical value and they will pass into a mode of relatively stable condition.
    Thus, the plasma in the accumulation zone, from which all planets will be
subsequently formed, is a product of the nuclear peeling of a parent star.
Particles of plasma represent a wide spectrum of isotopes of heavy elements
where the bulk of particles are those ranging from heavy metals to uranium
series.
    Space surrounding the disintegrating Black Hole, is filled with a host of
particles thrown out by the starting nuclei. The superhigh-temperature plasma of
emission cools down quickly enough. However the density of particles is very
high as to space. The whole area of the BH disintegration is filled with a
scattering soot which makes the processes going there invisible and transforms
area of disintegration into a Nebula.
                                         17


    The presence of high density of particles in space occupied by the nebula
predetermines that the temperature background of the nebula is much higher than,
say, in our Solar system and makes about 50 degrees ºK.
    The density of particles in vortical flows in which planets start to be formed is
even higher, and this influences the temperature regime in the center of the
turbulence where the temperature can make about 100-150 degrees ºK.
    In the process of integration, the future planet starts to get warmer. This
additional heating occurs due to the powerful radiation emitted by the particles of
which the planet is made.
    With the beginning of heating, a thermal balance is established between the
planet and its environment. Therefore the center of the planet and its internal
layers are heated more strongly than its external parts. The upper layers of the
planet behave as a sort of insulator between the environment and the internal part
of the planet, when they begin to pass the heat through themselves to the outside.
    At present our planet, as yet small, looks as a smooth, well-polished billiard
ball. In fact it is made of the smallest monoparticles. The planet turns out to be
very dense. It is as if pressed, using building terminology, into a uniform
monoblock with a density of matter about 2.5104 kg/m3.
    The whole mass of the planet is a homogeneous mix of isotopes of substances
that belong to the fifth, sixth and seventh periods of the Periodic Table. The
relative quantity of some substances or some groups of substances in this series of
elements can be significant, two-three times more than that of the nearby
chemical elements. But the share of the lighter elements is always more than that
of the heavier ones. It is associated with the mode of peeling of the nucleus which
depends on the sizes of nucleus and on the external conditions which influence its
disintegration.
    When the planet’s diameter reaches about 2000 kilometers, thermal
processes of Self-generation start to work in its bowels.
    By this moment radiation warming up, depending on the temperature
background surrounding the planet, will reach 500 – 700 degrees ºK . And very
high density of matter at so small sizes of the planet allows to create in its bowels
a pressure sufficient for achieving the initial parameters of self-generation of
energy.
    With the beginning of self-generation, the central part of the planet starts to
heat up, which results in the increase of parameters of generation and in still
further heating of the planet, that is the Energy Self-sublimation begins.
    The self-sublimation will stop when the heat abstraction from the surface of
the planet will be equal to the energy it generates. With settling the thermal
balance in the central part of the planet, a certain constant mode of generation
will be established.
    In discussing the generation, I have emphasized several times that the
generation works only in the central part of the planet. It is true for all kinds of
                                         18


planets where the processes of generation take place, and this also concerns all
the stars.
    As pointed out above, for the self-generation mode to come it is necessary to
bring a matter to the condition when the product of its temperature in Kelvin
degrees by pressure in kg/cm2 would be more than 5  106.
    But all space objects, planets and stars contact by their external parts with
almost empty and cold space. Therefore at any temperatures on the surface of
these objects, the self-generation mode can appear only at some depth where the
pressure necessary for obtaining the necessary parameters would arise.
    Now it is necessary for us to consider the most important property of
substances – its disintegration.

   Absolutely all the substances tend to their disintegration.

    Alpha and beta decays are well enough investigated by scientists. The end
result of any schemes of decay leads to the removal of one or several nucleons
from the structure of atom. But each free proton or neutron which in a free
condition fast enough becomes a proton, that is, an atom of hydrogen, whereas
alpha decay relates to the atoms of helium.
    Thus, any matter, including the matter of planets as well as of stars, tends to
its decay where the end product of decay would be hydrogen. And then the
question of the speed of processes of decay comes to the forefront.

   The speed of natural decay of matter depends on the Total amount of
energy cast through the nucleons of each particular atom.

    This phrase will becomes more clear when we shall start to consider the basics
of the Thermodynamics of Directed Atoms. But now I shall try to explain what I
have meant. All is reduced to that the time interval between each event of
structural change of atom depends on number of nucleons in the given atom
and on how long and at what temperature has it been.
    The larger the atom and the higher the temperature at which it exists, the less
is the time that passes till the next event of its decay. If the same atom after the
loss of a nucleon will be at the same thermal loads, so the time to the following
event of disintegration will increase since the number of nucleons in its structure
has reduced.
    If two identical atoms will be in different temperature conditions, the first
atom to undergo the decay will be that one which has been at higher temperature.
    The total energy which the atom should pass through its nucleons from one
event of decay to the next one, is not a constant value. With the decrease of
atomic weight it is necessary for each atom to accumulate by some means
increasingly large total energy required for the next event of decay.
                                          19


    For an atom of hydrogen – a proton – also there is a certain amount of total
energy, which it has to accumulate for the self-destruction, but this value is so
large that practically the case where a proton gets to take advantage of this right is
rare in our Universe. Any proton has enough time to collide with an antiproton
and to annihilate or to reach the Prohibited Zone.
    For the destruction of the proton which has accumulated the required total
energy, it is necessary to satisfy one more condition. There should be one more
antiproton in the Universe which has also accumulated the required energy, and
only then the pair of particles, namely, a proton and an antiproton, can be
instantly cast from any place of the Universe into the Prohibited Zone.

   For the prolongation of the life of different kinds of atoms there exists a
function of Parallel Exchange of Total energy between identical atoms within
the framework of a uniform local system.

    What does it mean? Identical substances, that is to say the substances
possessing an identical spectrum, exchange the accumulated total energy among
themselves. Atoms, which are in a more favorable mode, give their total energy to
other identical atoms, thereby prolonging at the expense of the latter ones their
life. Such exchange of energy can be carried out only within the framework of a
single space object. Such objects can be a star, a planet, a meteorite or a
spacecraft.
    The parallel exchange of total energy allows considerably prolonging a life of
short-lived substances. Therefore today we speak of half-decay of substances
instead of their full decay.

Development of planets

    Development of planets is intimately related with thermal processes and
disintegration of matter. This is an extremely complicated process which is
influenced by a host of various factors.
    Now I shall try, in the most general terms, to tell what factors influence the
development of planets and how does their condition change over time.
    The life of planets can be divided into three stages:
    The first stage is the formation and the development of planets under the
conditions of a Nebula.
    The second stage is the development and the life of planets after the galactic
soot is scattered in space.
    The third stage is the fading and the death of planets.

   Disintegration of each galaxy is accompanied by the massive emission of
matter into galactic space. But scattering of the cooled plasma is a long-term
                                         20


process because the emission of particles proceeds after the disintegration of the
Black Hole as well.
    All the plasma, which accompanies the birth of stars, their formation and the
disintegration of the White Giant, cools down quickly enough and slows down its
speed. Therefore its speed only slightly exceeds that of the scattering of stars. The
soot from stars gradually extends to space surrounding the galaxy.
    The formation of a slag envelope of stars takes about 1-1.5 billion years, and
during the most part of this time stars scatter their matter intensively enough.
Disintegration of the White Giant lasts more than 1.5 billion years.
    Thus, the intensive emission of plasma to the volume of galactic space
proceeds also after the disintegration of the Black Hole over a period of at least
1.5 billion years. Therefore, during almost two billion years each young galaxy is
in the condition of a Nebula.
    Planets are formed in conditions when the galaxy is in the condition of a
nebula. The distinctive feature of this period is the increased content of particles
in galactic space and the raised temperature background.
    The formation of planets lasts about 200 million years, and Red dwarfs are
formed for about 300 million years. During this time a great bulk of particles
from the area of prevailing masses will be distributed between planets. Each
planet will get its initial mass and sizes and will take its place in the planetary
structure. Therefore each planet is very individual.
    For it would be easier to us to discuss the development of planets, we shall
consider the development of planets and satellites of the Solar system with which
we are already familiar a little. In so doing we shall conditionally divide the
planets of the Solar system into minor planets, with the sizes close to our Moon;
medium planets – such as Earth, Mars, Venus; big planets – Uranus, Neptune
and giant planets –Jupiter, Saturn.
    As noted above, thermal processes on planets will begin when their diameters
become about 2000 km. But planets capture different amounts of a matter,
therefore they continue increasing their sizes up to certain values even after the
thermal processes will start to work in them.
    Self-generation leads to sharp structural changes in the central part of planets.
The temperature increases to such level that the central part of a planet begins
melting.
    With the transition to a liquid state, substances start to peel off depending
on their densities.
    At the first stage of development all the small and the medium planets on
which thermal processes have begun, have the structure shown in Fig. 25.
Distinctive feature of the given structure is the presence of the firm covering of a
planet – the Сrust.
    As this takes place, the Crust, in which there are no processes of generation,
remains hard and becomes a certain isolator between an environment and its
internal part through which the heat it is cast to space.
                                          21



    The decay of substances and thermal processes lead to that absolutely all
the planets obviously start to swell and to increase their sizes.
    The alpha and beta decay of as yet young planets results in that new atoms of
hydrogen and helium start to be formed in their volume. These new atoms at once
get their volumes which increase the total volume of planets. Changes of thermal
condition during the entire life affect the sizes of planets.
    Primary large atoms of substances, from which planets have been formed,
start losing nucleons. Their atomic weights decrease, and they start to change
their quality, gradually moving in the Mendeleyev's table upwards.
    The birth of new atoms, decrease of the atomic weight of heavy elements and
thermal processes lead to the fall of the average density of the matter of planets
and increase their initial volume.
    I want to draw your attention to one detail. On the small and the medium
planets where there is a precise differentiation into a solid surface and internal hot
parts, the matter in the internal part being exposed to the thermal influence with
the separation of substances. And substances in the external envelope participate
in the development of the planet, but their structure comprises a primeval mix, or
more precisely, the derivative substances of this mix which, being on the same
planet, have been exposed to minor thermal influence and have not been divided
into constituent fractions.




    Minor planets, on which thermal processes have not begun and which have
remained to be cold planets, disintegration processes also go, but in highly slowed
down motion. Cold planets are also subject to swelling. It is difficult for them to
evolve gases, which are formed within their volume, onto the surface.
    For a very long time, such planets keep their almost original appearance
inherent in all planets at the stage of their formation, but because of swelling, the
surface of these small planets would be covered with small cracks. In our Solar
system, an example of such planet is the satellite of Jupiter – Europe.
                                          22


    Only at the initial stage of formation all planets are similar to Europe,
however in the course of time, their condition and appearance begin to change
sharply. In conditions of the Nebula, at a raised temperature background of the
environment, all the small and medium planets show powerful volcanic activity.
    The thickness of the crust on such planets depends on intensity of thermal
processes, which, in turn, depend on the sizes of a planet, the density of matter
and the conditions of heat removal. The larger the planet, the more complicated
for it is to remove the excessive heat. The crust of the planet starts to fuse slightly
from the inside and becomes thinner. Its surface warms up more strongly until the
thermal balance is established.
    Eruption of volcanic lava onto the surface of the planet through the cracks in
its crust facilitates heat removal.
    By the way, the same processes proceed now on the Earth. The Earth is an
inhabited planet. And the biosphere is a very fragile artificially created
organism which can exist only under stable weather conditions with no
frequent natural cataclysms.
    Frequent natural cataclysms prevent bioorganisms from recreating their
biotic potential and cause their mass mortality. Therefore any insignificant
temperature fluctuations can put the climate of the Earth beyond the limits
of the necessary level.
    The greenhouse effect prevents from the normal heat removal to space.
The thermal balance is disturbed so that heating the central part of the
planet is increased. To remove the excessive heat, the crust of the Earth
raises its temperature, which leads to partial melting of its internal part.
    The reduction of thickness of the bark makes it more mobile, thereby
increasing frequency and capacity of earthquakes, raising the volcanic
activity and triggering other natural cataclysms.
    The first stage of development of small and medium planets is distinctive in
that the planets possess very high density of matter. These are very heavy planets,
in which light substances are still missing. The disintegration results in forming
helium and hydrogen, which are brought out onto the surface of planets. At the
first stage even small but very heavy planets have an atmosphere consisting of
hydrogen and helium.
    The atmospheres of planets are good insulators which prevent from heat
removal and thereby stimulate the increase of the level of thermal processes.
     The big and the giant planets completely fuse at the first stage of the
development. The fused substances are redistributed within the volume of planets
in accordance to their densities. Lighter substances are constantly, in the process
of disintegration, emerge onto the surface, whereas heavier ones sink into the
depths of planets.
    Energy processes on red dwarfs are so powerful that their masses not simply
melt down, but pass into the mode of medium-temperature plasma, with warming
up its upper layers to 1500-2000 degrees.
                                         23


    The larger the planet, the more intensive thermal processes proceed in it, and
the higher the temperature in its internal part and on its surface.
    The higher the temperature of the planet, the more intensive and faster are the
processes of decay of substances on it. Therefore, the larger the planet, the earlier
lighter elements appear on it. And the processes of half-decay intended for the
prolongation of the life of kinds of substances, allow the matter of planets to
extend in the Mendeleyev's table in the direction of forming lighter substances,
therewith retaining the representatives of heavy elements.
    Absolutely the whole matter found in space is subject to disintegration.
During disintegration, any substances finally pass into the state of light and
gaseous substances. Under certain conditions, these substances enter chemical
reactions with other substances to form new volatile compounds.
    Volumes of all space objects are to some extent literally impregnated with
every possible gases. Depending on pressure and temperature conditions, gases
are in gaseous, liquid or ice condition, which influences their mobility. On warm
and hot planets, gases easily leave on the surface and form the atmospheres of
planets.
    At the first stage of the development of large planets, the matter succeeds to
disintegrate only to the level of the third and the fourth periods of the periodic
table. On these planets, there are still no light and volatile substances.
    They consist of very heavy substances, therefore, they are superheavy planets.
Superheavy planets show a strong gravitation; therefore they can hold on their
surface a thick atmosphere, which, in this case, consist only of hydrogen and
helium.
    In the upper layers of the atmosphere, the lightest gases always dominate,
which are affected by relatively weakened gravitation of the planet.
    As a result of the motion of gases, some particles receive additional speed
and, having overcome the gravitation of the planet, escape to space.
    This process of “Sublimation” of the upper gas layer takes place on all
space objects. To a great extent, it depends on the temperature conditions in
which a particle of gas is found, and on the gravitational influence exerted on it
by the space object to which it belongs.
    Thus, all planets gradually dump the upper layers of their atmospheres to
space. As a result of the disintegration, planets produce new portions of gases,
which, being gradually removed to the atmosphere, rise to the upper layers and
are dumped to space as well.

   The given process of dumping the top layers of the atmosphere to space
leads to the reduction of mass of planets.

   Planets become lighter to cause the reduction of density of matter of the
planet. While decreasing the density, the upper layers of matter press on the lower
layers with smaller effort, which leads to the reduction of parameters of self-
                                            24


generation and the lowering of the level of thermal processes. Reduction of the
mass of the planet lowers its gravitation, which affects the density and the
thickness of the atmosphere.
    The upper gas layers of stars warm up to several thousand degrees, therefore
the sublimation of particles on such objects has much more large-scale character
than on planets, and particles escape from the surface of stars with significant
speeds.
    Stars are always the central objects in any planetary structures. Therefore
high-speed particles, which we call a ‘stellar wind’, bombard the planets and
other space objects that have been exposed to the action of the given particles
with different intensity, depending on the distance.
    The high-speed particles possessing high kinetic energy and the radiations
proceeding from the central stars bring additional heat to planets, knock out
particles of gases from the upper atmospheric layers and carry them away to
space, which increases the loss of mass of planets.
    Energy of stars has significant influence on the thermal condition of planets.
Therefore the location of the orbit of a planet relative to the central star is one of
the main parameters of each planet.

    With the reduction of mass of stars and planets in planetary systems, the
shifting of planetary orbits begins.

    Any planetary system consists of planetary formations rotating around the
central star or the central system of stars. During the formation of a planetary
system each planet attains its mass and its certain orbit of rotation within the
given planetary system.
    The planetary system is a material system bound by gravitation and consisting
of a rather large central planet around which minor planets and other material
objects captured by the attraction of the given planet rotate. All the material
objects rotating around the central planet are its satellites. Any planet flying
within the structure of the planetary system but having no satellites also can be
considered as a planetary system.
    The reduction of masses in the planetary system is accompanied by the
gradual shift of orbits of its satellites. The central planet is always somewhat
larger than any its satellite, therefore there are more intensive thermal processes
on it. Higher thermal processes lead to that the central planet loses its mass
relatively faster than its satellites.
    The reduction of mass lowers the gravitational influence of the central planet
on its satellites; therefore the satellites start to move away gradually from the
central planet. Raising the orbit of each particular satellite in the given planetary
system depends on the relative change of masses of the central planet and the
particular satellite. With raising the orbit of the satellite its linear speed in its orbit
is somewhat reduced.
                                           25


    Each planetary system is a unified material object which in conjunction
with other planetary systems rotates around of the central star.
    The orbits of planetary systems in relation to the central stars change
according to the same principles as described above with reference to the change
of orbits of satellites in planetary systems. It all depends on the intensity of
disintegration of planets and stars and on how this disintegration in the course of
time affects the changes of masses of these objects relative to each other.
    The life of planets is a path of their disintegration which we are actually
considering. And now we shall turn aside a little and consider the disintegration
of stars.

Disintegration of Stars

     The Black Hole ejects stars to space as if in the nude. Peeling the nucleus of a
star is not restrained by anything. Nuclear disintegration of the products of
peeling creates a thick buffer zone around the nucleus. The buffer zone works as a
torch, which scatters streams of plasma in the surrounding space.
     At the first stage of the formation of planets, the space surrounding a star is
filled with rather dense masses of particles. As a result of forming the belt of
rotation and of impacts of particles, a significant part of masses of the
accumulation zone falls back onto the star.
     The nucleus of a young star is very heavy material object which possesses a
powerful gravitation. Huge masses of matter that come back onto the surface of
the star create the initial base of the slag layer of the star. A part of this mass is
again ejected to space under the influence of the buffer zone, but other masses,
which are drawn by powerful gravitation, gradually start to press down the buffer
zone thereby reducing the intensity of peeling the star nucleus.
     Forming the slag layer of young stars lasts about 1-1.5 billion years. Red
Giants form the slag layer for about 5-6 billion years. Only at the first stage the
slag layer is formed using heavy particles which are related to the birth of stars.
Later the slag layer grows using the matter delivered by peeling the nucleus.
     At the initial stage of forming the slag layer, the buffer zone still has sufficient
thickness; therefore it scatters huge masses of matter to space. We call these
processes ‘stellar perturbation’. By the end of forming the slag layer increases
its thickness to the extent that allows compressing the buffer zone to a certain
minimum and lowering the intensity of peeling. Thickness of the slag layer is
individual for each star and depends on the mass of its nucleus.
     The young stars are very heavy stars. They create such a massive slag layer
that it completely prevents from penetration of elements of the buffer zone onto
the surface of stars.
     The slag layer exists on stars at very high temperature and is in the form of
plasma. The matter being subjected to a high temperature disintegrates quickly
enough. Elements of disintegration tend to be distributed within the depth of the
                                          26


slag layer according to their atomic weights. Therefore in the upper layers of a
star, despite of intensive thermal processes going on in its bowels, hydrogen and
helium always dominate.
    During the formation of the slag layer young stars scatter their matter
intensively enough. But for the same period of time, the loss of mass of
planetary systems expressed in percentage terms is somewhat higher anyway.
Therefore planetary systems start to be drawn gradually into lower orbits relative
to stars, in which case their speed in the orbit increases a little.
    At the end of forming the slag layer, stars pass into the mode of sparing the
matter. There are no stellar perturbations on their surfaces, and the matter leaves
the stars only in the mode of sublimation of the upper layer. The rates of loss of
the mass of stars slow down. Therefore the process of orbit lowering of planetary
systems somewhat increases.
    Thereafter, during a certain time, which depends on the initial mass, the star
lives rather quietly, gradually losing its mass. With the reduction of mass the star
loses its volume and becomes less and less. The nucleus of the star burns out,
becomes smaller and loses its gravitation. The reduction of mass of the nucleus
and of the gravitational forces leads to the reduction of thickness of the slag layer.
The upper slag layers of the star gradually start to heat up stronger, therefore the
rates of loss of mass increase. The buffer zone starts to extend, which leads to
intensifying the processes of a peeling.
    When the sizes of the star get closer to the sizes of the Yellow Dwarf, and the
temperature of its surface rises considerably, there would again appear stellar
perturbations, or “prominences” on its surface which eject to space considerable
masses of matter, thereby increasing its losses. Later on, with even greater
reduction of mass, the perturbation processes grow until the transition into the
condition of a White Dwarf when the buffer zone practically completely dumps
the slag layer from the surface of the star.
    Similar processes also occur now on our Sun. Our Sun loses its mass at a
quickened pace and soon enough, in cosmic scale, should pass into the mode of
the White Dwarf. The settling down of the perturbation processes on the Sun can
take place, but it would be a temporary settling down, however, in general, these
processes will only grow.
    Over the lifetime of each planetary system, modes of disintegration and of the
loss of matter by its participants – planets, planetary systems and the star itself –
can change, therefore modes of change of the orbits of planets and planetary
systems are individual. In any case, planets making up a planetary system will be
more and more grouped around the star lowering at the same time their orbits.
    In planetary systems where the star is a Red Dwarf, moving of planetary
systems occurs otherwise than in star planetary systems.
    The Red Dwarf is a very hot supergiant planet. It loses its mass more
intensively than any planetary system surrounding it. Therefore over the entire
                                         27


lifetime, planetary systems are constantly moving away from the Red Dwarf
while raising their orbits.
    During the first stage of the lifetime of planets the radioactivity of the matter
of planets sharply goes down because of disintegration.



The second stage of development of planets

    After the soot has scattered in the surrounding space, the galaxy ceases to be a
nebula and becomes visible. The density of particles in the space of a galaxy
sharply goes down, which leads to lowering the temperature background.
    Lowering the temperature of the galactic space increases the heat removal
from the surfaces of planets. Planets start to cool down, and thermal processes on
them gradually reduce their intensity. It leads to that the thermal processes on
some minor planets completely die away, and they become cold planets. On other
minor planets, the thermal processes still can proceed in the central part of planets
long enough, but they fade with time as well.
    Duration of action of thermal processes on minor planets depends on the sizes
of a planet, its mass, the level of disintegration and the density of matter. Also in
new conditions, what gains in importance is the remoteness of a planet from the
central star, and for satellites, of great enough significance is remoteness from the
central planet which supports the thermal processes on its satellites by its heat.
    For example, the volcanic processes on the satellite Io that belongs to the
planetary system of Jupiter proceed in a greater degree due to the proximity of the
satellite to the very large and warm planet. Thermal processes on Mercury which
can be related to minor planets, depend on the Sun.
    With the attenuation of thermal processes, minor planets gradually completely
lose their atmospheres. During the first stage of development they have lost a part
of their mass and have become lighter. In the conditions of deep cold on these
planets, the processes of disintegration have been slowed down and the rates of
generation of gases have decreased. Gases, which minor planets generate in small
amounts, are increasingly difficult to be brought onto the surface, whereas the
stellar wind and the sublimation processes completely wash off their atmospheres
from the surface to space.
    The surfaces of minor planets, on which traces of former stormy volcanic
processes are visible and which have lost their atmospheres, now directly adjoin
to a cosmic cold, which leads to a yet greater attenuation of thermal processes in
the central part of planets and to a sharp delay of the processes of disintegration.
    Therefore usual rock samples from the surface of cold minor planets, for
example, from the Moon, should consist of heavier chemical elements than on the
surface of the Earth.
                                         28


    Besides, substances in conditions of deep cold on the surface of minor planets
are also subject to some disintegration. But after disintegration it is complex
enough for them to form simple chemical compounds, therefore such samples
should differ sharply from the Terrestrial ones in chemical respect as well.
    With lowering the rates of disintegration, a high share of heavy elements is
kept on minor planets for a long time, which supports a sufficiently high level of
a radioactivity.
    At the second stage of development, thermal activity also decreases on
average planets, however, this does not lead to full attenuation of thermal
processes. With lowering the temperature of the surrounding space, the
atmosphere of planets starts to be compressed. The temperature of the upper
layers of the crust goes down to increase heat removal from the internal layers of
planets and to lower the intensity of generation of energy. The thickness of the
crust increases. It becomes stronger and less mobile, which leads to partial or full
attenuation of the volcanic activity. For example, on Mars, certainly, thermal
processes proceed, but volcanoes have stopped their activity.
    Medium planets are often internal planets therefore stars have significant
influence on their thermal condition. Besides, in the course of time the orbits of
planets become progressively lower and temperature of the surface of stars
becomes progressively higher.
    Disintegration of substances on medium planets goes on, the intensity of
which process corresponds to their thermal condition the latter being various in
different parts of a planet. Substances, of which the masses of planets are formed,
continue their upward movement in the Mendeleyev's table with the formation of
light and gaseous substances.
    With the formation of lighter substances, the rate of their further
disintegration is still more slowed down. Besides, during the formation of planets,
there are always some substances in the structure of their matter whose amount
somewhat exceeds that of other substances. We have discussed this above.
    Therefore, if all the substances in the central part of planets are in the melted
condition and they have been distributed by layers according to their densities, so
the crust on the surface of medium and minor planets has not undergone such a
separation. It has disintegrated at lower temperatures; therefore its structure
comprises all the spectrum of substances, whose quantitative relationships depend
on the age of a given particular planet and on the average temperature conditions
of the crust of this planet for the time of its existence.
    Therefore, various substances can dominate in the crust of planets during
each period of their development.
    As a result of the volcanic activity on the surface of planets during hundreds
millions of years, magma is erupted which covers with layers the surface of a
planet. In the course of time, with changing the level of disintegration in magma,
the chemical composition of volcanic rocks on the surfaces of planets is also
gradually changed.
                                        29


    Having got into the new temperature conditions, the erupted magma lowers
the rate of its disintegration. As a result of motions of the crust, of volcanic
activity and of winds, intermixing of the crust and the magma rocks takes place
    Gaseous substances formed at the level of magma and of the lower layers of
the crust start to enter into reactions with other substances resulting in the
formation of new gaseous chemical compounds. Gases start to rise upwards in the
crust. A part of gases, depending on their chemical composition, start to be
condensed and pass into a liquid state. The level of layers of the crust, in which
condensation of various gases occurs, depends on pressure and temperature at the
given level of a layer.
    There should be lakes of water and capacities with liquid methane and oil in
the Martian crust. Due to very low temperatures, these gases cannot rise onto the
surface of the planet. The atmosphere of Mars can be filled only with low-
temperature gases.
    As a result of processes proceeding with some intensity on the surface of the
planet, gases in the atmosphere are slightly mixed. But in any case they tend to be
distributed in the depth of the atmosphere according to their densities. Heavy
gases come down on the surface of the planet, and lighter ones rise to the upper
layers and then they are carried off into space.
    Each planet, during certain periods of its development, can keep on its surface
only a certain, that is, a critical layer of the atmosphere, which depends on many
factors already mentioned above.
    At the second stage of development, with the lowering of temperature of
surrounding space, thermal activity on large and giant planets somewhat goes
down. Disintegration of matter proceeds with the transition of substances to a
level of light and gaseous ones. The atmospheres of planets start to be filled with
various gases. Planets continue to lose mass and become lighter, and their
atmospheres slightly lose their volume.
    Large planets having powerful gravitation, nevertheless, continue to keep a
thick atmosphere, and the high level of generation of gases allows them to keep in
the upper layers light gases as well.
    Disintegration and reduction of the atomic weight of substances decreases the
density of matter and leads to gradual lowering of the level of thermal processes.
The temperature in the central part of planets and on their surfaces goes down.
    With increasing the heat removal and lowering the energy on the surface of
large and giant planets, which has earlier been completely melted magma, the
islands of solidified magma start to appear. Depending on the mass of planets and
their thermal condition, the islands of the solidified magma more or less densely
cover their surface. These islands of the solidified magma have high mobility.
They can partially melt and grow again, and large glades of open liquid magma
are formed between them.
    With the galaxy’s going out from the condition of a nebula, the thermal
processes on the Red Dwarf slightly go down. As a result of the proceeding
                                          30


processes of disintegration, light and gaseous substances, which occupy the
niches in structure of the planet, start to be formed on a mass scale.
    With time the Red Dwarf continues to lose intensively its mass with a
consequent lowering of the level of energy processes and of the temperatures
inside the dwarf and on its surface.
    With the reduction of weight and energy in due course, the Red Dwarf passes
into the mode of the Brown Dwarf.
    Transition of the Red Dwarf into the mode of the Brown Dwarf is not an
obligatory condition. The supergiant planet can be initially formed with the sizes
insufficient for passing into the mode of the Red Dwarf. Such supergiant planets
since their birth are already in the condition of the Brown Dwarf.

The third stage. Death of planets and of star planetary systems

    We shall start considering the third stage from the destruction of a
planetary system of a single star.
    The lifetime of planets in a star planetary system depends on the initial size of
their star. The larger the star at its birth, the more time it needs for releasing the
mass and transition into the condition of a White Dwarf.
    The White Dwarf is a star which has lost its mass and has dumped the slag
layer from itself. In the given period the star comprises a small nucleus with a
diameter of the order of three kilometers, covered with a buffer zone.




                                        Photo 4

    Thousands of large and the minor planets divided into planetary systems,
which were formed during the birth of the star, have lowered their orbits and have
been grouped around the White Dwarf. It means that the White Dwarf, which has
lost the main part of its mass, still possesses sufficient power for holding the
planets in their place.
                                           31




    The buffer zone poorly constrains a peeling of a kernel. The surface of a star
is heated up to several millions degrees. The white Dwarf very quickly loses the
weight, and its kernel decreases till the sizes when its nuclear weight becomes
Critical.

   With the reduction of mass of nucleus of the White Dwarf to the level of
Critical Mass, it starts to disintegrate into smaller fragments – that is, a huge
nuclear explosion occurs.

    We call the explosion of the White Dwarf an explosion of a supernew star of
the first type. See Photo 4.
    In the photo, which has been taken by the NASA Space Agency, explosion of
the White Dwarf is fixed. We see in the photo the spherical aura formed by the
tremendous nuclear explosion, which is surrounded by a dense ring.
    This ring is formed of such dense masses of matter that the bright flash of the
nuclear explosion is even not visible through it. The matter of which this ring is
made, is nothing but splinters of thousands of planets which have rotated around
the White Dwarf and have been broken by its nuclear explosion. The diameter of
the ring, which we see in the picture, measures not less than 10 billion kilometers.
    Let's recollect about what we have talked above.
    Planets in a star system are formed of the belt of rotation, that is, planets rotate
around the star within the limits of a certain plane. If in the center of such a
rotation of planets there occurs a powerful explosion, so splinters also should
scatter within the limits of the same plane.

   Now let’s consider the problem of strength of planets.

    Giant planets are hot, completely melted planets. A large drop of liquid
suspended in space does not possess strength.
    Large planets differ little from giant ones. Сrust of the solidified magma on
their surface reminds a balloon inflated with a great amount of water.
    Medium planets look like eggs in which the internal, liquid part is covered by
a shell. The crust on the smaller medium planets is stronger than the crust on
larger ones if such planets exist in rather equal conditions.
    Minor planets, on which weak thermal processes proceed, and cold planets are
the strongest planets.
    The fact that planets are held in their orbits by the attraction of the weak
White Dwarf indicates that the power of nuclear explosion of a star is
sufficient to break the most distant planets held by this attraction.
    The powerful shock wave extends with huge speed. It instantly carries away
atmospheres and breaks into small splinters all nearby planets. In few seconds
                                          32


Parts of planets which have earlier been liquids – water, magma or melted metals,
having touched a cosmic cold, harden and turn into shapeless meteorites.
   Imagine that our Earth would be broken by such an explosion. Everything of
what it is composed, will turn into small splinters and will scatter in surrounding
space.
   With moving away from the epicenter of the explosion, the shock wave
weakens. Distant large but fragile planets are broken easily. Distant minor planets
are more complicated to break. The shock wave splits strong enough minor
planets into large and very large shapeless pieces.

    Thus, all meteors, meteorites, comets and asteroids flying in space are
splinters of the planets broken by nuclear explosions of White Dwarfs.

     Each of the stars, except for Red Giants, is surrounded by a certain planetary
system. In the long run, each star becomes a White Dwarf and blows up, thus
transforming the planets into meteorites. Each galaxy consists of hundreds of
billions stars, therefore the explosion of a White Dwarf is a usual, ordinary event.
     With the explosion of the nucleus of the White Dwarf, the planetary system
loses its central gravitational part which has tied together the entire system. Each
planet rotating in its orbit possesses a certain tangent linear speed relative to the
orbit and other components of speed. The shock wave loses its power with
moving away from the epicenter of the explosion. Therefore each planet is
exposed to a shock wave of a certain power having remained by the time of
approach to each particular planet.
     Each part of the planet to be broken possesses certain speed and direction of
its movement at the moment of impact. During the influence of the shock wave
on the planet, each splinter of this planet gets an additional speed and changes the
vector of its flight in space.
     All the planets as parts of the galaxy, except for their orbital speeds and other
components of speed, simultaneously possess components of speed of the star
system in the given galaxy, the overall galactic speed and the vector of flight of
the galaxy in the space of our Universe.
     The broken pieces of planets, having received a new speed and a direction,
scatter in the galaxy.
     All meteorites within their own galaxy possess the speeds comparable to
speeds in other stellar systems.
     Therefore, everything can happen to meteorites, which have got into the
volume of any planetary system. They can change a direction and a speed of their
flight, become satellites of any space object or get an original orbit, fall onto any
large object, etc.
     Practically there are no thermal processes in meteorites wandering in cold
space. But they are not absolutely cold bodies, as in fact space always is warmed
a little, therefore very slow processes of disintegration proceed in meteorites.
                                         33


    For millions and billions of years of wanderings in the galaxy, meteorites,
which have not collided with large space objects or have not burned down while
flying near stars, finally disintegrate to a level of gaseous substances. Fast
particles, which are always present in space, dislodge light and gaseous atoms
from meteorites until their full dissolution.
    Meteorites, which have been born closer to the central part of the galaxy, fly
in their galaxy till their end of life, catching on its star systems. But a part of
meteorites, which have been formed in the periphery, have a chance to leave the
limits of their galaxy and to exit to free space.
    Within hundreds of millions of years larger meteorites of them, having
incidentally lost a part of their mass, can reach the neighboring galaxies.
    If the meteorite enters into the volume of a foreign galaxy consisting of the
same matter as the meteorite, the difference between the given meteorite and the
local meteorites will consist in the speed at which it would fly in the foreign
territory.
                                                                                        Formatted: English (United States)
     The speed of passage of a meteorite through the volume of a foreign
galaxy now comprises speed components of the galaxy, from which the given
meteorite has flied out, and of the galaxy, into which it has entered. Besides,
account must be taken of motion vectors of these galaxies in a space relative to
each other. Therefore foreign meteorites should mostly have speeds considerably
exceeding the speeds of local intragalactic meteorites.
     They cannot be caught by the gravitation of foreign star systems which can
change only slightly the vector and the speed of their flight. Foreign meteorites
crumble due to aging or collisions with various objects filling the given galaxy.
     If a meteorite enters into the volume of a galaxy, which consists of
antimatter in relation to the given meteorite, so except for speed components,
factors of interactions between different matters start to work here.
     Already on its way to the galaxy consisting of antimatter, the meteorite starts
to collide with particles of an antiworld, which start to burn out the matter of the
meteorite. Having entered into the volume of the antigalaxy, the meteorite starts
to collide with denser flow of antiparticles, which increases in the field of star
systems.
     Therefore the mass of the meteorite which is flying through the antigalaxy,
would quickly decrease until its full destruction. If such a meteorite will collide
with a planet, so there will be a mutual destruction of the meteorite and the same
mass of the planet matter with a huge energy emission.
     If a meteorite of antimatter in relation to the matter of our galaxy will fly in
the space near the Earth, which is a rare case, we shall see a comet with a bright
tail regardless of the distance to the Sun.
     The Tunguska meteorite is a small meteorite that has flown to us from the
antiworld. While falling onto the planet, it has burnt down in the atmosphere, not
having reached the surface of the Earth. The annihilation reaction has caused an
                                         34


explosion of such capacity that the shock wave has run several times around the
whole Earth.

   Now let’s consider on the example of our Solar system what occurs to
double star system when one of the stars of system becomes a White Dwarf.

    As noted above, our Solar System has been born as a double star. One star,
that is a primary one, has been large – now it is our Sun, and the second star, from
among secondary stars, was much less than the Sun.
    In the article “ The World in Which We Live ”, I have stated that the age of
the Solar system is 5.6 billion years. I have taken this figure from a scientific
article on the Internet where I have been interested in the age difference between
the Sun and the Earth which corresponds to my estimate. Now, being engaged in
the description of history of the Solar system, I wish to give more exactly the age
of the Solar system and to make an apology to readers for the introduced
inaccuracy.

    The age of the Solar system and accordingly of our galaxy "Milky Way"
is of the order of 7.5 billion years.

    Let's take as a basis Fig. 22 where the scheme of structure of the planetary
system of a double star is shown, and draw the scheme of the Solar system to
scale. Let's call our Sun “Sun-1”, with a center О1, and the second, small star –
“Sun-2”, with a center О2. See Fig. 26.




   At about half of the age of our Solar system, that is a period of the order of
3.5-4 billion years ago, Sun-2 has become a White Dwarf.
   By that moment Sun-1 has been much more than today, and its diameter has
been of the order of 30 million kilometers.
                                          35


    The orbits of planetary systems would have been higher and more extended
than today. This assumption is made to give a correlation with today's sizes,
although it is not absolutely true.
    Let's accept that the perihelion of elliptic orbits of planets corresponds to
average tabulated data. And the center of the Sun-1 coincides with the centers of
perihelia of planets.
    Let's accept that the aphelion of internal planets is 1.4 times more than their
perihelion, and the aphelion of external planets is 1.3 times more. The orbits of
internal planets of the Sun-1 are extended towards the Sun-2. Several orbits of
internal planets, which are extended towards the Sun-1, are shown around the
Sun-2. The orbits of external planets are arranged in relation to the common
center of rotation of stars.
    The Sun-2 is located in the middle part between the orbits of Mars and the
Jupiter. The Sun-1 is many times larger and heavier than the Sun-2, therefore it is
almost in the center of the system. In fact the Sun-2 rotates around the Sun-1.
     Fig. 26 shows the orbits of three internal planets, not including Mercury as its
orbit is very close to the diameter of the Sun-1, and of four external planets,
without Pluto, which we shall discuss separately.
    Thus, we have roughly shown the structure of the Solar system as a double
star for the period when the Sun-2 has become a White Dwarf. In this, rather
primitive, scheme, some main points are presented:
        1.     The solar system is a double star in which the second Sun has
               shortly become a White Dwarf.
        2.     The orbits of internal planets are distinctly extended because of the
               presence of a neighboring star located in close proximity.
        3.     The orbits of external planets have got an elliptic shape during
               rotation around the double star.
    Now, let’s imagine that the White Dwarf, that is the Sun-2 has blown up.
    The shock wave of nuclear explosion, with an epicenter in point О2, starts to
extend in all directions. When this happens, all the planets around the White
Dwarf will be broken into splinters and turn into meteorites. That is, actually all
the planets of the double system should be broken by the explosion of the White
Dwarf.
    But it is the Sun-1 that is in the way of the shock wave. The White Dwarf
cannot break the neighboring star, but it can tear off its slag layer. In this case the
buffer zone of the star becomes an insuperable barrier in the way of the Shock
wave.
    At the moment of explosion the diameter of the nucleus of the Sun-1 should
be of the order of 600-700 km. The buffer zone around such a nucleus should be
no more than 1.5-2 million kilometers in diameter. But when almost the entire
slag layer is taken away from the star, its buffer zone starts to expand sharply.
    Let's assume that at the moment of passage of the shock wave through the
Sun-1, the buffer zone has had time to extend till 3 million kilometers in
                                         36


diameter. It is just these 3 million kilometers have become a wall which has
closed by itself a small sector in the double Solar system. It turns out that the
Buffer zone of the Sun-1 has screened by itself against the explosion those
planets which are rotating in our Solar system today.
    All the planets of the double system rotate in the field of the belt of rotation
whose plane passes through the centers of the stars.
    If we draw tangent straight lines from the center of the Sun-2 to the buffer
zone edges of the Sun-1 (3 million km) and then continue them to the periphery
of the system, we would obtain a sector in which eight planetary systems of the
Solar system have remained intact. I have obtained a sector of the order of 0.5° in
width. (See Fig. 26).
    If to assume that at the moment of explosion of the Sun-2 all planets of
the double system have been arranged at regular intervals around the stars,
so only the number of planetary systems in our double Solar system would
be of the order of 5500, not including minor planets – their satellites and
internal planetary systems of the Sun-2.
    Thus, before explosion of the Sun-2, lots of planets – in the order of 15 – 20
thousand large and minor planets have rotated in our double Solar system. Now it
becomes clearer what the dense disk on the background of the corona resulting
from explosion of the White Dwarf shown in Photo 4 is formed of.
    The Sun-2 has blown up, and splinters of planets start to scatter in the galactic
space. The great bulk of meteorites have left the Solar system and never more
will return to it. But a part of meteorites have received a vector of flight allowing
them to be caught by attraction of the Sun-1 and to remain in the system.
    The solar system has been filled with plenty of meteorites of various sizes,
which for billions of years bombard the Sun and the eight surviving planets
together with their satellites.
    Part of splinters in the area where the Sun-2 has been earlier have formed an
asteroid belt. Others have formed meteoric rings around the external planets, and
large splinters of the broken planets have become shapeless satellites of numerous
remaining planets.
    The planet Pluto which today is considered the ninth planet of the Solar
system, in the past has been a satellite of a large external planet. At the moment
of explosion, this small and strong planet has been found protected by its central
planet which has taken upon itself the main blow. As a result Pluto has not been
broken, but has only received an additional speed and has changed a vector of its
flight.
    With the destruction of the second star, the Solar system has obtained the
status of a single star. Planetary systems of a single star should rotate around the
star in circular orbits. With the loss of the Sun-2, the gravitational center of the
system has moved, but the remaining planets which have earlier rotated in elliptic
orbits, cannot quickly readjust their orbits as it is a very long-term process.
                                         37


    During the explosion, the Sun-1 has lost not less than 80 % of its slag layer
mass. The nucleus of the star has resumed its powerful peeling and scattering its
matter in space. The restoration of the slag layer has taken more than half a
billion years. In doing so, it has been spent a lot of matter which has led to sharp
decrease of the sizes of the Sun.

Destruction of the Red Dwarf and its planetary system

    The red Dwarf with its system is initially a wandering company of planets.
Being still in their prime, this group of planets can fly into the zone of any star
system and collide with its stars and planets. Any planets of this group can be
captured by foreign stars and become a part of a foreign planetary system. When
this happens, the orbit and the rotation of such a planetary system would, for
certain, sharply differ from the general scheme of structure of the given star
system.
    Moreover, if the Red Dwarf has entered into a foreign system with its speed at
a certain distance from the star – so the Dwarf can become a satellite of this star
together with all its company.
    The possibility of collision with other star systems waits upon the company of
planets of the Red Dwarf during its entire life. But now our interest is how the
natural life of the Dwarf and its planets will end.
    During the entire life of the matter, it is accompanied with two basic types of
processes, namely, the thermal processes and the processes of disintegration.
    The Red Dwarf is in the regime of powerful thermal processes. The supergiant
planet generates light and gaseous substances in huge quantities, which then
sublimate to space. In the course of time, this leads to that the Red Dwarf starts to
decrease in sizes and mass. Thermal processes lose their intensity, and the planet
becomes gradually colder.
    With the reduction of mass, the Red Dwarf loses its gravitation. Planetary
systems move away from it more and more, until such a moment comes when
outside planetary systems gradually start to leave the system.
    The planetary system of the Red Dwarf gradually collapses.
    Planetary systems start free navigation, but they are subject to the same fate.
Satellites also move away from warm central planets and finally they break up
into separate planets as well.
    The Red Dwarf starts changing its status. In the beginning of this transient
process, it becomes a Brown Dwarf. Then it passes into the regime of a giant
planet, a large planet and so on until it completely cools down and turns into a
rather light and cold planet.
    Similar processes are inherent in all hot planets. They rather quickly lose their
mass and become cold planets.
    Cold planets are losing their mass for a very long time, but finally they
also have to be completely dissolved like meteorites.
                                         38


    Processes of disintegration of planets until their complete dissolution are very
long. Time necessary for the complete dissolution of a cold planet is tens-fold
longer than the lifetime of a galaxy.
    But the life of any galaxy is closely connected with the activity of the
central Red Giant. Therefore cold planets never have time to finish their life
due to complete dissolution.
    Wandering planets, unlike meteorites, are somewhat slow; they possess
considerable mass and gravitation. Therefore they cannot leave the limits of their
galaxy in any way. With the disintegration of the galaxy, planetary systems of
Red and Brown Dwarfs gradually get away towards the center of a galaxy where
they finally break up into separate planets and planetary systems.
    When the galaxy turns into the Globular Cluster, all the rests of wandering
planets accumulate in it. In Globular Clusters, stars fly in a very dense stream.
This stream of very closely spaced stars includes many White Dwarfs, which
often blow up. Therefore wandering planets more often get into fatal situations.
    The galaxy finishes its life in such a way that all the rests of the Globular
Cluster including the rests of wandering planets fall onto the Red Giant.

Space Cataclysms, Antiworld, etc.

    The material part of the Universal space is simply filled with every possible
cataclysms. It is likely to be possible to classify them somehow between weak
and strong, catastrophic and leading to global disasters, although everything in
the World is relative.
    No matter what our relation to the World surrounding us may be, in any
case we have still a very long way to go toward looking at it from the position
of the Supreme Reason, even when we would know and understand its
principles. The world surrounding us is thought out up to the last detail. It is
logical and rational. Laws, by which it lives, are working and carried out. It
is supported in the necessary condition and governed according to the will of
the Creator.
    In our World, all conditions for life, development and prosperitiy are
created for living beings, including us. In this World ABSOLUTELY
EVERYTHING IS POSSIBLE, whatever our imagination could suggest.
    But living beings on their way of adaptation, especially we people would look
at this World from the point of view of our well-being and safety still for long.
Therefore we shall consider space cataclysms, so to say, from the point of view of
our safety.

    It is possible to assign to minor cataclysms collisions of particles with other
particles and with various space objects; collisions of particles with antiparticles;
all possible radiations; falling of small meteorites on our planet, which cannot
cause us big harm, etc.
                                         39


     I would class the disintegration of the Black Hole among strong cataclysms.
Biological living objects live in fully formed galaxies, therefore the far-away
disintegrating Black Holes cannot cause them harm.
    Black Holes attract interest in terms of studying this phenomenon and
observing the colorful firework of disintegration. But being in the area of effect of
BH fields without due protection is impossible for biological objects. Therefore,
if the galaxy flies close to the Black Hole, biological civilizations should put
protection on their planet or move to live in safe space areas.
    Our galaxy "Milky Way" is now approaching to the Black Hole. The
Solar System will be found in the field of action of BH fields which would be
fatal for us within the period of the order of 65-70 thousand Terrestrial
years.
    Today most of us believe that it is possible not to think about such things
at all, but I want to remind that within 70 thousand years there will live on
the Earth, near the even hotter Sun, no other people, but ourselves, that is
the same people who live today.
    I am afraid that these two circumstances – flying close to the BH and
approach of our Sun to transition to the condition of a White Dwarf – make
our Curators to apply extraordinary, emergency measures to us.
    For our Life System, we are Children who should become a Space
Civilization – such is a Law. We should learn to estimate rightly the life
processes, to make correct decisions and to carry out them. We should make
transition from the Childhood to the Adult life by ourselves, without
pressure from the chiefs. But there is nothing we want to do for the
elimination of our main problems which avalanche upon us.
    We have missed time! Today the problem is already not one of the rescue
of the population of Earth. Today there is a question of rescuing the Human
Civilization!!!
    Our Curators cannot leave us to the mercy of fate in the face of imminent
dangers. Pressure will be put upon us it. We will be forced to become a Space
Civilization, whether we want that or not. And for this transition to the
higher level of development, very many people – most of us – will have to pay
very high price – our lives in the coming years. On May 03, 2005. 23:25.

    It is likely to be related to the catastrophic cataclysms all those cataclysms,
which can bring the planet to ruin. Among such cataclysms may be collision of
the planet with large meteorites – comets, asteroids and with antimeteorites,
collisions with wandering planets and certainly the explosion of the White Dwarf.
    But in space, there are catastrophes of a global scale. All galaxies fly in
space in random directions that leads to the formation of galactic clusters and to
their collisions. Certainly, galaxies can collide in any place, but it occurs much
more often in clusters. In space, there are two kinds of collision of galaxies.
                                          40



       Collisions of the galaxies consisting of identical matters

    Each galaxy consists of hundreds billions of stars, around each of which
thousands of planets rotate. Besides, the space volume of the galaxy is filled with
a multitude of particles and meteorites of various sizes. All this aggregation flies
in space along a certain path and with a huge speed, of the order of 200-500 km/s.
    Galaxies, in their volume, have various density of stars, which changes from
the periphery to the center. Star systems have the sizes of the order of 12 light
hours. In the external layers of a galaxy star systems are spaced several light
years apart. In the internal layers they are located more densely, at distances less
than one light year from each other.
    Galaxies collide on crossed paths. The cases in which galaxies collide on
parallel paths are rare. Usually galaxies, at huge speeds, get into the volume of
each other. There occur a multitude of mutual collisions between objects of the
galaxies. In such cases, speeds of impacts are so high that large meteorites can
split minor planets into several pieces. Splinters of planets from the first impacts
scatter in all directions and then again, continue to participate in the general
confrontation.
    After the exit from the area of collision the rests of the galaxies continue their
flight. Over the period of collision the galaxies can lose up to 50 % of their
planets, and the remaining planets would be fairly beaten by meteorites. A great
number of meteorites from the area of collision scatter over the entire space.
    In the collision of galaxies consisting of the identical matters, the stars of
these galaxies practically will not suffer. When a meteorite falls at a high speed
on a star, it penetrates into the slag layer of the star and dissolves in it. A large
planet would add the mass of the star. In this case it can somewhat change the
direction of its flight. At the head-on collision of two stars they would rebound
from each other like two balls, somewhat change the direction of their flight and
strongly damage the slag layer which would restore only within several hundreds
of millions of years.
    Collisions of galaxies consisting of the identical matters are very fatal for their
planets; therefore it is unsafe for the biological civilizations to be in such galaxies
in the period of their collision.

     Collision of galaxies formed of matter and of antimatter

    Collisions of galaxies formed of different matters are the most fatal
cataclysms in the Universe. See Photo 5.
    Collisions of galaxies formed of different matters are much more fatal than
collisions of galaxies from the identical matters. The reaction of annihilation
leads to the destruction of identical amounts of masses of the colliding matters
with the transformation of these matters into radiation and with the release of
huge energies.
                                         41


    In the close encounter of galaxies, the first impact is absorbed by particles of
every kind, which fill the space volume of the galaxies. Masses of these particles
are huge, but the density of particles is very low. Therefore at the penetration of
galaxies into each other, these particles very quickly burn out and do not cause
any significant influence on other objects of galaxies.
    When larger objects – meteorites, planets and stars start to collide with each
other at huge speeds, these collisions are accompanied by explosions of immense
power. Planetary systems are broken into a multitude of splinters and scatter in
different directions with a huge speed. In this case, planetary systems are broken
in another way than resulting from the explosion of the White Dwarf.
    Any two planets from different galaxies can become an epicenter of such
explosion. The capacity of explosion caused by the collision of two planets
considerably exceeds the capacity of explosion of the White Dwarf. The planets
of two star systems consisting of matter and antimatter are broken by the
seemingly directional explosion and start to scatter as a huge cloud of splinters in
some direction and with the added speed.
    Streams of splinters quickly enough reach the neighboring planetary systems,
break them, and there appear new streams of splinters. All planetary systems from
the two galaxies take part in the mutual destruction.




                                      Photo 5

    On the Photo 5, streams of splinters that participate in the mutual destruction
are similar to lightnings – they look like white braided strings where large
bundles are visible. The photograph is taken from a huge distance, which means
that the bundles typical for explosions extend to tens of thousands of light years.
                                         42


    In the collision of galaxies formed of different matters, no planet has any
chances to remain whole. After this fight, even almost no meteorites remain, but
the situation is somewhat different where stars are involved.
    It is impossible to destroy a star only by external action. The immense
explosions that accompany such collisions sweep the slag layer off the star. No
collision, including even the frontal collision of two stars formed of different
matters and at a huge speed, can split the nuclei of these stars. Having lost their
slag layer, the nuclei of the stars start to peel ntensively.
    Such “naked”, but very bright stars are visible on Photo 5. They look like
round white points on the background of the general battle. Such stars are visible
particularly well on Photo 6 where the collision already comes to an end and all
the area around the traces of fight is spangled with large white points.
    Certainly, the nuclei of small, as before the collision, stars, start to lose
quickly their mass and, not having had time to restore their slag layer, pass into
the regime of the White Dwarf and explode. Larger stars, already after the exit
from the area of collision, having lost a significant part of their mass, brightly
burn and restore their slag layer for a very long time.




                                     Photo 6

    After such a catastrophe, the galaxies remain without planets and almost
without meteorites. The quantity of stars in their structure is considerably
reduced.
    Except for the above-described processes which occur in the collision of
galaxies formed of different matters, catastrophic processes proceed at the level
of latent matter as well.
    When we have considered the disintegration of Black Holes and the birth of
young galaxies, it has been said that the latent matter does not leave its galaxy but
                                          43


accompanies it. When the collision of a galaxy with an antigalaxy takes place, the
latent matter of these galaxies which are also divided into matter and antimatter,
enter into collision with mutual devastation as well.
    The quantity of particles of the Second Level that fill the entire volume of the
galaxy is many orders of magnitude above the quantity of particles of the First
Level. Therefore, at the level of latent matter, the most powerful and probably
more destructive processes proceed which even start to be evident at the First
Level. They appear in the form of bluish-green luminescences which are well
visible on the Photo 5.
    This luminescence, bright enough, does not bring any power components to
the First level. We see a kind of total luminescence accumulated by a huge
galactic volume. I shall try to explain it by an example from our experience.
    In the passage of sunlight through the terrestrial atmosphere, air detaches a
blue spectrum, with the result that we see air in the form of a blue luminescence.
    Such luminescence can be obtained only in the passage of light through a
thick enough layer of air.
    In those areas where the mutual destruction of the latent matter has come to
the end, residual, but still very powerful collisions of planetary systems look like
plaits colored in reddish tints. Such reddish plaits are visible on Photo 5, in its top
right corner. In Photo 6, in the center, the blue luminescence loses its intensity,
but there still remain a lot of red plaits.

Antiworld

    I think that many people have formed a notion of hostility and opposition of
the Antiworld in relation to our World. But it is not so.

  The material part of the Universe is divided into the World and the
Antiworld for the technological purposes. And the Antiworld is equally our
World to the full.

    The properties of matter of the Antiworld are absolutely identical to those of
matter of our World. The Antiworld differs by nothing from us in the whole
spectrum of life processes, ranging from the birth of galaxies to their
disintegration. The only thing that divides us is that our matter cannot coexist in
contact with the antimatter, although it is also possible to get round this problem.
    The material part of the Universe exists in the form of galaxies and
antigalaxies, which are separated structures divided by significant space
distances. Therefore the condition of division of matters is well observed, except
for the cases of collisions.
    Intergalactic space is nothing but areas of the universe, to which galaxies so to
say dump their waste matter of the First and the Second Levels. Streams of
particles and antiparticles collide and annihilate each other in such areas, thereby
                                         44


the space is almost thoroughly released from matter and is prepared for the
reception of new Black Holes.
   All radiations and rests of particles are lifted out to the boundary areas of
the Prohibited Zone and then instantly dumped onto the Sphere of the
Universe.

Using the Possibilities of the material World

    All the Material World of the Universe, that is its First and Second
Levels, is completely subordinated to the Third, Information Level.
    The third Level supports the Material Essence of matter and controls its
Functionality. It adjusts the Energy Potential and carries the full
information on the condition of matter at the nucleonic level, on its Present,
Past and Future.
    Above we have said that the matter of the First Level is created from the
particles of the Second Level, which have found additional materialization. The
transition of particles from one level to another is carried out by the Information
Level.
    During the birth of the galaxy, at the moment of collapse, the Information
Level automatically carries out the change of the Mode of Materialization of
matter in a certain part of particles of the Second Level.
    The domination of the Third Level is boundless in the territory of the
Material Zone and the Zone of Alienation, but, on the other hand, the
Prohibited zone is a foreign territory.
    The Information Level is a Universal computer which operates as though in
an automatic mode to fix absolutely Everything that occurs to a matter at each
moment of its life.
    Living beings have the right to use the Possibilities of the Universal
computer. Having achieved a certain level of development, living beings attain a
definite level of Admission to use the Possibilities of the Information Level.
    The first that will be allowed to people is to realize levitation and the actions
close to levitation. The second is moving in space and in time. That is, we shall
be allowed to carry out teleportation in the mode of real time and teleportation to
the Past and the Future.
    Let's try to clear up and understand what is the mechanism of the realization
of the given Opportunities.

Levitation

    The possibility of levitation is connected with the artificial change of the
mode of materialization. For obtaining levitation, that is easy soaring, the
matter of a person undergoes the processes of reduction of its materialization
to the level of the boundary between the First and the Second Levels.
                                         45


    The mass of a human body decreases by some orders of magnitude, where the
human organism completely keeps its functionality. With the reduction of mass,
the person almost completely loses its mass and gravitation, that is, achieves
weightlessness. In the mode of levitation, the matter still remains at the First
Level – it means that if you are exposed to light, you will cast a shadow. Any one
can take you by your hand and to feel it in his hand.
    To achieve the directed flight in any direction, some parts of your body will
raise somewhat their materialization and, accordingly, gravitation and will be
directionally drawn toward surrounding matter, moving therewith in the
necessary direction and at the desirable speed.
    All the actions connected with the use of any Possibilities are realized on
the basis of your order and executed at the level of Subconsciousness of your
Desires.
    You will not be aware at all of what it is necessary to involve for the purpose
of achieving this or that action, but you will be very good at this, according to
your desire. You, in fact, do not know what muscles should act when you turn
your head, when you go or take anything by hand.
    If, having come to the mode of levitation, you will lower even more your
materialization, your matter will pass to the Second Level. With the transition to
the Second Level, your organism continues to function in a former mode,
however it does not need any additional energy feed.
    You see and hear. If your materialization is at a boundary level, you are still
visible. But the fact that you are visible does not mean that you are exposed to the
light from the First Level like all surrounding subjects. You are visible because
the materialization of your matter is very high for the Second Level. If you start
talking – you will not be heard.
    The matter, of which you consist now, is so thin that all subjects at the First
Level become transparent for you. It is just that condition where a person can
pass through walls.
    If you lower the materialization a bit still more – you become Invisible to the
people found at the First Level.
    While using the Possibilities, living beings are authorized to give necessary
properties to non-living matter. It means that except for yourself personally, you
have the right to move or to make invisible any subjects, but there are certain
restrictions concerning this feature.
    The man can at will give simultaneously various properties to different parts
of his body or to small subjects. It means that you can leave visible any part of
your body, but it will be transparent for the matter of the First Level, that is, you
can be pierced by any subject and to suffer no harm. It is possible to make
invisible any part of your body, but your entire organism will continue to function
in the former normal mode.
                                          46



   Teleportation

    Teleportation is a process of carrying a subject to other point of space.
    Any material object consists of a quantity of various atoms which are grouped
among themselves in a certain way. The information on the whole matter and its
condition at any instant of its life lies in the bank of memory of the Information
Level, including that on the given object.
    At the moment of teleportation over the channels of the Third Level there
is an instant transfer of the information on the object to any point of space
which you have ordered. In this case the object is not transferred anywhere.
    At the moment of teleportation the matter of your body or of a subject is
immediately transferred into the mode of the Second level matter where it already
breaks down into its constituent atoms. That is, you or the subject disappear from
the First Level and simply turn into the matter of the Second Level. This matter is
not transferred anywhere. It remains in the same place where the transition of
matter from one condition to another has occurred.
    In a new point of space from the latent matter, which is in the given area, an
object is made according to the transferred information. Then it is transformed to
the First Level, in full conformity with its condition to the moment of
teleportation from the point of sending.
    Thus, the matter of the Second Level filling the galactic space in the case
of teleportation plays a role of the so-called Background Matter in relation to
the matter of the First Level.
    With the desire to make teleportation, you define the area of teleportation and
mentally give the order to action. Then all occurs automatically. You have the
right to teleport subjects necessary for you to move together with yourself or
separately.
    It is possible to be teleported at any distance, beginning from several
centimeters or meters, say, from the bedroom to the dining room, to billions of
light years. We can be instantly transferred to any point of the Universe, to which
the action of the Third level expands. This means that we will never be admitted
to the boundary region of the Prohibited Zone.
    Space civilizations within the galaxy move from one stellar system to another
only by means of teleportation. Within the limits of the system, it is possible at
will to pass to other forms of movement.
    The possibility of teleportation is used with travelling to other galaxies. In this
case the object is decomposed into background matter in its own galaxy and is
mounted from the background matter of another galaxy.

   If another galaxy consists of antimatter in relation to your galaxy – so
you, materializing in another galaxy from the local background matter, find
the body from antimatter.
                                          47


   This makes it possible for living beings to travel easily over all galaxies of the
universe. In so doing, your functionality will completely correspond to its original
condition, and it will be adapted to the material of another galaxy.

Teleportation into the past or the future

     Teleportation into the past or the future practically is differed in no way from
the usual teleportation.
      The difference between the usual teleportation and the teleportation in time
consists in the correction of temporal space, which you have ordered together
with the usual teleportation.
     You order the travel and get to the required place and to the required time. In
so doing, getting to the new place, you find yourself in it in the regime of real
local time.
     By the way, travel in time, for example, from the future to the past,
immediately raises the question of cause-effect changes, to which such travel can
lead.
     In this regard, it is possible to say that the Universe does not make significant
separation between the past and the future. The Present, the Past and the Future –
the entire temporal substance flows as though simultaneously. Therefore, if some
person wants to move from the Future to the Past, so this displacement is
already recorded in the database of the Information level even before his
birth.
     When in the Past the time of such displacement from the Future approaches –
it is accomplished. The man lives in the real time of this period and even carries
out particular actions, which can lead to certain serious changes in the life of
society, although the time of birth of this man has not come yet.
     All significant developments effected by such people, are perceived by us as
historical events, although this person in fact does not still exist and, moreover,
after being born, he will not immediately understand that he wants to return to the
past. Therefore, with the displacement of people from the future to the past,
no cause-and-effect events occur.

Local Teleportation

    On our way to acquiring the Maximum Knowledge, comprehending
profound processes and fuller understanding the Possibilities of the World,
we shall invent new technologies based on new knowledge.
    In the nearest decades we shall discover the technical possibilities of access to
the channels connecting the First and the Second material Levels. Such channels
exist. These technological possibilities will allow us to carry out the elementary
kinds of teleportation that will cardinally change our life.
                                           48


    All our life involves the use of millions of objects produced by the industry.
Tens of thousands of major and minor factories, mills and small enterprises
produce all kinds of things which we consume and which frequently do not meet
necessary quality requirements.
    When our knowledge of nanotechnologies will extend so that we can
make Flow Charts of manufacturing material products at the atomic level,
when we shall find technical possibilities for coming out to the Second
Material Level, then after combining these technologies we shall be able to
make any products, of any complexity and of the highest quality from
chemical elements at hand, by means of local teleportation.
    It means that we would be able to make things necessary for us, whether it be
brilliants or machines and buildings, from any dust and dirt literally lying
underfoot. Moreover, we would be able to invent new products of any complexity
and immediately to draw flowcharts for their production and to manufacture
them.
    Having flowcharts for producing particular durable goods, for example,
machines, planes or buildings, we can constantly watch and maintain their
technical condition. That is, it is possible to prolong the life of products for any
duration, and so they will be always like new.
    Now let’s talk about foodstuffs. Practically everything we use for food is of
animal and vegetable origin. Certainly, no animal or plant may be killed. In fact
we destroy a living being which is in the future to become a member of some
space civilization. Today, for us, it is the compelled measure, but this problem
can be resolved.
    Any living being is the symbiosis of a Particle of Life and Nonliving Matter.
Each cell of an organism bears in itself the information on the whole organism,
and each cell of a living being always involves a part of the Particle of Life that
makes matter alive.
    Besides, each living being, the man included, has a duplicate of its body in
which there is also our Particle of Life and which is created from the matter of the
Second Level. This duplicate, during the lifetime of our body, coincides with our
body. Our bodies from the First and the Second Levels are closely linked to each
other. But they don’t exactly copy each other.
    Our invisible duplicate is our main body, which supports the due condition
of our body at the First Level and struggles with our diseases, restoring it in his
own likeness. But frequently we transfer these diseases to the duplicate through
thinking on diseases, and then it is practically impossible for us to recover.
    If a finger of a person is cut off, then after a while parts of our Particle of Life
start to move from the tissues of the finger to the main body, whereas the finger
becomes a lifeless set of chemical elements. Therefore, if we have managed to
sew back on and to connect the ruptured systems within a certain time, it would
knit.
                                        49


    When the whole body perishes, the Particle of Life completely transfers into
its duplicate at the Second Level, which leaves the body from the First Level and
moves aside from it. Then the person continues to live in his duplicate at the
Second Level. But that is quite another theme.
    Now, let’s touch upon animal food. We use for food the meat of killed
animals in which there are already no particles of life. Thus, it is also a set of
chemical elements for which it is possible to draw flowcharts and to copy them
by means of local teleportation.
    In plants, transfer of particles of life differs from that of animals, but the
copies of vegetable food obtained by their copying from flowcharts, would no
longer comprise any particles of life and would be quite suitable for food.

   Holodenko Andre
     May 21, 2005

   Translation:    Vladimir M. Merlis
                   12.9.2005

								
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