_First Childrens Encyclopedia

					First Children’s

First reference for young readers and writers
First Children’s

                 LONDON, NEW YORK,
             MELBOURNE, MUNICH, and DELHI
         Editors Penny Smith, Lorrie Mack,
             Caroline Stamps, Lee Wilson
         Project Art Editor Mary Sandberg
    Designers Laura Roberts-Jensen, Lauren Rosier                             Our world
         Publishing Manager Bridget Giles                                      6–7        Our world
            Art Director Rachael Foster                                        8–9        The Arctic
            Production Editor Siu Chan                                         10–11      Canada and Alaska
         Jacket Designers Natalie Godwin,                                      12–13      United States of America
                Laura Roberts-Jensen                                           14–15      Mexico and Central America
                                                                               16–17      South America
Contents first published in various titles of the DK First Reference series    18–19      Africa
 (Illustrated Atlas, Encyclopedia, Human Body Encyclopedia, Science
 Encyclopedia, Animal Encyclopedia, Nature Encyclopedia, Dinosaur              20–21      Scandinavia
      Encyclopedia, Space Encyclopedia) in Great Britain between               22–23      UK and Ireland
                  2002 and 2008 by Dorling Kindersley.
         This edition first published in Great Britain in 2010 by              24–25      The Low Countries
       Dorling Kindersley Limited, 80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL                 26–27      France
             Copyright © 2010 Dorling Kindersley Limited                       28–29      Germany and the Alps
                        A Penguin Company                                      30–31      Spain and Portugal
                           2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1
                                                                               32–33      Italy
                             176265 – 11/09                                    34–35      Central Eastern Europe
                                                                               36–37      Eastern Europe
 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
 stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any            38–39      Southeast Europe
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,          40–41      Russia and Central Asia
     without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.
                                                                               42–43      Middle East
                  A CIP catalogue record for this book                         44–45      Southern Asia
                  is available from the British Library.                       46–47      Southeast Asia
                        ISBN 978-1-40535-273-4                                 48–49      China and neighbours
                   Colour reproduction by MDP, UK                              50–51      Japan
                 Printed and bound by Toppan, China
                                                                               52–53      Australia
                            Discover more at                                   54–55      New Zealand and the Pacific
                            www.dk.com                                         56–57      Antarctica
                                                                               58–59      Flags of the world

                                                                              People and society
                                                                               60–61      World of people
                                                                               62–63      Religious lands
                                                                               64–65      Religious life
                                                                               66–67      Writing and printing
                                                                               68–69      Art and architecture
                                                                               70–71      Music
                                                                               72–73      Theatre and dance
                                                                               74–75      Clothes and fashion
                                                                               76–77      Sport and leisure
                                                                               78–79      Working people

History of people                 148–149   How plants work         226–227   Changing states
 80–81     World of history       150–151   Fungi                   228–229   Amazing atoms
 82–83     Early people           152–153   Micro life              230–231   Molecules
 84–85     Ancient Egypt          154–155   Food chains             232–233   Reactions and
 86–87     Ancient Greece                                                     changes
 88–89     The Romans            Ecosystems and habitats            234–235   What is energy?
 90–91     The Vikings            156–157   Ecosystems              236–237   Electricity
 92–93     Aztecs, Incas, and     158–159   Polar regions           238–239   Light
           Mayas                  160–161   Deciduous forests       240–241   Sound
 94–95     Knights and castles    162–163   Rainforests             242–243   Forces and motion
 96–97     20th century           164–165   A sea of grass          244–245   Machines
                                  166–167   Life in a meadow
Human body                        168–169   At the water hole      Planet Earth
 98–99     Your amazing body      170–171   Desert regions          246–247   Our planet
 100–101   What makes you         172–173   Life in thin air        248–249   Earth’s structure
           you?                   174–175   Cool caves              250–251   Rocks and
 102–103   Building blocks        176–177   The flowing current               minerals
 104–105   Organizing the         178–179   Still waters            252–253   Shaping the land
           body                   180–181   Survival in the sea     254–255   Soil
 106–107   Bones and muscles                                        256–257   Resources in the
 108–109   Brain and senses      Age of the dinosaurs                         ground
 110–111   Breathing              182–183   Age of the              258–259   Fresh and salt
 112–113   All about skin                   dinosaurs                         water
 114–115   Body defences          184–185   What is a               260–261   The water cycle
 116–117   Eating and                       dinosaur?               262–263   The atmosphere
           digestion              186–187   A hip question          264–265   Weather
 118–119   Making a baby          188–189   Find a friend           266–267   The energy crisis
 120–121   Amazing facts          190–191   Eggstraordinary
           about YOU!                       eggs                   The universe
                                  192–193   Sauropods               268–269   What is space?
The living world                  194–195   Cretaceous cows         270–271   Where does space
 122–123   The living world       196–197   Horns and frills                  begin?
 124–125   What is an animal?     198–199   T. Rex                  272–273   Our place in space
 126–127   Types of animal        200–201   Big and bold            274–275   The Milky Way
 128–129   The world of           202–203   Meet the raptors        276–277   Rockets
           mammals                204–205   Monsters of the         278–279   Moon journey
 130–131   Marsupials                       deep                    280–281   Men on the moon
 132–133   Water mammals          206–207   How was it made?        282–283   Space shuttle
 134–135   The world of birds     208–209   What happened?          284–285   Working in space
 136–137   The world of           210–211   Living dinosaurs        286–287   Exploring Mars
           reptiles                                                 288–289   The Sun
 138–139   The world of          Science and technology             290–291   A star is born
           amphibians             212–213   What is science?        292–293   The Big Bang
 140–141   The world of           214–217   Advances in science
           insects                218–219   Being a scientist      Reference section
 142–143   The world of           220–221   Science and             294–297   Glossary
           non-insects                      everyday life           298–303   Index
 144–145   The world of fish      222–223   All living things       304       Acknowledgements
 146–147   What is a plant?       224–225   Properties of matter

Using this book                                                                                                                                               The First Children’s
                                                                                                                                                              Encyclopedia is divided into
                                                                                                                                                              ten colour-coded chapters so
                                                                                                                                                              you can see what you are
In these pages you can find a country                                                                                                                         looking for at a glance:
and discover its major features, look at                                                                                                                                                      Our world

culture and history, and observe wildlife                                                                                                                                          People and society

and ecosystems. You can also explore the                                                                                                                                            History of people

world of science – from how technology                                                                                                                                                  Human body

works to what’s going on inside the                                                                                                                                                  The living world

                                                                                                                                                                              Ecosystems and habitats
human body. Enjoy a thrilling journey!                                                                                                                                           Age of the dinosaurs

                                                                                                                                                                               Science and technology

     What’s what on a page?                                                                                                                                                             Planet Earth

                                                                                                                                                                                         The universe
     The pages have special features
     that show you how to get your hands                                                                                                                                             The Curiosity quiz will get
     on as much information as possible!                                                                                                                                             you searching through each
                                                                                                                                                                                     section to find the pictures.
     Look out for these:
       The living world                                                                                                                                                                  The living world
                                                                                                                                                                                      Curiosity quiz
                  The living world                                                                                                                          Insects such as
                                                                                                                                                                                      Look through The
                                                                                                                                                                                      living world pages and
                      Our amazing world is filled with millions                                                                                             butterflies are
                                                                                                                                                            invertebrates.            see if you can identify
                     of species, or types, of living thing. They                                                                                                                      the pictures below.
                           can be as big as an elephant or so                                                 Plants
                            small you have to look through                                                    Plants cannot move
                  Spider                                                                                      around like animals. To
                            a microscope to see them.                                             Dragonfly
                                                                                                              survive and grow, they
                                                                       Micro-organisms                        have to make their own
                    Animals                                            Micro-organisms are very
                                                                                                              food. In turn, plants
             The animal kingdom is                                     tiny – they are made up
                                                                       of a single cell.                      provide food for many
            made up of vertebrates
                                                                       This amoeba is                         animals and fungi.
        (animals with a backbone)                                      magnified more
        and invertebrates (animals                                     than 100 times.                                          Signs of life
        without a backbone).                                                                                       Living things share some
                                                                                                                    characteristics. They all
                                           Mammals, birds,                    Sunflower                         need food and oxygen. They
                                           reptiles, amphibians,                                                  also grow, reproduce, and
                            Coral reef     and fish are vertebrates.
                                                                                                                 adapt to their environment.

                                                                                                                                   Fungi        Tree frog
                                                                                                                   Fungi (like toadstools,
                                                                                                               mushrooms, and moulds)
                                                                                                                   are neither plants nor
                                                                                                              animals, but they’re more
                                                                                                               like plants than animals.

                                                                                                                                                                              an expert
                                                                                                                                                                              126-127 Types
                                                                                                                                                                                of animals
                                                                                                                                                                               148-149 How
                                                                                                                                                                               plants work

       122                                                                                                                   Invertebrates – they make up 97 per cent of all animal species.                123
                        Which group of animals has the most members?

                                                                                              Become an expert tells
                                                                                              you where to look for more
                                                                                              information on related subjects.

                                         There is a question at the bottom of each page.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Using this book

                                                                                  Text gives you

                 Hands on
                                                                                  about a subject.

               Want to try
                      Materials science                                                                                                                                                                                                 Properties of matter
          something for yourself? of matter
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gases can be
                                                                                                                                                                                                    squashed, or
                      What a
             Then look atthey are... Some materials are hardflexible.
                                        brittle, while others are
                             There are many different
                                                                  and                                                                                                                               compressed, by
                                                                                                                                                                                                    squeezing more
                                                                                                                                                                                                    into the same

             “Hands on” tip. properties of matter.
                                        Some materials are colourful, while
                                        others are transparent. These kinds
                                    Boiling point is the
                                    hottest a liquid can get                                                                                      Brittleness
                                                                                                                                                                                                    space. This is what
                                                                                                                                                                                                    happens when you
                                                                                                                                                                                                    pump up a tyre.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foot pump
                                    before becoming a gas.           of features are called “properties”.                                         Some materials, such as glass, are                Gas can be compressed
                                                                                                                                                  very brittle and will break when                  because its particles are far
                                    Freezing point is the                                                                                                                                           apart. A bicycle pump pushes
                                    temperature at which                                                     A cork floats on oil.
                                                                                                                                                  pushed out of shape. Safety glass is              the particles closer together.
                                    a liquid becomes a solid.                                                Oil floats on water.                 designed to crack rather than break.                                                                                    Diamond is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the hardest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Gas particles
                                    Plasticity is how well                                                                                        Hardness                                                                                                                mineral.
                                                                                                            Does it float?                        A scientist called Friedrich Mohs created a
                                    a solid can be reshaped.                                                                                                                                                                                              Corundum
                                                                                                            It’s easy to learn about              scale of ten minerals to compare how hard they
                                                                                                            some properties, such                 are. Many materials are graded on this scale.
Hands on tells you                  Conductivity is how well
                                    a material lets electricity
                                                                                                            as the ability to float.
                                                                                                            The amount of matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       6               7           8

how to get stuck in                 or heat travel through it.

                                    Malleability is how well
                                                                                                            in a certain volume of
                                                                                                            an object is called its                             2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Feldspar          Quartz      Topaz

                                                                                                            density. Objects and                             Gypsum          3
and try an experiment               a solid can be shaped
                                    without breaking.                                                       liquids float on liquids
                                                                                                                                                   Talc                    Calcite

                                                                                                            of a higher density and
for yourself.                       Tensile strength is how
                                    much a material can
                                                                                                            sink through liquids
                                                                                                            of a lower density.
                                                                                                                                                 mineral                                                                                                                                  Photographs
                                    stretch without breaking.

                                    Flammability is how                                                    A plastic building brick sinks                     H a n ds o n                                                                                                                show you
                                    easily and quickly a                                                   through oil but floats on water.
                                                                                                                                                              Collect some
                                    substance will catch fire.

                                    Reflectivity is how well
                                                                                                             An onion sinks through oil and
                                                                                                             water, but floats on syrup.
                                                                                                                                                            different pebbles
                                                                                                                                                       and put them in order of
                                                                                                             Syrup sinks below water.

Buttons contain mini                a material reflects light.
                                    Water reflects well.
                                                                                                                                                      hardness. A pebble is harder
                                                                                                                                                     than another if it scratches it.                                                                                                     about a subject.
                                                                                                                                                       This is how Mohs worked
                                    Transparency is how
facts: quick information            well a material will let
                                    light pass through it.
                                                                                  A good insulator
                                                                             Heat cannot easily pass
                                                                                                                                                              out his scale.

at your fingertips.                 Flexibility is how easily
                                                                             through some materials.
                                                                                 These are known as                                               A smooth flow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Quick quiz
                                    a material can be bent.                                                                                       Some liquids flow more
                                                                            insulators. For example,
                                                                                                                                                  easily than others. It depends
                                    Solubility is how well
                                                                              aerogel can completely
                                                                           block the heat of a flame.                                             on their “stickiness”, or viscosity.                                                                                                    questions are
                                    a substance will dissolve,
                                                                          But don’t try this at home!                                             Hot lava from a volcano flows
                                    such as salt in water.                                                                                        slowly because it is sticky.                                                                                                            at the bottom
                            224                                                                                                                                  Yes, a diamond is the hardest mineral of all. It will scratch quartz.                                          225
                                                                   Is a diamond harder than quartz?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          of each page.

                             The universe                                                                                                                                                                                                     Men on the moon
                                                                                                                                                  Here comes Earth
                             Men on the moon                                                                                                      Instead of the moon rising,
                                                                                                                                                  the astronauts saw
                                                                                                                                                  Earth rising over the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              How did they talk?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There’s no air in space, so
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Colour coding
                              On 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first                                                                    moon’s horizon – it                                                                         sound has nothing to travel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        identifies each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              through. Lunar astronauts
                              person to walk on the surface of the moon. He was                                                                   looked four times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              use radio equipment in
                              joined by Buzz Aldrin. A third astronaut,                                                                           bigger than the
                                                                                                                                                  moon looks                                                                                  their helmets.                            chapter at
                                                                                 d o r wha
                              Mike Collins, remained in orbit with the      ei r                                                                  from Earth.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a glance.


                              command and service modules.                     The lunar
                                                                           module computer
                                                                                                           on Apollo 11 had just
                                                                                                           71K of memory. Some
                                                                                                              calculators can                                                                                                                 Armstrong
                                                                                                              now store more
                                                                                                                than 500K.

                                                                                                                                                          We have transport!
                                                                                              The lunar      What did they do?                            Three later Apollo missions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This dish
                                                                                              module was      Armstrong and Aldrin                        each carried a small electric car,                                                              antennae
                                                                                              the Eagle.       spent almost 22 hours                      a lunar rover, which allowed the                                                                allowed the
                                                                                                                                                          astronauts to explore away from                                                                 astronauts to
                                                                                                               on the moon. About                                                                                                                         send pictures
                                                                                                                2.5 hours of this                         the lander. These were left on the                                                              to Earth.
                                                                                                               was spent outside                          moon when the astronauts left.
                                                                                                               the Eagle, collecting
                                                                                                              rock and soil samples,
                                                                                                             setting up experiments,
                                                                                                            and taking pictures.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   d or what
                                                                                                                                                                                                       One lunar rover
                                                                                                                                                                                                       reached a top
                                                                                 What was it like?

                                                                                                                                                                                                       speed of 22 km/h
                                                                                 Buzz Aldrin described                                                                                                 (13.5 mph).

                                                                                 the moon’s surface                                                Splashdown
                                                                                 as like nothing on
                                                                                 Earth. He said it
                                                                                 consisted of a fine,
                                                                                                                                                   The astronauts returned to
                                                                                                                                                   Earth in the Apollo 11 command
                                                                                                                                                   module. This fell through the
                                                                                                                                                   atmosphere and landed in the
                                                                                 dust, strewn with                                                 Pacific Ocean. A ringed float
                                                                                 pebbles and rocks.                                                helped to keep it stable.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Want to know
                             280                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 281
                                                                  Why is there no blue sky on the moon?                                                                                 Because the moon has no atmosphere.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          something surprising?
                     Every page is                                                                                                                                                                                                       Then look at a “Weird or
                     colour coded to                                                                                                                                                                                                            what?” tip.
                     show you which                                                                                                           Weird or what? are
                     chapter it’s in.                                                                                                         packed with extra weird
                                                                                                                                              or wonderful facts.

                                                                                      Check here for the answer.                                                                                                                                                                                             5
Our world

Our world
Land covers a third of
planet Earth, and water
and ice cover the rest.
We divide the land into
seven main chunks called
continents. The sea is
divided into five major                                             Atlantic
areas called oceans.               Pacific                           Ocean

                        Inside the Earth                           South
                        The core of the Earth is made             America
                       of metal – solid in the middle and
                     molten all around it. We live on a thin,
                   solid crust, a bit like the crust of a pie.

                                                    Where people live
                                                    This picture of Earth at
                                                    night was taken by a
                                                    satellite in space. The
                                                    bright bits are made
                                                    by lights on the surface.
                                                    They show where the
                                                    world’s big cities and
                                                    towns are.
        How long would a trip around the Equator take at walking speed?
 Arctic Ocean                                                            Our world


  Africa                                                           Ocean


                                                                           The Equator is
                                                                           an imaginary line
                             Indian                                        around the middle
                                                                           of the world.
                             Ocean            Australia

         hern Ocea runs all the
The So                          wa              y around Antar ctica

    Southern Ocean                                  Can you find...
                                                              The smallest continent?
                                                              The continent of Australia is
                        Antarctica                            also the world’s biggest island.

Seven continents                                              The most crowded
                                                              continent? About 3,500
North America, South America, Europe,                         million people live in Asia.
Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica are
                                                              The biggest ocean? The
Earth’s continents. Sometimes people call                     Pacific Ocean is as big as all
Europe and Asia one continent (Eurasia).                      other oceans put together.
                About a year (without stopping for a rest).                                    7
The Arctic

The Arctic                                                An imaginary line called
                                                          the Arctic Circle marks
                                                          the outer edge of the

At the top of the world is the North                      Arctic region.
                                                                                                a (U
Pole, and around this is an area                                                              sk
                                                                                           la      Prudhoe Bay

called the Arctic. The Arctic is mostly                                                                  a
ocean. In its centre is a gigantic lump                                                      o   rt
of floating ice that never completely

melts. Further out are the northern
tips of the continents and the huge
island of Greenland.
Arctic people                                                                          Queen         Arctic tern

Arctic people live in the icy lands                                                   Islands
around the Arctic Ocean. The
weather is too cold for growing
crops, so Arctic people get all their                                                      Ellesme
                                                                                                  re   Isla
food from animals. They survive
by fishing, herding reindeer, and                                Ptarmigan                       Qaanaaq

hunting seals and whales.


                                                                                               Polar bear

                    Who was the first person to reach the North Pole?
                                                                                                                The Arctic
                                                                               The Arctic tern catches small
                                                                               fish and shrimps by swooping
                                                                               across the surface of the sea.



                                                                                                         Pole to pole


                                                                                                          The Arctic tern spends


                                                                                                           most of its life flying.

                                                                                                            It breeds in the Arctic

      Ocean                                           Sea                                                    during the northern

                                                                                                              summer. Then it flies

                                                                                                               all the way to the
                                                                                                                Antarctic, where it
                                                                                                                stays during the

                                                                                                                southern summer.
                                                                          Arctic wolf
           The North Pole
                                                          Kara                                                 Keeping warm
                                                           Sea                                                 Arctic animals
                                           Franz                                                               have to endure
                                           Josef                                                              bitterly cold

                                           Land                                                               weather. Walruses
 Musk ox
                                                                                                             have a layer of
                                                               a Ze

                                                                                                            blubber (fat) to keep

                                                                                                           them warm. Polar


                                                                                                          bears and reindeer
                                                                                                         have thick coats of fur.
           an     d Sea                                  Barents
     re enl                                    Iceberg
                            Killer whale


  Norwegian Sea

                                 An American called Robert Peary, in 1909.                                                          9
 The Americas

 Canada and Alaska                                                                                                                             Ellesmere
 Canada is the second-largest country in the                                                                                                    Island

 world, and Alaska is the largest of all the US
 states. Despite their huge size, both places have
 small populations because much of the land                                                                                         Queen Elizabeth
 is covered in thick forest                                                                                                             Islands
 or frozen for most                      Oil drilling
 of the year.
                                                          Bay                                                                     Victoria Island
                   in gS


                                    pulling sled

                                                                                                                                  Musk ox
     g                      Alaska (USA)                                                           Great Bear
Berin                               Mount McKinley
                                                                    Ma                                 Lake
                                    (Denali)                             cke
                                    6,194m (20,320ft)        Yukon nzie
                                                             Territory                    Northwest Territories


                                      Valdez               Whitehorse
                                                                                      t ain


           Fur seal                                                                                                                             Mountie
                                                        Juneau                                                                                  (policeman)
                                                                                  Columbia                                     Grizzly

                                     Salmon                                                                                    bear

 The Trans-Alaskan Pipeline


                                                                                                       M             Alberta
                                                                      Totem pole                           ou

 The USA’s largest oil-drilling area is                                                                         nt
 in Alaska. A huge overground pipeline,                                                                              ai        Edmonton

 1,287 km (800 miles) long, carries the oil                                                         Timber
                                                        ic O

 from Prudhoe Bay to the port of Valdez.
                                                                    Vancouver        Vancouver
                                                                      Island                                                         Calgary


                                                                                                       Calgary skyline

                                                                                                                                         U S A
           What is the tallest mountain in North America, at 6,194 m (20,320 ft) high?
                                                                                                              Canada and Alaska
                                                                   E                                         Here are some of the main
                                                                                                             industries in the region.
                                                                                                                         Timber from trees is used
                                      W                                                                                  as building material or for
                                                              S                                                          making furniture.

                                                                                                                         Oil is used to make fuels
             Hooded seal                                                                                                 like petrol, and chemicals
                                                                                                                         such as plastics.

                            Baf                                                                                          Wheat is grown in the centre
                                     Isla                                                                                of Canada on prairies, which
                                                                                                                         are huge, flat fields.

                                                                                                                         Metals such as zinc,
                                                                                Right whales                             aluminium, gold, and silver
                                                      Iqaluit                   (whale watching is                       are mined in Canada.
                                                                                a popular activity)
                 Inuit               Canada goose
                                                                          bear              Newfoundland
 a           n          a            d            a                                           and Labrador
                                                                                                                 Newfoundland dog

                                                                                                                                                   St. John’s

                             Beluga whale and calf

                                                                   Québec                                            Edward
                                                                                                              New         Charlottetown
                                                                                                            Brunswick    Nova Scotia
                                                                                                                               Halifax                 c   e
           Maple leaf
                                                                                           Québec                Fredericton                       O


                             Ontario                    Snowboarding     CN Tower,
                                                     Lake                Toronto

                                                  S uperior            Lake
                                                                                            Lake Ontario

                                                                                         Niagara Falls
prairies                                                                          Erie

                                                                                                                               Harbour porpoises

                                                                                                           Mount McKinley (Denali).                          11
The Americas

United States of America
The United States                  Technology
of America is an                      Seattle
enormous country                  Olympia
                                                                                                         Grizzly bear
made up of 50 states. olu Washington                                                                     (brown bear)

                              mb                                                                                                                  Bison    Missouri
There are mountains, Salem River ia                                                                                       Helena
deserts, forests,                                                                                                                               Mount Rushmore

                                                                                                                                                National Memorial
wetlands, and                  Oregon

                                                                                                                        Skiing in the
vast plains in                                    Idaho
the USA.            Golden Gate                                                                           Gre n t a i    Wyoming
                                                Bridge                                                                ns

                                                             Carson City                                                                    Cheyenne
          Pacific O

                                                                            Mountain lion
                                                                                                              Salt Lake City                               Wheat

                               San Francisco                                                                 Utah                           Denver


                                        Hollywood Hills
                                                                                       do Ri ver

                                                                                                          Monument Valley
                                             Los Angeles                                                                                        Santa Fe
                                                                 Death Valley
                                                                 National Monument
                                                                                               Arizona                             New Mexico                 Road
                                                                                     C o l o ra

Hawaii                One of the USA’s 50 states                                              Sonoran
                      is a group of eight volcanic                                                        Phoenix
                      islands in the Pacific Ocean.
         Kauai        This state is called Hawaii.
Niihau        Honolulu                                                                                                           Socorro space telescope
         Oahu             Molokai                                                                 Gila monster
                    Lanai     Maui


                 Mount Kilauea, on the main
                 island of Hawaii, is the world’s                                                   E
                 most active volcano.

                                                                            S                                                           M e x i c o
                                Which is the only US state not shown on this map?
                                                                                                          United States of America

                                                                        This map shows 48 of the 50 states
                      C a n a d a                                       of the USA. The other two states are
                                                                        thousands of kilometres away. Alaska
                                                                        is northwest of Canada, and Hawaii
                                                                        is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

                                                    Superior                                                                                                      Augusta
                                          La     ke                                                                                                           Maine


                                                                                                                                                 New pshire
  Bismarck                                                                              La
         North Minnesota

                                                                                                                                                     on t

         Dakota                                                                                                       tario


                                                                     Lake ichigan

                                                                                                                  e                                 Massachusetts


                                                                         M                                            New York                              Island
         South                  Dairy farming                                  Michigan
                                                                                                              ie                                 Statue of Liberty

         Dakota                                                                      Detroit                                                        New York
                                                                                                         ke      Pennsylvania
                               Iowa                                                                    La           Harrisburg
                                                                     Chicago                           Ohio
         Nebraska                                                      Indiana                                                          Delaware

                     Lincoln                                                                                 WASHINGTON DC

                                Raccoon            Sears Tower, Chicago

                                                                                     American football

                                                       Illinois                             io Riv
                                                                                                   er                      Virginia
                   Topeka                                                                                                                  The Capitol building,
                                  Missouri               St. Louis                                                 nt                      Washington, DC
                                                                                  ck      y
           Kansas                                  American                 Kentu                                                                                 c


                                                   bald eagle


                                                                                             e     ssee                North Carolina




                       Oklahoma    Arkansas                                                       pp              Carolina
                                                         r i
                                                    Rive ipp

                       City                                               Country music       A

               “Tornado Alley”     Little Rock                 Mississippi                             Atlanta
               Oklahoma                                                      Alabama
                       Dallas                                                       Montgomery                                             Kennedy Space Center

                                                Paddle steamer
 Oil wells                                                                                                  Tallahassee
                   Texas                  Louisiana
                                      Baton Rouge
                                                                  New Orleans

                                                                                                                 The Evergla
                                                          Jazz music                                                             de
                                                                                                                                   s                              Dolphin-
          Cowboy                                                                                                                       Miami
                                                   f Me
                                         lf o                                                               American alligator

                                                          Alaska (see page 10-11).                                                                                     13
 The Americas                                                                                                                         N
                                                                   pear cactus
Tijuana            Desert                                                             U S A

                                                                                                                  W                                    E


         f of r n

                                                                                          R i o G ra n de

                  Ca i a


                                                                                      S                                   Armadillo

                         a             Si




                                                      re           Monarch

                                                                                                                                      Gulf of Mexico
                     Boojum                 Los Mochis     O       butterflies

                                                            cc      d
                                                               i        en

                                                                             ta                   Mariachi
                              La Paz                                              l                                    at Tula


          Grey                                                                        M e x i c o
          whale                                            Agave
                                       Pa c

                                                 cO                     Guadalajara

                                                          cea                                                               MEXICO CITY
 Mexico and                                                                                   Catedral Metropolitana

 Central America                                                                                            Acapulco

                                                                                                Did you know?
 Mexico and Central America form a
 natural bridge linking the USA to                                                                               Coffee beans and
                                                                                                                 bananas are Costa Rica’s
 South America. The north of Mexico                                                                              most important crops.

 is dry and dusty. As you travel south,                                                                          Chocolate was first
 the weather gets rainier and the land                                                                           made in Mexico, from the
                                                                                                                 seeds of the cacao tree.
 becomes greener, with lush rainforests
                                                                                                                 Sugar cane from Central
 covering mountains and volcanoes.                                                                               America and the Caribbean
                                                                                                                 is used to make sugar.
                                  How do spider monkeys use their tails?
                                                                               Mexico and Central America
                                                             West Indies
                         Bahamas                             To the east of Central America is a
                                                             chain of tropical islands called the

                                                              West Indies. The weather here is

                HAVANA                                   tic

                                                             Oce warm all year, but hurricanes
                                                                an can strike in summer.
   Palm tree
                                                                                     es       L
                   Gr                                            Dominican              se
                        ea                         Haiti         Republic                  r
                             te                                             SAN JUAN
                                  r   PORT-AU-PRINCE                      Puerto Rico

                       Jamaica              An                    SANTO   (USA)
                                                 til              DOMINGO
                         KINGSTON                      les

                                                                                    Dominica                                     Frigate

                                                                                      St Lucia

                                           ea                                              Barbados
                                              n   Se a                 Yacht

                                                                                                      and Tobago


                                             Chichén Itzá

Coral reef

      Olmec                                                        Green turtle


                                                n                duras                            Panama Canal
                                      em ala Ho                                                   The man-made Panama Canal
Shrimp                      ua                   TEGUCIGALPA                                      links the Atlantic and Pacific
                        G                                                                         Oceans. About 12,000 ships
                GUATEMALA CITY              Salvado                            Bananas            pass through it every year,
                                                                                                  making it one of the world’s

                                        SAN SALVADOR
             Hands on                                                                             busiest waterways.
            Cut the leafy                                                Nica                                            Spider monkey
                                                                          Costa Rica
        top off a pineapple                                                                             Panama Canal

   and plant it in a pot of soil. If 
                                                                                           SAN JOSÉ
    you keep it in a greenhouse,                                                                      Pa           PANAMA CITY
         it will grow into a
           pineapple plant.

                                                       As hooks to hang from branches.                                                     15
                                                                  South America
                                                                  A vast chain of mountains runs the length of
                                                                  this continent. On its western side is the world’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Americas

                                                                  driest desert. On the east is the biggest rainforest.


                                                                                 Agrias butterfly                                                                                    Equator walkabout

                                                                           BOGOTÁ                                       Ri                                                        The Equator is an
                                                                                                                                                  G            GEORGETOWN          imaginary line around the


                                                              QUITO        Colombia                                               Angel Falls                         PARAMARIBO     Earth’s middle. It would
                                                                                                                                                                    a m
                                                       Ecuador                                                                                                               CAYENNE  take you a month to
                                                                                                                                                                i n


                                                                                                                                                                                       walk across just the


                                                                                                                                                                       F u
                                                                                                                                                                      r a i a n ah

                                                                                                                                                                        G                South American
                                                                                                                                Equator                                                      part of it!
                                                                                                          Amazon Rainforest
                                                                                                                                           er Amazo n
                                                                                                                                     Riv                                               Belém

What is the highest mountain in the Andes?

                                                        LIMA                                       Machu Picchu

                                                                s M

                                                                                                                                   Jaguar                      Brazil

                                                                                                                                                                                       Brazil nuts



                                                                      Arequipa                         Bolivia

                                                                                         ca         LA PAZ                                                                                           Bananas

                                                                             Arica                                              Parakeet
                                                                                                                                                                     Brasília Cathedral
                                                                                                          Bolivian Indian                                             BRASÍLIA


                                                Mackerel                                                      Para

                                                                        Chile                                                    a




                                                                                                                                         Sugar Loaf Mountain

                                                                                                                                                               São Paulo     Rio de Janeiro

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Oil rig

                                                                                              Argentina                                                                                   n
                                                                                                                                     Gaucho                                O cea
                                                                               Aconcagua                     Pampas                                                                                        N
                                                                                                             grass                                               tic
                                                                                                                   Uruguay                             tla

                                                                                                            BUENOS          MONTEVIDEO
                                                                                                    Bahía Blanca
                                                                                                                                                     Green turtle
                                                                                                    Cape Horn
                                                                                 onia               The southern tip of South

                                                                                                    America is called Cape Horn.                                    Can you find...

                                                                                                    The seas around it are so                                                    The world’s highest capital?

Aconcagua, which is 6,960 m (22,834 ft) high.
                                                                                   Magellan         stormy that hundreds of ships                                                La Paz, Bolivia, is 3,632 m
                                                                                   penguins                                                                                      (11,916 ft) above sea level.
                                                                                                    have been shipwrecked there.
                                                                                                                                                                                 The world’s highest waterfall?
                                                                                                                                                                                 Angel Falls in Venezuela measures
                                                                                                                                                                                 979 m (3,212 ft) from top to bottom.

                                                                                                                                                                                 The world’s driest town?
                                                                                                                                                                                 Arica in Chile’s Atacama Desert
                                                                                                                                                                                 has an annual rainfall of zero!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             South America


                                               Africa is a vast, sun-baked continent, famous
                                               for its amazing wildlife. In the north and south
                                               are hot deserts. Between the deserts are swampy
                                               rainforests and grasslands full of wild animals.
                                                                                                Ait Benhaddou mud                                                                                                            N
                                                                                                fortress, Morocco

                                                               e an

                                                                                                                                             d it

                                                                            RABAT                                                         lf         a
                                                                                              ntains                                              of                nea
                                                                                    o    s Mou                                                         Sir             n                             W                                     E

                                                                                                                                                             te             Sea

                                                     t ic                      o c c Atla
                                                                            or                                                             Al ’Aziziyah
                                                                                                                                                                                              ez C


                                                                    M                               Algeria


                                               LAAYOUNE                 a                                                       weaver                 Libya                                                                 S
                                                               h   ar

                                                            Sa                                              Erg Tifernine






                                                                                     Tuareg nomads
                                                                                                             Mounta s
                                                                                                                   in                                                                         Aswan


                                                                                             Sahara Desert
                                               NOUAKCHOTT                                                                  Niger                                                               Nubian

                                                                                    Mali                 Ostriches                                                                             Desert

How long is Africa from north to south?

                                           Senegal                                   River N
                                               DAKAR                                                                                                              Cheetah                                            Eritrea

                                                     Bambara                                                                                                                      Nile                                       ASMERA
                                          Gambia                                                                                         La                                       felucca            KHARTOUM
                                                     village                                                Sahel                          ke          Chad
                                           Guinea-                  Burkina                            NIAMEY                         Ch                                          boat
                                           Bissau            BAMAKO                                                                     ad
                                                  Guinea                                                                                         NDJAMENA                                                                          Djibouti
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Val l ey

                                                 Sierra                                                                                                   Hippopotamus                                                                     Horn of

                                                 Leone                  Ivory                                                                                                                                                ADDIS ABABA    Africa


                                                                        Coast                                                          o   on
                                                       Liberia                       Ghana                                                               Central

                                                                                                                                  er                                                                                    Ethiopia
                                                                                               Cocoa bean                                              African Rep.

                                                                                                                                                                                                         G re

                                                                                                                       C                     BANGUI


                                                                   Equatorial Guinea                                                Diamond mine                                                   Tea                        MOGADISHU

                                                                                                                             ngo                         KAMPALA                              Kenya

                                Can you find...                                                                          r

                                                                                          Gabon                                                                      Lake


                                                                                                                    Lowland                       Rwanda           Victoria
                                         The highest point in Africa?

                                                                                                                    gorilla                                                       rengeti                   Mount Kilimanjaro
                                         Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania                                                                            Burundi             Se
                                                                                                               KINSHASA                                                                                     5,895 m (19,341 ft)
                                         is 5,895 m (19,341 ft) tall.                                                    Dem. Rep.
                                                                                                                         of Congo
                                         One of the world’s highest                                                                                                                            DODOMA
                                         sand dunes? Erg Tifernine in                                                                                Masai herder
                                                                                          LUANDA                                                                                  Tanzania
                                         the Sahara is 400 m (1,300 ft) tall.

                                                                                Oil rig
                                                                                                Hornbill                                                                                                              Dhow sailing boat
                                         The hottest place on Earth?                                                               Zebra
                                         Al ’Aziziyah, in Libya, has had                                        Angola
                                                                                                                                                                    reat R
                                         temperatures of 58ºC (136.4ºF).                                                              Zambia                      Malawi

                                                                                                                                                       LUSAKA                                  Elephant

                                                                                                                                              Za mbez i Ri ve r




                                                                                                                                                                           i f t Va l l e y

                                                                                                    Giraffe                                         HARARE


                                                                                                    Namibia                                         Zimbabwe





                                                                                                                                 Victoria Falls



                                                                                                                                B o t s w a n a rt

                                                                                                                                             e s PRETORIA
                                                                                                                                   la hari D

                                                                                                                     Tin and K a                                     MAPUTO

                                                                                                                                                           Swaziland                                          Chameleon


                                                                                             c Oc

                                The Suez Canal                                                                                                                                     Madagascar
                                                                                                                                           Ndeble   Lesotho

About 8,000 km (5,000 miles).
                                This canal is a man-made waterway                                                   Springbok              house                                   The island of Madagascar

                                that runs from the Red Sea to the                                                         South Africa                                             is home to tree-dwelling
                                                                                                  Cape of                 Cape Town                                                animals called lemurs.
                                Mediterranean. It provides a short cut
                                                                                               Good Hope                                                                           They have faces like cats
                                for ships travelling from Europe to Asia.
                                                                                                                                                                                   but bodies like monkeys.

                                 Savanna wildlife
                                 Much of Africa is covered by a
                                 type of grassland called savanna.
                                 Huge herds of grazing animals
                                 live on the savanna, as well as
                                 lions, hyenas, and cheetahs.


                                                            The northernmost part of Europe                                                                        rctic Ocean
                                                            is Scandinavia – a region of dense                                                                   A
                                                            pine forests, snowy mountains,                                                                                            hC
                                                                                                                                                                                  Nort ape
                                                            and craggy coastlines.
                                                             Iceland                                                                        Fishing trawler
                                                             Iceland is a volcanic island
                                                             in the far north Atlantic


                                                             Ocean. It has hundreds of
                                                             hot springs and geysers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sami man

                                                                                                                                                                                                             with reindeer

                                                                                                                                  d                            Mining       Lapland
                                                                        Church of                                       Fj
                                                                        Hallingrimur                          es

                                                                                        (Ice sheet)                                                               Lynx                                                Wolf

                                                                                                                                                                                               r Ke


                                                                                                                              u   nta




Which Scandinavian warriors raided Europe in 800–1050 CE?



                                                                                            e  gia

                                                                                                                                                                                  o thn


                                                                          tic            N                                                                      Grey seal

                                                                        n                                 Wolverine

                                                                                                                                                                              l                                                  Paper mill
                                                             A   tla                                                                                                        Gu
               N                                                        Stave church                                                                          Finland
                             Fj                                                                                                                                                            Rainbow trout

               Sogne Fjord                          Mount Galdhøpiggen                               Golden eagle                                                            Cathedral,
                                                    2,469 m (8,100 ft)                                                                                                       Helsinki

                                                 Norway                                 skiing
                                            rd                                                                                                                                               an
                                    r   Fjo                                                                                                     Åland                                     nl
                     a        nge
                Hard                                                                                                                                                    f of F
                                                               OSLO                                                                                                  Gul
                         na                                                                                                               STOCKHOLM
                    ok     Stavanger
                                         Sculptures in                                       e                       City Hall,


                                         Vigeland Park, Oslo                               ak ern

                                                                   o F


                                                                                                    ak tern
                                                                                                      t                     Rune stone


The Vikings.


                    Herring                                         farming
                                           Denmark                                                         Swedish


                                                                                   COPENHAGEN                           c
                                    Lego                                                Malmö
                                                                                                                 B alti
                                             Pig farming

                                                                                  Little Mermaid statue,                                        The Øresund Bridge
                                                                                                                                                The Øresund Bridge links Copenhagen in
                                                                                                                                                Denmark to Malmö in Sweden. There
                                             Faeroe Islands                                             W                                 E     are three parts to the bridge – an
                               Tórshavn      These islands are part of                                                                          underground tunnel, an artificial island,
                                             Denmark. They lie halfway                                                                          and a bridge over the sea. Together,
                                             between Iceland and Scotland.

                                                                                                                                                they are 16 km (10 miles) long.
                                                                UK and Ireland

                                                                The United Kingdom is made up of
                                                                England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern                                                                                                Islands
                                                                Ireland. Ireland is a separate country.
                                                                Most of the people in the UK and Ireland
                                                                speak English as their main language.
                                                                                                                                                   Red deer          Islands

                                                                                                                              es                                   Thurso
                                                                                                                  e   br


                                                                                                                                                                          Loch Ness
                                                                The Royal Family                                                                             mpian
                                                                                                                                                         Gra ntains
                                                                England and Scotland had                                                                    u                    Aberdeen
                                                                                                                                        Ben Nevis        Mo
                                                                                                              Highland cow
                                                                separate royal families until                                           1,343 m (4,406 ft)
                                                                1603, when they joined together                                    Scotland                                                North Sea
                                                                to form the United Kingdom.                                                        v

                                                                                                                                                or e r
                                                                                                                                                  th                 Bagpiper
                                                                Queen Elizabeth II is the

What is the name of the Queen’s official residence in London?
                                                                current Head of State.                                                                        Edinburgh

                                                                                                                                             Edinburgh                          Angel of the North
                                                                                                                                                                                Newcastle upon Tyne
                                                                                          I r e l a n d Belfast

                           Cathedral                                                                                   a   n                  Lake

                                                                                                                    fM                       District                                                 North Sea

                                                                                                                     Douglas                                                                          oil rig



                                                                                                    Irish Sea
                                                Castle                                                                                           Manchester                              Kingston
                                                                                                                               Liverpool                                                 upon Hull
                                                                                                                       do         nia

                                                   Cork                                                                                                                                                         Yacht

                                                                                                                          n tai

                     Jaunting car                                                                                                          Crufts

                                                                                                                       ou brian
                                                                                                                       C                                     Birmingham                            Norfolk
                                                                                                                                           dog show

                                                                                                                      M m
                                                               N                                                                                                                                   Broads




                                                                                                                                                 e                                               Big Ben
                                                                                                                                           Riv                         Oxford
                                                                                                                     Cardiff                                     Rive
                                          W                                                                                                                             r T
                                                                        E                                                                                                       es

Buckingham Palace.
                                                                                                                       Exeter                                                                              Dover
                                                           S                              Dartmoor                                                                        Royal Pavillion
                                                                       f Scilly
                                                                   es o                                                                                   e of Wight
                                                               Isl         Land’s                                                                     Is l                                         Eurotunnel
                                                                                                                                    Portland Bill                                                  to France
                                                                                               Eden Project                         lighthouse

                                                                                                                                                              English Channel
                                                                                      The Eden Project, Cornwall
                                                                                      These giant greenhouses are
                                                                                      home to lots of plants from
                                                                                      different areas of the world.
                                                                                      People can visit here to learn
                                                                                      how important nature is to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        UK and Ireland

                                                                                      future of the planet.

                                            The Low Countries

                                            Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
                                            are called the Low Countries because they
                                            are so flat. They are also sometimes called
                                            Benelux – the first letters of BElgium,             an Islands                                                                       Avocet
                                                                                        st Frisi
                                            NEtherlands and LUXembourg.               We
                                                                                                                                             e nze
                                                                                                             Tern                       dd                         Ice skating


                                            W                                      Fishing


                                                                     E                                                  porters



                                                                                                rt                                     IJs                                       Cyclist
                                                      S                                                     AMSTERDAM                    Flevoland
                                                                                             THE HAGUE                Tulips


What is another name for the Netherlands?
                                                           Dams to stop                                   Rotterdam
                                                           floods from sea                                                                     R i v e r R h ine           Horses
                                                                                      Cubic Houses


                                                          Bruges Town Hall                                     Antwerp
                                             Ostend                                                            Cathedral                                                  Germany

                                                The Atomium                                                                  Did you know..?
                            Chocolates                                                                                            Brussels is the capital of
                                                Belgium                                                                           Europe. It is the centre of the
                                                                   Crystal                                                        European Union and home of
                                                 Charleroi                                                                        the European Parliament.
           France                                                         e
                                                               River Meus                                                         900 windmills along the
                                                                                             Deer                                 Netherlands’ coast help to

                                                                                                                                  keep the land drained.

                                                                                             en                                   Wooden clogs were

           Amsterdam                     Beer                                           rd              o                         first invented by Dutch
                                                                                  A                 F
           The tall houses                                                                   es                                   workmen 600 years ago.
           lining the canals of                                                     e   nn
                                                              Wild boar          rd
           Amsterdam were built
           by rich spice merchants

           hundreds of years ago. Each
                                                                                                            Vianden castle
           one is unique, and many are
           crooked because they are                                          Luxembourg
           built on marshy land.                                             LUXEMBOURG
                                                                                                                                                                    The Low Countries

France                                                                English C

France is the biggest country
in western Europe. Its capital                                                      Mont St-Michel      Bayeux Tapestry
is the city of Paris, site of                                         Breton
the Eiffel Tower. France                     N                                                   Rennes
                                                                                                                  Le Mans
                                                                                                                  race track

is famous for its scenic
countryside, which         W                                                                                     Le Mans
                                                                               Standing Stones
is dotted with sleepy                                                             (Carnac)

villages and fairytale                               E
castles called châteaux.

         Mont St-Michel                                Mackerel

                                                                                                Beef cattle
         A towering abbey sits on the
         island of Mont St-Michel off
                                                                   c Oc
          the north coast of France. At
                 low tide, people can walk                                                                         Brandy
                  across the sand to get to

                           Mont St-Michel.                                                Bordeaux

                                                 f Bi s c ay                                                  Cave Paintings
                                                                                                               at Lascaux


                                                                         Py                   manufacturing

         Where in France would you find pink flamingos and wild horses?
                                                                                                Be                                                                         France
                                                 The Channel
                                                                             Lille                                 i



                                                                               World War I Memorial
                                             Eiffel Tower                             (Vimy)


                    r   L o i re

                                                                           Champagne                                          Nancy

                                                                                           Chapel of                                                    Strasbourg

                                                                                           Notre Dame

                                             Château de                                    Du Haut

                                                                         Mustard                                                    Vos
                                                                                                                          i   ns
                                                                                                                   n   ta
                                                                  Garlic                       J   ur

       Massif Central                                                                                                                         Corsica
                  Edible                                                   Lyon
                                                                                                                                              This French island is in
                  snails                                                                      Mont Blanc
                                                                                              4,807 m
                                                                                                                                              the Mediterranean Sea
                                                                                                                                              next to Italy (see page 32).

                                                                                              (15,771 ft)

                                                                                                                                              It has a beautiful rocky
                                                             er R


                                                                                                                                              coast with lots of beaches.



   cheese                         n
        n   ne               Sunflowers
        Montpellier                        Camarg

                                                                     Marseille                  Nice

                                                                                             Cannes                Monaco
                                                             Camargue horses
                                                                          The marshes of the Camargue.                                                                            27
                                                         Germany and the Alps

                                                         The north of Germany is low and
                                                         flat, but the land gradually rises
                                                         towards the south. Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Berlin Wall
                                                         and Austria lie in the heart of                                                                                                                        A long wall used to
                                                         the Alps – Europe’s tallest and                                                                                                                        divide the city of Berlin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                into communist and
                                                         most spectacular mountains.                                                                                                                            western halves. In 1989
                                                                                                                                                                                                                the people of Berlin tore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                the wall down and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                reunited the city.
                                                                                                                                          l Ca
                                                                             Sea                                                   Ki
                                                                                                                                                    Fehmarn                                   Rügen
                                                         N orth                Container ship                                     Kiel

                                                                                                             Ri v
                                                                                                                    e                                                                 Stork


                                                                                                              Hamburg                                             Lake Müritz

                                                                                                           Bremen                                                                                               W                  E

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rive Oder

                                                                                                                        Hanover                                                Gate
                                                                                            Beef cattle                                                                                     BERLIN                       S

Which composer was born in Salzburg, Austria, in 1756?
                                                                                Cologne                                                                                               Chemical
                                                                                Cathedral                                                 Volkswagen cars                             industry                        Poland
                                                                    v                                                                                       Ri

                                                                                                                        Wheat                                    ve
                                                                                                                                                                      r E             Zwinger


                                                                                                          Germany                                                       Halle
                                                                                                                                                                  Red deer
                                                               Cologne                                                                                                                    Dresden
                                    Bonn                                                              Th
                                                                                                        Fo ing
                                                Frankfurt                                                 re ia
                                                skyline                                                     st n
                                                                          Frankfurt                                                                                    Czech
                                                                                                            Main                                                      Republic



                                                                                                                                    e   m
                                                            Wine Heidelberg

                                                                          Mercedes                                                               Fo

                                                                                    A       lps                 be

                           France                                               ian                                                                                                                       riding

                                                                                                      r D

                                                                             ab                 R ive                                                                                                     school

                                                                                       Ulm                                            Oktoberfest                                                     VIENNA

                                                                                                                                                                     Linz                 be

                                                                                                                                                                             River Danu        Mountain

                                                                                       Cheese                                Munich
                                        Freiburg                                                                                                                                               climbing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ler L

                                                                                  Neuschwanstein                                   Lake

                                                                      Lake Con            Castle                                 Chiemsee             Salzburg


                                                                                                                               an Alps

                                                                    Zurich                                           B   avari                                         n     Alp
                                                                                                   Zugspitze                                                     stria
                                    Chocolate                                                      2,962 m                                                  Au
                                                                                      VADUZ        (9,718 ft)
                                            BERN                                                                                                                     Snow
                                                                                                                                            Chamois               boarding
                                                            army knife

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
                             Switzerland                              lps                                       Marmot
                                                            Sw iss A
                           Geneva   River Rhône
                                            4,478 m
                                            (14,692 ft)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Germany and the Alps


Spain and Portugal                                                                                                            Mountain bike

Spain and Portugal are in the
sunny southwest corner of Europe.
Together they make up a region                                             Santiago

called the Iberian Peninsula.
                           Dolphin                                                         Santiago Cathedral
These Portuguese

                                                                ic Ocean
islands are in the      Ponta Delgada
                                                                                                                                  Coal mine

Atlantic, about a third
of the way to the USA.                                                                                                        Salamanca

                                                                                                  Clay cockerel
                                                              ant                                 (symbol of

The Portuguese island
                                                                                 Port                                                         Ri ver
of Madeira is famous
for making a
rich type of wine                    Funchal

also called Madeira.
                                                           Belem Tower
                                                      LISBON                     Sheep

 Canary Islands
 These seven Spanish
    islands are off the                               Packing fish                                                Flamenco
    west coast of Africa.                 Lanzarote                                                                  dancer                   River

                   Santa Cruz
                   de Tenerife    Fuerteventura                                                                                     Seville
     La Palma
             Tenerife                                                    Lagos             Faro
                          Gran Canaria

                                                                                                                                Lynx         e   tic
     Banana plantations                                                                                                                   Ba
                                                              Crayfish                       Wind surfing
                                                                                                                              Gibraltar (UK)

                                      Which is the rainiest city in Spain?
                                                                                                                                   Spain and Portugal

                                                                                 F r anc e
                    Museum          Bilbao                                                   Andorra
                                                           Mountain                                                 ANDORRA
                      Country                                 goat                     Pyre
                                                                                                    nees            LA VELLA

             Wild boar                       er                                                                                         Skiing

                                                                                            ver                                                                                   E

                                                                                                  E b ro

                                                                        Rioja wine

                                                                                                                        Sagrada Familia
                                                                                                                        Cathedral, Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                                d   s
                  Roman aqueduct
                                                                                                                            Sardines                     l   an         Minorca
                                                                                                                                                      Is                    Mahón

Ta g u s                                                                                                                                     r   ic   Majorca
                                                  Bull-fighting                                            Paella                  le                         Palma




              Royal Palace                                                                                                    Ibiza
                                                  Albacete                                                                               Ibiza

                                                                                                  Oranges            Formentera                       r
                                                                                                                                             Med iter
                                                                                                                   n   ca

       dalquivir                                   Andalusian horse

                      i   a                                                           Cartagena

     d        a                                              Olives
  An                                                                                        Majorca
                                                             and oil
                              Granada                                                   The Spanish
     un    tain                                                                   island of Majorca
Mo                                                                            is one of Europe’s top
           Malaga                                                               tourist destinations.
         st       a del Sol                                                Its rugged coast has lots
      Co                                                                    of picturesque beaches.
                              Jet ski

                                                                                     Santiago.                                                                                31

                                  Italy is shaped like a boot, with the top in
                                  the Alps mountains and the toe swimming
                                  in the Mediterranean Sea. The Apennine
                                  mountains run like a bone down the leg.                                                            Skier

                                                                A     l       p      s

                                                        Turin                                                     Dolomites
                                                                                                            Lake Garda



How many islands make up Malta?
                                                                    of Pisa                                                                            Italian lakes
                                                                              Pisa                                            carbonara
                                                                                       Florence                                                        There are 23 lakes
                                         Fishing boat                           Florence                                          San                  in the lake district in
                                                                                Cathedral                                         Marino
                                                                                                                                                       northern Italy. Lake
                                                                                                                                                       Garda is the biggest,
                                                                                                                                                       and a popular place
                                                                                                                                                       to sail and windsurf.



                                                                                                 The Colosseum

                                           Sardinia                                              (Rome)                Pizza

                                                                       Can you find...                                                    Italy                                      Octopus

                                      Wild boar                        Europe’s largest volcano?                       Naples                         Olives and
                                                                                                                                   Mount Vesuvius        olive oil
                                                                       Mount Etna in Sicily is also
                                           Cagliari                    Europe’s most active volcano.                    Amalfi
                                                                                                                                          Cast of a body
                                                                       The world’s most wonky tower?                                      at Pompeii                                      Crab
                                                                       The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a
                                                                       campanile, or bell tower.
                                                                       Where the first pizza was
                                                                       made? A baker in Naples
                                                                       invented the pizza in the 1800s.                                                    Sheep


                                                                                                Palermo                                                          Oranges

Three: Malta, Gozo, and Comino.
                                                                                        Sicily                                     Messina

                                                                                              Agrigento   Mount Etna                                                           N

                                                                           Temple of Castor                                       Noto Cathedral

                                                                           and Pollux


                                                                  ea      n
                                                                              Se                                                                                                        E
                                                                                 a        Malta

                                                                                                                       Scuba diving
                                                 Central Eastern Europe

                                                 These countries were under communist rule
                                                 until the 1990s. Today they are modern nations
                                                 with thriving industries. Traditional farming
                                                 continues in the rural areas.         ltic Sea
                                                 Did you know?                   Ship building
                                                                                                                   Koszalin                                                                       Canoeing
                                                      The Polish town of                                                                                                   Mazury lakes
                                                      Torun is well-known                              Windmills
                                                      for its gingerbread.                                                              Potato farming

                                                      Budapest is split by the
                                                      Danube. Buda is on one                                                                                      Chemical industry
                                                      bank, Pest on the other.                                                                           Torun                            bison

                                                      The snow-white                                       Mining
                                                      Lipizzaner horse
                                                      is bred in Slovenia.                                                                                              WARSAW


                                                                 y                                                  Pig farms                                                                              Market Square,
                                                                                                                                          Poland                                                           Warsaw

What ingredient makes Hungarian goulash spicy?
                                                           r man

                                                      Ge                                                              ive                                                  Wheat
                                                                                                                                                                                                  R i ve r Vi s

                                                           Charles Bridge                                    Wroclaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sugar beet

                                                        Karlovy Vary                    Hradec kralove
                                                                                       Rive                                                    Cattle farms                              Skiing
                                                               Plzen                          r Elbe                                                                  Krakow
                                    Czech Republic
                                                                             Brno                     High Tatra Mountains
               Pilsner lager
                                                         Skoda                        Easter eggs
                                                                                                                                                                 Spissky Hrad castle
                                                                                    Wooden house                                              wine
                                                                                                                              Eger                    Nyiregyhaza

                                                                                    Gyor                                                              Debrecen

                                                                                               BUDAPEST                                        Parliament,
                               t   ria                                                                                                                                     a
                       A us                                                                                                                                          ni
                                                                              Hungary                                                                              a
                                                                                              Goulash                Horses


           Lipizzaner mare                                                                                                           Szeged

                  and foal



                               Slovenia                        ZAGREB
                                                         Croatia                           Osijek
                                                                                                                          High Tatra Mountains
                                                                                                                          This mountain range lies in Poland

                                                                                                                          and Slovakia, and forms part of the

                                                                                                                          Carpathian Mountains. The tallest

                                                                 Dalmatian                                                peak is 2,655 m (8,710 ft) high.

           W                              ti c
                                   E             Se

                                                                                                                                                                                       Central Eastern Europe

                                Eastern Europe

                                The countries of eastern Europe lie
                                between the Baltic Sea and the Black
                                Sea. They were part of the Soviet Union,
                                but became independent states in 1991.


                                        Cruise ship
                                                                             Golden            Lake       Hill of Crosses
                                                                             eagle             Peipus     This sacred site in

                                                                                                          Lithuania is visited

                                                                                                          by lots of pilgrims
                                                                                 Bobsleigh                every year. They

                                            Amber jewellery                                               leave crosses on
                                            Liepaja                                           Latvian     the hill to show
                                                                 Latvia                       costume

What are the Baltic States?
                                                                        Bauska                            their devotion to
                                              Hill of Crosses

                                                                             The centre
                                                                             of Europe                     Polatsk
                                                      Trakai Castle                                                  Vitsyebsk
                                                       Lithuania                                 Flax                            Ru
                                                                                   Belarus                                                  an Fe
                                                                beet                              MINSK
                                                                                                          Mink                                                         Homyel
                                                                                                                    et M                                Mushroom
                                                                                                             Pr i p                                     picking                                                      W                          E

                                                                                                  Ukranian folk dancers
                                                                                                                                                                          St Andrew’s Church
                                                                                                                                      Mammoth fossils                                                           White geese
                                                                             Mou th

                                                                                nt                                                                                                          River

                                                                                   a                                                                                                                Dn


                                                                                              Chernivtsi                                                                                                       er
                                                                                                                                                        Wooden church
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Coal mining

                                                                           Ro                                                ld
                                                                                ma                                                ov
                                                                                     nia                                               a
                                                                                                                                         CHISINAU                                     Wheat

                                                                                                                                                 school                                                                   Sunflowers
                                                                           Can you find...
                                                                                                                                  Wooden Moldovian
                                                                                 Ukraine’s oldest creatures?
                                                                                                                                  gateway                                                                                     f Azov
                                                                                 Mammoths walked the Earth                                                               Black sea                                       ao

                                                                                 25,000 years ago.                                                                       tourism

                                                                                 The plant used to make linen?                                                                  Swallow’s
                                                                                                                                                                ea                                                                Kerch
                                                                                 Flax is a major crop of Belarus. Its                                      ck S                 Nest

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – the countries bordering the Baltic Sea.
                                                                                 fibres are made into linen clothes.                                    la                      Castle

                                                                                 Europe’s largest marshland?                                                                                        Yalta
                                                                                 The Pripet Marshes cover 270,000
                                                                                 square kilometres (104,000 sq miles).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Eastern Europe

                                             Southeast Europe

                                             The mighty River Danube winds
                                             its way across southeast Europe,

                                             forming a natural border between                                                         Satu Mare

                                                                                                                                                                   rp a
                                             Romania and Bulgaria. Further

                                             south are the scattered
                                             ruins of the cities of                                                                                                       M
                                                                                                                                      Wild boar

                                             Ancient Greece.

                                                                                                               Timisoara       Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                             Bran Castle,
                                                                                Serbian                                                                                                      Transylvania
                                                                                Raznijei Kebab                                                         Sibiu

                                                                                                                              an   sylvanian Alps
                                                           Banja Luka                                                      Tr
                                             Bosnia and                                            BELGRADE

                                             Herzegovina                                          Traditional
                                                                                                  Serbian costume                                                                  BUCHAREST
                                             Statue in

                                             Liberation                 SARAJEVO
                                             Square, Sarajevo                                    Serbia                                           Parliament Palace                Ruse

What is Greece’s most important crop?
                                                                      n a

                                                                                                      Grapes                                            Pleven
                                                                                                                                                                                          Natural yoghurt

                                                                                                                                                           Alexander Nevsky                                  Varna




                                                                            PODGORICA                 PRISTINA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Black Sea


                                                                                          Kosovo                                                                                                     Burgas
                                                ic                                           (disputed)                        Bulgaria                        Folk dancers
                                                                                                                              Goats                            at Kazanluk
                                                           a                                              SKOPJE                                               Festival of Roses

                                                                                                 Macedonia                                                     Roses
                                             Alb                     Bitola

                                 Watermelon                                                                                                                        N

                                                                 Greek coffee
                                                                                              Olive oil

                                                                 n dus


                                                                             ta         Greece                                                  Lesbos

                                                      Greek vase                  ins


                                               Cephalo a
                                                                                                                                 ea            Chíos
                              Sailing ship                              Patras
                                                 Za                           lop                               ATHENS                                            Turkey
                                                   kinthos                          o

          Can you find...
                       A sponge? Old-fashioned                 Greek church                        Ceremonial soldier

                       bathroom sponges are the                                                    from Athens
                       skeletons of dead sea creatures.

                       Yoghurt? People in Bulgaria eat                                                                          Cy
                                                                                                                                  cl a

                       lots of yoghurt because they think                                                                                des                      Rhodes

                       it helps them live longer.


                                                                                                                               Knossos Palace
                       Greek coffee? Greek people make
                       coffee by boiling ground coffee in a
                       tiny pan of water until it foams.                                      an                                   Iráklion
                                                                                                          Sea              Crete

          Chios Island in
          the Aegean Sea
                                                                                                                                                                           Southeast Europe

Russia and Central Asia

Russia and Central Asia
The Russian Federation spans two continents:
Europe and Asia. To its southwest are the          B a r en ts S e a
eight independent countries of
Central Asia and Caucasia. Murmansk       ship
                                                                                                                                                        Harp seal

                                                                                                                                     Kara Sea
                                                       St Petersburg
                                                                                        Kirov ballet
                              St Basil’s Cathedral,                                                                           Vorkuta               Noril’sk


                                                                                                                                                    S      i        b





              Russian dolls


                                                           a                 Chess


                                          i ve r


                                        R                                                      Magnitogorsk


                                                                              Orsk                                Omsk            Russian
              Ca rgi

                              Groznyy                                                      Baykonur                          Novosibirsk
                 uc a

                                                               Sturgeon                    Space Centre

                                                               fish caviar                                       ASTANA                                 Wheat

           T’BILISI                                                                        Baykonur
       Armenia                                                       a l S ea                     Zhezkazgan

                      Azerbaijan                                                                Kazakhstan
                              BAKU                         Uzb
                                                                                                                ke Balkhash


                         Sea T u                                                 Kyzy
                                                                                      l Kum
                                               r                                   Desert


                                                                              TASHKENT                               Almaty                Gur-Emir Mausoleum,

                                                                    Samarqand                      Kyrgyzstan                              Samarqand


                                               Which animal do Nenet people herd?
                                                                                                         Russia and Central Asia

     Arctic Ocean

                      Brent geese

                                                     Walrus                                                                    Russia is the world’s
                                                                                                                              widest country. It would
                                                                                                                              take more than two months
                      Nenet people
                                                                 Yakut people                                                  to cross if you walked non-
                                    River Len

                                                                                                                                 stop from west to east.



                                                              Wolf                        Magadan

                                                                                                                        i    ns
                                                                                                                                            Brown bear

e       r       i        a                                                      Okhotsk


                                                                                                           o   tsk

                                                  Mining                                                                           W                          E
                                                                                        Trans-Siberian railway                                    S

                Lake                                                                                              Did you know?
                                                                                     Siberian tiger
                                                                                                                                       Caviar from the Caspian
                             Freshwater seal                     China                                                                 Sea is so expensive it is
                                                                                          Vladivostok                                  known as “black gold”.

                                                                                                                                       Lake Baikal is the
                                                                                                                                       world’s deepest, and
                                                                                                                                       largest, freshwater lake.
                                                               A shrinking sea
                                                               The Aral Sea, between                                                   Verkhoyansk is the
                                                               Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan,                                              world’s coldest town. In
                                                               is shrinking. The water is being                                        winter the temperature
                                                                                                                                       falls to -68˚C (-90˚F).
                                                               used on Uzbekistan’s cotton
                                                               fields, stranding fishing boats.
                                                                           Reindeer.                                                                          41

Middle East                                                               Istanbul

This part of the world is hot and                                         Blue Mosque    ANKARA

dry, with large deserts. Three of the                                      Turkey
world’s great religions began here.


                                          Mecca                           ea             NICOSIA
                                                                                     C ypr us
                                          The holiest place for

                                          a Muslim is the Ka’ba,

                                          a cube-shaped shrine                          Sculpted
                                                                                        menorah in
                                          in Mecca. Muslims                             Jerusalem

                                          face the Ka’ba when
                                          they pray and try to
                                          visit it at least once
                                          in their lifetime.
World’s first skyscrapers                                Fruits of the desert
The people of Yemen started building mud-brick           Farmers can grow crops
skyscrapers thousands of years ago. The ground           only in the wettest parts
floors are used for animals or for storing goods.        of the Middle East.
Families live in the upper floors.                               Figs are soft, sticky fruits
                                                                 that can be dried to make
                                                                 them last longer.

                                                                 Olive trees are grown
                                                                 for their fruit, which is
                                                                 pressed to make olive oil.

                                                                 Dates are the fruit of
                                                                 palm trees, which grow
                                                                 by rivers and in oases.

             Which country produces 65 per cent of the world’s hazelnuts?
         Black                                                                                                                      Middle East


 dervish dancer
                                             Mount Ararat

                                             5,165 m
                                             (16,945 ft)

                        Head of Zeus


BEIRUT                                    Olives


                                             BAGHDAD                    Chador, traditional
                                                                        dress for women
         AMMAN                  Iraq
                      an                                                                                          Iranian food – chicken kebab



                                                      Marsh Arab reed house

         Ancient city
         of Petra
                                                                                              ulf        Persepolis palace

                                                                                           Bahrain                           Oman
                                       oasis                                                  Qatar

                                                      RIYADH                     Oil              DOHA
                                                                                                         ABU DHABI                       Gulf of Oman

                                                                                                      United                      MUSCAT

                                                   Saudi Arabia                                    Arab Emirates

                               Mecca                        Arabian desert                                                          Oil refinery
   Coral reefs grow

   along the coast
   of the Red Sea,

   where the water
   is warm and clear.

                           N                                                                               Desert oryx

                                                                                                                                               Oil tanker
                                                                              Frankincense tree
    W                                                       SANA
                                                                                                                               abian Sea
                                                                       Turkey.                                                                              43
                                                     Southern Asia
                                                     Southern Asia is colourful and crowded.
                                                     India is the biggest country in the region,
                                                     with a population of more than a billion.

                                                                                                                                          Snow leopard


                                                                                     lorry          ISLAMABAD

                                                                                                                                                                         Elephants on parade
                                                                                     Quetta                                                                              During the festival of Puram in
                                                         Pakistan                                                                                                        southern India, 101 elephants
                                                                                                                       Golden Temple
                                                                        Tomb of                                                                                          march through the town of
                                                                        Ali Jinnah                                                                                       Trichur in a grand parade.
                                                                                 Dancer                                                   Delhi
                                                                                                                                           NEW DELHI

                                                              Karachi                                      Taj Mahal                          Agra

When Hindus die, where are their ashes scattered?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Tea picking
                                                                                                           India                                                               er
                                                    Green turtles                                                                                        River dolphin

                                                                                                     market                   Rickshaw
                                                                                                                                 ad   a
                                                                                                                  Ri ve r N a rm                          Sacred cow                        Kolkata
                                                                                                   Surat                                                                                    (Calcutta)       Chittagong
                                                                                            Nagpur                   Raipur

                                  Ar                                                                                                               o f Bengal
                                         a                                                                                                   y


                                                                            Snake charmer
                                                                                                            Tiger                                                          Coconut tree

                                                                                                                                                                           and coconut

                             Tuna fish                                                                                                                 Fishing boat

                                                n Sea
                                                                 elephant                                              Common lobster
                       Can you find...                         Calicut                               (Madras)                                                         Andaman
                             Lapis lazuli? This precious                                                                                                              (India)
                             stone was once used to make
                                                                           Kathkali Dancer                                                                     E
                             brilliant, sky-blue paint.               Trichur                                                    W
                             An Indian dancer? Classical                                       Jaffna     Thresher shark
                             dancers use movements of their
                             bodies to tell ancient stories.                                                                                                            Nicobar
                                                                                    Sri Lanka                                                      S                    Islands

In the River Ganges.
                             Ganges river dolphin? This                                                                        Mullet
                             dolphin is almost blind and finds
                             its way in muddy water by sound.                  COLOMBO                  Tea leaves

                                                                                                                                        The Monsoon
                                                                                                                                        Southern Asia is normally hot
                                                                                                                                        and dry, but every summer it
                                                                                                                                        pours down for weeks. This
                                                                                                                                         rainy season, called the
                                                                                                                                          monsoon, helps farmers
                                                                                                                                          grow crops like rice.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Southern Asia

Asia                                     B u rma
                                      ( Myan mar)

Southeast Asia is hot
and rainy all year                                          HANOI
round. There are           NAY PYI TAW
                      Rubies                  VIENTIANE
thousands of islands,

and many are covered                     a

with steamy rainforests               Th                                                                      Sampan boat

and towering volcanoes.
                                                                                                                       a        Sea
                                                     Angkor Wat
                                                                       Cambodia                            th
                                                                                                       S ou
                                                                PHNOM PENH
                                                                                       Ho Chi Minh
Floating market                                                                                                             Pearls
The city of Bangkok is
riddled with canals. Traders
sell their goods from boats                                                                       Omar Ali
and shoppers paddle by to                                                                         Saifuddin
look for bargains.                                                          Petronas
                                                                            Towers                    Brunei
                                                    KUALA                                                 BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN
                                                                    M a
                                                  PUTRAJAYA             l a y s i a


                                                 Padang                           Orang-utan                                     o


                                                                                                                    r n
                                                                                                                B o

                                                                                  n                                             Coconut

                                                                                 Rafflesia            d
                                                                                 (giant flower)                             o

                                                                                                        J a v

                                                                                                      Shadow puppets

                               What is the largest lizard in the world?
                                                                                                    Southeast Asia
                                Can you find...
                                A very rare kind of ape?
                                Orang-utans live only
                                in Borneo and Sumatra.

                                An animal with tusks that
                                grow through its face? The
                                babirusa is a kind of pig.
                                                                        W               E
                                The world’s largest flower?
                                Rafflesia grows to nearly
                                a metre (3 feet) wide.                         S

                Planting rice


                                                          Vinta boats
                                                              O cean
                                                  ci fic                    Rice paddies
                                           Pa                               The wet climate is ideal for growing
              es     Sea                                      Tuna
                                                                            rice. Farmers plant it in flooded fields
          leb                                                               called paddies, which are sometimes

                                                                            built like steps in the sides of hills.
                    Babirusa               Mo

 Cel                                                                                     Jayapura
                                       Nutmeg                                   N e w   G u i n
                                                                                                e a          Conch shell
                       Toraja house
                                                          i             a                             ua New
n                e                     s                                      Asmat                 Guinea

                                DILI                                                                                PORT MORESBY

                                 East Timor                                                            Mangoes
    Komodo dragon

                               The Komodo dragon. It can grow to 3 m (10 ft) long.                                         47

China and neighbours
Over 1 billion people live in China                            N
– that’s one-fifth of the world’s
people. Next door, Mongolia has
the fewest people for its size.    W
                                                                            E      Altay

                  Terracotta Army
                  This army of statues in                 S                                         ger (house)
                  Xi’an was made more than
                  2,000 years ago to guard the                           Yining
                                                                                      Urumqi             camel
                  tomb of Qin Shi Huang,
                  China’s first emperor.                                                   Turpan       Hami

                  The statues were
                  rediscovered in 1974.               Kashi

Chinese opera                                                              Ibex

Chinese opera has lots of singing,
                                                   K2 8,611 m (28,250 ft)
acting, and acrobatics. Make-up is
used to show the type of character
             being played.
                                                               H                     Potala
                                                                   i m               Palace

                                                                         a l
                                                                             a y
                                                                                 a s                      Lhasa
                                     Can you find...                           Ne
                                                                                     Mount Everest 8,850 m
                                                                                     (29,035 ft)    THIMPU
                                                                                  pal          Bhutan
                                           The world’s tallest
                                           mountain? Mount Everest is
                                           8,850 metres (29,035 ft) tall.

                                           The world’s most crowded
                                           place? Hong Kong has 6,000
                                           people per square kilometre
                                           (16,500 per square mile).
                                           China’s hottest place? Turpan
                                           has recorded temperatures of up
                                           to 47°C (117°F).
                    What is the world’s second tallest mountain?
                                                                                                  China and neighbours
                                         i   on
                               e ra
Russian Fed


                                                                       Snow sculptures at the
Mongolia                                                               Harbin Ice Festival
                        ULAN BATOR


                                                                                                            North Korea
                  Dinosaur fossils

          Gobi Desert                                                      Temple of Heaven

                                                                             BEIJING                                           South
                                                                                                       Seoul Olympic

                                                                                                                                   a i ea
                                                                                                   Qingdao                         r

             Great Wall of China
                                                                                                                                 Ko tr

                                                                                                                       t Chi

 C h i n a                                                 Ye l l

                                                              Tea plantation                                Hanzhou

                                                                                  Ri   ver

                                                                                                                         Junk (fishing boat)
                                                                              Changsha             Silk moth
                                          China porcelain                                                       Fuzhou       Taipei
                                                                       Hong Kong business district
                                                                       and Exhibition Centre                          Taiwan

            Red panda                                                                                                            goods

                   Kunming                                                                        Hong Kong
                                     Giant panda


                                                                                                     ina Sea
                                                                                             ut h Ch

                   K2 in the Himalayas. It is 8,611 metres (28,250 ft) tall.                                                                       49
                                 Japan is made up of four large islands and
                                 several thousand small ones. Most of the

                                 country is mountainous. The biggest cities                                        sea eagle
                                                                                                                                                                tio s
                                                                                                                                                              ra d

                                 are near the coast, where the land is flat.                                                                          r ile Fede
                                                                                                                                                    Ku ian


                                                                                  Snow monkey



How many people live in Tokyo?

                                 Snow and ice festival                                   Cups for

                                                                                         rice wine

                                 An ice festival takes place every                                                                   W



                                 February in the town of Sapporo.
                                                                         e a an
                                                                        S p


                                 People carve towers of ice into                                           O
                                                                   Sea ast
                                 temples, sculptures, or replicas     (E
                                 of famous buildings.                                         Honshu

                                                         Oki Islands                      Geishas

                                                                  Shinto                                            Mount Fuji 3,776 m (12,388 ft)
                                                                  shrine                                          Nagoya
                                                                                                                                                           Kabuki theatre             Robot dog
                                                                                                  i n s Kyoto
                                                                                          u   nta
                                                                            oku                                 Osaka                  Nagoya
                                                                       Chug                                                            Castle

                                             Sumo wrestlers
                                                                                                   Bullet train

                                    Iki                                                                                               Pearl in shell

                                                                                                                                                               nd s
                                                                           Shikoku                                                                                      Toys and gadgets
                                                 Kyushu                                                                                an                               Japan makes lots of
                                                                                                                                     e                                   electronic goods, such
                                                                                                                i          c   Oc
                                                                           Matsuyama                      Pacif                                                            as computer games,
                                          Pottery                          castle
                                                                                                                                                                            televisions, and
                                                                                                                                                                             robot pets.
                                                    Bonsai tree                                Tokyo skyline
                                                                                               The capital city Tokyo is crowded
                                                                                               and lively. Its skyscrapers are

About 12 million.
                                                                                               designed to sway slightly, which

                                                                                                                 protects them from

                                                                                                                 falling during


                        t  C
                                                                                                                                                                                       Ogasawara Islands

                                          Sakishima Islands


                                          These small tropical                                                                                                                        Islands

                    R                     islands lie far to the
                                          south of the rest                    Ishigaki
                                          of Japan.
                    Okinawa                                           Iriomote

Australia and the Pacific

Australia                                                                                                         Darwin

Australia is the world’s smallest                                                                                     Saltwater
continent, but it is a huge country.
Most Australians live on the coast,
far from the vast, dusty deserts                                              Broome

                                                                                                                      Ta n a m i
that make up the outback.                                                                          Dingo              Desert
                                            Port Hedland                         Des                                  Northern
Poisonous animals                                                                                                     Territory
More poisonous animals
live in Australia than
in any other country.
                                                    Iron ore

       The male platypus
                                                                           Road train
       has a poisonous spur on                                                                                             Musgrave
       each of its back ankles.                                                                     Camel
       A box jellyfish’s sting                              Australia            Great Victoria
       causes terrible pain that                                                     Desert                                  South
       lasts for weeks and can kill.                                                                                        Australia
                                       Geraldton                            Kalgoorlie
       Taipans are the world’s
       deadliest snakes. A bite                                Perth
       can kill in 30 minutes.                                 skyline
                                                                                                                    lian Bigh
                                                                                        Kangaroo                tra          t
       Sea snake venom can
       kill a child, but bites from
       these shy snakes are rare.                                        Esperance                         A

                                                                                                             Great white


       Cone shells are sea snails                          Albany
       with deadly stings. The
       venom causes suffocation.
       Funnel-web spiders
       have poisonous fangs.
       One bite can be fatal.

       The tiny blue-ringed                        W                           E
       octopus can paralyse and
       kill a person with its bite.

                                       What is a coral reef made from?
                                     paintings                                    Coral reef
                                                                                  The Great Barrier Reef
                                                                                  stretches for 2,000 km
         Ca Gulf of                                                               (1,200 miles) along
              ntaria                      C a p e Yo r k                          Queensland’s coast.
                                                                                  Many brightly coloured
                                                                                  fish live on the reef.
Tennant Creek                            Cattle farms
                                                           Townsville                   at
              The Devils                                                                   Ba
                             Mount Isa                G

                                                          re                           Mackay

   Flying doctor                                                            Rainbow lorikeet



 Alice Springs

Simpson Dese
 Uluru (Ayers Rock)
                                          Sheep stations

Ran                                                                               Koala

               k                                                                                            Brisbane
                 e Eyre

                                                          Banana plantations              Pineapple farms
  Coober Pedy
                                                                               Sydney Opera
                            Broken                      Funnel-web             House
                            Hill                        spider

 Port Augusta
                                                        New South
   Whyalla                                                Wales                 Wollongong
                          Adelaide                 M u Wagga Wagga
   Port Lincoln                                       rra
                                                          y River                    CANBERRA
   Kangaroo                                                                       Australian
   Island                                   Victoria                              Capital Territory
              Mount Gambier

                                                        Bass Strait

                 The skeletons of tiny sea creatures.                                                                         53
Australia and the Pacific

New Zealand
and the Pacific
Hundreds of islands are scattered
across the Pacific Ocean. Two of                    Extreme sports
                                                    New Zealand is the world capital for
the biggest form the mountainous                    extreme sports. Bungee jumping, sky diving,
country of New Zealand.                             and white-water rafting are all popular.

Maori war dance
Most people in New Zealand
are European, but about one in ten
are Maoris – New Zealand’s native
people. On special occasions, Maoris
paint their faces and perform a war
dance called a haka.
                                                                                                           Sheep shearing

                                           Moving house
                                           Earthquakes are common in New
                                           Zealand, so people live in wooden
                                           houses for safety. When people
                                           move home, they can carry their
                                           house away on a lorry.
                                                                          South Island
                                                                Aoraki (Mt. Cook)
                                                                3,744 m (12,283 ft)               Christchurch






                                                  Bungee jumping
                                                                                                   Royal albatross



                                       What’s unusual about New Zealand’s kiwi birds?
                                                                                                    New Zealand and Pacific
                Red snapper

                                       W                                 E


                    Pohuto geyser                                     Pacific
                       Maori carving         Kiwi fruit

               North Island                                           Coconut palms

                         Parliament buildings                         Forests of coconut palms
                         (Wellington)                                 grow along the beaches

                                                                      of the Pacific islands.

                                                                      Islanders climb these tall

                                                                      trees to gather the coconuts.
    k Strait


                                                                                        Pacific islands
                                    Northern Mariana
                                      Islands (USA)               Marshall              About 5 million people live
                         Guam (USA)                                                     among the tropical islands
                                                                                        of the central Pacific.

                       Palau             Micronesia
                                                Papua New         Nauru
                                                                  Solomon    Tuvalu
                                                                   Islands                  Tokelau (NZ)

                                                                                   Wallis &       American
                                                                                    Futuna Samoa Samoa
                       Pacific                                                                     (USA)
                       islanders fish from                 Vanuatu                                         Cook Islands
                                                                                            Tonga              (NZ)
                       small wooden                                                                Niue
                       canoes.                                                                      (NZ)
                                                             New                 Fiji                                       French
                                                          Caledonia                                                       Polynesia
                                                           (France)                                                        (France)

                                                                       They can’t fly.                                                55
Antarctica                                                                                    th ern

The world’s coldest continent is                                                  S ou
Antarctica, which is covered in
ice. In winter it doubles in size
as the sea freezes around it.                                                         Weddell Sea

                                                                                                        Halley Research

                                                                             South polar skua              Station (UK)

                                                                                                      Ronne Ice
Adélie penguins                                                                                         Shelf
Lots of sea animals live
around Antarctica’s coast.                                                       Ellsworth
Penguins are clumsy on land but                                                    Land
superb swimmers underwater.
                    A signpost in Antarctica
                    shows how far away the
                    rest of the world is.


                                                                                  Blue whale

                                                                                          n                            Ice-breaker

                                                                                 th                rc

                  Scott and the Antarctic                                                               ti
                                                                                      er                     c
                   The British explorer Robert Scott                                       n                          rcl
                   was one of the first people to reach
                                                                                                   Oc                       e
                    the South Pole, in 1912. He died of
                  cold and hunger on the way home.
                      Who was the first person to reach the South Pole?
                                           Right whale
                                                                           Antarctic science
                                                           So                      The only people who
                                                                     he              live in Antarctica are
                                                                          rn            scientists. Some use
                                                                                           huge balloons to
  Maud Land

                                           Molodezhnaya Station                              study the climate       balloon.

                                           (Russian Federation)
                                                                                               on Antarctica.

                                                                 Adélie penguins
            Survey plane

                                                          Elizabe cess
                               Amundsen-Scott                       La                                Life in the freezer
                               Station (USA), South                    n                  d
                               Pole                                                                   Antarctica is so cold that
        SOUTH POLE                                                                                    it freezes your breath into
Tr a

                                                                                                      icicles around your mouth.
                                                                                                                  People have to

                                                 Snow mobile                                                        cover up in

       ar                                                                          Elephant seal
            ct                                   Vostok Station
                                                                                                                      lots of very
                 ic                                                                                                     warm
                      M                          (Russian Federation)
                          ou                                                                                             clothes.

 Ross Ice                                                                  Casey Station

                                                                           (Australia)                                      Icicles

  Shelf                                                                                                                     from
                      Station (USA)
 R os s S


                       Dumont d’Urville
                       Station (France)
                                                                  Snow petrel

                          Killer whale

                                         The Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, in 1911.                                         57
Flags of the world

Flags of the world

      Canada              United States           Mexico           Guatemala                   Belize              Honduras               El Salvador           Nicaragua
                           of America

St Kitts and Nevis          Dominica              St Lucia        St Vincent and              Barbados              Grenada            Trinidad and Tobago      Venezuela
                                                                  The Grenadines

     Argentina              Paraguay             Uruguay             Morocco                   Algeria               Tunisia                 Libya                Egypt

  Guinea-Bissau              Guinea             Sierra Leone         Liberia              Ivory Coast               Burkina                  Ghana                Togo

Sao Tome and Principe        Gabon                Congo            Democratic                 Uganda                Rwanda                  Burundi               Kenya
                                                                Republic of Congo

     Swaziland             South Africa           Lesotho          Madagascar                 Comoros              Cape Verde               Iceland              Norway

      France              Monaco             Germany           Austria          Switzerland        Liechtenstein               Spain            Andorra            Portugal

      Ukraine                Moldova               Poland         Czech Republic               Slovakia             Hungary                  Slovenia            Croatia
                        RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

      Cyprus            Russian Federation        Georgia           Azerbaijan                Armenia              Kazakhstan              Uzbekistan         Turkmenistan

        Iraq                 Kuwait            Saudi Arabia          Bahrain                   Qatar               United Arab               Oman                 Yemen

     Vietnam                Cambodia            Philippines         Malaysia                  Singapore              Brunei                Indonesia           East Timor
                                                                AUSTRALIA AND THE PACIFIC

     Maldives               Mauritius            Seychelles         Australia            New Zealand                 Palau                 Micronesia        Marshall Islands

                             Which is the only country that doesn’t have a rectangular flag?
                                                                                                                             Flags of the world
                                                       h has its own f
                   are 195 countries in t he world. Eac               lag.

    Costa Rica            Panama             Bahamas                 Cuba                   Jamaica                    Haiti          Dominican Republic       Antigua & Barbuda

    Colombia              Guyana              Surinam               Ecuador                   Peru                     Brazil               Bolivia                  Chile

    Mauritania              Mali                  Niger              Chad                    Sudan                    Eritrea               Senegal                Gambia

      Benin               Nigeria            Cameroon          Central African              Ethiopia                 Djibouti               Somalia            Equatorial Guinea

     Tanzania             Angola                 Zambia             Malawi                Mozambique                 Namibia               Botswana               Zimbabwe

     Sweden               Finland            Denmark          United Kingdom                 Ireland                Netherlands             Belgium              Luxembourg

       Italy            San Marino        Vatican City         Malta                  Estonia                      Latvia                 Lithuania                 Belarus

     Romania       Bosnia & Herzegovina    Montenegro          Kosovo              Serbia               Bulgaria              Macedonia              Albania          Greece

    Kyrgyzstan           Tajikistan              Turkey              Iran                   Lebanon                    Syria                 Israel                 Jordan

   Afghanistan            Pakistan                India         Bangladesh                  Sri Lanka          Burma (Myanmar)               Laos                  Thailand

Papua New Guinea      Mongolia            China             Nepal                Bhutan              North Korea            South Korea         Taiwan               Japan

      Nauru               Kiribati        Solomon Islands           Tuvalu                   Samoa                   Vanuatu                  Fiji                  Tonga

                                                                            Nepal.                                                                                             59
People and society

                        World of people
                        More than six billion people
                        live in the world. These
                        people have different
                        customs, languages,
                        beliefs, and lifestyles.

                        Language and people
                        One in every five people
                        in the world lives in
                        China. The most widely
                        spoken language
                        is Mandarin Chinese,
                        which has almost
                        one billion speakers.            This girl is
                                                         dressed up for
                                                         May Day – a
                                                         festival that is
                        Culture                          celebrated in
                                                         some parts
                        People enjoy many                of Europe.

                        different kinds of
                        art and culture.
                        Writing is used to record
                        information, news, views,
                        stories, and history.

                        Theatre entertains
                        audiences with acting,
                        dance, and costume.
                                                     May Day marks
                        Painting is a way of         the first day of
                        expressing feelings and      spring, after the
                                                     long, cold months
                        ideas through pictures.      of winter.

                        Fashion is different all
                        over the world, and is
                        changing all the time.

                        Music styles can be
                        classical or popular,
                        traditional or modern.
       Which is the second most spoken language in the world?
                                                                         World of people
At work                                                               Curiosity quiz
All over the world, people
                                                                      Look through the People
work to earn a living.
What job would you                                                    and Society pages and
like to do? You could                                                 see if you can identify
be an astronaut or                                                    the picture clues below.
a teacher, a farmer or a
computer programmer.
At play
Having time for leisure
and play is very important.
Some people like watching
or playing sport. Like these
children, you might enjoy
playing games with friends.

                               Important times
                               in people’s lives are
                               celebrated with special
                               feasts and festivals.
                               These are times for
                                 people to enjoy
                                   themselves and
                                     to share their
                                      religious beliefs.

                                        At some festivals in India,
                                        people exchange gifts of
                                        sweets, like these.

                                                             an expert
                                                             6-7 Our world
                                                            80-81 World of

                                                                             Spanish.        61
People and society

                         Religious lands
                         Many people follow a religion. A
                         religion is a set of beliefs and a way
                         of worship. The main religions today
                          are Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism,
                            Christianity, Islam, and Sikhism.
                                Hinduism                  Sacred symbols
                                Hinduism began
                                in India about            Each of these symbols
                                4,000 years ago.          has a special meaning.
                                Hindus believe
                                 in a spirit called              Hinduism: the “Aum”
                                                                 symbol represents the
                                 Brahman (God).                  first sound of creation.
                                  They also worship
                                  many gods and                  Judaism: the Star of
                                  goddesses, who                 David reminds Jews of
                                  represent different            a great Jewish king.
                                  parts of Brahman.
                                                                 Buddhism: the wheel
                             Hindus bathing                      represents eight points of
                             in the holy River
                                                                 the Buddha’s teaching.
                             Ganges, in India
                                                                 Christianity: the cross
                             The Church                          reminds Christians of
                             of the Holy
                                                                 Jesus’ death on a cross.
                             Sepulchre, in
                                                                 Islam: the star and
                                                                 crescent moon appear
                                                                 on many Islamic flags.

                                                                 Sikhism: the khanda
                                                                 symbol reminds Sikhs of
                                                                 God and of God’s power.

                                                        Christians follow the
                                                        teachings of a man called
                                                    Jesus Christ who lived about
                                                    2,000 years ago. They believe
                                                    that Jesus was the son of God,
                                                    who died to save them from sin.
                 What is the Christian holy book called?
                                                                                     Religious lands
  This building
  is a Buddhist          People who follow Islam are called
  monastery in               Muslims. They believe in Allah
                            (God), who guides them through
                         their lives. The holy book of Islam
                                is called the Qur’an (Koran).
                               It contains the teachings of a
                                 prophet called Mohammed.

                                                                                                       Mecca (Makkah)
                                                 Western                                                  is a holy city
                                                 Wall                                                      for Muslims.

                                                                                                  The Western Wall
                                                                                                  (Wailing Wall), in
                                                                                                  Jerusalem, is a holy
                                                                                                  place for Jews.

Buddhists follow
the teachings of the
Buddha. He was an                       Statues of the
Indian prince who lived                 Buddha often       Judaism is the religion of the Jews.           Menorah
                                        show him                                                          (Jewish
about 2,500 years ago. He               meditating
                                                           Their holy book is called the                  candlestick)
showed people how to live               (thinking          Torah. It tells the story of the
                                        deeply).           Jewish people and their special
good, happy lives, full of peace.
                                                           relationship with God.
         an expert                  The Golden Temple
                                    in Amritsar, India,
      68-69 Art and                 is the holiest of
                                    all Sikh shrines.
   84-85 Ancient Egypt
        90-91 The
        The Sikh religion was
  started by a teacher called
 Guru Nanak. Sikhs worship
        in a building called a
  gurdwara. Their holy book
   is the Guru Granth Sahib.
                                                   The Bible.                                                       63
People and society

                           Religious life
                          People honour their God or gods
                          by following their teaching. They
                           may come together for worship
                            and celebrate special events
                              with feasts and festivals.

                         Statue of       Muslims (followers of
                         the Buddha
                                         Islam) must pray five
                                         times a day: at dawn,
                                         midday, mid-afternoon,
                                         sunset, and night-time.
                                         Muslims follow a set of
                                         special prayer positions.

                                            Buddhists do not
                                            worship a god, but
                                            honour the life and
                                            teachings of the
                                            Buddha. In the temple,
                                            they offer flowers,
                                            candles, and incense
                                            to the Buddha, to
                                            show their respect.

                                                      In some Buddhist
                                                      countries, boys spend
                                                      time as monks.

     What is a mosque?
                                                                                           Religious life
           In a synagogue, Jews listen               Judaism                   Turban
           to readings from the Torah,
           their holy book.                          Jewish people meet to
                                                     worship and pray in a
                                                     special building called
                                                     a synagogue. A man or
                                                     woman called a rabbi
                                                     leads the worship.        Small


                                This is Ganesha, the
                                elephant-headed god.
                                                                                         Many Sikh men wear
                                                                                         five things to show
                           Hinduism                                                      their faith. These are
             Hindus worship the gods                                                     uncut hair (often kept
         and goddesses in their homes                                                    tidy in a turban), a
        and in mandirs (temples). The                                                    wooden comb, a small
         god Ganesha is said to bring                                                    sword, a steel bangle,
               good luck and success.                                                    and white undershorts.

                                                                               are ac
                                                                     children first Cting out th
                                                                hese ry of the
Christianity                                                                                           e
                                                               T to                         hristm
Christmas is a joyful festival                                                                     as.
when Christians remember                                          s             Three kings

how Jesus was born. There
are services in church,
and people celebrate
by exchanging
cards and gifts.                             Jesus

Jesus was born in a
stable in Bethlehem.
Three kings brought
presents for him.    Mary

                             A building where Muslims worship Allah (God).                                  65
People and society

      Writing and printing
      People began to write things down
      about 5,500 years ago. Before this,
      they told stories and passed
         news on by word of mouth.
            Today, writing is all
                  around you.

                                       Quill pens in a pot of
                                       ink with a scroll made
                                       from papyrus reeds
     pens are filled
     with ink.                                           Paper and pens
                                                         The paper you use today comes
     Signs and                                           from trees. Long ago, people made
     symbols                                                paper from reeds or animal
     Sometimes, signs and                                        skins. The first pens were
     symbols are used to                                                    pieces of reeds,
     write letters and words,                                                dipped in soot
     or even secret codes.                                                      or ink.
     Pictograms are pictures
     used for writing. This old
     Chinese word means “to sell”.       Writing machines
                                         The first typewriters were
     Hieroglyphs were used               invented about 200 years ago.
     by the ancient Egyptians.
     This one stands for “chick”.        They made writing much quicker.
                                         Today, word processors, like this
     Runes were Viking symbols           laptop computer, are used instead.
     that were carved on stone or
     wood. This is the “M” sound.

     Music symbols like these
     are used to write down
     musical sounds (notes).

     Morse code changes the
     alphabet into dot and dash
     signals for sending messages.          Early typewriter     Laptop computer
                                     What is a typeface?
                                                         Writing and printing
Printing books
At first, books were written out by hand. This                          Become
took a long time and was very costly. Printing                         an expert
presses, like the one                                                  84-85 Ancient
shown here, were first                                                     Egypt
                                     An old wooden
used about 600 years
ago. Printing books
                                     printing press
                                                                     90-91 The Vikings
by machine was
much quicker

                                                                                       This mac
and cheaper.

                                                                                        sheets into newspapers.
       The different parts
       of the machine were
       worked by hand.

                                                                                                hine sorts printed
Printing the news
The first, hand-written newspapers
date from Roman times.
They told people about battles
and gladiator contests. Today,
giant rotary presses are used
to print millions of
books, newspapers,
and magazines
every day.
                                                                          One rotary press
                                                                          can print more
Every day, newspapers tell us
                                                                          than 75,000
what is happening in the world.
                                                                          in one hour.
    ... used in printing.                             A style of letters...                              67
People and society

     Art and architecture
     Since ancient times, artists have painted pictures and
     used stone and wood to make sculptures.
     Architects plan the world’s buildings.

     Cave painting            Church art
     Prehistoric artists      The Italian artist
     painted pictures of      Michelangelo painted
     figures and animals on   scenes from the Bible on
     cave walls. This cave    the ceiling and walls of    Modern sculpture
     art is from the USA.     the Sistine Chapel in       Modern British artist
                              Rome, Italy.                Henry Moore used
                                                 ks a y

                                   tur w
                                                          bold shapes to create
                           Architec the                   this interesting – and

                                                          “touchable” – giant
                         can change y loo                 stone sculpture.
                           a whole c


                                 When was the Sydney Opera House opened?
                                                   Art and architecture
Architecture                                       Making art
Every building you see has been planned by an       People use different types
architect. Styles of architecture have changed      of art to capture a scene
over thousands of years. Buildings are designed     or express their ideas.
for living, working, worship, or simply for fun.    Here are a few of them.

Castles were built
                                                             Drawing a quick “sketch”
to defend people                                             in pencil is a way for artists
from attack. This                                            to plan a colour painting.
castle is in Spain.
                                                             Painting in colour is often
                                                             done on a canvas using
                                                             watercolour or oil paints.

                                                             Sculpture is the skill of
                                                             making artistic shapes out
              The Taj Mahal                                  of stone, wood, or metal.
  The beautiful Taj Mahal in                                 Photography is a very
   India was built as a tomb                                 accurate way of showing
  for the emperor’s wife. It is                              how people and places look.
    made from white marble
     set with coloured stones.                               Graphic design is a way
                                                             of combining pictures and
                                                             words in imaginative ways.

                                                   An opera house
skyscrapers                                        The Opera House in Sydney,
make                                               Australia, is a modern building.
up the
Singapore                                          Its wing-like roof makes it easy
skyline.                                           to identify. It was designed to
                                                   look like the sails of boats in
                                                   the nearby harbour.

                                                               an expert
                                                              86-87 Ancient
                                                            88-89 The Romans

                                  In 1973.                                             69
People and society

                     What is your favourite song or
                     tune? Do you like classical, jazz,
                     folk, rock, or pop music? If you
                     play a musical instrument, you
                     can make music of your own.
                                     An orchestra
                                     Some musicians perform together
                                     in a group called an orchestra.
                                     There are about 90 musicians in a
                                     symphony orchestra. The conductor
                                     keeps them in time. Orchestras
                                     usually play classical music.

                                                 Drums and cymbals are
                                                 percussion instruments.

                           Cymbal         Musical instruments
                                          In an orchestra, there are
                          Drum            four kinds of instruments –
                                          brass, woodwind, percussion,
                                          and strings. Each instrument
                                          makes its own individual
                                          sound. The different sounds
                                          blend together.


                          What sort of instrument is a xylophone?
Recording music                                                                         Mixing desk

In a recording studio, each voice
or instrument can be recorded on
its own. These are called tracks.                                                       The knobs on the
                                                                                        mixing desk control
Engineers mix the tracks together.                                                      the volume and
                                                                                        tone of each track.

Types of music
Many different kinds
of music are played
all over the world.                     Madonna is        record
                                        one of the most
                                        successful pop
         Early music was probably       singers of
         played on instruments          all time.
         made from animal bones.
         Opera is a play set to
                                        Madonna                    Music can be recorded in many ways:
         music in which the                                        on computers, MP3 players, CDs,
         performers sing their lines.                              vinyl records, and tapes.

         Jazz musicians make up
                                                                     Many rock and pop
         some or all of the music                                    musicians play music
         as they play it.                                            on electric guitars.

         Rock music, or rock and
         roll, has punchy lyrics                                                 Pop concerts
         (words) and a strong beat.                                             Watching your
         Pop is short for popular                                                favourite pop
         music. It has catchy tunes                                  star perform live on stage
         and is good for dancing to.                                    can be thrilling. Many
                                                                       people work behind the
     Cello                                                            scenes to make the show
                                                                                 run smoothly.

                                                                             Hands on
                                                                             Would you
                                                                       like to be a pop star?
                                                                     Try writing your own pop
                                                                      song. Start by writing a
                                                                       poem, then make up a
                                                                         tune to go with it.
                   Piano keyboard

 A percussion instrument.                                                                                 71
People and society

            Theatre and dance
            Theatre began thousands of years ago in
            ancient Greece. Actors and dancers put
            on shows to entertain and inform people.

                     Actors and acting                                       Actors use their body,
                                                                             as well as the words, to
                                                                             create a character and
                     Putting on a play is a long task.                       perform the scenes.
                     First, the playwright writes the play.
                     Then actors bring the story and the
                      characters in the play to life. They
                         also have to remember their words!

                                                  These actors are playing
                                                  two characters called
                                                  Romeo and Juliet.

                                     Musical theatre
                                     Going to the theatre to see
                                     a musical is a special treat.
                     Costumes help   Musicals are an exciting
                     to show when    mixture of acting, dancing,
                     and where the
                     play’s action
                                     and song. This is a scene
                     is happening.   from the musical “Oliver!”.

                            Who wrote the play “Romeo and Juliet”?
                                                                   Theatre and dance
                                                                of dance
                                                                There are
                                                                many different
                                                                types and styles
                                                                of dance from all
                                                                over the world.
Japanese theatre                                                         Tap dancers
                                                                         wear metal-
These actors are performing an ancient type                              capped shoes to
                                                                         make “tap” sounds.
of Japanese play, called Kabuki. They wear
beautiful costumes and mix acting, singing,                              Ballet is a graceful
                                                                         type of dance, set to
dancing, and music to put on a dazzling show.                            music, that tells a tale.

                                Indian dance                             Country and folk
                                                                         dances from around the
                                Dancing is a way of telling
                                                                         world are lively and fun.
                                a story or showing a feeling
                                using movement and music.                Flamenco is a dramatic
                                This type of dancing, from               Spanish dance set to the
                                India, is made up of special             sound of clicking castanets.
                                movements and expressions.
                                                                         Jazz dance uses the rhythm
                                                                         and beat of jazz music to
                                                                         create an exciting dance.
                                      Puppet shows
                                       Puppet shows are a very old type of
                                        theatre. These glove puppets are
                                          simple to work. A hand inside
                                            makes the puppet move. One
                      Punch                  finger works the puppet’s
                                               head, while two other
     Become                                     fingers work the arms.
    an expert
     70-71 Music
    86-87 Ancient                                                                          Judy


    Punch and Judy are famous
    puppets from Britain.

   William Shakespeare.
People and society

Clothes and fashion
What are you wearing today? A                                       Types of fabric
T-shirt? Trousers? Trainers? Clothes                                Cotton is made of fibres
can make you look good. They may                                    from the cotton plant. The
                                                                    fabric is usually woven.
also have a special job to do.
                                                                    Silk is a thin, soft fabric
                                                                    made from threads spun
                                                                    by silkworms.

                                                                    Leather is made from
                                                                    the skins of animals
                                                                    such as cows.

                                                                    Wool is made from the
                                                                    hair of sheep. It is often
                                                                    knitted to make clothes.

                                                                    Nylon and other
                                                                    artificial fabrics are
                                                                    made from chemicals.
                                                                       This Vietnamese            This
                                                                       boy is wearing             Indian
                                                                       casual clothes.            girl is
                                                                                                  a sari.

              A raincoat, Wellington
              boots, and umbrella are
                                        This French girl wears a
              useful when it rains.
                                        top and skirt for school.

           What do you wear?
           What you wear depends
           on where you live and
           what you are doing. People
           wear different clothes for
           keeping warm, staying
            cool, for playing sport,
             and for going to school.
            What is a beret (“ber-reh”)?
                                                Clothes and fashion
                  Fashion shows
                  Some people design clothes
                  to look stylish or unusual.
                  They are called fashion
                  designers. They put on
                  fashion shows where models
                  show off their clothes.

                                                Some people have to wear
                                                special clothes for work. These
                                                are called uniforms. This
                                                fire-fighter’s uniform protects
                  Clothes for the cold          against heat and flames. Do
                  In cold climates, clothes     you wear a uniform at school?
                  were traditionally made
                  from animal fur and
                                                        This Masai girl from Tanzania is
                  skins. Today, synthetic               wearing her colourful national dress.
                  (artificial) fabrics are
                  often used instead.                                Children from the Arctic
This beautiful                                                       need thick, fur-lined
outfit is the                                                        clothes for warmth.
national dress    This girl is wearing a
of a hill tribe   kimono, the national
from Vietnam.     dress of Japan.

    National dress
 A country’s
 traditional clothes
 are called its
 national dress.
 In many countries,
 people only wear
 their national dress
 for festivals or other
 special occasions.
A round, flat type of hat.                                                                75
People and society

Sport and leisure                                                         Football (also called soccer) is the
                                                                           most popular sport in the world.

What do you do in your
spare time? Do you enjoy
a favourite sport? Or
do you have fun
with toys or play
computer games?

                                                     Spectator sports
                                                     A spectator sport is a sport that
                                                     people like to watch. Football,
                                                     rugby, American football, baseball,
                                                     and golf are all spectator sports.

                                                                   Team sports
                                                                   All of these spectator
                                                                   sports are played by
 Sn                                                                two teams of players.
   ow                                             wear warm,
                                                  baggy clothes.          Baseball: teams score
     bo                                                                   runs by batting. Fielders
        a   rd                                                            wear a catching glove.

              er                                                          Basketball: points are
                 s   do                                                   scored by throwing the ball
                                                                          into a raised hoop (basket).
                          am                      Plastic clips
                               az                 attach the
                                                  boot to the
                                                                          Football: each team tries
                                  in              snowboard.
                                                                          to kick or head the ball
                                    gs                                    into the other team’s net.
                                        ns                                Ice hockey: teams score
Outdoor sports                          an                                goals by hitting a puck
Snowboarding, rock climbing,               d   jum
                                                                          with flat sticks.
canoeing, skiing, and sailing are outdoor
sports. You need special equipment and
                                                   ps.                    Rugby: teams score “tries”
                                                                          by carrying the oval ball
     clothes to do outdoor sports safely.                                 along the pitch.
                           Which games are played with cues on a table?
                                                                                Sport and leisure
                                                A control pad for
                                                a games console
                                                                                         A small, motorized
                                                                                         toy model boat

                                                                           Toys and games
                                                                           Children play with toys such
Computer games                                                             as dolls, construction sets, and
You play computer                                                          model vehicles. A game is often
games on a games console                                                   played against one or more
attached to a television,                                                  opponents – and can
on a hand-held console,                                                    be challenging, as
or on a personal computer.                                                 well as fun.
                                       You play chess
What is your favourite                 with pieces on
computer game?                         a board.

Individual sports
In these sports, people
play on their own
against an opponent.                                                Doll               cards

        Tennis: players hit a ball
        with rackets. They must
        keep the ball in the court.

          swimmers race each
        other up and down a pool.

        Golf: players hit a ball
        around a course, using as
        few shots as they can.

         Running: runners race
          against each other on          Going to the movies
         a track or on roads.
                                         When new films are made, they are
        Table tennis: players hit
                                         first shown on large screens at cinemas.
        a ball with small bats. The      Today, many films are made using
         game is played on a table.      animation and special effects.
                                      Snooker, pool, and billiards.                                           77
People and society

                            Working people
                                What do you want to be when
                                you grow up? All over the world,
                                people do different kinds of work
                                to earn the money to buy their
                                food, clothes, and homes.

                                   Astronauts are people who work in space. Some
                                   fly spacecraft. Others do science experiments in
                                   space. The astronauts in this picture are
                                        working inside a Space Shuttle.

                                              Market sellers
                                              There are markets selling food and
                                              other goods in almost every town
                                              and city. This man is selling fruit
                                                           and vegetables from his
                                                              market stall in
                                                                Cairo, Egypt.

          What do you call someone who writes books to earn a living?
                                                                               Working people
                   This vet is giving a
                   cat a health check.

                                                            Farmers                                    The farmer’s
Vets                                                                                                   plough is
                                                            All over the world, farmers grow
If your pet is ill, you take it to the vet. Vets                                                       being pulled
                                                            crops and raise animals. They grow         by an ox.
look after sick and injured animals. Some
                                                            food for themselves and to sell at
vets treat small animals, such as cats and
                                                            market. This farmer is ploughing
dogs. Others work with farm or zoo animals.
                                                            his rice field in Thailand.
 This teacher is
 helping some
                                      Who is your favourite teacher?
 children to                          At school, teachers help you to
 learn to read.                         learn science, languages, and
                                          other subjects. Teachers                 engineers are
                                          have to go to college to                 making a part for
                                                                                   a power station.
                                          learn how to teach you!


                                                                  Engineers are people who design or
                                                                  make such things as cars, aeroplanes,
                                                                  machines, and buildings. To be an
                                                                  engineer, you need to be good at
                                                                  science and mathematics.
                                                     An author.                                                79
History of people

World of history
                                                                                                    The mummy
                                                                                                    mask of the
                                                                                                    Egyptian king,

History tells us the story of how
people lived in the past. From the                                                                     blue stones
                                                                                                       called lapis
things they left behind, we can                                                                        lazuli

find out about their homes, food,
clothes, work, and beliefs.                                                                          Solid gold

Early people                                                                Powerful kings
About 10,000 years ago, groups of                                           Many great civilizations
people began to settle down in certain                                      were ruled by powerful kings.
places. They started to farm the land                                       In ancient Egypt, the kings
and to raise animals for food.                                              were called pharaohs. They
                                                                            were so important

Early farmers cut down the                                                  that people
ripe wheat stalks with a

sickle made from a sharp                                                    worshipped

flint stone set in
a wooden handle.                                                            them as gods.
                                                  how to grow crops for
                                                                o od    f

                                                                                  Spanish galleon
                             Where did the Aztecs and Incas live?
                                                                                             World of history
Greeks and Romans                                                                          Curiosity quiz
About 2,500 years ago,                                                                     Look through the History
ancient Greek culture                                                                      of People pages and see

flourished. Then the Romans                                                                if you can identify the

grew in strength and ruled                                                                 picture clues below.

                                                                       g sp
over a great empire from

                                                Now people are explorin
Rome in present-day Italy.

The ancient Acropolis in Athens, Greece

For centuries, people
have travelled far and
wide across the world.
    They went in
     search of new
   lands, goods to trade,
   and adventures.
                               The first Space Shuttle
                               flight was made in
                               1981 with a Shuttle
                               called Columbia.

                                                20th century
                                                The 20th century                    Become
                                                saw many new                       an expert
                                                inventions and                      66-67 Writing
                                                discoveries being                    and printing
                                                made. People flew                  280-281 Men on
                                                in space for the
           These coins were made by
                                                first time, and even                  the moon
       European explorers using the gold
        they discovered on their travels.       walked on the Moon.
                                             In Central and South America.                                       81
History of people
             From apes to
             human beings
                     Our oldest ancestors
                                                     Early people
                     looked like apes.               The first human beings lived
Homo                 Slowly, they became             about two million years ago.
habilis skull
                     more human-like                 We do not know exactly
                     and began to walk               what they looked like, but
                     upright on two legs.            we do know how they lived.
Neanderthal skull
                                                     Cave shelters
                                                     Early people used caves like these
                                                     as shelters. Inside, the caves were
                                                     safe and warm. Sometimes, people
                                                     painted the walls with pictures
Modern                                               of the animals they hunted.
human skull

                                                                    Flint   A flint hand
The first farmers                                                   blade   axe from
Until 10,000 years ago,
people had to travel in
search of food. Then they
began to grow crops and keep
animals for meat and milk.
These people were the first
                                       Tools and fire
               farmers.                We take fire and tools
                                       for granted, but early
                                       people had to learn
                                       how to make and use
                                       them. The first tools
                                       were stone hand
                                       axes, made about
                                       600,000 years ago.

                                             This woman is grinding
                                             grain between two stones
                                             to make flour for bread.
                    How did early people start fires?
                                                                       Early people
                                The first cities                Early inventions
                                When people started
                                growing their food, they        Here are some of the
                                were able to settle in one      everyday things that
                                place. They began to build      early people used.
                                houses, villages, and cities.
                                One of the first cities was               Dogs were first used
                                Jericho in Jordan.                      for hunting about
                                                                        10,000 years ago.

 Hunters and gatherers                                                   The first metal tools
                                                                         were made from copper
 Early people hunted woolly mammoths, cave                              about 10,000 years ago.

 bears, reindeer, and other animals for food.
                                                                        The first clay pots for
 They also collected fruit, nuts, and roots,                            storing water were made
 and caught fish.                                                       about 7,000 years ago.

                                                                        an expert
                                                                         92-93 Aztecs,
                                                                          Incas, and
 The meat from
 a mammoth was
 enough to feed
 a family for a
 whole year.                                                                             Hunters killed
                                                                                         the mammoth
                                                                                         with wooden
Ma ntin ro

  mm g

          w th

        us a

      By rubbing two sticks or striking two stones together.                                     83
History of people

                Ancient Egypt
                The ancient Egyptians lived by the banks
                of the River Nile about 3,500 years ago.
                Their powerful rulers were called pharaohs.
                                                      The pyramids
                                                      The ancient Egyptians
                    Beautifully                       believed in life after death.
                                                        The pharaohs built
                                                            magnificent tombs for
                                                              themselves, called

                                  Building skills
                    of a cat      Egyptian builders did
                                  not have modern tools
                                  and machines to help
                                  them. The workers
                                  carried huge stone
                                  blocks into place, or
                                  sent them on barges     These men are carrying stone blocks for
                                  along the river.        building, as the ancient Egyptians did.

                                  When an important            Hands on
                                  person died, the body         Try writing
                                  was “mummified”.            out a message
                                  Some of the inside       using only Egyptian
                                  parts were removed.    hieroglyphics. You could
                                                         also make up your own
                                  Then the body was         set of hieroglyphic
                                  treated with chemicals         symbols.
                                  and wrapped in bandages.
                                    Why did the Egyptians mummify their dead?
                                                                                          Ancient Egypt
                                           The Nile floods                           Hieroglyphics
                                           Each year, the River Nile
                                           flooded and spread rich,                  The Egyptians used
                                           black soil on its banks.                  picture writing called
                                           Farmers grew crops in the                 hieroglyphics. Symbols,
                                           soil and used the river                   such as those below, stood
                                           water to water their fields.
                                                                                     for letters and sounds.
                                              A funeral

                                                                Nile barges
   The River Nile                                               were important
                                   ut across the
                           a r es o
   in Egypt                                                     for transport.

                         st                      des                                    Hieroglyphic sound chart
                sti  x

                                                                                      ah       b       c, k         d
The mysterious S

                                                                                     ee, y     f        g           h

                                                                                      kh       m         n          p

                                                                                           r       s          t   oo, u, w

                                                                                      The Sphinx
                                                                                      A huge stone statue, called
                                                                                      the Sphinx, guards the
                                                                                      pyramids at Giza. It has the
                                                                                      body of a lion and a human
                                                                                      head, which was modelled
                                                                                         on the pharaoh’s
                                                          The great Sphinx guards             own features.
                                                          the pyramid of a pharaoh
                                                          called Khafra.

                                  To keep the body whole for the next life.                                             85
History of people

                       Ancient Greece
                       About 2,500 years ago, Greece was
                       made up of powerful “city-states”, such
                       as Athens and Sparta, which fought
                       wars against each other.

                                       Greek buildings
                                       The ancient Greeks built
                                       beautiful temples where they
                                       worshipped their gods. This
                                       temple in Athens was built to
                                       honour the goddess Athena.

                                       Greek theatre
                                       Going to the theatre was very popular in
                                       ancient Greece. The Greeks wrote many
                                       plays, including tragedies and comedies.
                                       People watched their favourite plays in
                                       large outdoor theatres, like the one above.
                Where were the first Olympic Games held?
                                                                Ancient Greece
The Trojan War                                              Greek mythology
During a long war with                                      The Greeks told many
the city of Troy, the                                       stories about their gods
Greeks gave the Trojans                                     and goddesses.
a huge wooden horse
                                                                   Zeus was king of the gods
as a gift. But the horse                                           and chief of the 12 gods who
was full of soldiers,                                              lived on Mount Olympus.

who attacked the                                                   Athena was goddess of
Trojans as they slept.                                             war, wisdom, and Athens.
                                                                   She helped heroes in battle.
                         with nose
                                                                   Poseidon was the brother

                                     sol lle

                                                                   of Zeus and Hades and god
                                        er se
                                       ca                          of the seas and earthquakes.

                                       d s we
                                        ho                         Aphrodite was goddess of
                                           plit re                 love and beauty. She loved
                                               es.                 Ares, the god of war.

                                                                   Hades was god of the
                                                                   Underworld – the home of
                                                                   the dead in Greek legends.

        Strong, bronze                                                             Shield
        metal armour
        the body.

Each city had                                                                Some shields
                                                                             were decorated
an army, and                                                                 with crests.

war was part of
daily life. Soldiers
had to buy their own                           These leg
weapons and armour,                            guards are
                                               called greaves.
so they often came
from rich families.
                                                        In Olympia, Greece.                   87
History of people

   The Romans                                               The city of Rome
                                                            The city of Rome is still a
                                                            busy place, just as it was
                                                            in ancient times. If you visit
    Ancient Rome began as a group                           Rome today, you can see
    of small villages along the River                       the ruins of the Forum, the
                                                            Colosseum, and many other
     Tiber in Italy. It soon grew into                      splendid Roman buildings.
      a great and powerful city that
         ruled a mighty empire.
                      The Forum

                                                               The Colosseum was a
                                                               huge building in Rome
                                                               where people went
                                                               to watch wild beast
                                                               shows and gladiator
                                                               fights. Gladiators
                                                               often fought to
                                                               the death.
                                           Gladiators were armed with
                                           nets and spears, or small
                                           shields and swords.

                                     50,000 people could
                                     sit and watch the
                                     fights in the arena.

                                                            Lions and other wild
                                                            animals were killed
                                                            during the shows.

                                  What was a Roman villa?
                                                                                          The Romans
                       Latin language                                               Famous Romans
                       The Romans spoke a language
                       called Latin. Roman children                                 Below, you can read
                       learnt to write Latin by scratching                          about some of the most
                       out letters on wooden boards that                            famous Romans of all.
                       were covered in wax.
                       This inscription is                                                  Spartacus was a slave
                       written in Latin.
                                                                                            who led an army of slaves
                                                                                            against the Romans.
The Roman Empire                                                        Asia                 Julius Caesar was a
The Romans conquered                                       Rome                              great general who ruled
                                             Europe                                          Rome. He was murdered.
a vast empire. They
built this wall between                                                                     Augustus was the first
                                                                                            Roman emperor. After his
Scotland and England                                                                        death, he was made a god.
to protect the boundary                       Africa
                                       The purple area on this map shows the size
of their empire.                       of the Roman Empire in about 300 CE .
                                                                                            Ovid was a Roman poet.
                                                                                            He wrote many poems
Hadrian’s Wall                                                                              about myths and legends.

                                                                                              Hadrian toured the
                                                                                              empire and built walls
                                                                                              and forts to guard it.

                                                      A soldier’s sandals
The Roman army
 The Romans had the best army
  in the world. Their soldiers
    conquered many
     countries and
      guarded the              A standard
      empire. The              (army flag)
    soldiers often had to
    march long distances.
                                                                                    Roman roads
                                                                                    In peacetime, Roman soldiers
                                                                                    were kept busy building
                                                                                    roads. Roads were important
                                                                                    for moving the army around
                                                                                    the empire. Roman roads
                                                                                    were usually very straight.
                                                                                    Some are still used today.
                                A large house in the countryside.                                                      89
History of people

                                                The Vikings
                  Mast                          The Vikings lived more than
                                                1,000 years ago. Their home
     The sail was made
     from wool or linen.
                                                was in Scandinavia, in
                                                northern Europe, but they
                                                are famous for their long sea
                                                journeys to distant lands.

                                                         Viking travellers
                                                         The Vikings were daring sailors and
        Longships                                        explorers. They made fierce raids on the
        Viking boats                                     countries of western Europe. They went
        were called                                      in search of trade and new lands to live
                                                         in – even as far away as North America.
        longships. They                          Ropes
        were built from                                                                  Scandinavia

        wood, and were
        fast and strong                                               Atlantic
        enough to cover                                                              Europe
        vast distances.                                     North

                                                                                 The Vikings reached
                                                                                 North America in about
                                                                                 the year 1000 CE.

                                                                                      A longship carried
                                                                                      about 80 Vikings,
                                                                                      who rowed and
                                                                                      sailed the ship.

                           What is the Viking alphabet called?
                                                                                         The Vikings
Warrior duty
Being a brave warrior
was very important to
the Vikings. They could
be called up to fight at
any moment, so they
always dressed                                 Viking homes
ready for battle.                              Viking families lived in houses made from wood,
                                               stone, or turf. A hole was left in the roof to let out
                     Iron and
                     wood spear
                                               smoke from the cooking fire. People sat on stools or
                                               benches around the fire and slept on raised beds.
Viking warriors                                                                            A small statue
carried wooden                              Helmet with                                    of a Viking god
shields and wore                            noseguard                                      called Frey
armour made                                                          Story-telling
from leather or                             Chain-mail               To entertain each
chain mail.                                 shirt
                                                                     other, the Vikings told
                                                                     long stories about their
                                                                     heroes, gods, and great
                                                                     warriors. The stories
                                                                     were called sagas.
                        tunic                                       Runes
                                                                    The Vikings carved poems and
                                                                    inscriptions using symbols called
                                                                    runes. Each rune was made of straight
                                                                    lines, so it was easy to carve them on
                                                                    wood or stone.
                                                                    Swords and
                                                                    spears were
                                                                    used for
                                               Round                fighting.

                                    Long                    sword

                   Goat-skin shoes
                                                            It is called “Futhark” (“foo-thark”).            91
History of people

Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas
                    Three great civilizations grew up in
                    the ancient Americas. They were
                     called the Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas.
                      These people built great cities and
                       temples to their gods.         Aztecs

                            Where did they live?
headdress                   The Aztecs and Mayas ruled

                            large parts of Mexico and
                            Central America. The Inca
                            Empire stretched along the
                            west coast of South America.

                                 Aztec temple
                                 Aztec temples looked like pyramids,
                                 with steps leading to a shrine on top.
                                 Here, the Aztecs killed people and
                                 offered their hearts to
                                 the god of the Sun.
                                               This is Chicomecoatl, the
                                               Aztec goddess of maize.

                                  Gods and farming
                                  The Aztecs prayed to the gods
                                  to make their crops grow. Most
                                  important was maize (corn). It
                                   was ground into flour for making
                                    flat breads called tortillas.
                      How were the Incas like the ancient Egyptians?
                                                                    Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas
Spanish                   Spanish invasion
galleon                                                                 Inca gold
                          In the 16th century, Spanish
                          explorers came to the Americas.               The Incas made objects
                           Their arrival meant the end of               from gold. The Spanish
                            the Aztec, Maya, and Inca                   greed for gold led to the
                            empires. Many people were                   end of the Inca empire.
                           killed and their cities destroyed.
                                                                                 Llamas were important to
                                                                                 the Incas. They were used
                                                                                 for wool and for transport.

                                                                                 Gold armbands may
                                                                                  have been worn by the
Mayan cities                                                                     bravest Inca warriors.

The Maya built great                                                             Statues of Inca gods were
                                                                                 made from gold to show
cities, filled with                                                              honour towards them.
magnificent stone
temples, palaces, and
squares. This is the
Temple of the Great                                                             Ha nds on
Jaguar in the Mayan                                                                 Make an
city of Tikal.                                                              Aztec headdress. Cut a
                            Tikal is in Guatemala, South America.          strip of card to go round
                                                                            your head and stick on 
Inca farmers                                                                 card feathers. Paint it
This is the Inca city of Machu Picchu,                                         and tape the ends
high in the Andes mountains in Peru.
Farmers grew crops in level fields cut
into the mountainside. Maize,
legumes (beans), and
squash were their
main crops.
Ruins of Machu Picchu’s
buildings can still be
seen in Peru today.

                                 They made mummies.                                                      93
History of people
Types of castle
The first castles were
made from wood, but
                                     Knights and castles
stone was stronger.                  Even for brave knights in the middle
                                     ages, attacking a castle was dangerous.
         French chateaux were
         magnificent royal homes,    Thick walls kept them out, and the castle
         with moats and towers.
                                     archers had their bows and arrows ready.
         Norman keeps were
         stone towers, surrounded
         by thick castle walls.
                                     Castle design
         Japanese castles were       Massive walls and towers made castles
         built by warrior lords
         and had decorative roofs.
                                     almost impossible for enemy soldiers
                                     to attack. Many castles were built on
         The Red Fort in India       hills, so they were difficult to reach.
         was a palace with stone
         walls 30 m (100 ft) tall.

          Hands on                                                         Thick
                                                                   Tower   walls
               Make a
        knight’s shield from
      a big piece of coloured
     card. Decorate the shield
       with your own coat
        of arms, cut out of
            silver paper.

In peacetime, knights
fought practice
battles, called
jousts, to train for war. They
used poles (lances) to knock
each other off their horses.

                                         What was chain mail?
                                                               Knights and castles
Helmet                                                     Buffalo         Samurai warriors wore
           Knights                                         horns           armour made from
                                                                           coated wood or plates
           Knights were soldiers who fought                                of metal laced together.
           on horseback. They wore heavy
             armour made from iron and
                    were armed with axes,
                    swords, and spears.
                         A knight used his sword to
                         stab between the gaps in
                         an enemy’s armour.

                                  Samurai warriors
                                  In Japan, knights were
Leg                               called samurai. They
                                  were warriors who
                                  fought for a powerful
Spur                              lord and followed a                                     Samurai
                                  strict code of honour.               Leather leg

                                     Archers fired
                                     arrows through
                                     slits in the walls.

                                             Lance                                   Each knight
                                                                                     had his own
                                                                                     pattern, called
                                                                                     his coat
                                                                                     of arms.




              Armour made from small loops of metal.                                            95
History of people
  air force
                                     20th century
                                     The 20th century was the time from 1901 to
                                     2000. In the 20th century there were many
                                     events, inventions, and discoveries that
                                         changed people’s lives for ever.
                                                                                        Nuclear power
                                                                                        The first nuclear power station
                                                                                        was opened in 1954. Today, there
 A British fighter aircraft
                                                                                        are about 400 of them in the
 from World War II                                                                      world. These power stations make
                                                                                        dangerous waste. Some people
                                                                                        think they should be closed down.
World wars
There were two terrible
world wars during the
20th century. World War I
lasted from 1914 to 1918.
                                            Nearly three-quarters of France’s
World War II lasted from                    electricity is made at nuclear power
1939 to 1945. Millions of                   stations. This one is on the River Seine.

soldiers and civilians
died in these wars.                                               Thick armou                          This is Sirius, a ship
                                                                                                       owned and used by the

                                                                  rotects the ta r
                                                                                                       Greenpeace organization.

 The tracks stop the
                                                                p               nk.
 heavy tank sinking
 into mud.                    Tank

                                Who was the first person to go into space? And when?
                                                                                      20th century
Pop music                                                                        Advances
The Beatles were one of the
most successful pop groups                                                       Advances made in the
of all time. In the 1960s,                                                       20th century have made
millions of people bought                                                        many people’s lives easier.
their records. Performances
on television also helped to                                                               Mobile telephones
boost their fame. The Beatles                                                              and the Internet make
split up in 1970.                                                                          it easy to keep in touch.

                                The Beatles playing live on television in New              Medical advances help
                                York, USA
                                                                                           us to fight diseases and
Man on the Moon
                                                                                           recover from injuries.
In 1969, astronauts visited the Moon
for the first time. People all around                            Buzz                      Inventions such as the jet
the world watched on television as                               Aldrin                         engine have made
the astronauts stepped onto the                                                                 travel fast and cheap.
Moon’s grey, dusty surface.
                                                                                           Sport became extremely
                                                                                           popular, and many sports
                                                                                           people became very famous.
                                                                 Buzz Aldrin
                                                                 was the                   Scientific discoveries,
                                                                 second man                such as DNA, helped
                            Space                                on the Moon.
                            suit                                                           medicine and technology.

The environment
Some people began to worry about
the damage that humans are doing
to the environment. They formed
organizations such as Greenpeace
and Friends of the Earth.

Nelson Mandela                                                                  Technology
There were many important                                                       Many new types
political changes during the                                                    of technology were
20th century. Nelson Mandela                                                    developed in the 20th century.
fought against an unfair                                                        Microchips were invented in
political system in South                                                       the 1950s. They are used in
Africa. He became president                                                     computers, televisions, stereos,
of South Africa in 1994.                                                        and many other machines.
            A Russian cosmonaut (astronaut) called Yuri Gagarin in 1961.                                           97
Human body

Your amazing body
The greatest machine you’ll ever own is                                                         Become
                                                                                               an expert.
your body. It’s more complicated                                                               106-107 Bones
than any computer, it                                                                           and muscles
lasts for a lifetime, and                                                                      116-117 Eating
                                                                                                and digestion
it’s yours for free.
              Body parts
     Your body is made up
   of hundreds of different                                                                    Hair

parts. You probably know
 the names of the bits you
                                                                                               Inside your body

     can see, but there are

                                                                                  Eyebrows     Doctors can see
        many more hidden                                                                      inside your body
          deep inside you.                                                                   with special cameras.
                                                                       Nose         Eyes    X-ray cameras take

                                                                                           pictures of hard body
                                                                       Lips                parts like bones. Other
                                                                                          cameras, called scanners,
                                                                                         can see soft body parts.

                                        ds                                                                 Fin

Two of everything
Body parts often come     W
in pairs. You have                s

two feet, two eyes,
two ears, two lungs,
and so on. This
means you have
a handy spare in
case one of them
gets damaged.                                             A chest X-ray shows the bones in
                                                          your chest. The white shape in the
                                                          middle is the heart.
                        What do we call the study of the human body?
                                                                                     Your amazing body
     Water, water                                                                    Curiosity quiz
Your body is mostly
water – it makes up                                                                   Take a look at the
about two-thirds of                                                                   pages in this section
       your weight.                                                                   and see if you can
                                                                                      find these pictures.

                                      The ingredients
                                      Your body is made of just
                                      a few simple chemicals,
                                      plus water.
                                                     Carbon is what diamonds
                                                     and coal are made of.
                                                     A fifth of you is carbon.

                                                     Iron makes your blood
                                                     red. You have enough to
                                                     make one small iron nail.

                                                     Phosphorus is in the
                                                     tips of matches, as well
                                                     as your bones and teeth.
                                                     Sodium and chlorine
                                                     make salt. Blood is one-
                                                     third as salty as sea water.
No substitute
The human body is too                                Potassium is used in
complicated for robots to                            some types of soap. It’s
copy. Robots can copy the                            also in your body fluids.
way we walk, but they
                                                     Nitrogen is important in
can’t think or feel like we do.                      muscles. It’s also the main
                                                     ingredient in air.

                   Chimps have              Compared to chimps,
                                                                                    Being human
                   hands like ours.        our bodies look almost                   Although we look different from
                                                          hairless.                 animals, our bodies are similar
                              Chimpanzee                                                  on the inside. Our closest
                                                                                             animal relatives are
                                                                                               Anatomy.           99
Human body

 What makes you you?
 All human bodies work the same way, but everyone
 is different. Nobody looks, sounds, or thinks exactly
 like you. You’re different because of the way your
 genes and experience shape you as you grow up.

                                                                       Fair skin

      Green eyes

                                                                          Curly hair

         Black hair

                                                               The shape of your face,
                                                               the colour of your hair,
                                                               and many other things
                                                               make you unique –
                                                               different from
                                                               everyone else.
                      How many genes are there in each cell in the human body?
                                                                          What makes you you?
                 In the genes
   Genes are instructions that
   build your body and tell it
     how to work. Your genes
   control many of the things
       that make you unique,
             like the colour of
            your eyes or how
                 tall you’ll be.
                    ’s e
                                       This girl has a gene that allows
                                                                                            Hands on

                                       her to roll up her tongue. The

                                       boy doesn’t have the gene,
DNA                                    so he can’t do it.                                   Look in a
Your genes                        DNA insid                                           mirror and see if you
are stored in                              ey                                      can roll your tongue. Don’t
a chemical called                               to                                 cheat by squeezing it with
DNA, which looks like a                                                                your lips. Test your

twisted ladder with four                                                                family to see who

different types of rung.                                              h to                has the gene.
The rungs make up a                                                          the
four-letter alphabet that
spells out your genes,
                                                                                           nd back
like letters in a book.                            DNA can                                         400
                                                   split and
                                                   copy itself.                                        tim
                                                                             Learning to ride
                                                                             a bike changes your
                                                                             brain and your

                                                                                         Changing body
                                                                                         Genes don’t control
                                                                                         everything – experience
In the family                                                                                  also shapes you.
Your genes came from your parents.                                                               If you exercise a
Half come from your mother and                                                                    lot, for instance,
half come from your father. If                                                                    your body gets
you look like your parents, it’s                                                                  stronger.
because you share the same genes.
                                                            About 30,000 specific genes.                         101
Human body

 Building blocks
 Every part of your body is made of
 tiny building blocks called cells, which
 fit together like bricks in a wall. Cells
 are so small that hundreds could fit
 on the point of a pin.
                       The nucleus                     DNA is
                       controls the rest              stored in
                       of the cell.                    the cell
 The inside of                                        nucleus.
 a cell is packed
 with a kind of
 living jelly called

 cytoplasm.                                                                                The skin on your
                                                                            D              fingertips is made
                                                                                               of lots of small

                                                                                  Inside a cell
                                                                                  In the middle of a cell
                                                                                  is its control centre – the
                                                                                  nucleus. The nucleus sends
                                                                                  instructions to the rest of
                                                                                  the cell, telling the cell
                                                                                  what chemicals to make.

                                                                  Before a cell divides,
                                                                  the nucleus splits to
                                                                  make two nuclei.

 The outer skin, or
 membrane, stops
 things leaking out.             Tiny generators
                                 provide cells with

                                 Making new cells
               A cell makes new cells by dividing.
               The two new cells are half the size,
              but they soon grow back. Millions of                                                                  The new cells pull apart
                                                                                                                     and separate, but they
            your cells die every second, but millions                                                                     usually stay close
                      of others divide to replace them.                                                                         neighbours.
                                     How many cells are there in the human body?
                                                                                                 Building blocks
How big are cells?                                                           than 2000 de
                                                                      More               ad
Cells are too small to see with the                                                                    ski
naked eye, but scientists can                                                                                    ell
photograph them through

                                                                                                                       e ll
powerful microscopes.

The cells on your skin

                                                                                                                               yo u
are about a hundredth

of a millimetre wide.

                                                                                                                                    e you read this sentenc
                                                                                                                    The cells on
                                                                                                                  the surface of
                                                                                                            your skin are tough
                                             A microscope can                                         and flat. They overlap to
                                          zoom in to see the                                       form a layer of armour that
                                       tiny, flaky cells on the                                  protects the softer cells below.
                                   ridges of your fingerprint.

                                                                                                 Cells make tissue
                                                                                                 Your body contains
                                                                                                 hundreds of different
                                                                                                 types of cells that do
                                                                                                 different jobs. Cells of
    Fat cells are    Many blood cells           Nerve cells are              Bone cells make
   bubble shaped.      are red. They             thin and wiry.              your bones hard.    the same type usually
   They store fat      carry oxygen                They carry                They live in tiny   group together to form
  under your skin.   around the body.           electrical signals.           holes in bones.
                                                                                                 tissue. Fat, muscle,
                                                                                                 bone, and nerves are
                                                                                                 types of tissue. Blood
                                                                                                 is a liquid tissue.

                                          About 100 trillion.                                                                         103
Human body

 Organizing                                                     Systems
                                                                 Organs and
                                                                tissues work in
 the body                                                     teams to carry out
                                                             major tasks, like
 Your cells and tissues are                                  transporting blood
 organized into larger body                                  or processing food.
                                                             These teams are
 parts called organs. In turn,                                 called systems.
 your organs work together                                             The heart is the
 to form body systems.                                                 largest organ in the
                                                                       blood system. It
                                                                       pumps blood around
                Kidney                                                 the body.


                                                                     The tubes that carry
 Organs                                                              blood away from the
                                                                     heart are called
                                                                     arteries (shown
 An organ is a body part that                                        in red).
 does a specific job. Your heart’s
                                                                     The tubes that
 job, for instance is to pump                                        carry blood back to
                                                                     the heart are called
 blood. Kidneys clean blood.                                         veins (shown in

                                                                 Heart and blood
 Organ transplant                                              Your heart, blood, and
 If a vital organ stops working, doctors                       blood vessels make up
 may replace it with an organ from another                     the blood system. It
       person. This is called a transplant.                   transports vital supplies
                                                             around your body.
                    Which body system makes your   stomach rumble?
                                                                             Organizing the body
Muscles                                                                       Other systems
Your muscle system is made
of tissues that move parts                                                    Some of your other
of your body by pulling                                                       important systems
on them or squeezing                                                          are shown in this list.
them. Your biggest
muscles all pull                                      Muscles change                  Breathing system: the
                                                      the position of your            main organs are your
on bones.                                             skeleton by pulling
                                                                                      lungs, which take in air.
                                                      different bones.
 Your fingers
 are moved by                                                                         Hormone system: this
 muscles in
 your arm.
                                                                                      uses powerful chemicals to
                                                                                      control your body and mood.
                                 The most powerful
                                 muscles are                                          Skin, hair, and nails:
                                 in your legs.
                                                                                      these form your body’s
                                                                                      protective covering.

                                                                                      Immune system: this
                                                                                      seeks and destroys germs
                                                                                      that get into your body.

                                                                                      Urinary system: this
                                          Skeleton                                    cleans blood and gets
                                                                                      rid of waste chemicals.
                                          Bones and
                                         joints make                                  Reproductive system:
                                       up the skeletal                                these are the organs that
                                        system, an                                    make babies.
                                       inner frame
                                      that supports                                  Digestive system
                                        the body.                                     Your digestive
                                                      A quarter of
                                                      your bones are                   organs break
                                                      in your feet.                    down food to
                            Nerves                                                     provide your
                            Your nervous system carries                                body with energy
                             electrical signals around                                and raw materials.
                                  your body. You need
                                      this system to see,                                     Your mouth is the first
 Signals shoot                                                                                part of the digestive
 along nerves to
                                         hear, think,
 muscles,                                  and react.
 telling them
 when to pull.                                                                                    A long, twisting tube
                                                                                                   makes up your
                                                                                                   intestines, where
Senses, such as                                                                                     digested food is
touch, rely on                                                                                      absorbed.
nerve cells that
send signals to
your brain.                       Your brain is the
                                  nervous system’s
                                  control centre.
                   The digestive system.                                                                         105
  Human body

  Bones and muscles

        You would be like a lump of jelly without
         your skeleton – a frame of bones
           that holds you up and protects                                                                         Ribcage

             your internal organs.
                                      Bending backbone
                                        Your backbone
                                       contains 24 small
                                                                          The wrist is
                                       bones called                       made up of
                                        vertebrae. They                   eight small
                                         move almost
                                         every time
                The vertebrae in
                your back allow you
                                         you do.
                to twist and bend.

                      Head case
                                                                                           The hip is a
  The bones that make up your                                                              ball and socket
 skull join after you are born.                                                            joint, allowing the
    The skull has two parts –                                                              legs to move around.

  the lower jaw and cranium.
   Only your jaw can move.
Bone marrow                                               Lower jaw
supplies your
body with red
blood cells.                                    The honeycomb
                                                structure of some
                                                bone makes it
                                                weigh less than
                                                if it were solid.
                                                                      Both the knee and elbow are hinged
                                                                      joints that only move in one direction.

               Brilliant bone
             Bones have a                       Snake ribcages                                                       A ribcage has
          clever structure that                 can run almost
                                                the entire                                                      long, curved bones
      makes them light but                      length of                                                         that protect vital
      strong. They can heal                     their bodies.
                                                                                                                organs such as the
      themselves if broken.
                                                                                                                   heart and lungs.
                                      How many bones does an adult human have?
                                                                                Bones and muscles
Bending bits                         Muscle magic
Different kinds of joints            Muscles are rubbery,
all over your body keep              stretchy straps.        The pectoralis                                 Biceps and
                                                             muscle moves                                   triceps bend
you moving.                          You can control         your arm at the                                and straighten
                                     some of your muscles, shoulder.                                        your arm.

        Thumbs have joints that      like the muscles in your
        allow them to rotate,
        which fingers cannot do.     arms and legs. Others,
                                     such as your heart and
        Ankles contain different
        joints for up-and-down       bladder, operate without
        and side-to-side movement.   you having to think
        Wrists have a joint that     about it.
        allows them to turn but
        not go all the way round.

        Neck bones feature a
        pivot joint that allows
        your head to turn.

                                                                      The tibialis
Making faces                                                          muscle bends
Muscles in your face are                                              your foot.

attached to skin as well as
bone. They allow you to
                                                    Pulling pairs
make all kinds of expressions
                                                    Muscles can pull
to show how you are feeling.
                                                    but they can’t
                                                    push. They work in
                                                    pairs that pull in
                                                    opposite directions.
                                                   The biceps
                                                   contract to pull
                                                   the forearm up.

                                                                                     The triceps relax
                                                                                     and stretch when
                                                                                     the biceps contract.

                             There are 206 bones in an adult skeleton.                                               107
Human body
    You use
    your brain
    to think.                                     Brain and senses
                                                   Your brain is the part of your body
                                                   that makes you think, feel, and
                                                   remember. It makes sure that the
                                                   rest of you works properly.         rts . .
                                                                                   t pa
                                                  Your brain                    en
                                                                           f fer
                                                   Your brain is hidden
                                                    inside your head. It
                                                      looks a little bit like a
                                                        soft, wrinkly lump
                                                         of greyish-pink
                 Your hard, bony skull protects         blancmange,
A bundle of
nerves runs
                  your brain from damage.
                                                       or jelly.
down your
back, inside
your backbone.
                         Your brain is linked to your
                         body by fibres called nerves.
                         Nerves carry messages from
                         your body to your brain,
                         and back again.              Your brain weighs
                                                                         about the same
                                                                         as 12 apples.

                                                        If you prick your                 Reflex actions
                                                        finger, your brain
                                                        makes you feel pain.                If you accidentally
                                                                                          prick your finger on a
                                                                                          rose thorn, your brain
                                                                                          quickly makes you
                                                                                          pull your hand away.
                                                                                          This fast reaction is
                                                                                          called a reflex action.
                                                                      Do clever people have bigger brains?
                                                                                    Brain and senses
Your senses                            Your eyes see
                                       the pictures,
                                                                              Eyes and seeing
                                       then your                              Your eyes have special nerves
You know what is happening             brain tells                            that pick up light. They send
                                       you what
around you by seeing,                  they are.                              messages to your brain, telling
hearing, smelling, tasting,                                                   you what you are looking at.
and touching things. These                                                             Your ears pick
are called your senses.                                                                up loud and
                                                                                       soft sounds.
             do d
                      iffe                                      Ears and hearing
                          ren                    Your ears catch sounds and send
                                     ob             them deep inside your head.
                                       s.         Nerves send messages about
                                                   the sounds to your brain.

                                                                                     Nose and smelling
                                                                                     Nerves inside your nose
                                                                                     tell you what you are
                                                                                       smelling. Some things,
                                                                                       such as this rose,
                                                                                       smell nice. Other
                                                                                      things smell terrible!

                                                               Tongue and tasting
                                                        You taste with your tongue.
                                                            It is covered with tiny
                                                       bumps, called taste buds,
                                                          which pick up tastes
                                                              from your food.

                                                       Skin and touch
                                                       Nerves in your skin
                                                       tell you if things feel
                                                       hard, soft, hot, or cold.
                                                       They also warn you of
                                                       danger by making
     Brown   Grapes      Spaghetti                     you feel pain.

                                                       Can you tell what you are
                                                       touching, without looking?
                 No. Everyone’s brain is about the same size.                                             109
Human body

 We have to breathe all the
 time in order to supply our
 bodies with oxygen and
 to get rid of carbon                                                                                 This flap shuts
                                                                                                      when you eat
 dioxide. We use our                                                                                  so food can’t
                                                                                                      go down your
 lungs to do this.                                                                                    windpipe.

                     Prepare the air                              You breathe in
                                                                  through your The air travels down
                                                                  nose or mouth.
   Before the air reaches your lungs it                                             your windpipe.

     travels through your mouth and
       nose and then goes down your                             Each lung is a
          windpipe. It gets warm and                            spongy maze of
                damp on its journey.

                        When you breathe
                        in, your lungs stretch
                        out and take in lots
                        of air.

                                                                                      T  he diaphragm is
 In and out                                                                           l ike a           e.
 Your ribs and diaphragm help you to             When you breathe
 breathe. Your lungs fill with air when          out your lungs
                                                 squash down forcing          The muscle under your
 you raise your ribcage, then empty out          all the air out.             lungs is called the
 when you lower it. A muscle called the                                       diaphragm.It moves
     diaphragm helps you do this.                                             up and down as you
                              How many breaths do you take in a day?
                             A helping hand
                             Some newborn babies            No lungs
                             have trouble breathing.
                             They are put into an           Not every animal has
                             enclosed cradle called         lungs. There are other
                             an incubator. Extra            ways animals breathe.
                             oxygen is pumped into
                             the incubator for them.
The view from the
bottom of your
                           Air from your mouth
                            and nose enters your
                             windpipe, which
                             goes down your
                             throat into your
                              chest. Then it splits
                             into two passages –
                            one for each lung.
                                                            Frogs can absorb oxygen
                                    The alveoli are
                                    surrounded by tiny      through their skin – even
                                    blood capillaries to    underwater.
                                    take the oxygen round
                                    the body.

                                                            Insects such as caterpillars
                                                            breathe through body
                                                            openings called spiracles.

                    Air sacs
                    Your lungs are full of tunnels
                    ending in tiny air sacs called          Many sea creatures such as
                    alveoli. Here, oxygen from the          sharks breathe through gills.
                    air passes into your blood. Your
                    blood carries oxygen around
                    every part of your body.
                             About 23,000.                                                 111
Human body

                                    All about skin
                                    Skin covers your whole body. It protects
                                    you from germs, water, and sunshine,
                                    and helps keep your body at the
                                    right temperature.
The skin on
your eyelids
is the thinnest                   Two layers
on your body.
                                  Your skin has two main layers.
                                  The top one – the one you can see –
                                           is called the epidermis.
                                                  Underneath is the
                                                    dermis, where there
                                                      are nerves and
                                                       blood vessels.

                                                                                           Waterproof seal
                                                                 There are flat cells on
                                                                the surface of your        Skin stops water getting into your
                                                               skin. These are made        body when you have a shower or
                                                             from a tough material
                                                                                           go for a swim. It also stops fluids

                                                           called keratin. When the
                                                         cells die, they dry out and       escaping from inside you.

         is                                           flake off.
            a                                                                                                             Magnified skin flakes
                  sor                             Skin cells lower down
                        to                        replace the dead ones
                             fs                   that flake off.

                                                                                               House dust

Heavy load                                                                                     Dust is mostly                               on
Skin is the                                                                                    made of dead
                                    y ov

heaviest single                                                                                skin. Dust mites

part of your                                                                                   feed on this skin.

body. It can                                                                                   They live in

weigh as much                                                                                  beds, pillows,
                                                                                                                             The thicke

as a bag of                                                                                    and carpets.
                                                                                               Dust mites aren’t
                                                                                               really this big! They’re
                                                                                               so small you can’t see
                                   How many dead-skin flakes fall off every day?
                                                                                 All about skin

                                                                              Sweat pore

                                                                                Sweat gland

                                                      If you uncurled a
                                                      sweat gland, it could
                                                      be over a metre
                                                      (3 ft) long.

Skin colour
The colour of your skin is affected by a
substance called melanin. The more melanin
you have, the darker you will be. When you
are outside in the sun, your body produces
extra melanin to protect your skin. This melanin
makes your skin darker and you get a suntan.

                            o     les of
                is on the s                y
    r bod

                                               r fe

                                                                    Cooling down
                                                            When sweat dries on your
                                                              skin, it helps to cool you
                                                          down. Sweat comes from
  Soggy skin                                              coiled tubes under the
  When you soak in water for a long                        surface. It gets out
  time, the top layer of your skin gets                  through tiny holes
  waterlogged and wrinkly.                                   called pores.

                                    About ten million.                                        113
                                                                                                              Poison tears

                                                                                                                 Germs that land
                                         Body defences                                                             on your eyes are
                                                                                                                    washed away by
                                         Although you can’t see them, germs                                          tears, which come
                                                                                                                     from glands above
                                         are always landing on your body                                             your eyes. Tears
                                                                                                                                               Human body

                                         and trying to get inside it. Your                                          contain the chemical
                                                                                                                  lysozyme, which kills
                                         body has lots of clever ways                                           bacteria by making
                                         of keeping them out.                                                them burst open.

                                                                       Earwax flows
                                                                       slowly out of                       bout 1 litre (2
                                         Sticky business               your ears all the                                   p
                                                                       time, flushing out            k   ea
                                         Germs get into your lungs     dirt and germs.

                                         when you breathe in. They

                                         get trapped in a sticky liquid
                                         called mucus, which lines your
                                                                                                                                    ) of s

                                         airways. Tiny beating hairs
                                         continually push the mucus up
                                         to your throat to be swallowed.
                                                                                                                                     aliva a

Which is your largest defensive organ?
                                                                                                                         Saved by spit
                                                                                                                The liquid in your mouth
                                                                                                               is called saliva. As well
                                                                                                               as helping you digest food,
                                                                                                               saliva protects your mouth,
                                                                                                               tongue, and teeth from
                                                                                                               attack by bacteria.
               an expert
             110-111 Breathing
                                                                             Acid attack
              116-117 Eating
                                                                              Glands inside
               and digestion
                                                                               your stomach
                                                                               make acid, which
                                                                               kills germs you’ve
                                                                             swallowed. Your
                                                                            digestive system then
                                                                          breaks down the germs
                                                                         along with your food.

Your skin.
             Slimy guts
             The inside of your intestines are
             covered with slimy mucus, which stops
             germs from getting into your blood.      Yuk!
             Your large intestine also contains       The feeling of disgust protects you from
             millions of “friendly” bacteria, which   germs. Anything that smells revolting or
             prevent other germs from growing.        looks horrible is probably full of germs.
                                                      Disgust stops you from touching it.
                                                                                                  Body defences

                                                           Eating and digestion
                                                               Your body needs food to keep it working.
                                                               But before it can use the food, it breaks
                                                                                                                                                       Human body

                                                               it into tiny pieces, which seep into your                     Teeth
                                                                                 blood. This is called digestion.
                                                                                          r fo                   Mouth
                                                                                              od                 In your mouth,
                                                                                                 t ra            your teeth chop up
                                                                                                        s th     and chew your food. Your spit helps
                                                                                                            rou to break food down and makes it easy

Why does your stomach rumble?
                                                                                                               gh to swallow. When you swallow,
                                                                                                                 yo your food goes down a tube
                                                                                                                    ur       in your throat and into
                                This photograph of      This tube diagram is not
                                part of the stomach     the same shape as the
                                lining was taken        tubes inside your body.
                                                                                                                           dy your stomach.
                                through a microscope.                                                                          ...
                                                               Your stomach is like a
                                                               stretchy bag that fills with
                                                               food. Inside, your food is                                            Become
                                                               churned up and mixed with                                            an expert
                                                               stomach juices. They break                                            222-223 All
                                                                                                                                     living things
                                                               your food down into a thick
                                                                                                                                    234-235 What
                                                               soup-like mixture.                                                      is energy?
                                                                                                                            Intestine    Stomach                        Intestines
                                                                                                                                                       Next, your food goes
                                                                                                                                                      into long tubes called
                                                                                                                                                    your intestines. It seeps
                                                                                                                                                        through the walls of
                                                                                         Your small and
                                                                                                                                                    the intestines into your
                                                                                         large intestines are                                              blood. Your blood
                                                                                         coiled up inside
                                                                                         your abdomen.                                                    takes the nutrients
                                                                                                                                                      (goodness) in the food

                                                                                                                                                         around your body.

                                                                                                                                                    Small intestine

                                            Your mouth,                                                                                             This intestine is called
                                            stomach, and                        A meal takes one to

                                            intestines are       of             three days to pass all                                              your “small” intestine
                                            called your             p           the way through your                                                because it is narrow. In
                                            digestive system.                   digestive system.
                                                                                                                                                    fact, it is as long as a bus!
                                                                                                                Large                   Small
                                          A balanced diet
                                                               tu                                               intestine               intestine
                                          You need to eat a
                                          mixture of foods to                                                                                         You get rid
                                                                                                                                                      of waste water

Because of air mixed up with your food.
                                          keep you strong and                                                                                         and solid waste
                                                                                                                                                      when you go
                                          healthy. This is called                 Vitamins in fruit and                                               to the toilet.

                                          a balanced diet.                        vegetables keep your
                                                                                  body working properly.
                                                                                                                         Getting rid of waste
                                                     Carbohydrates such as        Fibre in wholemeal                    Any waste food travels
                                                     pasta, rice, and bread       bread keeps your
                                                     give you lots of energy.     digestive system working.          from your small intestine
                                                                                                                      into your large intestine.
                                                                                                                    It is stored there until you
                                                     Protein in milk helps        Fat in butter and cheese
                                                     you to grow and to           gives you energy. Too             go to the toilet and push it
                                                                                                                             out as solid waste.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Eating and digestion

                                                     repair your body.            much fat is bad for you.

Human body

 Making a baby
 You need a mother and a father to
 make a baby. The mother’s body does
 most of the work, but the father also
 has an important job – his sperm joins
 with the mother’s egg and a new                       The first cells
                                                       After 36 hours, the cell has
 life begins...                                        divided and made an exact
                                                       copy of itself. These are the
                                                       first two cells of a baby.

                                                                  Eggs are the biggest cells in
                                                                  the human body. But they
                                                                  are still very small – ten
                                                                  would fit across a pinhead.

                                                             Sperm are amazing
                                                             viewed under a microscope.
                                                             They look like tiny tadpoles. You
                                                             can see their tails wriggling as
                                                             they swim.

                                                       By the time the
                                                        baby is born,
      Sperm race                                      the fertilized cell
      Millions of sperm swim towards                  will have become
      the egg cell. Only one sperm can
      join with the egg to make a new cell.           100 trillion cells.
                      What is another name for the uterus?
                                                                              Making a baby

Divide again                   The future you                         At three days
You don’t grow much in         Each cell is unique to                 The cells have carried on
the first few days. The two    you. Cells are full of                 dividing. There are now 16 cells
cells divide to make four,     instructions about what                and they are almost ready to
then eight, and so on.         you will look like.                    plant themselves in the uterus.

                    Where it all happens
The sperm fertilizes the egg in a tunnel, called a                       The cells start dividing as
                                                                         they move down the
 fallopian tube. The fertilized egg moves down                           fallopian tube towards the
     the tunnel towards the mother’s uterus.
       The journey takes about five days.                                                         Millions of sperm
                                                                                                  from the father
                                                                                                  travel up here
                                                                                                  towards the egg.

                                               This is the mother’s
                                               ovary. It releases
                                               one egg every month.

  This is the uterus. It                    Arriving in the uterus
  is about the size of a
  pear and has
                                            The ball of cells plants
  muscular walls.                           itself in the wall of the
                                            uterus. In this warm,
                                            dark place the baby
                                            will spend the next
                                            40 weeks growing
                                            and developing.
                                      The womb.                                                                119
Human body

 Amazing facts about YOU!
         Skeleton                           Brain and nerves                     Breathing
         and bones                          Your brain is the                    Lungs take air into
            Without a                       body’s control centre.               your body so that
            skeleton to hold                Signals zoom to and                  life-giving oxygen can
            you up, you’d                   from the brain                       enter your blood.
            collapse on the                 along your nerves.
                                                                                            The inside of your
            ground like a                                                                   lungs is as big as a
                                                   Nerves carry signals
            heap of jelly.                         at up to 400 kph
                                                                                            third of a tennis court.
                                                   (250 mph).
                                                                                            The fastest recorded
            Your smallest bone is the                                                       sneeze reached 167 kph
            stapes in your ear, which              Your brain is made of
                                                                                            (104 mph).
            is smaller than a rice grain.          about 100 billion tiny
                                                   cells called neurons.
                                                                                            In one day you breathe in
            Weight for weight, bones
                                                                                            enough air to fill 33,000
            are stronger than steel                The left side of your brain
                                                                                            drink cans.
            or concrete.                           controls the right side of
                                                   your body and vice versa.
            A baby has more than
            300 bones but adults                                                 Skin, nails, and hair
                   have only 206.                  The human eye can see a
                                                   candle flame at night from    The tough, protective
                                                   1.6 km (1 mile) away.         surface of your body
                                                                                 is almost entirely dead.
 Muscles and                                       When you’re bored, the
                                                   pupils in your eyes get
 movement                                          smaller.                                 Every four years you
 Muscles move your                                                                          shed your own body
                                                                                            weight in dead skin.
 body by pulling bones.                     Heart and blood
 You use hundreds of                                                                        You have about 5 million
                                            Your heart pumps                                hairs, but only 100,000
 them when you walk.                                                                        are on your head.
                                            blood around your
 Every hair in your body                    body. It works nonstop
 has a tiny muscle that
 can pull it upright.                       without getting tired.                 The thickest
                                                                                   skin on your
                                                                                   body is on the
 Your strongest muscle is                          Your smallest blood             soles of your
 the masseter (jaw muscle),                        vessels are ten times           feet.
 which closes your mouth.                          thinner than a hair.

 You use more muscles                              Your body contains
   when you frown than                             enough blood vessels to
       when you smile.                             circle the world twice.
                                                                                Amazing facts
Fighting disease                     Digestive                             Urinary system
Germs are always trying              system                                Urine gets rid of
to get inside you, but               Digestion turns                       chemicals that your
your body fights back.               food into simple                      body doesn’t need.
                                                                                   You will make enough
       Many germs are not            that your                                     urine in your lifetime
       harmful, but some cause
       illness, and even death.      body can                                      to fill 500 baths.

                                     make into
       Bacteria are so small                                                       Asparagus can turn your
       that a thousand could
                                     new cells or                                  urine green. Blackberries
       fit on the head of a pin.     use for fuel.                                 can turn it red.

       The world’s most
       common disease is                     The food you eat in
       the common cold.                       a year weighs as             Reproduction
                                              much as a car.
                                                                           The reproductive organs
       Cancer happens when
       your own cells multiply               You make enough spit          create new people from
       out of control.                       in your lifetime to fill
                                             two swimming pools.
                                                                           tiny specks of matter.
       When you recover from                 Your digestive glands                The most babies born to one
       an infectious disease, your           start working as soon                mother was 69. Most were
       body becomes immune to it.            as you smell or see food.             twins, triplets, or quads.

                                             Your tongue senses five              The first quintuplets
                                             tastes: salty, sweet, sour,          known to have survived
                                             bitter, and savoury.                 infancy were born in 1934.

                                             The smell of poo comes
                                             from a chemical called
                                                                           As you grow you slowly
                                             Each hair on your head
                                             grows for about 3 or 4        change into an adult,
                                             years and then falls out.
                                             A new one grows in
                                                                           but it takes a long time!
                                             its place.
                                                                                  The fastest-growing
                                                                                  part of a baby’s
                                                                                  body is its head.

                                                                                  A girl is about three-
                                                                                  quarters of her adult
                                                                                  height at 7 years old.

                                                                                  A boy is about three-
                                                                                  quarters of his adult
                                                                                  height at 9 years old.
 The living world

           The living world
               Our amazing world is filled with millions
              of species, or types, of living thing. They
                    can be as big as an elephant or so
                     small you have to look through
                     a microscope to see them.                                             Dragonfly

             Animals                                            Micro-organisms are very
      The animal kingdom is                                     tiny – they are made up
     made up of vertebrates                                     of a single cell.
                                                                This amoeba is
 (animals with a backbone)                                      magnified more
 and invertebrates (animals                                     than 100 times.
 without a backbone).
                                    Mammals, birds,                    Sunflower
                                    reptiles, amphibians,
                     Coral reef     and fish are vertebrates.


                 Which group of animals has the most members?
                                                                           The living world
                                                                        Curiosity quiz
                                                                        Look through The
                                              Insects such as           living world pages and
                                              butterflies are
           Snake                              invertebrates.            see if you can identify
                                                                        the pictures below.
Plants cannot move
around like animals. To
survive and grow, they
have to make their own
food. In turn, plants
provide food for many
animals and fungi.
                  Signs of life
     Living things share some
      characteristics. They all
  need food and oxygen. They
    also grow, reproduce, and
   adapt to their environment.

                     Fungi        Tree frog
     Fungi (like toadstools,
 mushrooms, and moulds)
     are neither plants nor
animals, but they’re more
 like plants than animals.

                                                                an expert
                                                                126-127 Types
                                                                  of animals
                                                                 148-149 How
                                                                 plants work

               Invertebrates – they make up 97 per cent of all animal species.                123
The living world

          What is an animal?
                   A key definition of an animal, as opposed
                   to a plant, is that most animals can move
                    voluntarily. Animals must also eat other living
                      things to survive. Let’s take a look at some of
                            the things animals do.
                                                           Food is fuel
                                               All animals have to find
                                                and eat food to survive.
                                            Carnivores are animals that
      Bald eagle                               eat meat. Herbivores eat
                                              mainly plants. Omnivores
                                                  are creatures that eat
 Getting around                                  both plants and meat.
 Many animals have                                                               Squirrels eat seeds,
                                                                               nuts, fruit, and fungi.
 muscles, which allow
 them to move in a
 variety of ways.
          Flying: birds fly by                          What a nerve!
          flapping wings or gliding
          on currents of hot air.                       Animals have
                                                       nerves, which carry
          Swimming: animals                           information from their
          like fish swim by moving                   sense organs. Most
          their bodies and fins.
                                                    animals have
          Slithering: some snakes                 brains to
          wriggle, others raise and               monitor this
          flatten their bodies.                  information. The
                                                   nerves also carry
          Walking and running:
          many animals walk and
                                                    orders from the
          run using legs.                           brain to the organs
                                                  and muscles – such as
          Reaching: sea anemones               instructions to stay still,
          reach out their tentacles          attack, or run away!
          to sting prey.

                             How many species of animal are there on Earth?
                                                                           What is an animal?
                                                                           Do animals talk?
                                                                           Many animals are able to
                                                                           communicate with each other.

                                                  Pythons can go without
                                                  food for months after
                                                  one BIG meal!
Making babies
Most animals reproduce when a
female egg is fertilized by a male
sperm. Some animals give birth to
                                                                           Most beetles will send “messages” to other
babies, while others lay eggs.                                             beetles using special chemicals.

Birds lay hard-shelled eggs,
which hatch into chicks or

                                         Baby birds have to break out
                                         of the egg on their own.          Honey bees communicate constantly. They give
                                                                           directions with a special dance.
Giraffes have seven vertebrae
in their neck – the same as
most other mammals. They
are just much longer.
                                                                                                          Monkeys scream
                                                                                                          at each other to
                                                                                                          sound an alarm.

          Nobody knows the exact answer, but about 1.8 million have been identified.                                    125
The living world

      Types of animals
 There are so many different types,
 or species, of animals that
 scientists put them in groups                                                     Tortoise

 so it’s easier to study them.
 Mammals, birds, reptiles,
 amphibians, and fish are
 vertebrates. Creepy-crawlies
                                                       Most reptiles have dry,
 are invertebrates.                                    scaly skin. They mainly
                                                       live on land. Nearly all
                                                       reptiles lay eggs, but some
                                                       give birth to babies.

                                                    Mammals usually have live
                                                    babies, which feed on their
                                                    mother’s milk when they’re
                                                    born. Mammals often have
                                                    fur on their bodies. Humans
                                                    are mammals.


                                                              Deer fawn

                                                Lion cub
                   What is the only mammal that can fly?
                                                                 Types of animals
                                   Birds                       Spineless creatures
                                                               Animals without
                                   All birds have wings,
                                                               backbones are called
                                   and most (but not all)
                                                               invertebrates. There
                                   can fly. They have
                                                               are several types of
                                   feathers and a beak.
 Parrot                            Baby birds hatch
                                   from eggs.                           Insects, spiders, and
                                                                        crustaceans are part of
                                                                        the largest animal group.

                                                                        Snails and slugs are part
                                                                        of an invertebrate group
                                                                        called gastropods.

                                                                        Worms have long,
                                                                        soft bodies and no legs.
                                                                        They like damp areas.

                 Ostriches can run fast                                 Jellyfish, starfish, and
                 but can’t fly.                                         sponges are invertebrates
                                                                        that live in water.
                                                                        Octopus and squid live
Amphibians live both                                                    in the sea. They have
in water and on land.                                                   eight arms.

They usually have                                      Frog

slimy skin. Baby
amphibians hatch                                                              Butterfly

from jelly-like eggs.

                                          Fish                                            Ladybird

                                          Fish need to live
                                          in water. They
                                          breathe through      Insects
                                          gills, and most      There are more types of insect
                                          are covered in       on Earth than any other
                                          scales. Fish use     animal. Insects can live almost
                                                               anywhere. They have six legs
                                          their fins to move   and bodies with three sections.
                                          through water.
                                            The bat.                                           127
The living world

 The world of mammals
                        Mammals include animals such as the
                        whale, the kangaroo, and you and me!
                        We all have fur, we are warm blooded,
                        and we feed new babies with our milk.
                                                             Mammal babies
                                                             Most mammal females give birth
                                                             to live babies, rather than laying
                                                             eggs. The baby grows inside
 Gorilla                                                     the mother’s
                                                             body until
                                                             it is born.

 The skeleton           Feeding babies
 Mammals may            All female mammals produce
 look very different,   milk from their bodies that
 but stripped back      they feed to their babies; this
 to the bone we all     feeding is called suckling.
 have the basic bony    The milk is rich
 skeleton. Scientists   and helps
 call us vertebrates    the babies
 – animals with         to grow.
 a backbone.

        an expert
    130-131 Marsupials
      132-133 Water
                                                                           This baby
                                                                           gorilla is a
                                                                           member of the
                                       Within the                          primate family.
                                       mammal group
             Baby                      there are many
             gorilla                   different families.

            How many mammal families are there?
                                                                                 The world of mammals
                                                                                   Polar bears can live in chilly Arctic
                                                                                   regions because they are warm
                                       Hairy beasts                                blooded and have thick fur.

                                       All mammals are hairy –
                                       some are much hairier than
                                       others – and most have
                                                  hair, often
                                                   called fur,                     Warm blood
                                                   all over their                  Mammals are warm blooded,
                                                   bodies. They                    which means they can warm up
                                                   are hairy to                    and cool down their bodies to
                            Elephant               keep them                       keep their temperature level.
                                                   warm.                           An elephant in the hot jungle
                                                                                   is the same temperature
                                                                                   as a polar bear
                                                            This elephant may      in the snow.
                                                            not look hairy but
                                                            it does have hair
                                                            on its body.


Getting around
Mammals are many
different shapes that
suit their lifestyles.

                                       The polar
        Cats: some mammals,            bear has thick fur
        such as the cat, have          all over its body.
        long legs to run with.

        Bats: the bat is the only
         mammal that can fly –
                                                                                      The odd one out
          it has wings.                                                               It is usually true that
                                                                                      animals give birth to live
         Dolphins: sea mammals                                                        babies, but there are a
        have flippers and strong                                                      few species, including this
        tails to swim with.
                                                                                      duck-billed platypus, that
        Moles: the mole has                                                           lay eggs. Platypus eggs
        feet like spades, which                                                       are soft and the size
         are useful for burrowing.                                                    of marbles.
           There are about 4,500 different types of mammal in the world.                                                   129
The living world
                                                                       More marsupials
             Marsupials                                                Apart from a few that
                                                                       live in South America,
                  A marsupial is a mammal
                                                                       almost all marsupials
                           with a pocket                               come from Australasia.
                              called a pouch                           They vary a lot in looks.
                               for carrying                                     Dorian’s tree
                            its babies in.                                      kangaroo: this small
                                                                                kangaroo can climb trees.
                                                                                Numbat: this marsupial
                                   Koalas look like little bears.               has the most teeth of any
                                   They live in Australia and                   mammal. It has 52.
                                   are the only animal that eats
                                   eucalyptus leaves. They are so               Rabbit-eared
                                   hard to digest that koalas spend             bandicoot: is a
                                                                                burrower with big ears.
                                   19 hours of the day sleeping
                                   to let their tummies settle.
                                                              Little devil
                                                              The Tasmanian devil is not much
                                                              bigger than a small dog but is very
                                                              aggressive. It is the biggest meat-
                                                              eating marsupial and has
      When the baby koala                                     such powerful jaws that
      gets too big for the
      pouch, it clings to its
                                                              it can eat an entire
                                                                                    front legs are
      mother’s back instead.                                  animal – bones
                                                              and all!           's

                                                                        a   r
                                                               A   ka

                                Bouncing marsupials
                                Kangaroos cannot walk.
                                Instead they have enormous
                                back legs that they use to            an expert
                                jump everywhere. They              52-53 Australia
                                can move very fast just          128-129 The world
                                by leaping.                         of mammals

                                 Which are bigger, wallabies or kangaroos?

                                         Opossums live in the
                                         Americas. Unusually for
                                         marsupials, the mother
                                         has no pouch. Instead
                                         her babies cling to her.
                                         Sometimes one mother
                                         can have up to 20
  Opossums are                           babies at one time!
  very good
  tree climbers.                                                              This joey
                                                                              is definitely
                                                                              big enough
                                                                              to climb out
                                         In the pouch                         of its pouch.

                            Most marsupials have
                    pouches. When the babies are
      born, they are as small as beans and wriggle
      straight into the pouch. They do most of their
   growing there, instead of in their mother’s tummy.
                         Little joey
      Kangaroo and wallaby babies
      are commonly known as joeys.
   They spend several months in the
     mother’s pouch, and even when
   they are big enough to walk, they
  sometimes jump back in for safety.

   t used whe                 e
no           nt
                     hey bounc

                            Their huge
                            tails help
                            to balance
                            them when
                            they run.

                   Kangaroos look like wallabies, but they are bigger.                 131
The living world

 Water mammals
              Not all mammals live on land – some live in
               water. Unlike fish, however, water mammals
                   have to go to the surface to breathe.
                   Seals, which include sea lions
                   and walruses, have flippers
                   instead of arms and legs,
                   which make them very good
                   at swimming but not good
                   at walking.

                                                                Underwater lives
                                                                Seals spend most of their
                                        Sea lions can walk
                                       more easily than
                                                                lives in water, but return
                                      other seals because       to land to have babies.
                                      their flippers are
                                      able to move in
                                                                They have a thick layer
                                      several directions.       of fat, called blubber,
                                                                which keeps them warm.
                                      Sea lion

                                                   Seals are
                                                  often very
                                                   playful in
                                                  the water.

                                      What noise do seals make?
                                                                     Water mammals
Otters are small mammals that have
webbed feet to help them swim. The
river otter lives along river banks and
spends its day swimming to catch food.

                                                  Otters of the sea
                                                  The sea otter is the smallest sea mammal.
                  Sea cows                        It has luxurious, thick fur that keeps it very
                  Manatees are often called       warm. It rarely comes to land, and even sleeps
                  sea cows because they are       in the water. When it nods off, it wraps itself
                  so big and they “graze”,        up in kelp plants to stop it from drifting away!
                  like cows, on river-bed
                  plants. They spend all their
                                                                                Walruses use their noses,
                  lives underwater, and                                         like pigs, to root around
                  even give birth there.                                           the sea floor for food,
                                                                                         such as crabs or
                                                                                              sea urchins.
                 Walruses are
  huge sea mammals that have
 massive, blubbery bodies and very
wrinkly skin. They heave themselves
  out of the water to rest and breed.

In the pink
Walruses are normally greyish-brown
in colour. But when they sunbathe, they
blush pink because their blood rushes
to the surface of their skin to cool them.
                                   Seals bark like dogs!
The living world

 The world of birds                                           Birds spend much
                                                              of their time looking
                                                              after, or preening, their
 Only a few animals in the world are                          feathers to keep them
                                                              in good condition.
 able to fly – insects, bats, and birds.
 But none of them is more powerful
 or skilled than the bird.
              Feathers are
              made up of
              tiny hair-like
                               Feathered friends
               barbs that
                all mesh
                               Birds are the only creatures
                together.      that have feathers. They
                               use them to fly and to
                               keep warm. Some birds
                               use brightly coloured
                               feathers for display.
                  A rigid “backbone” or quill
                  runs through the centre of the
                  wing feathers to strengthen
                  them for flying.

              Different feathers
              have different
              jobs on a bird.
                  Outer wing: strong
                  feathers to provide
                  power in flight.

                  Inner wing:                                  Birds’ feet are
                  smooth and flat                              designed for
                  to help flight.                              different purposes,
                                                               such as climbing,
                                                               clutching berries,
                  Tail feather: long                           or holding on
                  and thin for steering and                    to branches.
                  balancing during flight.

                  Body feather: soft and
                  downy to keep a bird warm.
                  Some have exotic colours.
      What is the world’s smallest bird?
                                                                                         The world of birds
A bird can fly because it has wings and                                  There are two methods
a very light skeleton – many of the bones                                of flying; flapping, like
                                                                         this red-tailed minla,
are hollow. Birds have short and                                         and gliding.

compact bodies that make
them neat fliers too.
By flapping
its wings up
and down, the
bird remains
in the air.

                                              Travelling birds
                                           About one-third of
                                          birds spend summer
                                             in one place then
                                      when the winter sets in
                                        they fly thousands of
                                      miles to a warmer spot.
                                  Often they go to exactly the
                                 same places year after year.

                  Feet                         Bills                                      Communication
                                                                                          All birds have good hearing
      The shape of birds’                      The shape and size of a                    so they can respond to songs
   feet vary depending                         bird’s bill, or beak, can                  from other members of their
on where they live.                            show what they eat.                        family. Birds are well known
                                                                                          for their tunes, and some,
                Eagle foot: birds of prey              Duck: wide and flat to
                 have sharp talons to kill               tear plants and filter
                                                                                                        like this parrot,
                  and grip animals.                       food underwater.                                even speak.

                Perching foot: songbirds                 Woodpecker: long
                have three toes in front and           and hard to chisel into
                one behind for perching.               wood and pick out insects.

                Webbed foot: waterfowl                 Chaffinch: short and
                have webbed feet to help               cone-shaped, ideal for
                them to paddle on water.               cracking seeds.

                Ostrich foot: two thick                              Heron:
                toes help this flightless                  long, ideal to stab
                  bird to run very fast.               fish underwater.
    The smallest bird in the world is the bee hummingbird.                                                           135
The living world

 The world of reptiles
 Reptiles are egg-laying                                       Eating habits
 animals that have a tough                                     Reptiles are meat eaters, with
 skin covered in scales. They                                    the exception of tortoises,
                                                                   which move too slowly to
 live on land and in water.                                          catch fast-moving prey.
                                         Reptiles can
                                         eat huge
                                                                       Lizards, such as this
 The reptile groups                      meals, then                   gecko, can eat half their
                                         go without
 There are four main                     food for days.                own weight in insects
 groups of reptiles:                                                   in one night.
        The tortoise family:              Most reptiles,
                                          swing their
        these reptiles all have           bodies from                                       All reptiles
        a shell over their body.          side to side                                      shed their
                                          when walking.                                     skin from
        Snakes and lizards:                                                                 time to time.
        the majority of reptiles                                         Flying gecko
        fall into this group.
                                                                           Hot and cold
        The crocodile family:                                              Reptiles have scales,
        this group are the giants
        of the reptile world.                                              which can control how
                                                                           much water they lose
        Tuataras: these reptiles                                           through their skin. This
        are very rare and look                                             means they can live in
        a bit like lizards.                                                dry places. They are
                                                                           cold blooded, however,
                                                                           so rely on the climate to
                                                                            keep their temperature
                                                                              in check.
                                                                                        European eyed

                                         Reptile babies
                                         Nearly all reptiles lay
                                         eggs, which hatch into
                                         miniature versions of
                                         their parents. A few,
                                         such as this slow
                                         worm, however, give
                                                                                This lizard, which lives in the desert,
                                         birth to live young.                   basks on rocks to warm up its body.
                                    What is the longest snake in the world?
                                                                                 The world of reptiles
Tuataras live in
burrows and hunt
                                                                              Living fossils
at night. They can                                                            Tuataras are the only survivors
live for 100 years.
                                                                              of a group of reptiles that
                                                                              lived with the dinosaurs
                                                                              millions of years ago.
                                                                              Today they live on a
                                                                              group of islands off
                                                                              New Zealand.
Scaly skin                                            Reptile relatives
A reptile’s skin is covered                           The reptiles of today are
with scales made of                                   the last living relatives of
keratin, like your nails.                             dinosaurs and look very
                                                      similar to their ancient
               Tortoise: the shell                    ancestors. You can see
               of a tortoise has lots of              similarities between the
               large, hard scales on it.
                                                      Tyrannosaurus rex and
               Lizard: Lizards’ scales                                  this lizard.
               have stretchy skin
               between them.
                                                                                       Tyrannosaurus rex

               Crocodile: these
               scales are strengthened
               in between by bony plates.

               Snake: the skin on snakes
               has overlapping scales for
               extra protection.

         an expert                         Collared
      138-139 The world                    lizard
        of amphibians
      144-145 The world
            of fish

                       The reticulated python can reach lengths of 10 m (33 ft).                           137
The living world

 The world of amphibians
                     Amphibians are different                   Amphibian family
                     from reptiles in that they                 There are three groups
                                                                in the amphibian family.
                     have smooth skin with no
                       scales. They are born in                          Frogs and toads: these
                                                                         amphibians have no tail
                         water then live on land                         and big back legs.

                               or in water when                          Newts and salamanders:
 Fire                                                                    these lizard-shaped animals
 salamander                      they grow up.                           live on land or in water.

                    Amazing skin                                         Caecilians: these
                                                                          worm-like creatures
 Most adult amphibians, such as this                                     have no legs.
 salamander, can breathe through
 their skin as well as their lungs.
 In order for the skin to                                       Frog
 breathe it has to be kept
 moist, which is why
 most amphibians
 like to live
 near water.
   Some frogs
live in water...

                an expert
              142-143 The world
                of non-insects
                                                                      Colourful creatures
              144-145 The world
                                                         Many amphibians are incredibly
                    of fish                                colourful creatures. Some are
                                                        spotted, others are striped and
                                                          some are just very bright.
                           What is the world’s most poisonous frog?
                                                                        The world of amphibians
A choice of home
Frogs and toads can
live both on land
and in water.
Some even
live in trees.

Land frogs tend to                                                                                  Water living
be more rounded
in shape than                                                                                  Some salamanders
water frogs.                                                                                  spend the whole of
                                                                                          their lives underwater.
                                                                               This cave salamander does not
                                                                        have any lungs; it breathes through its
                                                                       skin only. It is almost completely blind.
                                                          e s!
                                                      l t iv


                             fer tal
                        s pre of
                  r frog tops
           ...othe               Caecilians
       Legless caecilians are rarely seen by
    humans because they live either under
      water or under ground. They have a
 pointed head, which they use as a shovel.
If an animal is poisonous like this tomato frog, it
is often a very bright colour that warns predators.

                                                         Travelling parents                         Common
                                                      Each spring salamanders,
                                                         newts, frogs, and toads
                                                          lay their eggs in ponds
                                                         or streams. Some travel
                                                      5 km (3 miles) to get there.
                                     The most poisonous frog is the bright-yellow poison-dart frog.          139
The living world

 The world of insects
 A huge majority of creepy crawlies are                            Remember,
                                                                   insects have
 insects. In fact there are more types of                          3 + 3. Three
                                                                   pairs of legs
 insect in the world than any other                                and three
                                                                   body parts.
 animal. They are absolutely
 everywhere. Some are almost too small                             Most insects
                                                                   have two pairs
 to see and others are surprisingly large.                         of wings.        Beetle

                                               When a pile
                                                                   What is an insect?
                                               of dung             You can tell if a creepy
                                               appears in
                                               Africa, dung
                                                                   crawly is an insect because
                                               beetles are on      insects always have six
                                               the scene in        legs. They also have three
                                                                   body parts – a head, a
                                               The beetles roll    thorax, and an abdomen.
                                               perfect balls of
                                               dung in which
                                               they lay a single
                                               egg. When the
                                               egg hatches,
                                               the larva eats
                                               the dung.

 Nature’s recycling service
 Although many people dislike insects
 and they can be pests, they are also
 essential to our world. In
 fact we could not live
 without them. For
 instance, these
 dung beetles
 do a very good
 job cleaning
 up dung.                            beetles

             Apart from honey, what else does a bee produce that we can use?
                                                                  The world of insects
Useful insects                  Pest control
Here are some other             Sometimes insects, such as
ways that insects               aphids, eat huge amounts of
are useful to us.               our crops. The best way to get
Red food dye: this food         rid of them is to introduce
colouring is made from          another insect that likes
the bodies of scale insects.
                                to eat them. Ladybirds
Silk: believe it or not, the    are often used for
silk you wear is made by
silk-moth caterpillars!         aphid pest control.
Honey: if there were
                                    Introducing insects that
no bees in the world,               eat other insects is called
we would have no honey.             biological pest control.

Food: to some people,
such as the Australian
aborigines, grubs are a meal.

As old as an insect                                                                            Aphids
We know that                                                                                 breed so
                                                                                      quickly that it
insects were around                                                                     is difficult to
40 million years ago                                                                   control them.
because some were
trapped in a tree resin
called amber, which                                                             Become
hardened back then                                                             an expert
and preserved them.
                                                                                142-143 The
                                                                                  world of
                                                                               152-153 Micro
and their poison is used as medicine.                                     Bees produce wax           141
The living world

 The world of non-insects
 There are many creepy crawlies
 scuttling around our planet that
 are not insects. Some live on
 land, others live in fresh water
 or the sea. They come in all sorts
 of weird and wonderful shapes.
                                               The worm family
 Arachnids                                     Segmented worms like
                                               earthworms are simple
 Spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites belong   animals that have a
 to a land-dwelling family called arachnids.   head at one end, a tail
 All arachnids have eight legs and two         at the other, and lots of
                              body parts.      segmented body parts
 Tarantula                                     in between. They live
                                               on land or in water.
                                                     Despite their reputation, most
                                                     spiders are harmless to humans.

                                                                                       A tarantula has
                                                                                       hairs on its legs
                                                                                        that can cause
                                                                                          bad irritation.
                                                                                              When the
                                                                                                spider is
                                                                                             annoyed, it
                                                                                        flicks them out
                                                                                         at the enemy.

               How big can spiders grow?
                                                                                The world of non-insects
Odd sea creatures                                                                               Molluscs
                                                                                                Slugs, snails, squids,
The sea contains some                               Snail
                                                                                                and oysters, are
very strange animals                                                                            molluscs. Some live
indeed. Here are a few:                                                                         on land and some
                                                                                                live in water.
              Sponge: these
              animals were once
              thought to be plants.

              Starfish: most starfish
              have five arms to crawl
                                               Snails are
              across the sea floor.            found on land
                                               and in the sea.
              Anemone: these                                       The octopus,
                                                                   which is also
              flower-like sea animals                              a mollusc, is a
              have no brains.                                      very intelligent

                                                                                                      Centipedes have
                                        Centipede                                                     one pair of legs on
                                                                                                      each segment and
                                                       Millipede                                      millipedes have
                                                                                                      two pairs on each.
Centipedes and millipedes
If you try counting the legs on an
insect and you find there are too                   Crustaceans
many, the chances are you have                      Most crustaceans, such as lobsters, crabs, and
found a centipede or millipede.                     shrimps, live in water. Only the woodlouse
They have lots and lots of legs.
                                                    lives on land. They often have a shell and
                                                    their eyes are on stalks.


                            Some spiders can grow as big as dinner plates!                                                  143
The living world
                                                                                 Types of fish
 The world of fish                                                               There are over 24,000
                                                                                 types of fish, which
 Fish have been around for 400 million                                           fall into three groups.
 years! They live in seas, rivers, and
                                                                                          Bony fish: 95% of the fish
 lakes. Wherever you find water,                                                          in the world are bony fish
                                                                                          with hard skeletons.
 you can bet there are plenty
 of fish swimming around.                                                                 Cartilaginous fish: rays,
                                                                                               skates, and sharks
                                                                                                make up this group.
                                                  cardinalfish                            Jawless fish: only
                                                                                          hagfish and lampreys
  Bony fish have
  a skeleton with
                                                                                          fall into this small group.
  a skull, ribs, and
  a backbone.          Fish skin, made
                       up of scales, is                                                                  The gills lie
                       slimy to let them                                                                 behind the eyes.
                       slip through
                       water easily.

                                 Fish have fins
                                 that keep them
                                 upright when
                                                                                                 Like other
 The tail of a fish sweeps
                                 they swim.                                                    animals, fish
 from side to side to
 push the fish forwards.
                                                                                             need to take in
                                                                                    oxygen in order to live.
                                                                                   But, unlike us, they can
                                                                                 breathe underwater using
  Mudskipper                                                           their gills. Fish gulp in water and
                                                                     their gills filter the oxygen out of it.

                                                                 Fish out of water
                                                                 Mudskippers are one of the only fish that can
                                                                 survive out of water. They have special gills
                                                                 that take oxygen from air or water. They skip
                                                                 along mudflats using their fins as elbows.
                                           Which fish is the slowcoach of the sea?
                                                            The world of fish
                                            The art of swimming
                                            Many fish swim like snakes slide –
                                            they wriggle in an ‘s’ shape. Their
                                            whole bodies move from side
                                            to side and their tails flick
                                            to push them forwards.
                                            Their fins help to
Scales                                      steer them.
Most fish are covered in hundreds
of scales that overlap like roof tiles.
Tiny animals can get under the scales
and harm them, so fish let other
creatures give them a regular clean.       Some fish can
                                           turn on their sides
Mandarin                   Colours can     and roll right over.
fish                       be used for     A few can even
                           camouflage      swim upside-down!
                           or to attract
                           a mate.

Fish come in all
colours and patterns.             Carp

Freshwater fish and those living
in cooler waters tend to be duller in
colour. Tropical fish are sometimes
incredibly bright and beautiful.

                          Eels are found
                          in fresh water   Living together
                          and sea water.
                                           Fish sometimes swim
                                           in huge groups called
                                           schools. When so many
                                           swim together they look like
                                           one big fish so they are less
Fishy features                                  likely to be attacked.
Most fish look like the
pyjama cardinalfish on
the left. Some however have
a different appearance. This eel
looks more like a snake with fins.
Unlike a snake it has sharp teeth.
           The seahorse is the slowest fish that lives in the sea.                145
The living world

What is a plant?
 Plants make their own food from the
 Sun’s rays. Most have leaves that
 reach outwards to capture sunlight,
 and roots that dig deep for nutrients
 and stability.                                                        Seaweed looks like a
                                                                       plant, but is an algae.
 Plant parts                                                           It doesn’t have roots,
                                                                       so it has to stick to rocks
 There are loads of different                                          or float with the tide.
 plants, but most are made
 of the same vital parts –                                                     The petals attract
                                                                               insects and birds
 roots, stems, leaves,                                                         that collect pollen.

 and flowers.                                                                   The stamen and
                                                                                carpels form the
                             Stems                                              reproductive organs
          Stems support the leaves                                              of a plant.
            and flowers and allow                                Flowers
            water and food to flow                               Flowers are key to plant
       from the roots to the leaves.                             reproduction. They make
                                                                 pollen and develop seeds
                                                                 and fruit.
                      Roots                                      Leaves
  These are the foundations                                      These are the work factories
     of the plant. They dig                                      of the plant and capture the
   deep into the dirt giving                                     Sun’s energy.
        stability, as well as
      sucking up nutrients.

                                                                              d or what
                                                                      W eir             ?
                                                                     The Venus flytrap doesn’t
                                  Water lily                          just get its energy from
                                  The water lily’s flat leaves       the Sun. It also lures and
                                  float on the pond surface,           feeds on unsuspecting
                                  as its roots sink into the                insects. Yum!
                                  pond bed.

                                What plant has the largest leaves?
                                                                                          What is a plant?
Types of plants
Have a look around you. Not all plants are the
same. But some plants are more similar than others.
Fern leaves unfurl                                          Most conifer
as they grow.                                               trees keep their
                             Ferns                          leaves all year
                             Ferns love damp and
                             shady areas. They
                                have prong-like
                                leaves and spread
                              using spores.
                                                                                                                 The sequoia is
                             Moss                                     Conifers                                  the largest tree
                                                                                                                  in the world.
           Mosses love                                                Conifer trees grow cones
    moisture and grow                                                 that store their seeds.
      in clumps. They                                                 Most conifers have
       don’t have roots                                               needle-shaped leaves.
          or grow flowers.                                                                  You can
                                                   There are about
                                                   12,000 species of moss.                  identify a tree
                                                                                            by the shape
              Flowering plants                                                              of its leaves.

                      This is the biggest group of plants.
                        They produce flowers, fruits and                                                  Maple leaf
                          seeds, which mainly grow in                          Ash leaf
                            seasonal cycles.
                                                                   Rainforest                                          oak leaf
                                                                   These warm and
                                                                   wet forests are home
                                                                   to nearly half the
                                                                   world’s plant species.

                                              Deciduous plants
                                               shed their leaves                                                       Ash leaf
                                               to save food and
                                          survive drier seasons.
                     The raffia palm has leaves that grow up to 24 metres (79 feet) long.                                  147
The living world

 How plants work                                                                           The Sun’s energy
                                                                                           is trapped in the
                                                                                           leaves, and helps
                                                                                              make food.

Plants have an amazing
system for making
and transporting                                                                                 Cross-section
                                                                                                    through a
food to all their                                                                                    leaf vein

different parts.
The green pigment
chlorophyll traps sunlight
in the leaves. The Sun’s
energy is then used
to change water and                                                                 Food is moved from leaves
carbon dioxide into sugar.                                                          to roots and growing tips,
                                                                                    along a set of tubes called
                                         A waste product of                         phloem vessels.
                                         photosynthesis is
                                         oxygen, which animals
                                         need to survive.                    Some water evaporates through
                                                                             tiny holes called stomata in the
                                                                             surface of the leaf. This process
                                                                             is called transpiration.

                                                                             Tiny tubes called xylem vessels
                                                                             carry water up the stem from
                                                                             the roots to the leaves.

                                                                       through a
      Veins carry water
      around the leaf.

                     Roo                         theg
                        ts su
                              ck water up from

                             Are plants the only organism to use photosynthesis?
                                                                   How plants work
                             New growth
                             Plants use sugar and starch         Desert plants
                             as fuel. The fuel is transported    Plants that live in dry
                             to cells where it is burnt to       areas such as deserts have
                             release energy, which is used       to save their water. Many
                             to grow new cells and repair        have leaves that are thick
                             old ones.                           and covered in wax to stop
                                                                 transpiration. Cacti have
                                                                 spines rather than leaves
                             Wilting leaves                      and thick stems in which
                             On warm, sunny days, plants         they can store water.
                             lose lots of water from their
                             leaves. If they lose too much
                             their leaves collapse. This is
                             called wilting. If plants don’t
                             get enough water their leaves
                             will shrivel and die.

Fruit acts as a
store of sugar
and water.

                                                                Storing food
                                                                Spare food is stored for future
                                                                use. Plants such as hyacinths
                                                                store food in the base of their
                                                                leaves. This makes the leaves
                            Carrot plants          Bulb         swell and form a bulb. The
                            store food in                       bulb survives the winter and
                              their roots.
                                                                in spring it sprouts new leaves.

                                                                         Hands on

                                                                  Place a stem of celery in a
                                                                 glass of water coloured with
                                                                a few drops of food colouring.
                                                                After two hours, cut across the
                                                                stem. You will see tiny dots of
                                                                   colour showing the tubes
                                                                     that carry the water.

                  No, many bacteria also make food by photosynthesis.                             149
The living world

 Fungi                                                         Bread mould

 Mushrooms, toadstools, yeasts, and
 moulds are all kinds of fungi. Fungi
 are neither animals nor plants. They
 feed on living or dead animals or                                                                    Warm, moist

 plants, and absorb their nutrients.                                         Moulds

                                                                             Moulds are microscopic fungi
                                 Mushrooms                                   which grow in long strands
                                                                             called “hyphae”. They feed
                                 Many fungi are hidden in the                on dead organic matter – like
                                 soil, or inside food sources like           our food – by making it rot.
                                          trees. They only become
Stem                                         visible when they
                                              grow mushrooms.
                                              Mushrooms scatter
                                              spores, which will
  The gills release
                                             grow into new fungi.
  spores into the air.
                                                                             Athlete’s foot
Picking wild mushrooms                                                       Athlete’s foot is a disease
Many wild mushrooms are not only edible, but                                 caused by ringworm fungi
delicious. However others are highly poisonous!                              growing on human feet. It
Harmful mushrooms are often called toadstools.              Fly agaric       makes the skin between your
They sometimes use bright colours to warn                   mushroom         toes turn red and flaky.
animals not to eat them.
       Wood blewit mushroom

                                                                                        Jelly antler fungus

                                          Penny bun

                                         How big is the world’s largest fungus?
                                         In 1928, Sir Alexander                                               Penicillin on
                                                                                                              a petri dish
                                         Fleming made an important
                                         discovery. He realised
                                         that the mould Penicillium
                                         notatum makes a chemical
                                         that kills bacteria. That
                                                                                                                The bacteria
                                         chemical, called penicillin, is                                        have retreated
                                         used today as a medicine to                                            from the
                                         treat many illnesses.                                                  penicillin,
                                                                                                                leaving a
                                                                                                                clear ring.
Sir Alexander Fleming (1881–1955)
                                                                             Uses of fungi
Truffles                                                                     Fungi have many uses in
Truffles are strong-                                                         the home and in industry.
smelling fungi that grow
underground. They are a                                                                      Medicine: Fungi can be
delicacy used in cookery.                                                                    used to cure many diseases
                                                                                             that were once fatal.
Truffle hunters use pigs
and dogs to sniff them out.                                                                  Wine: Yeast turns grape
         White truffle
                                                                                             juice into wine by changing
                                                                                             sugar into alcohol.
                                             Yeast are microscopic,                      Cheese: Blue cheeses are
                                             single-celled fungi. When                   made with a mould called
                                                                                         Penicillium roquefortii.
                                             they feed, they turn sugar
                                             into carbon-dioxide gas                     Soy sauce: This is made by
                                             and alcohol. Yeast plays                    adding fungi and yeast to
                                             an important part in                        soy beans and roasted wheat.
                         Black               bread-making. As it releases
                         perigord                                                        Pesticide: Fungi can be an
                         truffle             gas, it makes bread rise.                   environmentally friendly
                                                                                         way of killing insects or
   Shaggy parasol                                                                        weeds.
     mushroom                       Shaggy cap         Common
                                    mushroom          chantarelle           Chicken of the
                                                      mushroom              woods fungus

    A mushroom under the Malheur National Forest, USA, covers 8.9 square kilometres.                                  151
The living world

 Micro life                                                                                                         Petri dish

 Most living things are
 made up of just one cell,
 and are too small to see.                                                  Each spot on
                                                                            this petri dish is
 To study them we must                                                      a colony made
                                                                            up of thousands
 use powerful microscopes.                                                  of bacteria.

Bacteria are single-celled                           Whip-like structures
                                                     push the bacterium
life forms. They are found                           along. They spin                                            Ba
                                                                                                                 Bacterial colonies
                                                     round like screws.
in the ocean, in the air, and
even in our bodies. They can
reproduce very quickly by                                                                        Model of a bacterium

splitting in two. Some bacteria
can make energy from                                                                                         Thi
                                                                                                             Thin hairs attach
                                                                                                             the bacterium to
sunlight. However, most feed                                                                                 a surface.
on dead plants and animals.

 Harmful bacteria                   The cell is full of a
 Some bacteria can cause            jelly-like substance
                                    that helps it to
 serious illnesses such as          work and grow.
 cholera and tetanus. Good                                                                                   The
                                                                                                             The bacterium’s
                                                                                                             DNA code is held
 sanitation and antibiotic                                                                                   in the nucleus.
 drugs help fight diseases
 caused by harmful bacteria.                            hold
                                                     ll holds
                                       The cell wall holds
                                       the bacteriumumm
                                       together and  d
                                       protects it.

                                                               Good bacteria
                                                     Some bacteria are helpful
                                                        to humans. Bacteria in
                                                       our guts protect us from
 Bacteria may be shaped like
                                                  illnesses. Other bacteria are
 rods, spirals, or spheres.                        used to make foods such as
                                                           yoghurt and cheese.
                  How many copies can a single bacterium make of itself in 24 hours?
                                                                                               Micro life
 Model of a virus                       protein coat

                                                        Viruses are many times smaller than
                                                         bacteria. They are shaped like spheres
                                                          or rods. Viruses are not really alive,
                                                           because they are not made of cells.
                                                           They only become active when they
                                                           invade a cell. They copy themselves
                                                           by taking over the cell and turning it
                                                          into a virus factory.
                                                                 Plant viruses
                                                                 Plant viruses can change the way
                                             DNA or              that plants develop. For example,
                                             RNA strand
                                             RN                  one virus affects the pigment in
                                                                 tulips’ petals. It stops the pigment
                                                                                       from working in
                           Vaccinations                                                some places. This
                           Vaccinations can help to                                    makes the petals
                           protect people from harmful                                 look stripey.
                           diseases. A person is injected
                           with a weakened form of a
                                                                                                     A virus has made
                           virus or bacterium. This helps                                               light patches
                           the immune system defend                                                     appear on
                                                                                                           these leaves.
                           itself against the real thing.

                                                                 The streaked patterns
Harmful viruses                                                  on this tulip are caused
                                                                 by a virus.
Viruses can cause
different illnesses.                                                                  Protists
            Chickenpox is easy to
                                                                                      Protists are another
            catch. The main symptom                                                   kind of single-celled
            is spots that itch.                                                       life form. They are
                                                                                      very varied. Some
            Rabies is a fatal virus                                                   protists are similar
            that is common in animals                                                 to fungi, animals, or
            such as dogs.
                                                                                      plants. Some protists
            Colds are viruses and can
                                                                                      group together into
            bring on a sore throat,                                                   colonies.
            runny nose, and cough.

                           It can make 4,000 million million million copies.                                   153
The living world

 Food chains
Everything in the living world
needs food to survive. And
everything must feed on
something else. This is
called a food chain.                                        Decomposers
Each species is                                             At the start and end
part of several                                             of every food chain
                                                            there are decomposers,
different food                                              such as earthworms,
chains.                                                     fungi, and dung
                                                            beetles. They help
                                                            break down dead
                                                            animals and plants,
                                                            releasing the nutrients
                                                            back into the soil.

Plants such
as acacia trees
or grasses get their
energy from the Sun
and nutrients from
the soil. They are
known as producers.

      Herbivores such as
      impala or zebra eat
      the plants. They do
      not eat meat.

                 What carnivorous plant can catch and eat mice and rats?
                                                          Food chains
        Scavengers                            Sea food
        Dead meat, known as carrion,          The further you go up the
        is eaten by scavengers such           chain, the fewer animals there
        as hyenas, vultures, and bald         are. So in the sea, there are
        eagles. These creatures rarely        countless plankton, fewer fish,
        kill for food – they find animals     just a few seals, and even
        that have already died and            fewer polar bears.
        eat other animals’ leftovers.

                               Carnivores                  Polar bear
                       Carnivores only eat
                     meat. On the African
                        plains, carnivores
                   include lions, leopards,
                             and cheetahs.




Some species of pitcher plant found in the Philippines.                   155
Ecosystems and habitats

                                                All over the world, living things
                                                exist in distinct kinds of places
                                                called ecosystems. Each has its own
                                             climate, soil, and complex community
                                             of plants and animals. Oceans and
                                             deserts have their own ecosystems.
                                              Natural variety
                                              There are different ecosystems all over the
                                              world, and the animals and plants in each
                                              one are adapted to its conditions.
                                                                  Wherever there is enough rain,
                                                                  forests grow, and they provide
                                                                  homes for a huge range of plants
                                                                  and animals.

 Homes sweet homes                                                More than 70 per cent of the
 One ecosystem contains a                                         Earth’s surface is covered by
 number of habitats. A habitat is                                 ocean, which contains many
 the natural home of a particular                                 different habitats.
 plant or animal. A tree, or even
                  a leaf, can be                                  Rivers and lakes
                  a habitat.                                      Freshwater ecosystems exist in
                                                                  pools, lakes, rivers, and streams.
                                                                  They are found over most of the
                                                                  world’s land surface.

                                                                  Polar and tundra
                   Trees offer shelter for                        The freezing polar lands are at the
                   animals, and food in                           far north and south of Earth, in the
                   the form of leaves
                   and berries.                                   Arctic and Antarctic. At the edges
                                                                  farthest away from the poles, they
                                                                  merge into warmer tundra areas.
             Are there any types of forest ecosystems other than tropical rainforests?
Mountains                                                                       Curiosity quiz
Climate conditions change
as you go up a mountain,                                                        Look through the
so different ecosystems can                                                     Ecosystems and habitats
exist here.                                                                     pages and see if you can
                                                                                find the pictures below.
Seashore ecosystems are
half land and half sea.
They change as the tide
comes in and out.

Humans evolved in grassland
habitats, and today, the
largest and fastest land
animals live here.

They can be hot or cold, but
deserts are always dry, with
little rain. Only a few animals
and plants survive here.

Living together
A group of living things              Ferns grow and
                                      absorb nutrients
in a habitat is called a              from the soil.
community. Each one
contains plants, animals,
and other organisms that
all rely on each other.
               Snails feed on the
               leaves of plants,
               and provide food
               for other animals.

                                                                         an expert
                                                                           154-155 Food
                Frogspawn           Rotting leaves       Frogs, which         chains
                hatches into                             eat insects,
                tadpoles. Some
                                    and wood are
                                    home to fungi        live both on   222-223 All living
                of these are        and small            land and in          things
                eaten by other      animals, such as     the water.
                water creatures.    beetles and slugs.

                    Yes, deciduous woodlands and cold coniferous forests.                             157
 Ecosystems and habitats

 Polar regions
 Polar regions are often dark, blasted by
 freezing winds, and they receive little
 rain. Only the toughest can survive.

 Polar bears have
    thick blubber
  under their skin
     to help keep                                                                Let’s stay warm
     the cold out.
                                                                                 Penguins huddle together
                                                                                 to stay warm. The adults
      Polar bear                                                                 and chicks on the outside
                                                                                 of the huddle aren’t so well
                                                                                 protected from the
                                                                                 cold, so they take
                                                                                 turns standing in
                                                                                 the middle.
                                         Polar giants
                                         Large animals lose heat more slowly than
                                         small ones, so many Arctic animals are big.
                                         A male polar bear can be 2.5 m (8 ft) long
                                         and weigh 800 kg (0.8 ton).           To survive blizzards, musk oxen
                                                                                        simply sit down and wait, using
 Although their fur is                                                                  as little energy as possible.
 white, polar bears have
 black skin.

                                               A walking coat
             Musk oxen may look
             like cattle, but they are         The musk ox looks like a small, shaggy-haired buffalo.
             actually goats!                   Its coat, said to be eight times warmer than sheep’s
                                               wool, is made of coarse hairs as long as your arm.
                                             What is the world’s largest bear?
                                                                                  Polar regions
          One big cover up
           Many polar animals have thick coats.
            The snowy owl has feathers on its
             body that grow long enough to cover
                    its legs and its bill.


                                                                   A fine fur coat
                                                                   The Arctic fox’s luxurious
                                                                   fur even covers the soles of
                                                                   its feet. This fox is dark in
                                                                   the summer, and white in
                                                                   the winter. In the summer it
                                                                   is very busy, collecting and
                                                                   storing food for the winter.
                                          Cushion growth
                                       It’s not just animals
                                     that need to wrap up
                                     warm – plants do too.
                                  Purple saxifrage has lots
                                       of tiny, overlapping
                                    leaves that completely
                                     cover the short stems.

                                        The snowy owl’s talons     Purple saxifrage is one of the first Arctic plants
                                        are perfectly shaped for   to flower when the snow melts in June.
                                        gripping a lemming.
                           Polar                   k
                                   regions are dar                                    Become
                            f or h a                t
                                    lf the year, bu                                  an expert
                           many                     e.                              8-9 The Arctic
                                    animals surviv                                56-57 Antarctica
                                                                                   170-171 Desert
    Lemmings cope with the cold by staying in                                          regions
  tunnels below the snow, where they hunt for
plant roots to nibble. If they emerge, they may
       well be caught by a passing snowy owl.

           The polar bear.                                                                                      159
 Ecosystems and habitats

               Deciduous forests
                Deciduous trees lose their leaves in winter.
                These trees need weather patterns that are
                neither too hot nor too cold, and with seasons.
               Layer on layer
               Deciduous forests
               have two or three
               layers: a canopy
               (treetops), sometimes
               a layer of shrubs,
               and then the low-
               lying plants such as
                mosses, ferns, and
                  spring flowers.

                        If conditions are
                        right, mosses
                                               Springing to life
                        will grow on the
                        north side of a
                                               A forest appears to sleep
                        forest tree.           in winter, but in spring
                                               it bursts into life. Buds
                                               open and ferns spread
                                               out to soak up the light.
                                            Land of plenty
                                            A forest floor is littered with dead
                                            leaves and wood, and there are often
                                            plenty of nuts and berries – it’s a
                                            perfect hunting ground for squirrels.

                                       The grey squirrel will
                                       collect and store acorns
                                       and other seeds.

                       Why do squirrels have bushy tails?
                                                                              Deciduous forests
Links in a chain                                                                  Autumn colours
Food chains connect a                                                             In the growing season,
                                                                                  deciduous leaves
species with what it eats.                                                        appear green because
                                                                                  of a chemical called
        Leaves act like solar
        panels to gather sunlight                                                 chlorophyll. In autumn,
        to make food.                                                             the leaves turn yellow,
                                                                                  brown, or red as the
        Caterpillars – and many                                                   chlorophyll is destroyed.
        other insects – chew on
        leaves. That’s their food.
                                                                Woodpeckers have thick skulls to
                                                                protect against the shock as they
        Birds hunt caterpillars,                                hammer into wood.
        especially in spring when    Maple leaf
        they have chicks to feed.

        Foxes prey on birds,
                                     A leaf is a tree's food                       Woodpecker
        small mammals, and
                                     factory. In autumn, it
        other creatures.             begins to shut down.

                       Making an entrance
         Woodpeckers use their beaks to dig
       out grubs and to make nest holes. They
                 have amazingly long tongues
                  to probe and seek out insects.

                                Trees as homes
                                Woodpeckers take two to three
                 When mature,   weeks to dig out a nest hole,
                 a fern bud
                 unrolls and    into which the female lays
                 the leaflets   several eggs. The hole is
                 open out.
                                usually in a dead tree.

  A squirrel’s tail helps it to balance as it leaps from tree to tree.
 Ecosystems and habitats
                                                                      Bursting with life
            Rainforests                                               Tropical rainforests
                                                                      cover just 7% of Earth’s
            Tropical rainforests are rich                             land, yet contain over
            habitats for a huge variety of                            half of the world’s species.
            plants and animals. Enter a hot,                                  Beetles One scientist found
            damp, and shady world.                                            18,000 species of beetles in
                                                                              one small area of rainforest.
 Time for the umbrella
 A rainforest is warm and sticky, with                                        Trees A football pitch-
                                                                              sized patch of rainforest
 frequent downpours. The trees take up                                        may contain 300 trees.
 much of the rain, but water vapour
 soon evaporates from their leaves,              Queen Alexandra              Orchids New orchids
 filling the air with moisture.                  birdwing butterfly           are continually being
                                                 (female)                     discovered in rainforests.

                                                                              Birds The Amazon alone
                                                                              contains a third of Earth’s
                                                                              9,000 known bird species.



                                Where do most of a rainforest’s animals live?
Emergents are the                                                                            Who lives there?
high tree tops that               Rainforest layers
poke out above                                                                                All sorts of
everything else.                   A rainforest is like                                        animals make
                                     a block of                                                   the rainforest
The canopy is                          flats, with                                                  their home.
made up from
the majority of
the tree tops.
It is a forest’s                      residents at
leaky roof.
                                    different layers.
The understorey
is made up of                       There are four
short trees,
shade-loving                         main levels.
plants, and lianas.                                                      Bushbaby
                                           The forest floor is a thick
                                           carpet of dead leaves,
                                           ferns, and the buttresses
                                           of tree roots.
                                                                                                              venture out
                                                                                                          at night. Their
       Cloud forest                                                                                   huge eyes help them
    In mountainous                                                                                    see in the dark.

   areas, rainforests
                                                                          These frogs eat poisonous
may be so high that                                                       insects, then store the            Blue poison
  they’re cloaked in                                                      poison in their skin.                dart frog
                                                                          Their colourful patterns
 clouds. The heavy                                                        let other animals
moisture encourages                                                       know that they are
 lush plant growth.                                                       dangerous to eat.

                        Eastern                                                                          Yellow-banded
                        rosella                                                                         poison dart frog


                                                 Become                           Constrictors
                                                                                  don’t have fangs
                                                an expert                         or poison, so
                                                                                  they kill prey
                                           156-157 Ecosystems                     by squeezing
                                           160-161 Deciduous                      it to death.


                                                                                                        Boa constrictor

   Most of a rainforest’s animals (excluding worms in the leaf litter) live in the canopy.                           163
 Ecosystems and habitats

 A sea of grass                                                            Grass is
                                                                           resistant to
                                                                           being trampled
 Most plants grow from the top, but                                        by hooves.

 grass grows from the bottom. This
 means it can grow back if it’s eaten,                             Grass
 or if it is flattened by being trampled.
 shedding seed                             The cycle of life
                  Grass seed               Tropical grasslands have wet and dry
                  Grass plants use the     seasons. In the dry season, the grass
                  wind to spread their     turns straw-coloured and dies. With the
                  pollen (the fine dust    rainy season, it springs back to life.
                  that passes from
                  male flowers to
                  female flowers) and
                  their seeds.

                  In summer,
                  clouds of grass
                  pollen give some
                  people hay fever.


                  How old are the baobab trees in Africa?
                                                                                  A sea of grass
The grass we eat
                                                                                         Spring flowers
Grass doesn’t just provide                                                               While tropical
food for animals, it                                                                     grasslands burst
provides food for us. In                                                                 into life in the
fact, most people’s main                                                                 rainy season,
                                                                                         northern grasslands
food comes from grasses.                                                                 burst to life in the
                                                                                         spring. The fields
        Sugar is produced from
        sugar cane, a giant
                                                                                         often contain
        tropical grass.                                                                  colourful flowers.
                                                       Texas bluebonnet
        Maize is used for all
                                                                          Goosegrass seed
        sorts of food products,
        including tortillas.
                                           Grass attack
        Wheat is used for flour     Walk through grass and
        to make bread and cakes,
        and for pasta.                  you may find seeds
                                    clinging to your clothes.
        Rice is a major food in
        Asia, and is eaten around       Some seeds cling on
        the world.                     with tiny hooks that
        Rye is mixed with wheat
                                           work like Velcro.
        to make a heavy flour
        that is used for bread.             Grassland trees often
                                         have flat bottoms, where
                                            animals have grazed.           Acacia tree

                                    Baobab trees
                                    In Africa, the baobab
                                    tree survives the blistering
                                    heat of the dry season by
                                    swelling and storing water
                                    in its trunk.

                  Some of them have been growing there for 3,000 years.                                    165
 Ecosystems and habitats
 Weeds and
 wildflowers                              Life in a meadow
 Wildflowers are pretty,
 but some spread so
                                          In summer, a healthy grass meadow is
 rapidly they can be                      like a jungle in miniature. It is packed
 troublesome to farmers.                  with different plants and animals.
        Ragwort is immensely                                                         Hidden away
        poisonous to horses, ponies,                                                 A meadow may be
        donkeys, and cattle.                                                         inhabited by moles –
                                                                                     almost blind
        Thistle fruits have
        parachutes. The seeds may
                                                                                        creatures that
        be carried far and wide.                                                           remain below
                                                                                               the ground.
        Daisies hug the ground
        and do well in short grass.                                                              European
        – such as on a lawn.                                                                     mole

        Cowslip is found in clearings
                                          Under the surface
        and at the edge of woodland       Moles are capable miners, tunnelling
        as well as in meadows.
                                          long passages through the soil and
        Musk mallow produces              producing tell-tale mounds of earth.
        pretty flowers from June                                                   Campion
        to September.                                                              flower

        Lady’s bedstraw
        produces tiny, star-
        shaped flowers.
                                                       Watch out!
                                                  Crab spiders are
        Field scabious can                      powerful enough
        produce some 2,000 seeds              to catch bees and
        per plant.                           butterflies. They hide
                                            among the flowers,
        Clover is useful to farmers
        as it helps fertilize the soil.   pouncing when prey comes close.       Crab
        It is part of the pea family.                                           spider

        Dandelion heads are full                     Hands on
        of tiny petals, each of                      Make yourself
        which turns into a seed.
                                                  a miniature meadow
        Wood cranesbill is a                  inside a jar. Sprinkle a few
        woodland flower, but                seeds onto damp soil. Put the jar
        grows in hay meadows.                   on a windowsill, keep it
                                                  watered, and watch as
        Buttercup flowers produce
                                                     the seeds grow.
        30 seeds, so a large plant
        may have 22,000 seeds.
                      How long can a slow worm live: one, five, or 50 years?
                                                                                    Life in a meadow
                      From flower to seed
                      Dandelions are frequently
                      seen in meadows, as they have
                      a way of spreading their seeds
The flower is ready   that is incredibly successful.
to be pollinated by
an insect.
                      Each seed has a parachute, to
                      carry it far away.
                                    A breeze lifts the
                                    parachutes. They
                                    may travel far.

    The petals have died
    and the parachutes
    are forming.
                                                                           Bubble blower
                                                    Harvest                  Froghopper nymphs create damp
Tiny monkeys                                        mouse                      bubbles of sticky fluid to stop
Harvest mice climb through                                                       themselves from drying out.
the stems as ably as                                          A harvest mouse      The bubble also protects the
                                                              weighs no more
                                                                                    nymphs from being eaten.
monkeys climb through                                         than a teaspoonful
                                                              of sugar.
trees. They build tennis
ball-sized nests.

                                                                 Slow but steady
                                                                 The slow worm is not
                                                                 actually a worm – it’s a type
                                       There are many
                                       different types of        of lizard, but it has no legs!
                                       snails and a meadow       This one is hunting for a
                                       is a good place to
                                       find a selection.         tasty worm or a snail.


                            It can live for more than 50 years.
Ecosystems and habitats

                                   At the water hole
         Meet my companion                   During the dry season in the
         Large animals often
         appear at a water hole              savanna, the only reliable place to
         with accompanying                   find water is at a water hole. It can
         oxpeckers. These birds
         help the animal keep                be a busy place.
         insects at bay, picking
         off ticks and leeches.                                       That’s better!
                                                                      When a warthog
                                                                      takes a bath, it ends
                                                                      up dirtier than ever.
                                                                      The mud helps it to
                                                                      cool down and may
Impala                                                                help get rid of fleas
                                   As well as insect
                                   control, oxpeckers                 and other nasty
                                   clean up any
                                   wounds the host
                                                                      insects that infect the
                                   animal may have.                   animal’s skin.

                                                        Guinea fowl

                              Why are water holes such busy places?
                                                                   At the water hole

Water birds
Birds are often seen wading in waterholes,
looking for fish and frogs. There are many
different types, and a few are shown here.
       Yellow-billed storks stir   Saddle-billed storks are
       the water with a foot to    the largest storks, with a
       disturb fish and frogs.     wingspan of 2.7 m (9 ft).
                                                                Stuck in the mud
       Crowned cranes are          Wattled cranes surround
       the only cranes able        their large nests with
                                                                Some water holes dry up in
       to perch in trees.          moat-like water channels.    the dry season. The African
                                                                lungfish buries itself in a sticky
A never-ending thirst                                           bag of slime and hibernates
                                                                until the rains come back.
Animals visit a water hole frequently,
especially elephants. Elephants have
                                                   w ater hole is a cool
to drink about 200 litres                     A                                    place.
(53 gallons) a day.


                                                                             an expert
                                                                             154-155 Food
                                                                            164-165 A sea
                                                                               of grass

     In the dry season, a water hole may provide the only water for miles around.             169
Ecosystems and habitats

Desert regions                                            Sahara
                                                                            Gobi Desert

Deserts are Earth’s driest places,            Sonoran
with hardly any rainfall. Many                 Atacama
of them are boiling hot – but                  Desert               Kalahari
                                                                                Great Sandy
deserts can also be very cold                                      Antarctica

places, such as Antarctica.                   Deserts of the world
               Weird weather                  A quarter of our world is made
         During the day, many                 up of hot deserts, the biggest
 deserts are scorchingly hot. At
                                              one being the Sahara Desert
 night, they can get incredibly
   cold. They often have huge                 in northern Africa.
sandstorms – or snow storms.

Grey-banded king snake

                                        Animals survivors
                                        Few plants can survive in the desert
                                          and so many animals are meat eaters.
                                            Many deserts are also so hot that
                                             a large number of animals retreat
                                              underground during the day,
                                              hunting at night.
                                   How tall is the tallest cactus on record?
                                                                               Desert regions
Desert records                            Coldest desert:                  Animal survivors
                                          Antarctica is the coldest
Hot and cold deserts                      (and driest) desert.
                                                                           Desert animals have had
are full of extremes,                                                      to develop ways to keep
                                          Hottest desert: the              cool and watered.
so they hold quite a                      Sahara Desert is the
few impressive records.                   hottest in the world.
         Rainfall: a desert must          Biggest hot desert:
         have less than 2.5 cm            the Sahara Desert covers
         (10 in) of rain per year.        one third of Africa.

         Driest hot desert:                      Some cacti have
         is the Atacama Desert                   spines instead
         in South America.                       of leaves, some
                                                 have hairs. Spines
                                                 protect the cactus
                                                 from being eaten              Night hunters
                                                 by animals.
                                                                                  During the day,
                                                                                   salamanders hide
                                                  Cactus                           in deep underground
                                                                                   burrows. They come
                                                                                  out at night and feed
                                                                                 on worms, insects, or
                                                                                other salamanders.

                                                                                   A camel’s hump contains
                                                                                   fat that con be broken
                                                                                   down to releases water.


                                                                      Big thirst
                                                                      A camel can survive
Plant survivors                                                       for about three weeks
It is very difficult                                                  without water. When
for plants to survive                                                  it does drink, it
without much rainfall.                                                  can take in a
The cactus is a clever plant                                             huge amount.
because it collects water when it
rains and stores it for dry periods.
 to 20 m (63 ft) in the Sonoran Desert.                                   One Cardon cactus grew             171
 Ecosystems and habitats                                                       Become
 Life in thin air                                                             an expert
                                                                          156-157 Ecosystems
                                                                          160-161 Deciduous
 Walk up a mountain and you’ll find that                                       forests
                                                                           166-167 Life in
 the habitat begins to change the higher you                                 a meadow
 go. It also gets harder to breathe.
 Mountain zones                                                    Alpine zone
                                                                   In cool parts of the world,
 A temperate mountain                                              mountain peaks have a
 (a mountain in a cool                                             permanent coating of snow.
 part of the world) has                                            Nothing grows at this height.
 distinct zones, each
 with its own wildlife.                                            Alpine meadows
                                                                   In the spring, as the snow
                                                                   begins to melt, lush meadows
 A rare sight                                                      come alive with flowers. This
 There are thought to be fewer                                     zone is above the treeline.
 than 380 wild mountain
 gorillas. Although they look
 fearsome, gorillas are peaceful                                   Conifer trees
 vegetarians.                                                      Conifers are adapted to
                                                                   surviving extreme cold. Even
 Mountain                                                          their shape protects against
 gorilla                                                           the weight of the snow.

                                                                   Deciduous trees
                                                                   Below the conifer trees,
                                                                   where the air gets a
                                                                   little warmer, grow the
                                                                   deciduous trees.


                                             Time to wake up!
                                             Mountain meadows
                                                are covered with
                                                 snow in winter.
                                              Some animals, like
                                           marmots, survive this
                                           period by hibernating
                                                     in burrows.

                               What is the meaning of the word “alpine”?
                                                                        Life in thin air
Rock gardens                               Gelada baboons
                                                                     Who needs a tree!
When the snow melts                                                  Some monkeys prefer
in spring, the grassy                                                cliffs to trees! Gelada
meadows on high                                                      baboons actually sleep
mountains are ablaze                                                  on cliffs, perched on the
with flowers.                                                          narrowest ledges.
       Mountain daisy These
       bloom in their thousands
       across alpine meadows.

       Rock spiraea Creamy-
       white flowers form dense
       mats over rocky areas.

       Thyme Low, thick clumps
       of miniature thyme make
       a colourful appearance.

       Saxifrage There are
       many different colours
       of this hardy plant.
                                                                             This is my home
       Edelweiss In many                                                     Ibex are goats. They
       places, this plant is now                                             can scramble up the
       protected: you can’t pick it.
                                                                             steepest slopes and leap
       Alpine snowbell Tiny bell-                                            about without losing
       shaped flowers push their                                              their footing.
       way up in early spring.


                   Life in thin air
       Mountain air is so thin that
    mountaineers need oxygen tanks,
    but birds like the chough have no
     problem breathing it. A chough
    once accompanied a climbing
      expedition to the summit
             of Mount Everest.

       permanent snow.                      Above the treeline and below                      173
Ecosystems and habitats

Cool caves
A large cave will take thousands of
years to form. From insects to bats, many
animals find a cave a good place to live.                                     Stalactite

                         A dripping start
                         Caves are often damp, if
                         not wet. Stalactites form
                         drip by drip as minerals
                         are deposited by water                        A stalactite
                         dripping from the roof.                       forms from the
                                                                       roof down.


                                              I hear you!
                                              Many bats have poor sight, but
                                              incredibly good hearing. They hunt
                                              by making squeaks and clicks that
                                              bounce off prey, telling the bat the
                                                           prey’s location.

             Feel the way
                                            Webbed skin fo
    spider                                                          rf
             Like bats, cave spiders cannot see well.                    li

             To compensate, they have a strongly

               developed sense of touch to help them
                 move around – and catch prey.

                        What’s the name for a person that lives only in caves?
                                                                                   Cool caves
All in white
Many cave dwellers, such as
                                          Drops of
cave crayfish, are white                  moisture show
                                          the bat is
because they need no                      hibernating in a
                                          cold, damp cave.
protection from the Sun’s rays.

                                               Sleep time
Hunting for a snack                                                                  Natterer’s bat

This south-east Asian snake                    A cool cave is
will slip into caves because it                an ideal place for
knows there are tasty frogs,                   this bat to choose for its
bats, and lizards to eat. Its                  winter hibernation.
slightly flat belly helps it to
glide over rocks.
                                                         A success story
                                                         Cockroaches are among the most
                                                         successful of all living things,
                                  Red-tailed             having inhabited Earth for more than
                                  racer                  320 million years. Caves are just one
                                                         of the habitats in which
                                                         they thrive.


                      A troglodyte.
Ecosystems and habitats

    The flowing current
    From foamy white, cascading
    torrents to slow but ever-
    moving waters, rivers provide
    a rich habitat for a wide
    variety of wildlife.
                                               Caddisfly larva
      The food chain begins
      As leaves and dead animals
      fall into the waters, bacteria
      multiply. This brings food for
      aquatic larvae such as the caddisfly.                      From small beginnings
                                                                 Many rivers start life as fast-
                                                                 flowing streams. It is often a
                           Caddisfly                             barren beginning, but plants
                                                                 and animals soon thrive.
      Mosses often grow on riverside
      rocks and trees and provide       Stop that water!
      shelter for many tiny bugs that   Beavers sometimes build dams to              Fallen trees can provide
       need damp conditions.
                                        create lakes, slowing the flow of            pathways for animals
                                                                                     and insects to cross a
                                        water and so changing their habitat.         fast-flowing stream.
                                        They also create lodges to live in.

                                                           Which is the world’s longest river?
                                                                   The flowing current
               The Colorado
                                                Changing the landscape
               River                            Over millions of years, rivers cut channels in
                                                the earth. A notable example of this is the
                                                Colorado River and the Grand Canyon.
                                                                                     A brown bear is
                                                                                     drawn to the river
                                                                                     by the presence
                                                                                     of salmon.

The fish is held
in the bird’s                                                                            Brown bear
dagger-like beak.

Got it!                                         Against the flow
Many birds                                      Swift-flowing water
make a slow-                                    captures oxygen, helping
moving river their                              fish to breathe. Chinook salmon
hunting ground,                                 swim against the current heading
snatching small fish                            for their spawning grounds. It’s a
from the water. The                             dangerous journey.
kingfisher is a colourful
inhabitant of many
European rivers.

                           The kingfisher
                           will dive to about
                           25 cm (10 in) to
                           grab a fish.

                    The Nile, in Africa, at 6,695 km (4,160 miles).                                       177
 Ecosystems and habitats

                                 Still waters
                                 A freshwater lake is a large body of
                                 standing water. Lakes support a wide
                                 variety of life, especially at their edges.
                                           Just floating around
                                                                                          Floating plants such as
                                           Plants that float do well in still water,      water lettuce provide shade
                                           but they can take over. Water hyacinth         for a lake’s creatures.
                                                 looks pretty, but it is a fast-growing
                                                  weed and can choke other life
                                                   under a thick mat.

                                 Cat in the water                                                    lettuce

                                 Catfish are named for their barbels,
                                 cat-like whiskers that allow them to
                                 feel their way in murky water.
                                                                                                       Some species
                                                                                                       of catfish can
                                                                                                       grow to be
                                                                                                       more than
                                                                                                       3 m (10 ft)
                                                                                                       in length.

                                                                                                       Barbels help
                                                                                                       the fish to seek
                                                                                                       out prey. In the
                                                                                                       case of a large
                                                                                                       catfish, this
                                                                                                       may be a duck.

                                                           Medicinal              Horse
                                                           leech                  leech
                        Is it a sucker?
                     Paddle in a muddy
                      lake and you may
                 emerge to find a leech
               on your foot. Some, but
            not all, leeches suck blood.
                                 Which is the world’s largest freshwater lake?
                                                                                             Still      waters
Is it a lake?
Lakes form in hollows, but not all are               Ospreys are large birds of
                                                     prey, reaching 1.7 m (5.5 ft)
natural. A reservoir is a man-                       wingtip to wingtip.
made lake, formed by a dam.                                                          A bulrush’s
                                                                                     flowers bloom
                                                                                     on spikes and
                                                                                     attract insects.

                                                      Attacks from above
                                                    Ospreys are found on all
                                                   continents except Antarctica.
                                                 They will nest near a lake
                                                 or river, and swoop down to
                                                 pluck fish from the water.

                                                            Life on the edge
                                                    Bulrushes and reeds often
                                                         form a thick bed at a
                                                           lake’s edge. Known
                                                            as emergents, they
                                                        grow up from the lake
       The ambush specialist                        floor and out into the air.
       Pike are adept at ambushing their
                                                            Dragonflies are
       prey, lying in wait and nabbing                      frequently seen on the
                                                            plants at a lake’s edge.
       passing frogs, fish, and insects.

Don’t mess with me!
The fearsome looking alligator
snapping turtle is the world’s
largest freshwater turtle. Some have
         weighed in at more than
                  100 kg (220 lbs).

                                       A slice of history
                                       The common loon’s ancestors lived on
                                       Earth some 65 million years ago. This
                                       red-eyed bird can dive to an incredible
                                               27 m (90 ft) in search of food.

                         Lake Superior in North America.
 Ecosystems and habitats
 A pufferfish sucks
 in water to swell
 its body.
                                                                      The BIG escape!
                                                                   If threatened, a pufferfish may
                                                                  blow itself up with water to
                                                                    stop it being swallowed by a
                                                                      predator, but most predators
                                                                       know to avoid these
                                                                         highly toxic fish.

                                                                                       Jellyfish protect
                                                                                       themselves with
                                                                                       stinging cells on
                                                                                       their tentacles,
                                                                                       but these don't
                                                                                       stop a turtle!


 Swim for my supper
 Sea creatures such as the leatherback turtle
 will travel thousands of miles in search of
 jellyfish. If the food doesn’t come to you,
 you have to go and find it!

                                                                                 an expert
                                              The lion's mane                   132-133 Water
                                              jellyfish is one                    mammals
                                              of the largest of
                                              all jellyfish.                  144-145 The world
                                                                                    of fish

               It's a production line               Velvet
       Many sea creatures produce
    hundreds or even thousands of
   eggs to ensure some will survive.
   Turtles will lay 100 eggs at once,
   while a velvet crab may produce
                        180,000 eggs!
                      Which of the creatures on this page has the longest history on Earth?
                                                              Survival in the sea

Survival in the sea
The ocean can be a dangerous place       Blending in
and sea creatures have developed         Many of the ocean’s
a number of clever techniques to         inhabitants are masters
increase their chances of staying alive. of disguise.
                On guard!                                           Stonefish have lumpy,
                Some sea creatures will sting or attack             mottled skin that blends
                                                                    perfectly with the sea floor.
                   if threatened. Lionfish spines
                    contain venom that can stop a                   Pipefish swim upright,
                    fish moving or kill it. Divers are              making them almost
                       careful not to touch lionfish.               invisible amongst seagrass.

                                                                    Leopard sharks have a
                                                                    patterning on their skin
                                                                    that helps them to hide.

Lost in
the crowd
Many fish swim
together in shoals.
When they all start
moving at the same speed
and in the same direction
to confuse predators, it is
called “schooling”.

  Jellyfish are survivors. There were jellyfish in the oceans 650 million years ago.           181
 Age of the dinosaurs

 Age of the dinosaurs
 Earth has an incredibly long history, as
 it formed about 4,600 million years ago.
 Geologists divided the passage of
 time since then into huge
 chunks called eras.
 The dinosaurs
 lived in the
 Mesozoic Era.

                                   A question of time
                                   Different dinosaurs lived at different
                                   times, and many of the best-known
                                   dinosaurs never actually met. For
                                   example, no T. rex ever tried to kill a
                                   Stegosaurus because their existence was
                                   separated by about 80 million years.

                        MESOZOIC ERA


                         Triassic: 248 to 206 million years ago   Jurassic: 206 to 144 million years ago

               How do we know what dinosaurs looked like?
                                                                                       Age of the dinosaurs
                                                                                        Curiosity quiz
           Albertosaurus                                                                Look through the Age
           was a Cretaceous
                                                                                        of the dinosaurs pages
                                                                                        to identify each of the
                                                                                        picture clues below.

                                    The Mesozoic Era
                                    This era is divided into
                                    three time spans, or periods:
                                            The Cretaceous period
                                            was ruled by an amazing
                                            variety of dinosaurs.

                                            The Jurassic period saw
                                            the emergence of massive
                                            plant-eating dinosaurs.

                                            The Triassic period, the
                                            oldest, saw the appearance
                                            of Earth’s first dinosaurs.

                                            Geological time is always shown
                                            with the oldest period at the bottom
                                            of the list. It reflects the sequence in
                                            which rocks are laid down.

                                            Human beings                    Become
              Giganotosaurus                (homo sapiens)
                                            didn't appear until
                                                                           an expert
                                            very recently in
                                            Earth's history.
                                                                         184-185 What is
            Velociraptor           T. rex
                                                                           a dinosaur?
                                                                          208-209 What
Cretaceous: 144 to 65 million years ago     Homo sapiens

               We know a lot about their size and appearance from fossil evidence.                                183
 Age of the dinosaurs

 What is a dinosaur?
 Two legs or four?                                               Long tails
                                                                 Scientists believe dinosaurs held
 Meat-eater or plant-                                            their tails above the ground as
 eater? What made a                                              there is no evidence of drag marks
                                                                 when trackways have
 dinosaur? They all                                              been found.
 had four limbs, though
 many walked on two.
 There were a number
 of other features they
 had in common.                            Giganotosaurus

  Scaly skin
  Impressions of dinosaur
  skin are rare, but                                        dinosaurs were
  palaeontologists (scientists                              known as
  who study fossils) have
  found enough to know that
  dinosaurs had scaly skin,
  rather like crocodiles today.

        Cold-blooded lizards have
        to warm up in sunlight;
        they cannot control their

                                                                                   All dinosaurs lived
                 Were dinosaurs warm-blooded?                                      on land. They could
                 It’s possible that meat-eating dinosaurs                          not fly or swim.

                 were warm-blooded (like we are), while
                 plant-eating sauropods were cold-blooded.
                 Warm-blooded animals use food as fuel
                 to stay warm. Sauropods were too large
                 to have eaten enough plants to do this.
                                    Are dinosaurs lizards?
                                                            What is a dinosaur?
                                                                            Giganotosaurus skulls
                                                                            had huge “windows”.

                                            Skull holes
                                            skulls had
                                            large holes,
                                            or “windows”. These made them
                                            lighter, which was necessary
                                            as some of the largest skulls    Meat-eaters had
                                            were almost as long as a car.    sharp claws.

                                                    Clue in the claws
                            had blunt               Meat-eating dinosaurs were
                            toenails.               known as theropods, which
                                                    means “beast-footed”, because
                                                    they had sharp, hooked claws
                                                    on their toes. Plant-eating
                                                    dinosaurs tended to have
                                                    blunt hooves
                                                    or toenails.

                        Dinosaurs walked
Walking tall            on upright,
Dinosaurs               pillar-like legs.

walked on               Crocodiles stand
their toes              with their knees             Egg layers
                        and elbows
with their legs         slightly bent.               All dinosaurs
directly under                                       laid eggs – some
                        Lizards sprawl,
their bodies.           with their knees
                                                     in nests, just as birds do today.
                        and elbows held              The baby developed in the egg until
                        at right angles
                        to their bodies.
                                                     it was ready to hatch. About 40 kinds
                                                     of dinosaur eggs have been discovered.

                  No. They are related, but the two groups are different.                      185
 Age of the dinosaurs

 A hip question
 Dinosaurs can be split into two groups,
 according to their hip bones: the saurischians
 (the lizard-hipped dinosaurs) and
 the ornithischians (or bird-
 hipped dinosaurs).

                       Bird-hipped dinosaurs
                       had a pair of hip bones
                       pointing back.

      Did T. rex and           Triceratops ever meet?
                                                                              A hip question

                                                                                     d   or wha
                                                                                e ir

                                                                                 Strangely enough,
 Most lizard-hipped
                                                                            scientists believe that birds
 dinosaurs had a pair of                                                     have evolved from lizard-
 hip bones that pointed
 forwards or down.
                                                                              hipped dinosaurs – not
                                                                             bird-hipped dinosaurs as
                                                                                 you might expect!

                                                     T. rex            I’m in this group!
                                                                       Saurischians can be
                                                                       divided into two
                                                                       main groups:
                                         All meat-eating
                                 dinosaurs were lizard-
                                                                                 Theropods, the
                                 hipped, but some plant-eaters                   meat-eaters, such
                                 were also lizard-hipped. T.                     as Dilophosaurus.

                                 rex was lizard-hipped, but so                   Sauropodomorphs, such
                                    was the mighty plant-eating                  as Brachiosaurus, with their
Triceratops                                                                      small heads and long necks.
                                    Diplodocus, whom you
                                    will meet on page 50.

                                      Ornithischians                   I'm in that group!
                                      These were all plant-            Ornithischians can
                                      eaters. The swept-back           be divided into three
                                      bones allowed more               main groups:
                                      room for the digestive
                                                                                 Thyreophorans, the four-
                                      organs, and meant                          footed, armour-plated
                                      their bellies could be                     dinosaurs (e.g. Stegosaurus).

                                      carried well back,                         Marginocephalians, who
                                      allowing some to walk                      had heads with bony frills
                                                                                 or horns (e.g. Triceratops).
                                       or run away from
                                         danger on two legs.                     Ornithopods, the
                                                                                 two-legged plant-eaters
                                                                                 (e.g. Iguanodon).
                           Yes. There’s evidence that T. rex preyed on Triceratops.                      187
 Age of the dinosaurs

 Find a friend                                                 What did they do?
                                                               Dinosaurs may have used their
                                                                  head crests to show off,
 Many male animals                                                  just like a peacock uses
 today compete to win                                                 its colourful tail feathers.
 a mate. Stags crash their                                                                 Corythosaurus
 antlers together, while
 birds display colourful
 feathers. Scientists
                         Courtship displays tell
 believe dinosaurs       females which males
                         are strong and likely to
 had to compete in       make healthy young.

 similar ways.                                                                                 Peacock

                                                            Bone head
                                                            Pachycephalosaurus’s head was
                                                            80 cm (2.5 ft) long. The dome
                                                                     was made of solid
                                                                           bone as thick as
                                                                               a bowling ball.

                                                            Fighting fit
                      This dinosaur had                     During the breeding season, male
                      bony spikes on its                    Pachycephalosaurus may have butted
                      head and snout.
                                                            each other in fights over females. Their
                                                            backbones were adapted to
                                                                  absorb shock.

                                           Where did Pachycephalosaurus live?
                                                                                      Find a friend
Did they talk?
Nobody knows if dinosaurs made sounds,
but we suspect they did. Parasaurolophus,                                               Become
a hadrosaur, may have done this
                                                                                       an expert
by blowing air through its crest.                                                       Cretaceous
Lambeosaurus             skull               Hypacrosaurus
       skull                                         skull

     Other hadrosaurs had different-shaped crests,
     suggesting they made different sounds.

                                    Talk like a frog
                                    Brachylophosaurus had a short, solid crest.
                                    It may have had an inflatable pouch on
                                    the outside of this that could be used to
                                    make noises, a bit like a frog’s
                                    throat pouch.

                                              In the forests of North America.                       189
 Age of the dinosaurs

 Eggstraordinary eggs
 Scientists have been lucky enough to find lots of
 fossilized dinosaur eggs, and even nests. There is a
                 huge variety of sizes and shapes, from
                         small, circular eggs that would fit
                              into the palm of your hand to
                 The largest?    eggs the size of cannonballs.
                              This massive egg
                              was found in China
                              and is thought to
                              have been laid by a
                              Therizinosaur. There were
                              larger eggs – the largest
                              was laid by a dinosaur
                              called Macroelongatoolithus.

                                                  This dinosaur
                                                  egg fossil is
                                                  from Mongolia.         A muddy home
                                                                         Some eggs were laid in mud,
                                                                         which proved a perfect base for
                                                                         fossilization. These are Maiasaura
                                                                         eggs from Montana, USA.

                            Shaped like an egg?
                            Some dinosaur eggs
                            were round, but others
                            were elongated, rather
                            like a loaf of bread.

                                                 Oviraptor nest from
        This is a hen’s egg: it                  China, showing the
      shows just how large the                   eggs laid in a spiral
       Therizinosaur egg was.                    pattern. Each egg is
                                                 approximately 16 cm
                                                 (6 in) long.

                                  Were dinosaur egg shells soft and leathery like those of snakes?
                                                                   Eggstraordinary eggs
                                                    I’m making a break for it!
Fossilized                                          A tiny dinosaur hatchling breaks out of its egg
dinosaur egg
                                                      casing. While some dinosaurs were probably
                                                       ready to look after themselves after
                                                        hatching, others would have depended on
                                                        parental help for food and protection.

                                                                   This is a model of a
                                                                   Parasaurolophus hatchling.


                                                 Egg care?                                      Egg

                                  Did dinosaurs sit on
         their eggs, like birds today? Some did; this
         Oviraptor died and was fossilized sitting on
                 her eggs some 80 million years ago.

  an expert
   206-207 How                      Oviraptor

   was it made?

       Nest is dug out
       of sand or earth.
                                                                          Bringing it back to life
                                                            This model recreates the fossilized scene
                                                         above, showing the Oviraptor shielding her
                                                       eggs. Oviraptors had curious-looking beaked
                                                  snouts. They may have raided other nests for
                                                         food for themselves and their young.
                     No. They had hard, brittle shells, like the eggs of birds.                       191
 Age of the dinosaurs

 Sauropods                                                                  Around the world
                                                                            Sauropods have
Sauropods were the heaviest, longest,                                       been found all
and tallest animals ever to walk on                                         over the world.
land. They were herbivores, and
                                                                                   Mamenchisaurus grew to
would have had to graze continually.                                               22 m (72 ft) in length in
                                                                                   Jurassic China.
                        Tiny-brained eating machines
  Diplodocus skull
                        Sauropods had tiny heads compared                          Camarasaurus reached a
                                                                                   monstrous 23 m (75 ft) in
                           to their bodies. Peg-shaped                             Jurassic North America.
                                  teeth were used to pull
                                           up vegetation.                          Barapasaurus grew to
                                                                                   lengths of 18 m (59 ft) and
                                                                                   roamed Jurassic India.

                                                                                   Vulcanodon was just 6.5 m
                                                                                   (21 ft) when it prowled
                                                          Peg-shaped               Jurassic Zimbabwe.

                                                                 Look at the size of it!
 Diplodocus’s neck                                               Imagine a dinosaur that was
                       ta                    il m                as long as a tennis court – an
                                                 ade             adult Diplodocus was!
                                                     up m
                                                          ost               of its length.


                                                              Adult human

 Stones in the gut                     Gizzard
 Like other sauropods,                 stones
 Diplodocus swallowed
 stones to help break
 down tough plant fibres.

                               How many neck vertebrae does the Diplodocus have?
                        It’s like a giraffe!
                        Brachiosaurus had longer forelimbs than
                        hind limbs so its back sloped down to
                        its hindquarters – rather like a giraffe.
                        But Brachiosaurus could reach two or
                        three times higher than a giraffe.

                                                                    Up high
                                                                    Brachiosaurus nibbled
                                                                    leaves at the tops of
                                                                    trees. Its long neck may
                                                                    have developed so
                                                                    Brachiosaurus could feed
                                                                    where other plant-eaters
                                                                    could not reach.

Sauropods had long
tails that helped to
balance their bodies.

                                               Fifteen.                                 193
 Age of the dinosaurs

 All sorts of crests
 Those striking crests
                                     Cretaceous cows
 came in all sorts of                Hadrosaurs were basically the cows
 different shapes.                   of the Cretaceous. They would have
                                     been a familiar sight in the forests and
          Corythosaurus had a
          plate-like crest.                       swamps of North America.
          Tsintaosaurus’ crest may
          have been covered in        Hadrosaurs had stiff                      Male hadrosaurs
                                      tails. It is unlikely these               probably had
          brightly coloured skin.
                                      were swung from side                      larger crests
                                      to side.                                  than the females.
          Lambeosaurus had a
          helmet-like crest.

                                                                        What a sight!
                                                                        Hadrosaurs are
                                                                        known for having
                                                                        some of the strangest
                                                                        heads of all dinosaurs;
                                                                        many of them had
                                                                        a crest.

      an expert
       188-189 Find
         a friend
      196-197 Horns
         and frills

                          Can you think of any crested animals today?
                                                                    Cretaceous cows
                                      A hadrosaur had
                                      more than 1,000      What did they eat?
                                      teeth (though not
                                      all were in use at   One hadrosaur fossil contained
                                      the same time!).
                                                                the remains of its last
                                                                  meal: bark, pine cones,
                                                                     conifer needles,
                                                                      and branches.
Did they                                                               This tough
have beaks?                                                            plant matter
That duck-like
beak contained                                                          is particularly
tightly packed                                                           hard to digest.
rows of teeth to
grind vegetation.                                                          Corythosaurus

                         hadrosaur teeth

   Chew and move on
   A hadrosaur such as
   Corythosaurus would have
   roamed in huge herds,
   grazing on leaves, pine
   needles, and ferns.

                    and birds have crests.                 A number of lizards              195
 Age of the dinosaurs

Horns and frills
                   Built like a rhinoceros, Triceratops is one of
                   the best-known of all dinosaurs. It belongs
                                  to a group known as the
                                     “horned face” dinosaurs
                                       or ceratopsians.

                                                                     one ter!
                                                                at’s nt-ea
                                                              Th la

  Three-horned face
  Triceratops was one of the
  largest of all the horned faces,
  reaching about 10 m (33 ft) in
  length when fully grown.

                       What does the name Triceratops mean?
                                                                                   Horns and frills
Other ceratopsians
There were a number of
different dinosaurs with
horns and frills.
          Protoceratops, which had
          a head frill but lacked a

          Styracosaurus, or “spiked
          lizard”, had a fancy,
          horned frill.

          Pentaceratops had an
          enormous neck frill and
          three long horns.

                                                                                 Sheep of the Gobi
                                                                               Protoceratops roamed
                                                                    the Gobi Desert in Asia rather as
                                                                     sheep roam today. In fact, they
                                                                        were about the size of sheep.

                                                     Like all the horn-face

                                                     dinosaurs, Protoceratops

                                                     had a parrot-like beak.
                                                                 y gr o
                                             p   s


That’s not a fighter                                                                      skull

Protoceratops lacked
any protection. Its

small size would
                                                             One big dinosaur graveyard

have made it the
                                                             The Gobi Desert is littered with the

ideal prey for
              F ro

a number of                                                  remains of Protoceratops, and they
meat-eaters.                                                 show all stages of growth.

                                          “Three-horned face”.                                        197
 Age of the dinosaurs

 T. rex                                     T. rex’s eyeballs
                                            were the size of
                                            a clenched fist.

 The mighty T. rex roamed
 North America in the last
 couple of million years that
 dinosaurs ruled the planet.
                       Titanic teeth
                       T. rex had
                       awesome curved
                       teeth, each as long
                       as a human hand.
                       Altogether it
                       had 58 of these
                       pointed weapons.

           s   c av

                                    T. rex preyed on

                                    plant-eaters such
                                    as Triceratops.

                               T. rex walked on
                               its powerful hind
                                             When teeth broke,
                                             new ones grew
                                             to replace them.

 Was it a killer?
 We don’t really know if T. rex was a hunter
 or a scavenger. It may have attacked and
 killed, or it may have picked at dead or dying
       dinosaurs. It may have done both.
                       T. rex is short for Tyrannosaurus rex. What does it mean?
                                                                                 T. rex
                   Lighten up
                   With its massive 1.5 m (5 ft) long
                   skull, this beast could swallow
                   small dinosaurs whole! Spaces
                   between the skull bones
                   made it lighter.

                      A T. rex had tiny
                      serrations on its teeth.
                      Its bite would have torn
                      into a victim’s flesh.

                           Guanlong was just 1.1 m
                           (3.6 ft) tall, but most of
                           that was tail and neck!

                                                        My ancestor
                                                        One of the oldest members
                                                        of the tyrannosaur family
                                                        was recently found in China.
                                                        Guanlong prowled Earth some
                                                        100 million years before T. rex.

                   What a whopper!
                   Meet Sue, the world’s largest and most
                   complete T. rex skeleton. She was sold to
                   an American museum in 1991 for a jaw-
                   dropping GB £5.3 million (US $8 million).
                                                                               Nose to tail, Sue
                                                                               measures 12.8 m
                                                                               (42 ft).

Tyrannosaurus rex means “King of the tyrant lizards”.                                    199
Age of the dinosaurs

Big and bold
Giganotosaurus means “giant southern
reptile”, and this dinosaur was big;
in fact it may have been larger than     It’s a new find!
T. rex. However, the two never met       Giganotosaurus bones were first
                                         unearthed in Argentina in the
as Giganotosaurus was roaming some       early 1990s, but no complete
10 million years before T. rex!          skeleton has ever been found.

                                                              would have
                                                              had a keen
                                                              sense of smell

        ir   d or wha                                         and excellent

     We               t                                       eyesight.

  It’s difficult to imagine just
  how big and heavy a fully
 grown Giganotosaurus really
 was. It’s thought to have been
 as heavy as about 125 adult
       humans. That’s a lot
             of people!

                                   Where did Giganotosaurus live?
                                                                 Big and bold
Let’s get it!
A huge sauropod, Argentinosaurus,
lived alongside Giganotosaurus. It’s                               Become
thought this monster may have reached                             an expert
43 m (140 ft) in length. So one 13.5 m                            182-183 Age of
(45 ft) long Giganotosaurus couldn’t                              the dinosaurs
                                                                192-193 Sauropods
have brought it down, but these                                   198-199 T. rex
predators may have hunted in packs.

           Awesome arms
           Giganotosaurus had larger and
           more powerful forearms than
           T. rex, and they were three-
           fingered. They would have been
           used to grasp prey and food.

                 That’s some tooth!
                 Giganotosaurus had
                 large, serrated teeth for
                 stabbing and gripping
                 prey, and for slashing
                 through the meat. The
                 largest teeth were
                 about 20 cm (8 in)
                 in length.

                  In the warm swamps of Cretaceous Argentina.                   201
Age of the dinosaurs

                         Meet the raptors
                                                    Aggressive and
                                                    speedy, Velociraptor
                                                    was a formidable            Bambiraptor

                                                    predator in late
                                                    Cretaceous Asia. Although small, it
                                                    was armed with razor-sharp teeth
                                                    and terrifying dagger-like claws.
 The narrow                   Velociraptor
 jaws contained
 about 80                     The feathers would have been
 sharp teeth.                 used for warmth, not flight.

 A feathered dinosaur?
                                                                                        Experts believe that
 Some dinosaur fossils have been                                                        Deinonychus was
 found with traces of a feather-                                                        one of the more
                                                                                        intelligent dinosaurs.
 like covering, and it’s thought
 that Velociraptor may have had
 feathers, though no Velociraptor
                                                             Scientists now suspect
  fossil has been found with them.                           Deinonychus was
                                                             feathered, but the
                                                             theory is so new that
      The killer claw                                        most models are naked.

       Deinonychus also had a vicious killer claw
       on each of its hind legs. It held this off the
        ground but could slash it at victims.

           foot fossil

                               What does the name Velociraptor mean?
                                                                          Meet the raptors
       Deinonychus                    This skeleton has been mounted
                                      to show Deinonychus leaping                   you know
                                      towards a victim, claws ready.
                                                                             D id            ?
                                                                         and Deinonychus belong to a
                                                                       group called the dromaeosaurids.
 Jump                                                                    Scientists believe these killing
 and grab                                                                  machines were related to
                                                                             the birds alive today.
 Velociraptor and
 its relations, such as
 the larger Deinonychus, probably
 hunted in packs and jumped
 onto the back of their prey, all                                        Deinonychus had
                                                                         a lightweight
                     four limbs                                          body and long
                                                                         hind legs.

“terrib ychu
       le c s m
           law ean
              ”.  s

  “Speedy thief.” Scientists believe it may have reached 65 km/h (40 mph).                            203
 Age of the dinosaurs

 Monsters of the deep
                            There may have been no marine

                            dinosaurs, but a frightening

                            variety of toothed giant reptiles

                                                                                     Its neck was as long as its
                            ruled the seas while the
                            dinosaurs ruled the land.

                                                              Elasmosaurus was
                                                              air-breathing, just
                                                              like whales today.
 Swim away...
                            Ichthyosaurs had
 An Ichthyosaurus           large eyes.
 moves swiftly to
 avoid being eaten.
 The swimming
 ichthyosaurs, including
 Ichthyosaurus itself,
 were perfectly suited
 for chasing fast-moving
 prey, such as squid.
 However, they
 were vulnerable to
 attack from larger
 marine reptiles.

 ...from danger!
 Watch out!
 A Liopleurodon
 is attacking the
 ichthyosaurs from
 behind. Perhaps the
 largest sea-based
 predator of all time,
 Liopleurodon was a
 short-necked plesiosaur.

                                      What did Liopleurodon eat?
                                                                       Monsters of the deep

                                                                       I recognize that!
                                                                       Many Mesozoic occupants of
                                                                       the Earth’s seas would have
What’s that?                                                           been familiar to us.
Elasmosaurus was also
a plesiosaur, but it was                                                         Jellyfish have been
long-necked. Its four                                                            around for about 400
paddle-shaped limbs                                                              million years.
propelled it easily
through the water.                                                               Corals are fragile animals,
                                                                                 but they have managed to
It grew up to 14 m                                                               survive since the dinosaurs.
(46 ft) in length.
                                                                                 The great white shark’s
                                                                                 ancestors date back to the
                                                                                 Cretaceous period.

                                                                                 Squid were on the menu
                                                                                 for ichthyosaurs, shown
                                                                                 by fossil evidence.

                                                                                 Snails are also present in
                                                                                 fossil form, showing they
                                                                                 too are great survivors.

                                                                                    d   or wha
                                                                            W   eir            t
                                                                                   Some people
                                                                              think the “monster” in
                                                                           Lock Ness, a Scottish Lake,
                                                                        is a plesiosaur that was trapped
                                               Liopleurodon may have
                                                                           there when the sea receded
                                               reached 25 m (80 ft).
                                                                              millions of years ago!

        The dagger-like teeth
        were twice as long as
        those of T. rex.

Anything it could catch, including pterosaurs who flew too close to the water’s surface.                        205
 Age of the dinosaurs

 How was it made?
 Fossils may form when animal or plant matter is buried
 soon after death under mud or sand. However, that’s just
 the beginning of a process that takes millions of years.
 70 million years ago           Five years later                50 million years ago
 A T. rex has died and is       The creature’s soft flesh has   A sea has now spread over
 washed downstream. It rests    slowly rotted away, leaving     the area once occupied by the
 on layers of soft mud and is   the bones. Over time these      river. Heavy pressure is slowly
 rapidly buried.                begin to move apart.            turning the sand to sandstone.

                       Can you name some of the things that fossilize?
                                                                    How was it made?

Two million years ago              Last year                       Today
The passing of millions of         The area around the fossil is   Palaeontologists are now
years has seen mountain            now a desert. Two walkers       hard at work, uncovering
ranges rising above the            investigate further when        the rest of the T. rex. The
fossilized T. rex, but gradually   they see the exposed tip of     bones will be removed one
they are being worn down by        a fossilized bone.              by one. The skeleton may
extreme weather.                                                   end up in a museum.

   Fossils include bones, teeth, footprints, and skin impressions. Plants also fossilize.        207
 Age of the dinosaurs

 What happened?
 Sixty-five million years ago the                                 Who died?
 dinosaurs died out, along with the                               The extinction saw the
                                                                  loss of huge numbers of
 pterosaurs and the plesiosaurs. It                                 animals, including:
 was a mass extinction, but what
 was the cause? Many believe it                                                Pterosaurs, which had
                                                                               once filled the skies with
 was the result of a meteorite.                                                their airborne acrobatics.

                                                                               Dinosaurs, which had
 What changed?                                                                  evolved into a huge
                                                                                 variety of types.
 Scientists now believe a massive meteorite
                                                                               Huge reptiles,
 hit Earth, creating a dust cloud of noxious                                   which disappeared
 fumes that screened out the Sun                                               from the oceans.

 and changed the climate.

                                                 The rock would have hit
                                                 Earth’s crust with terrific
                                                 force, sending shock
                                                 waves around the world.

 It was a big one!
 In the early 1990s, geologists found the
 remains of a massive crater in Mexico. It was
 180 km (112 miles) wide. They believe it was
 caused by a meteorite smashing into Earth
 65 million years ago.

                     How big were the animals that survived the extinction?
                                                            What happened?
                 Was that all?
                 The meteorite hit at a time of immense volcanic activity
                 in what is now western India. This activity would have
                 sent up clouds of ash and dust that would have blocked
                 the Sun’s light – just like the effect of the meteorite.
                 That’s two major events around the same time.

The rock that
created the
Mexican crater
was 10 km
(6 miles) in

                               From m teorite
                                to volcano, the
                               extinction may well
                                   have been a
                                  combination of
                                           An exploding
                                           volcano sends
                                           up clouds of
                                           lethal dust.

                 No land animal heavier than a large dog survived.          209
 Age of the dinosaurs

 Living dinosaurs
 You may think that reptiles are closely
 related to dinosaurs, but dinosaurs
 may have more in common with birds!

 A hidden link?
 The link between dinosaurs and birds is a              Caudipteryx
                                                        would not have
 puzzle. Caudipteryx appears to have been a             been able to
 combination of bird                                    fly as its wings
                                                        were too small.
 and dinosaur.

  The first bird?                Fossilized
  The earliest-
  known bird is
  which first
  appeared in the
  Jurassic period.
  It had the toothed
  head, clawed
  fingers, and
  long bony tail
  of a dinosaur,
  but it also
  had feathers.                        means “ancient

            What size do you think Archaeopteryx reached?
                                                                               Living dinosaurs
 Why feathers?                                                                                          Hoatzin
                                                                                                        are found
 Feathers protect birds                                                                                 in parts
 from water and from                                                                                    of South
 temperature changes,
 and they may have
 evolved on some
 dinosaurs for the
 same purpose.

Caudipteryx was a
Cretaceous creature.

                                                              We have claws
                                                              Some modern birds have clawed wings.
                                      Feathers provide good
                                      insulation from cold.
                                                              Hoatzin chicks have two tiny claws at
                                                              the end of each wing. These are not used
                              Caudipteryx had clawed
                              hands. It also had teeth.
                                                              in the adult, but the chicks use them to
                                                              clamber through trees.

                                                                                           ou k n ow
                                                                                      i dy

                                                                               Although some dinosaurs
                                                                             had feathers, experts are still
                                                                              discussing the possible link
                                                                             between dinosaurs and birds.
                                                                                 It does seem unlikely,
                                                                                    though, that any
                                                                                      dinosaur flew.

      Caudipteryx was about
      the size of a turkey.

                                            Pieces of a puzzle
More and more “dino-birds” are being discovered,
 and each discovery helps our understanding. This
  model is based on feathered fossils found in China.
              It was small: about the size of a pigeon.                                                         211
Science and technology

 What is science?
 Science is the search for truth and                                   From atoms to space
 knowledge. It holds the key to                                        Scientists study a huge
 understanding life, the Universe…                                     variety of things, from
                                                                       the tiniest atoms that
 and almost everything!                                                   make up everything
 Scientists divide science                                                 around us to the
 into different areas.                                                      mysteries of space.
                                                                            Everything you
                                                                            see is made up of
                                                                            microscopic atoms.

 Life science                                             Physical science
 How do living things survive                             This science looks at
 and grow, where do they live,                            energy and forces. There
 what do they eat, and how do                             are different types of
 their bodies work? Life science                          energy, including light,
 seeks to answer such questions                           heat, and sound. Forces
 about the living world, from         The scientific      are the things that hold
                                      study of plants
 microscopic bacteria to plants       is called botany.
                                                          everything in place in
 and animals – including you!                             our world. Without the
                                                          force of gravity, for          We have learned how to send
                                                          example, you would fly         energy to where it is needed.
                                                          off into space!

                                                                                             Planet Earth

 Life science studies the living
 world around us.

                                   What is the study of animals called?
                                                                                           What is science?
                                                                                         Curiosity quiz
                                                                                         Look through the Planet
                                                                                         Earth pages and see if
                                                                                         you can identify each of
                                                                                         the picture clues below.

Earth and space science
Earth is a dot in a vast Universe
filled with planets and moons, stars
and galaxies. As far as we know,
Earth is special because it is the
only place that supports life. Earth
and space science is the study of
the structure of our planet – and
everything that exists beyond it.
                                                             The scientific study
                                                             of volcanoes is
                                                             called volcanology.

                                  Materials science
                                  Our Universe is filled with atoms
                                  and elements, molecules, mixtures,
                                  and compounds. Materials science
                                  is the study of these things, how
                                           they behave, how we use
                                                  them, and how they
  One branch of science studies
                                                        react with one
  how materials can change.                                  another.

                                                                                    an expert
                                                                                  6-7 Our world
                                                                                272-273 Our place
                                  Pictures of Earth from                             in space
                                  space help scientists
                                  understand Earth better.

                                                             Zoology.                                          213
Science and technology

 Advances in science
 Science begins with problems. The world’s great
 scientists were all thinkers who wanted to solve                                            Stories suggest
                                                                                             Newton discovered
                                                                                             gravity with
 life’s problems. This need for understanding has                                            an apple.

 produced many great inventions and discoveries.
 Johannes Gutenberg (1400–1468)
 Gutenberg played a key role in printing. Experts
 believe he invented metal-type printing in Europe.
                                                                            Newton found that
 Gutenberg’s press was quick, accurate, and hard-                           white light was made
 wearing, compared to                                                       up of seven colours.
 earlier woodblock printing.
                                                                 Isaac Newton (1642–1727)
                                                                 Newton investigated forces and
                                                                 light. He realized there must be
                                                                 a force that keeps the planets in
                                                                 orbit around the Sun. Today we
                                                                 know this as gravity. Newton
                                                                 also discovered that white light
                                Gutenberg’s first printed book
                                                                 is made up of all the colours of
                                was the Bible in 1455.           the rainbow.

1400                                                1500                                           1600

      Wooden replica of
      da Vinci’s Ornithopter.         Galileo Galilei (1564–1642)
                                      Galileo proved that the Earth
                                      moves around the Sun by
                                      looking at the Solar System
                                      through a telescope. A few
                                      wise thinkers had always
 Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)        suspected the truth, but
 Leonardo was a painter and inventor. most people at the time
 He drew plans for helicopters,       believed that our
 aeroplanes, and parachutes.          Earth was the centre
 Unfortunately, the technology        of everything.
 of the time was not good enough      Replica of a 17th-century
      to build any that worked.       telescope

               Who invented the bifocal lens?
                                                                                                    Advances in science
                                                               ou know
                                                         Di dy         ?                           Inventions
                                                       More than 2,000 years                       Inventions and
 A kite helped                                       ago, Greek thinker Aristotle                  discoveries have changed
 Benjamin Franklin
 learn about
                                                      recommended that people                      the course of our history.
 lightning and                                        look at nature, and carry
 electricity.                                             out experiments to                              Wheel (3,500 BCE) The first
                                                              test ideas.                                 known wheel was used in
Benjamin Franklin
(1706–1790)                                                                                               Paper (50 BCE) This was
American scientist Benjamin                                                                               invented in China, but kept
Franklin experimented with                                                                                secret for many years.
lightning and electricity.                           Louis Pasteur
                                                                                                          Compass (1190) The
His work in the 1700s laid                           (1822–1895)                                          magnetic compass was
the foundations for today’s                          Best known                                           first used by the Chinese.
electrical world.                                    for discovering
                                                     pasteurization                                       Parachute (1783) The first
                                                     (a process that                                      one flew centuries after
                                                                                                          Leonardo made his drawings.
                                                     uses heat to destroy bacteria
                                                     in food, particularly milk),                         Steam train (1829) The
                                                     Pasteur also discovered that                         earliest successful model
                                                     some diseases were caused                            reached 48 kph (30 mph).
                                                     by germs. He encouraged
                                                                                                          Colour photo (1861)
                                                     hospitals to be very clean                           First produced by physicist
Franklin risked his life flying a kite in a storm.   to stop germs spreading.                             James Clerk Maxwell.

                                         1700                                                        1800

William Herschel                                               Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
(1738–1822)                                                    (1845–1923)
Herschel is well                                               Röntgen discovered
known for his work                                             electromagnetic rays
in astronomy (he                                               (known today as x-rays)
first identified the                                           on November 8th, 1895.
planet Uranus).                                                His important
He also discovered                                             discovery earned
infrared radiation                                             him the first
– this technology is used today for                            Nobel Prize in
wireless communications, night vision,                         Physics in 1901.
weather forecasting, and astronomy.
                                                                     X-rays allow doctors to
                                                                     look inside the human body.

                                                          Benjamin Franklin.                                                       215
Science and technology
                                                                                                     Orange juice is a
         Movie projectors                                                                            good source of
   developed quickly after             Karl Landsteiner                                              vitamin C.
      Edison’s early work.
                                       Austrian-born physiologist
                                       Landsteiner discovered
                                       that human blood can be
 Early movie                           divided into four main
    projector                          groups – A, B, AB, and O.
                                       This laid the foundation of
                                       modern blood groupings.                     Albert Szent-Györgyi
                                                                                  The Hungarian scientist
                                                                                  Albert Szent-Györgyi is best
                                                                                  known for detecting vitamin
                                                                                  C. He also pioneered research
                                                                                  into how muscles move and
                                                                                  work. He won the Noble
                                                                                        Prize for physiology and
 Thomas Edison (1847–1931)                                                                 medicine in 1937.
 Thomas Alva Edison
 produced more than 1,000                                                                      You inherit your
                                                                                               blood type from
 inventions, including long-                                                                    your parents.
 lasting light bulbs, batteries,      Blood transfusions play
 and movie projectors.                an important part in                                     Red blood cells
                                      modern medicine.

1800                                                            1850

 Albert                                                         destroy homes
                                                                                Charles Richter (1900–1985)
 Einstein                                                       and office        Richter developed a way
                                                                buildings.          to measure the power of
 German-born                                                                           earthquakes. He worked
 physicist Albert                                                                         on his scale with
 Einstein’s famous                                                                          fellow physicist
 equation E=mc2                                                                                Beno Gutenberg.
 explained how
 energy, mass,                     equation
 and time are all related. It
                                              A “great”
 helped scientists understand        earthquake (8–9.9
 how the Universe works.           on the Richter scale)
                                     strikes on average
                                           once a year.
                                                Who invented frozen food?
                                                                                Advances in science
                Alan Turing (1912–1954)                                        Modern inventions
                During the Second World
                War, Alan Turing, a                     Today’s computers      Imagine the world
                                                       are lightweight and
                brilliant mathematician,                  portable – early     without these fantastic
                                                               models filled
                helped develop code-                          whole rooms.     inventions:
                breaking machines
                that eventually led                                                      Antibiotics The first
                to the invention of                                                      antibiotic, penicillin, was
                                                                                         discovered accidentally.
                modern computers.
                  The English used the                                                   Cars Some of the early
                  Enigma machine to                                                      models were driven by
                  break German codes                                                     coal or wood-fired engines.
                  during World War II
                  (sometimes known
                                                                                         Nuclear power is
                  as WWII).
                                                                                         efficient, but some people
                                                                                         think it could harm us.
       Computers (1941)                                                                  Plastics technology is
       The first computers                Mobile phones (1980s)                          used to make many of
       were huge machines.                Developed from the two-                        the things in your home.
       They couldn’t cope with            way radios of the 40s
       complicated tasks,                                                                Compact disks are small
                                           and 50s, the first mobiles                    and light, and they store
       but worked on only                   were large and heavy,                        lots of information.
       one thing at a time.                 weighing about 35 kg
                                              (77 lbs) – the same as                     Energy-efficient light
                      Mobile phone              a 10-year-old child.                     bulbs help save energy
                                                                                         in your home.


                        DNA discovered (1953)                                       The internet (1990s)
                        The identification of DNA                                   With its roots in the
                         (which holds information                                   1960s, the Internet
                      in human cells) led to DNA                                    (short for International
                          profiling, a huge help to                                 Network) became public
                        the police – criminals can                                  during the mid 90s, and
                           now be identified by a                                   is now used for fun and
                      single hair or spot of blood.                                 education by about 1.5
                                                                                    billion people.
                      Nuclear bombs (1945)
                      Sometimes science creates monsters,
                                                                                    Before DNA profiling, police identified
                      like the bombs the USA dropped on                             criminals by their fingerprints. This
                      Japan in WWII. They killed nearly                             system was developed in the 1890s.
                      300,000 people and ended the war.
                                         Clarence Birdseye, in 1924.                                                   217
Science and technology

 Being a scientist                                      Experiments can involve
 Scientists study the world around                      toxic fumes or chemicals that
                                                        might explode, so scientists
 us. They look for gaps in our                          wear protective goggles.

 knowledge and try to find the
 answers. Not all scientists study
 the same things – they specialize
 in different areas.

 Testing, testing
 Scientists explore their ideas and theories
 using tests called experiments. In this
 book, there are lots of “hands-on”                                        Mixing it up
            experiments you can do to                Experimenting with chemicals and
                         try things out                their reactions can produce some
                            for yourself.           mixed results. Some mixtures can be
                                                     dangerous, while others can be the
                                                         answer the scientists are after.

                How much bigger do things look through a microscope?
                                                               Being a scientist
                                                             Types of scientist
  A closer look
  During the
                      microscope                             Almost everything in
  17th century,                                              the world is the subject
  the microscope                                             of study by a scientific
  was developed                                              specialist.
  by Dutchman Anton
  van Leeuwenhoek and                                                   Zoologists study animals
  refined by Robert Hooke                                               of all kinds, except for
  in England. Early models                                              human beings.
  revealed the tiny organisms in                                        Biologists are interested
  water, while modern versions                                          in everything about life
  can look inside a single cell.                                        and living organisms.

                                                                        Paleontologists know
                                                                        about fossils, and try
                                                                        to learn from them.

                                                                        Botanists learn about
                                                                        the world of plants, plant
                                                                        types, and plant groups.

                                                                        Chemists study elements
                                                                        and chemicals, and they
                                                                        help make new substances.

                                                                        Astronomers are experts
Inside view                                                             on space, the planets, the
When you go to hospital,                                                stars, and the Universe.
the doctor may send you
                                                                        Entomologists are a
for a body scan. Using                                                  special kind of zoologist
a powerful machine,                                                     who learn about insects.
the medical team can see
what’s going on inside you.                                             Geologists find out about
                                                                        our Earth, particularly
                                                                        by studying rocks.
         Hands on                                                       Archaeologists are
            Fill a cup                                                  interested in the remains
          or vase with                                                  of past peoples and lives.
     water, and add a few                                               Ecologists study the
    drops of food colouring.    Plants take up food                     relationship between living
    Cut the end off the stem    and water from the soil                 things and their environment.
                                and transport it up the
    of a flower and put the     stem. Experiments allow
      flower in the water.      scientists to observe                   Oceanographers know
                                and theorize how things                 all about ocean life and
                                work and why.                           landscapes.

                      Some microscopes can magnify up to 1,000 times!                            219
Science and technology

 Science and everyday life
 Science is not just used by                                                             Iron
 experts working in laboratories.                              Invented in 1938, Teflon
 It is part of all our lives. From                             was used in space suits.
                                                               In everyday life it stops
 brushing your teeth to setting                                stuff sticking
 your alarm, science is with you                               to hot
                                                               surfaces.                        Teflon pan
 all day, every day.
 Electricity                                                   Plastic fantastic
 Electricity lights up the                                     Look around you and you will see
 world and gives us the                                         dozens of things made of plastic.
 energy to cook, travel,                                           From containers to toys,
 work, and play.                                                    plastic is a versatile
                                                                    and hard-wearing
          Cities at night are bright
                                                                    material. Some
          places, lit up by office,         Plastic                plastics can
          house, and street lights.         building
                                            blocks               now be recycled.

                                       What was the first satellite in space?
                                                             Science and everyday life
                                       Surgeons get a
                                       helping hand from

                                                                                      Satellite orbiting
                                                                                      the earth

In the best of health                        Masks, aprons, and     Communications
                                             gloves help doctors
                                             keep operation rooms   Satellites orbit the Earth,
Long ago, people relied on herbs to          free from infection.   beaming back all sorts of
produce cures for disease. Thanks                                   information. They send TV
to modern science, many illnesses                                   signals, supply weather
                                                                    information, and help us
that were once untreatable can
                                                                    gaze into space.
now be cured or prevented.
Clothing technology
Advances in sports clothing                                         From here to there
technology have impacted                                            Science and technology make
on everyday clothes.                                                it much easier to get around.
Breathable fabric, stretchy                                         Trains, planes, and cars
spandex, and thermal                                                make the world a smaller
underwear were developed                                            place and allow us to visit
from specialized sports and                                         exotic destinations. They
leisure clothes.                                                    are also useful for getting to
                                                                    school on time.
 As fast as a speeding bullet                                                        Bullet trains in Japan
                                                                                     travel up to 300 kph
                                                                                     (186 mph).

     an expert
  236-237 Electricity
  244-245 Machines

                 Sputnik 1. It was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.                              221
                                                                                                                                                           Carbon dioxide                        Carbon cycle
                                                                                                                                                           in the atmosphere
                                                                               All living things                                                                                                 Green plants take in
                                                                                                                                                                                                 the gas carbon dioxide
                                                                              Every living thing contains                                                                                        from the air and use it
                                                                              carbon. Human beings                                                                                               to make food, converting
                                                                              take in carbon through                                                                                             it into things such as
                                                                              carbohydrates, fats, and                                                                                           carbohydrates. Animals
                                                                                                                                                                                                 take in some of the carbon
                                                                              proteins in food, and                                                                                              when they eat plants.

                                                                                                                                                                                    N DIOXIDE
                                                                              release it as carbon dioxide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Science and technology

                                                                              gas when breathing out. It
                                                                              is also released from dead
                                                                              matter, sometimes quite
                                                                              soon, sometimes millions                                   Animals eat              Animals                       Animals such as these sheep
                                                                                                                                         plants and take          breathe
                                                                              of years later in fuels like                               in some carbon.          out carbon
                                                                                                                                                                                                contribute to the carbon cycle
                                                                                                                                                                  dioxide.                      by eating, breathing, and

                                                                              oil and coal.                                                                                                     dropping waste. They take in
                                                                                                                                                                                                carbon in the plants they eat,
                                                                                           An animal’s                                                                                                and release it when they
                                                                                           droppings also                                                                                             breathe out. Their bodies
                                                                                           contribute to the
                                                                                           carbon cycle.                                                                                              will release more carbon
                                                                                                                          DE RELE                                                                       when they die.

                                                                                                                   D IOXI

In particular circumstances, carbon forms a hard crystal. What is its name?

                                                                 Fossil fuels
             Waste fertiliser

             Part of you
                                                                 the remains

             might once have
                                                                 of organisms

             been part of a
                                                                 are exposed to

             dinosaur. Why?
                                                                 extreme pressure
             Because like all

                                                                 and heat. Over

             living things, dinosaurs
                                                                 millions of years,
             produced waste and

                                                                 they turn into
             their waste became a
                                                                 carbon-rich fuels,
             part of the never-ending
                                                                 like coal and oil.
             carbon cycle.

                                                             Waste disposal
                                                             When animals
                                                             die, their bodies
                                                             break down and

A diamond.
             Decomposition in the
             soil is helped along by
             the endless action of
             worms and bacteria.
             These animals are an
             important part of the
             carbon cycle.                                                   Plants and
                                                                             animals die
                                                                             and their
                                                                                                All living things

                                                                             bodies decay.

Science and technology

 Properties of matter
 What they are...                      Some materials are hard and
 There are many different              brittle, while others are flexible.
 properties of matter.                 Some materials are colourful, while
        Boiling point is the
        hottest a liquid can get
                                       others are transparent. These kinds
        before becoming a gas.         of features are called “properties”.
        Freezing point is the
        temperature at which                                                A cork floats on oil.
        a liquid becomes a solid.                                           Oil floats on water.

        Plasticity is how well                                            Does it float?
        a solid can be reshaped.
                                                                          It’s easy to learn about
                                                                          some properties, such
        Conductivity is how well                                          as the ability to float.
        a material lets electricity                                       The amount of matter
        or heat travel through it.                                        in a certain volume of
        Malleability is how well
                                                                          an object is called its
        a solid can be shaped                                             density. Objects and
        without breaking.                                                 liquids float on liquids
                                                                          of a higher density and
        Tensile strength is how
                                                                          sink through liquids
        much a material can
        stretch without breaking.                                         of a lower density.

        Flammability is how                                               A plastic building brick sinks
        easily and quickly a                                              through oil but floats on water.
        substance will catch fire.
                                                                            An onion sinks through oil and
                                                                            water, but floats on syrup.
        Reflectivity is how well                                            Syrup sinks below water.
        a material reflects light.
        Water reflects well.

        Transparency is how
        well a material will let                    A good insulator
        light pass through it.                 Heat cannot easily pass
                                               through some materials.
        Flexibility is how easily
        a material can be bent.
                                                   These are known as
                                              insulators. For example,
                                                aerogel can completely
        Solubility is how well               block the heat of a flame.
        a substance will dissolve,
        such as salt in water.
                                            But don’t try this at home!

                                      Is a diamond harder than quartz?
                                                                                      Properties of matter
                                         Safety   Compressibility
                                                  Gases can be
                                                  squashed, or
                                                  compressed, by
                                                  squeezing more
                                                  into the same
                                                  space. This is what
                                                  happens when you
                                                  pump up a tyre.
                                                                                                      Foot pump
 Some materials, such as glass, are               Gas can be compressed
 very brittle and will break when                 because its particles are far
                                                  apart. A bicycle pump pushes
 pushed out of shape. Safety glass is             the particles closer together.
 designed to crack rather than break.                                                                          Diamond is
                                                                                                               the hardest
 Hardness                                                        Gas particles                                 mineral.
 A scientist called Friedrich Mohs created a                                                        Corundum
 scale of ten minerals to compare how hard they
 are. Many materials are graded on this scale.                                                                    10
                                                                     6               7        8
                                          4                      Feldspar          Quartz   Topaz
   1       Gypsum           3
  Talc                    Calcite


           Hands on
             Collect some
           different pebbles
      and put them in order of
     hardness. A pebble is harder
    than another if it scratches it.
      This is how Mohs worked
             out his scale.

 A smooth flow
 Some liquids flow more
 easily than others. It depends
 on their “stickiness”, or viscosity.
 Hot lava from a volcano flows
 slowly because it is sticky.
                Yes, a diamond is the hardest mineral of all. It will scratch quartz.                                225
Science and technology

                                   Changing states
                                   When solids get hot enough, they melt
                                   and become liquids. When liquids get
 Liquid metal                      cold enough, they freeze and become
 Every substance melts
 and boils at a particular
                                   solid. This is called changing states and
 temperature (its melting          it happens to all kinds of substances.
 and boiling points). Most
 metals are solid at everyday      Changing states of water
 temperatures because they
 have a high melting point.
                                   Water exists as a solid, liquid, or gas. You can find
 But mercury has such a low        all three forms of water in your home. They are ice,
 melting point that it is liquid   water, and steam (water vapour).
 even at room temperature.

 As water vapour in the air
 is cooled, it changes into
 liquid water. This is called
 condensation. You can see
 it on the outside
 of a cold bottle.

   When water
   vapour in the
   air touches a
   cold bottle, it
   condenses into
   tiny drops of
                                   Ice is solid water. It forms    When ice is warmed, it melts   As water is heated, bubbles
                                   when liquid is cooled until     and becomes liquid and         of steam form. They rise to
                                   it freezes. Each piece of ice   takes on the shape of the      the surface and burst, so
                                   has a definite shape.           container holding it.          steam escapes into the air.

                                                                                     Rivers of iron
                                                                                     Iron must be heated in
                                                                                     a furnace to make it melt.
                                                                                     Molten iron is so hot it glows
                                                                                     white. It is poured into a
                                                                                     mould and left to harden
                                                                                     to make solid iron objects.
                       Why does chocolate become soft and gooey in your mouth?
                                                                          Changing states
                                     Washing dries faster on a hot day,
                                     when heat turns water into vapour
                                     very quickly.

                                                           In the open air, water slowly turns into
                                                           vapour – this is called evaporation.
                                                           Wet clothes dry on a line because the
                                                           water they hold evaporates.

                                                                       z e n fr u
                                                                 .. fro          it i
                                                              mm.                     n


Freezing                    Melting                                          an expert...
Icicles are spikes of ice   When you don’t eat your
that form when dripping     ice cream quickly enough,                        230-231 Molecules
water freezes. You often    it melts and changes from a                      232-233 Reactions
see them on trees in        solid to a liquid! Chocolate                       and changes
winter. If water keeps      melts too, and makes
dripping down and           your hands all sticky.
freezing, the icicle will   Most solids will melt if the
get longer and longer.      temperature is high enough.
     Because the warmth of your mouth makes it melt.                                             227
 Science and technology
                                                                                          the atom
 Amazing atoms                                                                          f

 If you could keep smashing                               z z around the

                                                   rons whi
 an object into smaller and
 smaller bits, you would
 eventually break it down

 into bits that can’t get any
 smaller – atoms. Atoms are
 tiny particles that make up
 everything around us.
                     Inside an atom
 Inside an atom are three tiny types

                                                                                                      Ne ro
  of particle: protons, neutrons, and

     electrons. Protons and neutrons                                                                  n
  make up the atom’s nucleus (core).                              n
                                                              Ele o

       The electrons are outside this.

                 Oxygen atom

            A water molecule has   Hydrogen atom
            two hydrogen atoms
            and one oxygen atom.
         Hydrogen atom
                                                                       GOLD   Golden number
      Molecules                                                         79    The number of protons
                                                                                in an atom is called its
      Substances are made from                                                      atomic number. The
      little groups of atoms called                                                   atomic number of
      molecules. The molecules in                                                     gold is 79. This
      water have three atoms.                                                        means that each
                                                                                    gold atom has
                                                                                   79 protons.

                             How many atoms are there in a drop of water?
                                                                                  Amazing atoms

                                                                             Sunflower oil comes from
                                                                            the seeds that grow in the
                                                                                middle of a sunflower.

                                                               Oxygen atom

                   Big molecules
                   In natural substances like
                   vegetable oil, the atoms are
                   often joined in chains to
                   make very large molecules.
                   The molecules in sunflower
                   oil contain 50 atoms each.

                                                            Hydrogen atom                      Carbon atom

                                           The explosion

                   d or what
                                             of a nuclear
              ir                         bomb can create
           We                ?              a spectacular
              An atom is mostly                   cloud”.
           empty space. If an atom
           were the size of a sports
         stadium, the nucleus would
            be the size of a marble
                 in the middle.

                        The mighty atom
    When the nucleus of an atom is split, it
releases a huge amount of energy. Nuclear
  bombs use this “atomic energy” to create
   huge explosions. Nuclear power stations
      use the energy to produce electricity.
 There are about 5 sextillion (5,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000).                           229
Science and technology

 In most materials, atoms are joined                                          Frozen solid
                                                                              Cold molecules move slowly,
 in tiny groups called molecules. The                                         allowing them to pack together
 shapes of molecules and the way                                              more easily. When water
                                                                              freezes, the molecules line up in
 they pack together can help explain                                          neat rows, forming ice crystals.
 how different materials behave.
 Steaming ahead
 Molecules are always jiggling about. When                    Snow may look
 they get hot, they move further and faster.                  like white powder,
                                                              but if you look
 When water heats up, the molecules may                       closely you can
 start moving so fast that they escape into                   see thousands of
 the air as water vapour.                                     tiny crystals as
                                                              clear as glass.

                                          Clouds appear when water
                                          vapour cools down and
                                          becomes liquid again.
                                          The grey mist is made of
                                          millions of tiny liquid droplets.

                                                              Melt: As a solid heats up,
                                                              its molecules move faster until
                                                              they break free from each other
                                                              and move separately, turning
                                                              the solid into a liquid.

                                                        Solidify: As a liquid cools, its
                                  Solid               molecules lose energy and move
                                                     more slowly. Eventually they start
                                                         sticking together, turning the
                                                                     liquid into a solid.

                                                                                                If a liquid is poured into a
                                                                                                jar or bottle, it takes the
                                                                                                shape of its container and
                                                                                                stays in place.
                                Are diamonds impossible to destroy?
                    Diamond is made
                    into jewels that are
                    almost indestructible.

Diamond molecule
Diamond is the hardest
natural substance known.
Its hardness comes from
the way the carbon
atoms in each diamond
are arranged. Each atom is
joined by strong bonds to
four neighbouring atoms.
 Each group of five atoms in
 a diamond forms a pyramid
 shape. This shape makes
 diamond amazingly strong.

        Become                               Graphite molecule
                                                                                                               Each carbon
       an expert                             Graphite, like diamond,
                                             is also made of carbon
                                                                                                               atom in graphite
                                                                                                               is joined to only
   224-225 Properties                        atoms, but the atoms are                                          three neighbours.
                                                                                                               The atoms form
       of matter                             arranged in a different                                           layers that slip over
   226-227 Changing                          way, making graphite                                              each other, making
                                                                                                               graphite soft.
         states                              very soft.
                                                                                  Graphite is used to make
                                                                                  the soft lead in pencils.

          Evaporate: As a liquid
          heats up, its molecules speed up
          until they move fast enough to
          float away as gas.

        Condense: When gas
molecules lose energy and slow
     down, they stick together
               and form liquid.

                                              A gas can fill any container
                                              it’s put in. If there’s no lid to
                                              seal the container, the gas will
                                              escape into the air.

                                                    No, you can burn them.                                                     231
Science and technology

 Reactions and changes
 When the atoms in molecules
 rearrange to form new kinds of
 molecules, we say a chemical
 reaction has taken place.
 Chemical reactions often
 lead to a dramatic change.
                                Melting is not a
                              chemical reaction.

 Chemical change                               Physical change
 Fire is caused by a chemical                  Not all dramatic changes are caused by
 reaction. When wood burns, the                chemical reactions. When ice lollies melt,
 atoms in wood are rearranged                  the atoms in the water molecules do not
 to form new kinds of molecules.               get rearranged into new molecules –
 This process releases                         they remain water molecules. Melting is
 energy as light and                           simply a physical change.
 heat, producing                                   Burning is
                                                   a chemical
 glowing flames.                                   reaction.

                                                                    Escaping energy
                                                                    Chemical reactions can
                                                                    release energy as heat
                                                                    and light. A sparkler
                                                                    contains chemicals that
                                                                    release a lot of energy as
                                                                    light to create a dazzling
                                                                    shower of sparks.
          What chemical reaction makes silver objects slowly turn grey and dull?
                                                                    Reactions and changes
                                           Speeding up reactions
                                           Cooking makes carrots softer
                                           because the heat causes a
                                           chemical reaction. Chopping
                                           carrots into small bits speeds up
                                           the reaction because it increases
                                           the area of contact between
                                           the carrots and the hot water.

                              Sliced carrots
                              cook faster than
                              whole carrots.

Glow in the dark
Light sticks glow in
the dark thanks to
a chemical reaction
that releases energy
as light. You can slow
down this reaction by
putting a light stick in
a fridge, which makes
it last longer.

                                                       Soda volcano
                                                If you drop mints into
             Hands on                          a bottle of fizzy drink,
            Ask an adult to                   the drink turns to foam
              boil some red                   and explodes out in an
         cabbage and save the              instant. This is a physical
    coloured water. Let the water                change rather than a
   cool. Then add acid (vinegar) or            chemical reaction. The
   alkali (bicarbonate of soda) and       rough surface of the mints
        watch for a spectacular            helps gas, dissolved in the
           change of colour!              drink, to turn into bubbles
                                          much more quickly than it
                                                      normally would.
    Tarnishing. It happens when silver atoms react with oxygen atoms in air.           233
Science and technology

What is energy?                                                   Sources of energy
                                                                  Energy comes from lots
                                                                  of different sources.
 Energy is what makes everything
 happen. Your body needs energy                                           Wind drives wind turbines,
                                                                          which convert movement
 so that you can move, grow, and                                          energy into electricity.

 keep warm. We also need energy                                           Geothermal energy
                                                                          is heat from deep
 to power our cars, light our homes,                                      underground.

 and do thousands of other jobs.                                          Plants can be burnt to
                                                                          provide energy for cooking,
                                                                          heating, and lighting.
      We get nearly all our energy from                                   Waves can be used to
      the Sun. Plants absorb the energy in                                make small amounts
                                                                          of electricity.
      sunlight and store it as chemical energy.
      The stored energy enters our bodies as                              Dams harness the energy
      food and is released inside our body’s                              in rivers flowing downhill
      cells. All animals and plants obtain                                to make electricity.
      their energy from the Sun this way.
                                                                          The Sun’s energy can be
                                                                          captured by solar panels
                                                                          to make electricity.

 Only a tiny fraction                                                     Fossil fuels such as oil are
 of the Sun’s energy                                                      used to power cars and to
 reaches Earth.                                                           make electricity.

                                       A bow stores energy by
                                       bending. When you let
                                       go, the bow springs back
                                       into shape and releases
                                       the stored energy.         Stored energy
                                                                   An object can store energy
                                                                     and release it later. When
                                                                      you wind up a clockwork
                                                                       toy, energy is stored in
                                                                        a spring. A bow and
                                                                         arrow uses stored
                                                                         energy to shoot the
                                                                          arrow. Stored energy
                                                                          is also called potential
                                                                          energy because it has
                                                                          the potential to make
                                                                         things happen.
                        Is energy destroyed when we use it?
                                                                 What is energy?
                       Movement energy
                         Rollercoasters start from the    Chain reactions
                           top of a hill, where their     Changing energy from one
                              height gives them a lot
                                of potential energy. As
                                                          type to another is called
                                 they move downhill,      “energy conversion”.
                                  the potential           The steps can be linked
                                   energy turns into      to make an energy chain.
                                    movement energy
                                    (kinetic energy),
                                                           Coal contains
                                   making them go          chemical energy.
                                     faster and faster.

                                                          coal produces
                                                          heat energy,
                                                          which is used
                                                          to boil water.
         Nuclear energy                                   Boiling water
Matter is made up of tiny                                 creates steam.
   particles called atoms.
  The centre of an atom,
  called a nucleus, stores
 huge amounts of energy.                                  Moving steam
                                                          is a form of
   This nuclear energy is                                 kinetic (motion)
used in power stations to                                 energy, which
                                                          operates turbines.
         make electricity.

                                                          The kinetic
                                                          energy produced
                                                          by the moving
                                                          turbines creates
                             Electrical energy            electricity.
                             Lightning is caused
                             by electrical energy
                             in a storm cloud.
                             The electrical
                             energy turns
                             into the heat
                             and light energy
                             of lightning and             Electrical energy used by television sets
                             the sound energy             changes into light, sound, and heat energy.

                             of thunder.
Energy cannot be destroyed. It turns into another form of energy when it’s used.                        235
Science and technology

 Have you ever thought
 about what powers your
 television, your computer,
    or the lights in your
      bedroom? A flow of
        electricity makes all
          these things work.
                                         Power supply
                                         Electricity travels to your home along
                                         wires above and sometimes below the
                                         ground. The wires above the ground
                                         hang on metal towers called pylons.

                 Making electricity
                 Electricity is a form of energy. It
                 can be made using any source of         Everyday electricity
                 energy, such as coal, gas, oil, wind,   We use electricity in
                 or sunlight. On a wind farm, wind
                                                         all sorts of ways in
                 turbines use the energy of moving
                 air to create electricity.              our everyday lives.

                                                                  Heating: electricity heats
                                                                  up household appliances
                                                                  such as irons and cookers.

                                                                  Lighting: electricity lights
                                                                  up our homes, schools,
                                                                  offices, and streets.

                                                                  electricity can power
                                                                  telephones and computers.

                                                                  Transport: electricity
                                                                  is used to power certain
                                                                  vehicles, such as trams.

           What’s the name of a small object that can store electricity?
Circuits of power
An electric circuit is a loop that electricity
can travel around. An electric current
moves through the wires in this circuit,
and lights up the bulb.                                                 Electrical cables
                                                                        Electrical cables are made of
                                                                        metal and plastic. Electricity
                                                                        flows through the metal (which is
               Circuits usually include an                              called a conductor). The plastic
               energy source (battery)                                  (which is called an insulator)
               and load (lamp).
                                                                        stops electricity escaping.

        Hands on
  Rub a party balloon up and                   Lightning strikes
   down on your clothes. The                 When electricity builds
  balloon will now stick to the                  up in one place it is
  wall. This is because rubbing
     it gives the balloon an
                                             called static electricity.
          electric charge.                      A bolt of lightning is
                                              a huge spark of static
                                               electricity in the sky.
High voltage
Electricity can be very
dangerous. This triangle
                                                                Food battery
is an international
                                                                Food that contains water and weak
warning symbol. It
                                                                acid will conduct electricity. In a food
means “Caution: risk
                                                                battery, a chemical reaction between
of electric shock”.
                                                                the metal and the acid in the food
                                                                creates an electric current.

                                                   A battery.                                              237
Science and technology

                Light is a form of energy that
                our eyes can detect. It comes in
                all the colours of the rainbow,
                but when the colours are
                mixed together, light is white.
               Where does light
               come from?                                                      Fireflies
                 Light comes from inside              Some animals create their own
                 atoms. When an atom                    light. Fireflies have tails that
                                                       flash a yellowish-green colour
                  needs to lose energy, it                  at night to attract mates.
                  spits out the energy as
                 a particle of light.               Using light
                The light of a flame is caused by   We can use light for
               a chemical reaction that releases
               energy stored in the burning wax.    many different things.
                                                            CDs and DVDs store
                        Casting shadows                     digital information that
                        Light can only travel               can be read by laser beam.
                        in straight lines. If               Cameras capture light in
                        something blocks its                a split second to create
                        path, it casts a shadow             photographs.
                        – a dark area that the
                        light cannot reach.                 Telescopes magnify the
                                                            light from distant stars and
                                                            planets so we can see them.

                                                            Mirrors reflect light so
                                                            we can see images of

                                                            Periscopes bend light
                                                            so we can see around

                                                            Torches shine a beam
                                                            of light to help us see
                                                            in the dark.

                   What’s the fastest thing in the Universe?

       Bright                                     Dark

  Light enters your eyes through your pupils (the black circles in the
  middle). Pupils can change size. When it’s dark they get bigger to let
  more light in, and when it’s bright they shrink so you don’t get dazzled.

How your eye works
The human eye works like a camera. The front
parts of the eye focus light rays just as a camera
lens does. The focused rays form an upside-down
image in the back of your eyeball.
                                                                                3. An image forms on             Light beams
                                                                                the back of the eye.        Unless it enters your
                                                                                Light-sensing cells send
                1. Light rays                                                   the image to the brain.    eyes, light is invisible.
                from the tree                                                                                  The beam of light
Tree            enter your eye.
                                                                                                           from a lighthouse can
                                                                                                           only be seen from the


                                                                                                            side if it catches mist
                                                                                                               or dust in the air,
                2. The cornea
                (front of eye) and
                                                                                                             causing some of the
                lens focus the rays.                                            4. The brain turns           light rays to bounce
                                                                                the image the right
                                                                                way up.
                                                                                                               off towards you.
                                                                                                               Lighthouse beams
                                                                                                           sweep round in circles
                                                                                                           and can be seen from
 Reflecting light                                                       Convex mirrors bulge
                                                                        outwards. They make                      far out at sea.
                                                                        things look smaller
   When light hits a                                                    but let you see a
   mirror, it bounces                                                   wider area.

   straight back off.
                                                                       Concave mirrors
   If you look into a                                                  bulge inwards. They
                                                                       make things look
  mirror, you see this                                                 bigger but show a
     bounced light as                                                  smaller area.

          a reflection.

                        Light. It travels at a thousand millions kph (620,000,000 mph).                                            239
Science and technology

 Sound                                                                          Measuring sound
                                                                                Loudness is measured
                                                                                in decibels.
 Every sound starts with a vibration,
                                                                                      Rustling leaves make a
 like the quivering of a guitar string.                                               sound of only 10 decibels.
 The vibration squeezes and stretches
 the air between the vibrating object                                                 Whispering measures
                                                                                      about 20 decibels.
 and your ear. This is a sound wave.
                                                                                      City traffic reaches
                                                                                      approximately 85 decibels.
                                             Hands on
                                             When you blow                            Drums make a sound of
                                              across a bottle,                        around 105 decibels.
                                      the air inside vibrates. Small
                                    air spaces vibrate more quickly
                                                                                       Road-drills measure about
                                   than large spaces, making higher
                                                                                       110 decibels.
                                     notes. So partly empty bottles
                                        produce lower notes than
                                                fuller ones.                           A lion’s roar has been
                                                                                       recorded at 114 decibels.
                  Silent space
   Sound can travel through
                                                                                       Fireworks can measure
    solids, liquids, and gases,                                                        120 decibels or more.
     but it can’t travel where
  there is no matter. There is
  no sound in space because                                                            Jet engines sometimes hit
                        there is                                                       140 decibels.
                         no air.

                                          Sound waves travel through air like
                                          a wave along a coiled spring.

                                      How hearing works
                                      When a sound reaches your ears,
                                      it makes your eardrums vibrate.
                                      The vibrations are passed to your
                                      inner ear through tiny bones. From
                                      here, nerves send messages to
                                      your brain that allow you to
                                      recognize the sound.
                                   Do all animals hear the same sounds?
Speeding sound
All sounds travel at the
same speed, but they
travel more quickly
through solids and
liquids than through
gases. Supersonic jets fly
faster than the speed of
sound, so they can pass
over you before you hear
their sound.
When a supersonic jet breaks the speed
of sound, it catches up with the sound
waves in front of it and squashes them.
As the air is squashed, it produces a
sound called a “sonic boom”.

The echo effect
Some animals use sound to communicate or
to hunt. Dolphins “talk” by making clicks,
barks and other sounds that other dolphins
recognize. They also use clicks to find
food – the sound bounces
back off objects as an
echo, so the dolphin
can establish their
shape and position.
This is called

   When sounds bounce
   back, the dolphin
   can tell if the object
   is a yummy fish or
   another dolphin!

               No – dogs can hear higher notes than people, and squid can’t hear at all.   241
Science and technology

 Forces and motion
 It can be difficult to make an object move,                                               The football
                                                                                           would stay still
 but once it is moving, it will go on moving                                               if the footballer
                                                                                           didn’t kick it.
 until something stops it. Force is needed
 to start something moving, make it move
 faster, and make it stop.

 Newton’s laws of motion
 In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton worked out
 three important rules that explain how
 forces make things move. They have
 become the foundation of physics and
                                                                   Newton’s first law
 work for just about everything, from                              An object stays still if it isn’t being
 footballs to frogs.                                               pushed or pulled by a force, or it
                                                                   keeps moving in a straight line at
                                                                   a constant speed.

                                             Forces make
                                             things accelerate.
                                             The force is
                                             created by
                                             the cyclist’s
                                             powerful legs.

Newton’s second law
The bigger the force and the lighter the object,              Newton’s third law
the greater the acceleration. A professional                  Every action has an equal and opposite
cyclist with a lightweight bike will accelerate               reaction. The leaf moves away as the
faster than a normal person cycling to work.                  frog leaps in the opposite direction.

                                       How fast can a skydiver fall?
                                                                           Forces and motion
                        Speed and velocity
                       Speed is different to velocity. How quick you are going is
                      easy to work out – divide how far you travel by the time
                      it takes. Your velocity is how fast you travel in a particular
                      direction. Changing direction without slowing reduces your
                      velocity, but your speed stays the same.

                                                           two hours,
                                                m iles) in
                                            (50           5 mph).
                                        0 km 40 kph (2
                                     e 8 ed is
                                d riv spe                         Accelerating is fun, but in science
                                                                  it can be confusing. This is because

                            y ou our                              acceleration doesn’t just mean speeding
                                   y                              up. It is any change in velocity. So, it

                                                                  is also used to describe slowing down
                                                                                  and changing direction.

                                                                  The golf ball will
                                                                   carry on rolling until
                                                                    friction, gravity,
                                                                     and air resistance
                                                                     slow it down.

                                                                                                      Rescue helicopters
                                                                                                      balance forces so
                                                                                      LIFT            they can hover
                                                                                                      above the waves.
When things are standing still or moving, they
are quite happy to continue with what they are
doing. This stubbornness is called inertia – it is         FRICTION
the object’s resistance to change.

     Become                     Balanced forces                                                                    THRUST

    an expert                   Forces act on objects all
    234-235 What                the time. Opposing forces
      is energy?                can be balanced out. When
  244-245 Machines              this happens the object won’t                                      GRAVITY

                                be pushed in any direction.

             The maxium velocity of falling through air is 200 kph (124 mph).                                      243
Science and technology

                  Effort required
                  to push down is
                  needed here.
                                              Machines make tasks easier. They
                                              reduce the effort you need to move
                                              something, or the time it takes. They
 A lever is a bar that swivels
                                              work either by spreading the load,
 on a fixed point or fulcrum                  or by concentrating your efforts.
 and makes it easier to move
 a load. When you move your
 end further (the effort), the
 load at the other end moves
 a short way powerfully.
          One type of lever works like
          a see-saw with the fulcrum
          between the load and the effort.

          Another type places the load
          between the fulcrum and the
          effort (as on a wheelbarrow).
                                              Wheel and axle                                        Axle
          A third type of lever, shown by     An axle goes through the centre of a wheel.
          tongs, places the effort between    Together they work as a simple rotating
          the fulcrum and the load.
                                              machine that makes it easier to move
                                              something from one place to another.

                                                                                       Hands on
                                                                                         Try walking
                                                                                      straight up a hill
                                                                              and then zig-zag your way up.
 Gears                                                                        The winding path works like a
 Gears are wheels with teeth that                                             simple machine. It increases the
 interlock so that one wheel turns                          The pedal turns       distance you walk, but
 another. They increase speed or force.                     a wheel, which          decreases the effort
                                                            turns a smaller
 Gears on a bicycle affect how much you                     wheel at a                     you use.
       must turn the pedal to spin the wheel.               greater speed.

                                          Name six simple machines.
                          It takes just one man to pull
                          a stone up the slope, but
                          four men are needed to lift
              Wedge       a stone straight up.
       An axe blade
       is an efficient
 but simple machine
that increases force.
         When it hits
       the wood, the
        wedge forces      Inclined plane
   the wood to split      It is easier to push or pull something up a slope than
      apart between       lift it straight up. A slope, or inclined plane, therefore
            its fibres.   increases force. In ancient Egypt, stones were dragged
                          up slopes to build the pyramids.

                                                          The screw turns around a
                                                          greater distance than it moves
                                                          into the cork, so it moves into
                                                          the cork with more force than
                                                          is used to turn it.

                              A pulley makes it easier to lift
                              something straight up. It consists
                              of a piece of rope wound around
  The crane lifts
  up heavy loads              a wheel. One end of the rope is
  with a system               attached to the load and force is
  of pulleys.
                              applied to the other end to pull
                              up the load. When a pulley has
                              more than one wheel the pulling
                              force is increased.

                                  A screw is a machine. It is really
                                  an inclined plane, or slope, going
                                   round and up. A corkscrew uses
                                    a screw. It is easier to twist the
                                  point of a screw into a cork than
                                        to push a spike straight in.
Lever, wheel and axle, gear, wedge, inclined plane, and pulley.                                   245
Planet Earth
                                                                    The Earth’s ax
 Our planet                             The Earth’s
                                        axis goes
                                        its poles.
 The Earth is the planet
 where we all live. It is a
 huge ball of hot, liquid
 rock with a solid surface
 called the crust. Planet
 Earth travels in space.

               Spinning Earth
     The Earth slowly spins around
 once a day. The line it spins around
 is called the Earth’s axis. At the ends
         of the axis are the Earth’s poles.

                                                            ed                       South
 The Earth’s surface                                           to   o
                                                                  ne side.
                                            Earth as
 There are seven huge pieces                a magnet
 of land on the Earth’s surface.            Have you ever used a
 They are called continents. They           compass to find your way?
                                            It works because the Earth
 cover about one-third of the               acts as if it has a giant
 surface. Oceans cover the rest.            bar magnet in the middle.

                        Which is the biggest ocean on the Earth?
                                                                    Our planet
                            What’s it made of?             Curiosity quiz
                             The Earth is made up          Look through the Planet
                              of an outer thin crust.      Earth pages and see if
                              Under this is molten         you can identify each of
                              rock. In the middle          the picture clues below.
                              is a solid core.

          The crust
  The Earth’s crust
    is cracked into
lots of huge pieces
 called plates. The
  cracks are called
         fault lines.

   The San Andreas fault,
         California, USA

                              Mountains and valleys
                              Most mountains are made
                              when rocks are pushed
                              upwards by movements
                              of the Earth’s crust.
                              Blowing winds, flowing
                              rivers, and glaciers wear
                              away the mountains.

                              Sedona, Arizona,
                              south-western USA
                                                   an expert
                                                    6-7 Our world
                                                  272-273 Our place
                                                       in space

 The Pacific Ocean. It covers nearly half of the Earth’s surface.                247
Planet Earth

 Earth’s structure
 Earth is the only planet in the Solar                                Seen from space, Earth is a mass
 System that can support life, because                                of blue oceans and swirling clouds.

 it’s just the right distance from the Sun.
 Our amazing world is a huge ball of
 liquid rock with a solid surface.

                                             Inside the Earth
                                             If you could cut the Earth open, you’d
                                             see it’s made up of layers. The thin top
                                             layer, where we live, is called the crust.
                             Outer           Underneath is a layer of syrup-like rock
                                             called the mantle, then an outer core of
                                             molten (liquid) iron and nickel. At the
                   Mantle                    centre is a solid iron-and-nickel core.

     Life-support systems
    Earth’s atmosphere and
      its surface water play
         an important role in
        supporting life. They
    help keep our planet at
  just the right temperature
     by absorbing the Sun’s
          heat and moving it
           around the world.

                            What is the world’s tallest mountain range?
                                                                                 Earth’s structure
                                    Volcanoes are
                                    openings in the
                                    Earth’s crust.
                                    Sometimes magma
                                    (melted rock) from
                                    just beneath the
                                    crust bursts through
                                    these openings as a             Making mountains
                                    volcanic eruption.              The Himalayas started to form
                                    Lots of ash and dust            50 million years ago, when two
                                    shoot out too.                  moving plates collided. The
                                                                    mountains are still growing!
                             Earthquakes often
                             occur along the San                                     Drifting continents
 Fault lines                 Andreas Fault.                                     The world hasn’t always
 Earthquakes happen                                                               looked like it does now.
 when “plates” rub                                                           Millions of years ago, all the
 against each other.                                                            land was joined together.
                                                                              Slowly, it broke up and the
                                                                                 continents drifted apart.

       Cracked crust                 200 million years ago   135 million years ago      10 million years ago
      Earth’s top layer is
        made up of giant
  pieces called “plates”.
      These fit together a       Andreas
    bit like a jigsaw, but
       they’re constantly
      moving. Volcanoes
  and earthquakes often
     happen in the weak
spots where plates move
      against each other.                                                               volcanoes

                                            The Himalayas.                                                     249
Planet Earth

 Rocks and
 The Earth’s crust is made
 up of different rocks. Some                 Serpentine is
                                                                    Gabbro is a
                                                                  rock that is used   White mica is a mineral
 of these are hard but others                a mineral that
                                             stone carvers
                                                                  to make kitchen
                                                                    surfaces and
                                                                                      that you can find in some
                                                                                         kinds of toothpaste.
                                              use to create
 are soft and crumbly. They                  works of art.

 are formed in different ways.
 What is a rock?                                       Fossils in stones
 A rock is formed from minerals.                  Fossils are the remains
 Most rocks are made up of different                or imprints of plants
                                                   and animals that died
 minerals, but some contain just one.                 millions of years ago,
 There are three main types of rock:                      preserved in stone.
 igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
The rock cycle                                                Igneous rock
Over millions of years, the                                    Igneous rocks are made
rocks in the Earth’s crust                                      when hot molten magma
                                                                from the Earth’s interior
can gradually change from
                                                                cools and solidifies. Some
one type into another. They                                       harden underground like
are transformed by wind,                                           granite. Some erupt first
water, pressure, and heat.                                              as lava in a volcano.

      Sedimentary rock                                                      Metamorphic rock
       Wind and water                                                          Sometimes rocks
    wear rocks away.                                                            are crushed
   Small pieces, called                                                         underground, or
 sediments, wash into                                                           scorched by hot
  the sea. These settle                                                         magma. Then they
     into layers, which                                                        may be transformed
    pack together to form                                                    into new rocks such as
   sedimentary rocks, such as                                             marble, slate, and gneiss.
       limestone and sandstone.
                           Which type of rock floats on water?
                                                                           Rock and minerals
                                      What is a mineral?
                                      A mineral is a solid that occurs naturally.
                                      It is made up of chemicals and has a crystal
                                      structure. Minerals are everywhere you look.
                                      We use minerals to build cars and computers,
     Rock salt is a mineral that is
                                      fertilize soil, and to clean our teeth.
    spread on roads in icy weather.
         It makes the ice melt.                                           Minerals in your
                                                Feldspar                  home
       Mineral mixtures                            used for
                                                is u
           Granite rock is                      ceramics.
                                                                                        Halite Salt is the mineral
      made up of different                                                              halite. We add it to our
                                                Mica is
   coloured minerals. The                       ground up
                                                gro                                     food for flavour.
    black mineral is mica,                      and used
      the pink is feldspar,                     in paint.                               Quartz from sand is used
     and the grey mineral                                                               to make the silicon chips in
                                                can also                                calculators and computers.
                 is quartz.
                                                occur as the
                                                gemstone                                Kaolinite is used to make
Crystals                                        amethyst.                               crockery. It is also used to
                                                                                        make paper look glossy.
Minerals usually form crystals.
Crystals have a number of flat                                                          Illite is a clay mineral
                                                                                        and is used in terracotta
surfaces. The largest crystals                           Quartz                         pots and bricks.
form when minerals in magma or                           form in caves
                                                         over thousands                 Mica is used to make
trapped liquids cool very slowly.                        of years.                      glittery paint and
                                                                                        nail polish.

                                                                                        Graphite is the “lead”
                                                                                        in pencils. It is also
                                                                                        used in bicycle brakes.

                                                                          is a rose-coloured
                                                                          gemstone used
                                                                          in jewellery.

                       Pumice is filled with air bubbles, so some pieces can float.                               251
Planet Earth

 Shaping the land
 The surface of our planet never stops changing. Over
 millions of years, land is slowly worn away by wind,
 rain, and rivers. Floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes
 can change the shape of the land in just a few hours.
                                        River power
                                        The Grand Canyon
                                        formed over millions of
                                        years as the Colorado
                                        River slowly wore ever
                                        deeper into the rock.

                                           Going underground
                                          Caves form when rain
                                         seeps underground and
                                          eats away at soft rock
                                               such as limestone.

 Coastal shapes
 Powerful waves shape
 the coastlines around
 the world’s oceans.
        Bays form where waves
        wear into areas of softer
        rock along the coast.

        Headlands are areas of
        harder rock that have not
        been worn away.
                                     Glaciers at work
        Sea arches form when
        waves open up cracks         Glaciers are huge rivers of ice
        in headlands.                that flow slowly off snowcapped
                                     mountains. Broken rock sticks to
        Sea stacks are pillars of    the bottom of the glacier, which
        rock left in the sea after
        an arch collapses.
                                     then wears away the land like
                                     sandpaper, carving out a deep,
                                     U-shaped valley.
                             What is the most active volcano on Earth?
                                                      Shaping the land
New islands                                                   Floods
Some volcanoes                                                Heavy rain makes
are hidden under                                              rivers overflow,
the sea. When they                                            causing floods.
erupt, they can give                                          Floods have
birth to whole new                                            enormous power
islands, like Surtsey                                         and can wreck
in Iceland (left).                                            buildings and
Surtsey burst out                                             re-shape the land.
of the sea in 1963.     Before flood   After flood

                                                                     Hills of sand
                                                     In deserts, winds blow sand
                                                        into hills called dunes. In
Worn by wind                                               some deserts the dunes
Strong winds can                                             stretch for hundreds
lift sand off the                                              of miles, forming a
ground and blast it                                                     “sand sea”.
hard against rocks.
The rock is worn
into strange shapes.

             Mount Kilauea in Hawaii.                                          253
Planet Earth

Soil                                                    Humus
                                                                           Layers in soil
Soil is the thin layer of loose                                            Soil builds up in
                                                                           layers over many
material on the land. Soil
                                                                           years. Plant roots
contains minerals, air, water,                                             grow in the topsoil,
and decaying organic matter.                                               which is generally
                                              Topsoil                      the richest in plant
                            Healthy humus                                  food. The lower
                            Humus is a dark,                    Subsoil    layers are rocky.
                            rich substance                                 Plant roots do
                            made up of rotting                             not reach this far
                            plants and animals                  Regolith   down in the soil.
                            (called “organic
                            matter”). It contains               Bedrock
                            lots of nutrients,
                            which plants need
                            to grow.

        Life underground
Soil is home to thousands
     of animals, including
        slugs, ants, beetles,
       and spiders. Larger
 animals that spend time
    underground, such as
moles, mix up humus and
 minerals as they burrow
           through the soil.

                            What is a scientist who studies soil called?
Sizing up soil                                             Soil erosion
                                                           When soil is farmed
Different types of                                         too much, its nutrients
soil have different                                        get used up. The topsoil
sized particles.                                           blows or washes away.
                                                           Not many plants can
        Sandy soils contain                                survive in these areas
        particles about 2 mm                               without the rich topsoil.
        (0.08 in) across.

                                       hing help
                                                s keep soil f
        Clay soils have very
        small particles. Water
        collects between them.
                                 Ploug                              e.
        Loamy soils have a                                     Ploughing breaks up soil
        mixture of small and                                   to stop it getting hard
                                                               and solid. This helps
        large particles.
                                                               crops grow more easily.

                                                               Hands on
    Important earthworms
                                                                Half fill a jar
    Earthworms help to make fertile soil.
                                                           with soil and top it up
    Their burrows let air into the soil, and
                                                          with water. Put on the lid
    create pathways for water to move around
                                                           and shake. Leave for a
    more easily. Earthworms also help the remains
                                                             day. The soil should
    of plants and animals to decompose. This
                                                             separate into layers.
    releases important nutrients into the soil.
    Earthworm waste is good for soil too!

                                      A pedologist.                                        255
Planet Earth

 Resources in the ground                                        Sea level

 The ground holds many useful things,                           People drill
 from fuels like coal and oil, to drinking                          holes to
                                                                 extract oil
                                                                   and gas
 water, and building materials. These                            from deep
                                                                  under the
 valuable items are known as resources                            sea floor.

 and we have dug, drilled, and
 searched for them for many years.
 Finding fuels
 Oil and gas are often found in pockets deep
 underground. Sometimes, these are even
 below the seabed. Coal develops closer
 to the surface in layers called seams.
                            Deep drilling
                            Oil rigs far out
                            at sea use huge
                            drills to extract
                            the liquid oil
                            from the ground.
                            Coal is solid and
                            is dug out in
                            mines or pits.

 In hot water
 Water in the ground can get very
 hot near volcanoes. In Iceland,
 they use this naturally hot water to
 heat houses or make steam to turn
 electricity generators.

                   Which underground resource are plastics made from?
                                                             Resources in the ground
Getting gas
                                                                   Making glass
Gas is only found in certain
                                                                   Glass is made by melting
places. To get it to where it is
                                                                   together sand, soda ash, and
needed, it is fed through very
                                                                   ground limestone. People blow
long pipes, or changed into
                                                                   or machine press the red-hot
liquid and put in special ships.
                                                                   mineral mixture into different
                                                                   shapes that set hard and
                                                                   clear as the glass cools.
                                                                   Glass bottles are shaped
                                                                   from molten glass.

                                                                     Metal variety
                                   Extracting metals
                                                                     Different metal resources
                                   Most metals are found
                                   underground as minerals           have different uses.
                                   in rocks called ores. Giant
                                                                                   Aluminium is a soft
                                   machines dig up the ore. The                    metal used to make cans,
                                   metal is extracted, or taken                    aircraft, and car bodies.
                                   out, from the ore using heat.
                                                                                   Gold is rare and looks
                                                                                   attractive, so it is often
                                                                                   used to make jewellery.

                                                                                   Iron is strong. It is used
                                                                                   to make steel for ships,
                                                                                   buildings, and pylons.

                                                                                   Copper conducts
                                                                                   electricity and is used
                                                                                   to make electrical wires.

                                             Creating concrete
                                           Concrete is an important
                                           building material. It is a
                                           mixture of sand, gravel,
                                            cement, and water. All
                                               these ingredients are
                                               found in the ground.

                                                Oil.                                                            257
Planet Earth

 Fresh and salt water
 Earth is often called the blue planet                          Freshwater sources
 because 75 per cent of its surface is                          People get fresh water
 covered in water. Most of the Earth’s                          from different sources
                                                                on Earth’s surface,
 water is salt water in the oceans.
                                                                including rivers, streams,
 Less than one per cent of all the                              lakes, and reservoirs.
 water on Earth is fresh.                                               Rivers and streams flow
                                                                        from mountains down to
                                                                        the oceans.
                                  The hydrosphere
                                  The hydrosphere is the                Lakes are natural dips
                                                                        in the Earth where
                                  name for all the water                water collects.
                                  on Earth. It includes                 Reservoirs are man-made
                                  oceans, rivers, and                   lakes that are built to
                                                                        store water.
                                  lakes. It also includes
                                  water that is frozen,
                                  such as icebergs.                             Trapped in ice
                                                                 Less than 33 per cent of fresh
                                                                  water is usable by humans.
                                                                  The rest is frozen in glaciers
                                                                      or icebergs (below), or as
                                                                       huge sheets of ice at the
                                                                        North and South poles.

      Water for life
      All animals – and most other living things – must have
      water to survive. In mammals, including humans, water
      is part of the blood and of organs such as the skin and
      brain. There is water in every cell in your body!

                               How much of your body is water?
                                                              Fresh and salt water
                          Salty seas
        The world’s oceans are salty                                             The Dead Sea
                                                                                 contains so much salt
       because they contain a lot of                                             that people can just
  dissolved chemicals that scientists                                            float on the surface.

      call salts. Drinking water also
    contains salts, but only in small
  amounts, so you can’t taste them.

                                                                            Hands on
Surviving in salt water
                                                                      Put an egg in a glass of
Countless animals live in water.
                                                                      water. The egg will sink.
They don’t drink, but take water
                                                                      Start stirring in salt until
into their bodies in other ways.
                                                                     the egg rises. The egg will
Fish often absorb water as it
                                                                      eventually float because
washes in and out of their gills.
                                                                      salt water is denser than
Salt-water fish absorb only
                                                                             fresh water.
a little of the salt.

                                Estuary life
                                An estuary is the wide part of a river where
                                it nears the sea. When the tide comes in,
                                salt water flows into the estuary. When the
                                tide goes out, the estuary contains mostly
                                fresh water from the river or stream that
                                flows into it. Mangrove trees like these are
                                able to live in the changing estuary water.

                      Your body is approximately 66 per cent water.                                259
Planet Earth

                   The water cycle
                   Water is constantly on the move,
                   between oceans, land, air, and rivers.
                   This movement is called the water cycle.

                        Water falls                                                      Sun
                        as rain from                    When this water
                        clouds.                         vapour floats high in
                                                        the sky, it condenses
                                                        and forms clouds.

                                                                                  Water heated
                          When rain                                               by the Sun
                          falls, it collects                                      evaporates. It
                          in rivers and                                           changes from
                          streams.                                                liquid to vapour.

                                   te  r

                                                              Water from rivers                   Sea
                                                              and streams flows
                                                              into the sea.

                   The water cycle is the
                   journey water makes as it
                   moves from the air to the land,
                   into the seas, and back into
                   the air again.

                                On the dry side
                Moisture-laden sea air has to rise
                when it hits a coastal mountain.
                     Since air cools as it rises, all
                      the moisture condenses into
                 rain. So, on the other side of the
                    mountain, no rain falls – this
                    area is called a rainshadow.
           What is electricity generated by running water called?
                                                                   The water cycle
                                 In the water cycle, some
                                 water seeps underground,
                                 where it collects in rocks   Using water
                                 and sometimes forms          Fresh water is
                                 pools in caves. Some         trapped in reservoirs
                                 groundwater is pumped        and then piped to
                                 up and used for drinking     homes, businesses,
                                 or irrigation.               and farms. When
                                                              you turn on a
                                                              tap, the water
                                                              that comes out
                                                              has been on a
                                                              long journey!

                                                              Saving water
                                                              There is a limited amount
                                                              of fresh water on Earth.
                                                              If we want to make sure
                                                              there’s enough to go
Damp ground                                                   around, it’s important
Wetlands form on land in areas where fresh water              that everyone uses less.
does not drain away. They provide a home for many
water-loving plants, birds, animals, and fish.                        Turn off taps when you
                                                                      finish brushing your teeth
           Drought                                                    or washing.
   When very little
  rain falls, experts                                                 Flush the toilet only when
                                                                      necessary. Some toilets
call this a drought.                                                  have two flush controls.
    Droughts do not
       occur only in                                                  Don’t run the dishwasher
 deserts – any area                                                   when it’s half empty
that gets much less                                                   – wait until it’s full.
 rain than usual is                                                   Take a shower instead
said to be suffering                                                  of a bath. Showering uses
      from drought.                                                   much less water.

                                   Hydroelectricity.                                         261
Planet Earth

The atmosphere
 Planet Earth is wrapped in a thin
 layer of air called the atmosphere.
 Without this protective blanket of
 gases, life on Earth could not exist.
                                                                 Shimmering particles
                                                                 The atmosphere is mainly
 Gases in air                                                    made up of gases, but it
 Air is a mixture of different gases, including                  also contains tiny particles
 nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Oxygen                    of dust, pollen, and water
                                                                 droplets. All particles can
 is vital for plants and animals as it allows them
                                                                 cause a haze in the air when
 to breathe. Carbon dioxide is vital for plants.                 the Sun shines through them.
 They absorb it from the air and use the carbon
 atoms to help build new leaves and stems.

      The greenhouse effect
      If there was no atmosphere,
      the Sun’s warming rays
      would bounce off Earth
      and disappear into space.                       From space, the
                                                      atmosphere looks like
      But the atmosphere traps                        a blue haze over Earth.
      some of the heat, making
      Earth warm enough for
      us to survive.

                                                 Protective layer
                                                   A gas called ozone in the
                                                     atmosphere protects Earth
                                                      from harmful rays in sunlight.
                                                      Above Antarctica there is an
                                                      area of the ozone layer that is
                                                      much thinner than anywhere
                                                     else. This “ozone hole” was
                                                    caused by chemical pollution.

                   How far up from the ground does space officially begin?
                                                                                     The atmosphere
                                       Layers of the atmosphere                                                500 km (310 miles)
                                      The atmosphere is made up of
                                       layers, each with a different
                                      name. The bottom layer is the
                                    troposphere, where clouds form                                 Satellite
                                     and planes fly. Above this, the
Into thin air                        air gets thinner and thinner as
Like everything else, air is     the atmosphere merges into space.
pulled by gravity. Most air
molecules are pulled close to     Light spectacular

the ground, where the air is                                                                                    Space shuttle
thick and easy to breathe.
                                  Sunlight can create
Higher up, air is so thin that    dazzling effects as it
climbers need oxygen tanks.       strikes the atmosphere
                                  and is scattered by air,
                                  water, and dust.
                                           Rainbows form when water                          Northern lights
                                           droplets reflect sunlight and
                                           split it into different colours.

                                           The sky looks blue on clear
                                           days because air molecules
                                           scatter blue light the most.

                                           At sunset and sunrise, dust
                                                                                             85 km (53 miles)
                                           and hazy cloud in the air                         Shooting stars

                                           turn the sky orange and red.

                     Moving water
                     The atmosphere is always swirling around,
                     creating winds. The winds push on the oceans,
                                                                                             50 km

                     causing the water to swirl too. These swirling                          (31 miles)
                     currents carry warmth around the planet.

                                                                                             10 km (6 miles)

                                                                                                                Jumbo jet

                                       100 km (62 miles).                                                                    263
Planet Earth

 Weather                                                                   Kites stay high in the air
                                                                           by catching the wind.

 Is it sunny or rainy? Is there snow
 on the ground or a thunderstorm
 brewing? People are always
 interested in the weather because
 it affects what we do and what
 we wear.

 Weather words                                                         Predicting the weather
 Here are some main                                                    Weather forecasters look at
                                                                       pictures beamed back from
 features of the weather.                                              weather satellites. Computers
                                                                       then help forecasters work
        Sunshine gives us heat
        and light. It warms the
                                                                       out what the weather is
        air and dries the land.                                        going to be like over the
                                                                       next few days.
        Clouds are made from tiny
        water droplets. Dark clouds
        mean rain is coming.                        Rainy days
        Hailstones are balls               Rain clouds form when
        of ice that grow inside
                                               warm, moist air rises
                                                 upwards and then
        Wind is air moving
        around. Winds can be a             cools. Droplets of water
        light breeze or a strong gale.      join together until they
        Rain is drops of water               become so heavy that
        that fall from clouds. Rain           they fall. Rain clouds
        is very good for plant life.
                                                  look dark because
        Snow is made from tiny                sunlight cannot shine
        bits of ice. It falls instead of
        rain when it is very cold.             through the droplets.

                               Which is bigger: a tornado or a hurricane?
                          Long periods of hot or dry weather
                          can make plants dry out so much that
                          they catch fire easily when struck by
                          lightning. This can lead to a raging
                          wildfire that burns down whole forests.

                  Stormy weather
             Lightning strikes when
    electricity builds up in clouds.
The electricity is created when ice                       The brightest bolts
                                                          of lightning travel
 crystals in the clouds rub against                       upwards from the
     each other. A bolt of lightning                      ground to the clouds.
heats the air around it so quickly
that the air explodes, creating the
   rumbling noise we call thunder.

         Winds on the move
         Wind is moving air. Warm
         air rises and cool air sinks.
         This movement is what
         makes the wind blow.

                      (twisters) are
                      whirling funnels
                                               ir   d or what
                      of wind that form     We                ?
                      beneath massive         In certain conditions
                      thunderclouds.       hailstones can grow to be
                      The fierce wind     enormous. The biggest ever
                      can do enormous          hailstone weighed
                      damage, and the         1 kg (2 lb) and was
                      funnel can suck          over 40 cm (16 in)
                      up debris like a               across!
                      gigantic vacuum

      A hurricane is thousands of times bigger than a tornado.                    265
Planet Earth

 The energy crisis                                                             Nuclear power stations
                                                                                  generate energy by
                                                                                      splitting atoms.

 People around the world use energy
 for many different purposes – from
 powering cars, to heating homes.
 Most of this energy comes from
 burning coal, oil, and natural gas
 (fossil fuels). But these fuels won’t
 last forever, and their fumes are
                                                                    Alternative energy
 damaging the atmosphere.                                     We need to find sources of
                                                            energy other than fossil fuels
 Global warming                                                 – sources that cause less
 Burning fossil fuels fills the air with greenhouse           pollution and will not run
                                                               out. Nuclear power is one
 gases, which trap some of the Sun’s heat in                  option. Others possibilities
 the atmosphere. If Earth becomes too warm,                          include energy from
 deserts will spread, icebergs will melt, and                sunlight, wind, and waves.
 sea levels will rise.
                                    Greenhouse gases trap
                                    heat, although some
                                    escapes back into the
       Heat from the Sun
       enters through the

                                                                  The wind provides a limitless supply
                                                                    of non-polluting energy. However,
                                                                      wind turbines are large and can
                                                                                   be costly to set up.

                               What are fossil fuels made of?
                                                                            The energy crisis
Cleaner cars
Ordinary petrol
cars use a lot of                                                        Making a difference
oil, and produce                                                         There are lots of small
harmful fumes.                                                           things we can all do to
Now car makers                                                           save energy.
are looking for
alternatives to petrol.                              To recharge an             Start growing your own
                                                     electric car, you          vegetables and fruit, even
Electric cars do not give off any                    just plug it in.           if they’re only in pots.
kind of fumes. Hydrogen engines                                                 When planning a
burn hydrogen gas, and only                                                     holiday, remember that
                                                                                trains, boats, and cars use
give off water.                                                                 less energy than aeroplanes.
                                                                                Instead of buying new
Rising energy needs                                                             clothes, swap with a friend
        As the world’s                                                          or buy them second-hand.
population grows, we                                                            Eat local food that hasn’t
   are using more and                                                           travelled miles, because
   more energy. But to                                                          transporting food costs energy.
 stop global warming,
      we may have to                                                            Don’t throw away glass,
                                                                                plastics, metal, or paper
reduce the amount of
                                                                                – reuse or recycle them.
    energy we all use.
                                                                                Take your own bags when
                                                                                you go shopping. Making
                                                                                plastic bags takes energy.
                          Energy-saving homes                                   Don’t leave your TV or
                            This house saves energy                             DVD on standby – this
                             by using solar panels and                          wastes lots of electricity.
                            wind turbines to generate
                               its own non-polluting                            Hang your laundry
                               electricity. The walls                           outside to dry. Don’t waste
                                                                                electricity running a dryer.
                               are thick, so that less
                               energy is needed to                              Ask your parents about
                               heat the house.                                  insulating the roof to
                                                                                prevent heat from escaping.

                                                                                If you get cold, put on a
                               To reduce the energy used in                     jumper instead of turning
                               manufacturing, it’s a good idea
                               to use recycled building materials.
                                                                                up your heating.

          The remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.                            267
The universe

 What is space?
 Space holds many secrets. It contains places where
 human beings can be stretched into spaghetti shapes,
 or boiled, or frozen solid: that’s why astronauts wear
 protective clothing in space. Welcome to a mysterious –
 and endlessly fascinating – world.
 What is space?                                                       Is that space?
 When people think of                                                 On a cloudless night, you
 space, they think of:                                                can see thousands of stars.
                                                                      Space is the name we give
               Weightlessness                                         to the huge empty areas in
               – everything floats as
               if there’s no gravity.                                 between the atmospheres
               Nothingness – vast
                                                                      of stars and planets.
               areas of space are                                     Apart from the odd rock,
               completely empty.
                                                                      space is sprinkled only
               Stars – every star is a                                with dust and gas.
               burning ball of gas.
               Our Sun is a star.

               Astronauts – people
               who explore the world
               beyond our Earth.

               Rockets and satellites
               – are what scientists
               use to explore space.                           Too big to imagine
                                                         Astronomers measure distance
               Silence – there is no                       in space in light years. One
               air in space, so there is
               absolutely no sound.                      light year is the distance light
                                                            travels in one year: that’s
                                                               10 million million km
      A nebula is a cloud                                    (6 million million miles).
      of dust and gas in
      space. This is the Helix
      nebula, about 700
      light years away, seen
      from NASA’s Spitzer
      Space telescope.

                                           How old is the Universe?
                                                                      What is space?
                                 Why is space so dark?            Curiosity quiz
                                   Space is black because
                                     there is nothing there
                                                                  Look through The
                                       to reflect light. From     Universe section and see
                                        space, Earth looks        if you can identify the
                                         lit up because           pictures below.
                                          light from our Sun
                                           reflects off sea,
                                           and land, and the
                                         particles in our

American astronaut
Michael Gernhardt
went on four separate
space missions, and
spent more than
23 hours walking
around in space.

                                                            an expert
                                                           274-275 Milky
                                                          276-277 Rockets

                        Experts believe it’s just under 14 BILLION years old.           269
The universe

                                                                    The exosphere is the outer

 Where does                                                         layer of the atmosphere,
                                                                    extending about 10,000 km
                                                                    (6,000 miles) above the ground.
                                                                    From here, lighter gases drift

 space begin?                                                       into space beyond.

                                                                    The thermosphere reaches
 Earth is cloaked in a                                              way up to more than 700 km
                                                                    (over 400 miles) above Earth.
 thin layer of gases – the                                          The polar lights (aurora
                                                                    borealis in the north and
 atmosphere. Outside this                                           aurora australis in the south)
                                                                    glow in the thermosphere.
 atmosphere is space,
 where there is no air to
 breathe, or to allow wings
 to fly, and where nobody
 can hear you scream.

 Fading away
 Our atmosphere does not                                            Most experts agree that
                                                                    space begins at 100 km
 just end suddenly – it fades                                       (62 miles) above the ground.
 gradually into space.                                              Past this, our image is not
                                                                    drawn to scale.

                                                                    In turn, the mesosphere
 View from Mir

                                                                    extends about 85 km
 Photographed from the American shuttle                             (53 miles) above the ground.
 Atlantis, the Russian Mir space station                            The air is thin here, but it’s
                                                                    still thick enough to slow
 once orbited above Earth’s atmosphere.                             meteorites down.

                                                                    The stratosphere rises
                                                                    about 50 km (31 miles)
                                                                    above the Earth. Planes cruise
                                                                    in the upper troposphere or
                                                                    lower stratosphere, above
                                                                    the clouds.

                                                                    The troposphere extends
                                                                    between 6 and 20 km
                                                                    (3½–12 miles) above the
                                                                    ground. All our weather takes
                                                                    place in the troposphere.

             What do we call the mix of gases that makes up our atmosphere?
                                                  Where does space begin?
                                                                     Space badge
                                              The American space agency NASA
                                              awards astronaut wings to service
                                               personnel and civilians who have
                                               flown more than 80 km (50 miles)
                                               above the Earth’s surface. Shown
                                               here are civilian astronaut wings.
If you
    only drive a ca
            t an h r straight
                  our t
                       o rea up, it wo
                            ch sp     u
                                 ace. ld take

                                                                          Gaia, a European
                                                                          satellite due for
                                                                          launch in 2011.

                     through air
                     A spacecraft has
                     to be streamlined
                     to move easily and
                     safely through air.
                     Where necessary, an
                     extra part called a
                     fairing is added to
                     achieve this effect – a
                     nose cone is a fairing.            Space hat-ellite
                     The parts of a space shuttle       Satellites can be any shape at all
                     (the orbiter, fuel tank, and       – even hat shaped. They don’t
                     rocket boosters) are streamlined
                     for lift-off.                      need to be streamlined, because
                                                        there’s no air in space.
                         We call it air.                                                 271
 The universe

Our place in space
 Earth seems huge to us – after all, it
 can take you a long time just to travel
 to school! But Earth is only a very tiny
 part of space. So where exactly does it
 belong in the Universe?                                                        Earth looks like a swirly
                                                                                blue marble suspended
                                                                                in space.

 The Earth and its moon
 Earth, our home in space,
 has one natural satellite, our
 moon. The moon is about
 one quarter the size of Earth                                         Saturn
 and, on average, it orbits
 about 384,000 km                            Uranus                             Mercury
 (240,000 miles)                                      Mars
 from us.

                                                                     This picture shows where
                                                                     the planets are located.
                     Astronauts who                                  None of them, or their
                     have seen Earth                                 orbits, are drawn to scale.
                     from space are
                     struck by its beauty.
                     One described it
                     as looking like
                     a Christmas-tree
                                                                            The solar system
                                                    Earth is the third planet from the Sun,
                                               at just the right distance from it to support
                                           life. The eight planets that orbit the Sun (plus
                                        moons, comets, asteroids, meteors, dwarf planets,
                                                 dust, and gas) make up our solar system.
      There used to be a ninth planet, Pluto, but this is now classed as a dwarf planet.
                                                          Our place in space
In a spin
Our galaxy has long curved
arms that spiral out from a
central bulge.

                                                                          The Milky Way

                     Our Sun

                                               The Local Group
                                               The Milky Way is one of the largest
                                               galaxies in a cluster known as the
                                               Local Group. Millions of galaxy
                                               clusters make up the Universe.

The Milky Way
Our solar system is located in                      o f living thi
a galaxy called the Milky                 trillions
Way, a collection of              ports
billions of stars. It         sup
lies on the edge          ace
of one of              sp
the spiral       ei
arms.         om
The universe

 The Milky Way
 Our solar system is a tiny – tiny! – part
 of a gigantic spiral galaxy, the Milky
 Way. This is made up of billions of
 stars, which look as if they have been
 sprinkled thickly onto the night sky.
                                                    Scientists think there
                                                    are about 100,000
                                                    million stars in the
                                                    Milky Way galaxy,
                                                    but there may be
                                                    even more.

 Why is it milky?
 Before the invention of telescopes, people
 could not see the stars very clearly – they
 were blurred together in a hazy white                            Become
 streak. The ancient Greeks called this streak                   an expert
 a “river of milk”. This is how our galaxy                    272-273 Our place
 became known as the Milky Way.                                   in space
                                                                 290-291 A star
 Milky myths                                                         is born
 Many myths have developed about the
 formation of the Milky Way.
          Native American stories            Hindu myth sees the                          A side view
          tell of a dog dropping corn        milkiness as the speckled           The Milky Way, like
          as he fled across the sky.         belly of a dolphin.
                                                                                 all spiral galaxies, is
          Kalahari bushmen say it            The ancient Egyptians           flat, with a bulge at the
          was created by hot embers          believed the stars were            centre, and arms that
          thrown up from a fire.             a pool of cow’s milk.                    circle outwards.

                            Where are the oldest stars in the Milky Way?
                                                            The Milky Way

                    Astronomers think
                    the Milky Way is a
                    barred spiral galaxy.

                                  We are

                                                                       It takes light 100,000
                                                                      years to pass from one
                                                                      edge of the Milky Way
                                                                                  to the other.

They lie towards its centre, often in giant balls called globular clusters.              275
The universe
                                                                               A nose cone, or fairing,

 Rockets                                                                       reduces air resistance
                                                                               as the rocket takes off.

                                                                                                          Long March 2C was 35.1 m (115 ft) long and 3.3 m (11 ft) wide.
 Rockets carry satellites and people into space. A
 rocket burns fuel to produce a jet of gas. The hot
 gas expands rapidly and is blasted downwards
 causing a force (the thrust) to push the rocket up.
Birth of the rocket                                                       Launch of the
The first liquid-fuelled rocket was                                       Long March 2C
launched in 1926 by an American,                                          rocket from the
                                                                          Jiuquan Space
Robert Goddard. It reached 12.5 m                                         Centre, China, on
(41 ft). The flight lasted 2.5 seconds.                                   August 19, 1983.
                                                                          Its main cargo was
                                                                          a photographic
                                                                          imaging satellite.
      Vostok 1

                                              On return, Yuri Gagarin
 First in space                               parachuted from the
 The first person in space was                Vostok 1 capsule 7 km
                                              (just over 4 miles) above
 the Russian cosmonaut, Yuri                  the ground.
 Gagarin. He was sent up in
 Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961 for
 a 108-minute flight.

        How many tests were needed for the engine that powered the first stage of Ariane 5?
                                                                     Types of rocket
                                                                     There are many
                                                                     different kinds of rocket.
                                                                               Reusable space shuttles
                                                 To escape Earth’s             carry people to and from
                                                 gravity, a rocket
                                                 has to reach
                                                                               the space station.
                                                 just over 11 km
                                                 (7 miles) per                 Saturn V were the largest
                                                 second. This is
                                                 called the escape
                                                                               rockets ever built. They were
                                                 velocity.                     used to launch all the moon

                                                                               Firework rockets are
                                                                               used for celebrations.

                                                 Ariane 5
                                                                               Military rockets have
                                                                               been used for hundreds of

                                                                               Experimental rockets
                                                                               provide information about
                                                                               fast and high flight.

                                                                               Some satellites have
                                                                               small rocket engines to
                                                                               position them once they
                                                                               are in orbit.

                                                                          Regular launches
                                                                          Today, rockets such
                                                                          as Ariane 5 are used
                                                                          to launch satellites
                                                                          into space. A satellite
                                                                          is a rocket’s payload,
                                                                          or cargo, whose size
                                                                          determines whether it
                                                                          is sent up by a small or
                                                                          large rocket.

Biggest and best                                                          Ariane 5 launch vehicle. The main
The Saturn V were the largest, and most                                   tank contains 25 tonnes (27.5 tons)
powerful, rockets ever built. They were used                              of liquid hydrogen. The tubes on
                                                                          each side are solid fuel boosters that
13 times, between 1968 and 1972, including for                            supply extra power for lift-off.
the first moon landing.
                               Around 300 tests were done.                                                   277
The universe

                                          Moon journey
                                          During the 1960s there was a race
                                          between the USA and the former Soviet
                                          Union to put a man on the moon. The
                                          USA landed the first man on the moon
                                          with Apollo 11 in 1969.
 Apollo 11 reached the moon because
 of a huge rocket called Saturn V.
                                              10 The service module
 Most of Saturn V contained the fuel          is ejected before re-entry
                                                                                                a ck
                                                                                         urney b
 needed to blast it into space. Three         into Earth’s atmosphere.
 astronauts sat in a tiny capsule at
 the top of the rocket.                                                            The jo
 11 The command                                                                       1 Five F1 engines
                                                                                      blast the Saturn V
 module is the only                                                                   rocket into space
 part of the mission                                                                  from the Kennedy               t
 to return to Earth.                                                                  Space Center.              y ou
                                                                                                       jo urn
                                                                                     3 The command and service
 Command                                                                             modules separate from the
 module                                                                              rocket and perform a 180° turn.

       2 The rocket’s engines                          The service module
                                                       contained the power
       fire to set the craft on                        and life-support systems.
       a course to the moon.

                                        What was Apollo 11 ?
                                Apollo 11 was made up of three
                                     modules, or parts: the tiny
                                 command module, the service
                                module, and the lunar module.
                                        How many astronauts have walked on the moon?
                                                                                            Moon journey
                               an expert                                         6 The journey has taken
                            280-281 Men on the                                   102 hours, 45 minutes. The
                                  moon                                           lunar module is ready to land.
                             276-277 Rockets,                                              7 The command
5 The rest of the                                                                          and service modules
rocket is discarded                                                                        orbit the moon (one
while the command,                                                        Moon             astronaut remains on
service, and lunar                                                                          board) while the lunar
modules continue                                                                               module lands. Two
to the moon.                                                                                   astronauts walk
                                                                                              on the moon.

                                                                          8 The lunar module joins the
                                                                          command and service modules
                                                                          so the two lunar astronauts can
                                                                          climb through. The lunar module
             4 The command                                                is then abandoned.
             and service modules
             reattach to the lunar
             module, which is still                                          The Eagle has landed
             connected to the rocket.                                        The lunar module (the part
                                                                             of Apollo 11 that landed) was
                                                                             also known as the Eagle. It
                                                                             touched down on the surface
                                                                             of the moon on 20 July, 1969.
                    The three astronauts
                    worked and slept in
                    the command module.

                                              Mission commander
                                           Neil Armstrong struggled
               Apollo 11                   to find a flat landing site.
                                             He succeeded with just
                                                seconds to spare.

                                                       Twelve                                                     279
The universe

Men on the moon
 On 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first
 person to walk on the surface of the moon. He was
 joined by Buzz Aldrin. A third astronaut,
                                                     or wh
 Mike Collins, remained in orbit with the      e ird        a


 command and service modules.                     The lunar
                                              module computer
                                                            on Apollo 11 had just
                                                            71K of memory. Some
                                                               calculators can
                                                               now store more
                                                                 than 500K.

                                               The lunar     What did they do?
                                               module was     Armstrong and Aldrin
                                               the Eagle.      spent almost 22 hours
                                                               on the moon. About
                                                                2.5 hours of this
                                                               was spent outside
                                                               the Eagle, collecting
                                                              rock and soil samples,
                                                             setting up experiments,
                                                            and taking pictures.

                                   What was it like?
                                   Buzz Aldrin described
                                   the moon’s surface
                                   as like nothing on
                                   Earth. He said it
                                   consisted of a fine,
                                   dust, strewn with
                                   pebbles and rocks.

                    Why is there no blue sky on the moon?
                                                                Men on the moon
Here comes Earth
Instead of the moon rising,
the astronauts saw                                              How did they talk?
Earth rising over the                                           There’s no air in space, so
moon’s horizon – it                                             sound has nothing to travel
looked four times                                               through. Lunar astronauts
bigger than the                                                 use radio equipment in
moon looks                                                      their helmets.
from Earth.


   We have transport!
   Three later Apollo missions
                                                                                This dish
   each carried a small electric car,                                           antennae
   a lunar rover, which allowed the                                             allowed the
   astronauts to explore away from                                              astronauts to
                                                                                send pictures
   the lander. These were left on the                                           to Earth.
   moon when the astronauts left.

                                           One lunar rover
                                           reached a top
                                           speed of 22 km/h
                                           (13.5 mph).
The astronauts returned to
Earth in the Apollo 11 command
module. This fell through the
atmosphere and landed in the
Pacific Ocean. A ringed float
helped to keep it stable.

                              Because the moon has no atmosphere.                               281
The universe

Space shuttle                                                 Ditch the tanks!
                                                              The rocket boosters are released
                                                              two minutes after launch. They
                                                              parachute back to Earth and will
 A partly reusable craft built                                be used again. The tank is discarded
 by the US to send astronauts                                 eight minutes after launch, and
                                                              breaks up in the atmosphere.
 into space, the shuttle was
 first launched in April 1981.                                                                 Main
                                                                                               fuel tank
                                                      The orbiter carries
                                                      between five and seven
 Which bit is that?                                   crew members.

 The shuttle has three main
 components: the orbiter (the plane
 part, and the only part that goes
 into orbit), a huge fuel tank, and
 two rocket boosters.

                       Heat protection
                       Nearly 25,000 heat-
                       resistant tiles cover the
                       orbiter to protect it from
                       high temperatures
                       on re-entry.

                or wha
           eird        t


        delayed a space shuttle
                                                                                     There are two
      launch in 1995 by pecking                                                      rocket boosters, one
        holes in the fuel tank’s                                                     on each side. Once
                                                                                     lit, the boosters
        insulating foam. Plastic                    The orbiter’s
                                                                                     cannot be shut off;
           owls are now used                        engines are used
                                                                                     they burn until they
                                                    once the orbiter
                                                                                     run out of fuel.
            to frighten other                       reaches space.
               birds away.

                         How long does it take the orbiter to reach space?
                                                                                                   Space shuttle
                                                     Pop it in there!                         The orbiter fleet
                                                     Each orbiter has a
                                                     huge payload bay.                        Five orbiters were built.
                                                     You could park                           Two have been lost in
                                                     a school bus in                          tragic accidents.
                                                     this cavity, which
                                                     holds the satellites,                               Columbia first flew in
                                                     experiments, and                                    1981. It disintegrated on
                                                     laboratories that                                   re-entry in 2003.
                                                     need to be taken                                    Challenger was
                                                     into space.                                         destroyed in 1986, just
                                                                                                         73 seconds after launch.

                                                     The payload’s doors open                            Discovery first flew in
                                                     once the shuttle is in orbit.
                                                                                                         1984. It marked the 100th
                                                                                                         shuttle mission in 2000.

                                                                                                         Atlantis first flew in
                                                                                                         1985. It has completed
                                                                                                         more than 25 missions.

                                                                                                         Endeavour was built
                                                                                                         to replace Challenger.
                                                                                                         It first flew in 1992.

                                                                               A safe landing
                                                                               Shuttles glide down, belly first.
                                                                               Once the orbiter touches the
                                                                               runway, it releases a 12 m (40 ft)
                                                                               drag chute to slow it down.
Space shuttle Endeavour landing at
Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA.

The future shuttle
NASA are currently working
on designs for a new orbiter,
                                                     Command module
the Orion Crew Exploration                                                   Service module
Vehicle (CEV). It will travel                                                                      Launcher
into space on an Ares 1 rocket
launcher, and carry up to six                                                                 Ares 1 rocket launcher
astronauts on each mission.
                                           It takes just over eight minutes.                                                  283
The universe

 Working in space                                                             The International Space Station (ISS)
                                                                              seen from the space shuttle Discovery.

 We have all seen workers on a construction
 site, hammering and drilling. Imagine a
 construction site floating in space high
 above the Earth’s surface. That’s what
 astronauts have to cope with when they
 are repairing a satellite, or
 putting together a
 space station.

 Is it warm
 today?                                                               Illustration of how a sunrise
                                                                      would look from space.

 In orbit, the strong
                                                        An astronaut may be
 sunshine heats                                          outside the space station
                                                          for hours at a time. This
 astronauts up.                                             one is working on the
 Surprisingly, it’s difficult                                  station’s robotic arm.

 to lose heat in space, so
 spacesuits have to include
 a refrigeration unit!                                                       Between 1998 and 2005,
                                                                             more than 60 spacewalks
                                                                             were performed. Each time

           Hands on
                                                                             two astronauts worked on
                                                                             the International
              Astronauts say                                                 Space Station.

               that moving
     their hands in their gloves is
  difficult. To feel what they mean,
   put a rubber band around your
        closed fingers and try to
           open them. Do this
              fifteen times.

                                       What does EVA stand for?
                                                                       Working in space
A piece of history
The first ever spacewalk was performed by Soviet
astronaut Alexei Leonov on March 18th, 1965. He
was soon followed by American Edward White on
June 3rd, 1965.
                                                                               Edward White was
                                                                               the first American
                                                                               to spacewalk.

                       Alexei Leonov
                       became a celebrity in
                       the Soviet Union and
                       around the world.

                                                    Slow down
                                         Astronauts have to work
                                         slower than construction
                                        workers on Earth. If they
                                          twist a bolt too quickly,
                                        they will send themselves
                                                        into a spin.

                                                       Make it larger
                                                       Space tools are extra large
                                                       so that astronauts can grab
                                                       them in their bulky gloves.
                                                       They also have to be tied to
                                                       the astronaut to prevent them
                                                       from floating away.
                    ExtraVehicular Activity. It means space walking!                           285
The universe

                                        Exploring Mars
                                        Spacecraft have flown past Mars,
                                        orbited it, and landed on its surface.
                                        One day, we may even build a base
                                        on Mars. It may be cold, barren, and
                                        dusty, but it’s full of possibilities.

        Why study Mars?                                      Looking at Mars
        At some point in its history, life may have          There have been a number of
        existed on Mars. Although it’s about half            missions to Mars.
        the size of Earth, it has clouds, weather
        patterns, and polar icecaps – once it even                    In 1971, two spacecraft, Mars 2
        had active volcanoes. Learning about Mars                     and Mars 3, got to Mars, but their
        may help us to understand our own planet.                     landers failed to operate.

                                                                      In 1976, two spacecraft, the
                                                                      Viking landers, tested for
                                                                      signs of life.

                                                                      In 1996, Mars Global Surveyor was
                                                                      launched. It completed its first
                                                                      mission, but later lost contact.

                                                                      In 1997, Pathfinder touched
                                                                      down, releasing a small rover
                                                                      called Sojourner.

                                                                      In 1999, the Mars Polar
                                                                      Lander proved unsuccessful.
 On the barren surface of Mars, the
 robotic Sojourner rover examines a
 rock later nicknamed “Yogi”.

                        Seeing red
                        The landing craft that visited
                        Mars took lots of pictures of its
                        surface. These show a layer of
                        soil that is rich in iron, which
                        gives Mars its red colour – like
                        rusty iron on Earth.
                       How much did it cost to build, launch, and land the Mars rovers?
                                                                                        Exploring Mars
What’s happening now?
Two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have                                  The future on Mars
been exploring the Martian surface since
2004. They have sent back a wealth of
data about the planet’s surface, including
plenty of evidence that there was once
water on Mars.

                                                                    Scientists are always searching for ways to
                                                                    unlock the secrets of the red planet. Among
Cameras mounted on                                                  the ideas suggested are an aeroplane that
masts give scientists
panoramic views of
                                                                    could travel across its surface (above left)
the Martian surface.                                                and a thermal probe that would penetrate
                                                                    its ice caps (above right).
                                                                                                   In order to explore
                                                                                                   the potential of a
                                                                                                   colony in space,
                                                                                                   eight scientists
                                                                                                   lived in a self-
                                                                                                   contained dome,
                                        This image shows a
                                                                                                   Biosphere II, for
                                                                                                   two years during
                                        9 mm (.35 in) hole in
                                                                                                   the early 1990s.
                   Nasa rover           Mars’ surface drilled and
                   Spirit               photographed by Spirit.

                                                                    Living on Mars
                                                                    If we do establish a base on Mars, it will
                        The rover is
                        powered by                                  have to be a self-contained structure
                        solar panels.                               that protects its inhabitants from both
                                                                    the atmosphere and the Sun’s radiation.
                                                                           Below is an artist’s impression of
                                                                                          what a Martian
                                                                                          base might look like.

                                        Approximately US$ 800 million.                                              287
The universe

                                        The Sun
                                        Our Sun is a star, but it is closer to us
                                        than any other star. Like all stars, it
                                        is a massive ball of burning gas, fed
 The Sun is white. Its colour is best
 seen when reflected in water. Never
                                        by constant explosions. Without it,
 look directly at the Sun.              our planet would be lifeless.
                                                           Shimmering lights
                                                           can light up the
                                                           skies towards
                                                           the Earth’s polar

                                                                         Long lived
                                                                         The Sun was born just
                                                                         under five billion years
                                                                         ago. Although it burns four
                                                                         million tonnes (tons) of fuel
 Solar wind                                                              each second, it is so big that
 The Sun sends out a stream of invisible particles,                      it will continue to burn for
 called the solar wind. When these pass Earth’s North                    another five billion years.
 and South Poles, they can create stunning colours.
 Investigating the Sun
 Various space probes have been
 designed to study the Sun.
              Ulysses was launched in                  A hot spot?
              1990 to look at the Sun’s      White areas show places
              polar regions.
                                             where the Sun’s surface                    These hotspots
              SOHO was launched in             temperature is higher                    are called
              1995 to observe the Sun
              and solar activity.            than elsewhere. Cooler,
                                                   dark areas, called
               TRACE was launched in
               1998 to study the Sun’s            sunspots, sometimes
               atmosphere.                       appear on the surface.

                                                  Does the Sun spin?
                                                                                                       The Sun
                                                  The size of
                                                Earth compared
                                                  to the Sun.

                                                                                                          h   .
                                                                                                      ar t
                                                                                                c   hE
                                   The Sun is white, but
                                   false colour images such                                  rea
                                   as this allow astronomers
                                   to identify different                                s to
                                   features on its surface.
                                                                             m in
                                                                 t   eig

                                                   a  ta

                                                                      Solar flares

                                                                      Blasts of hot gas sometimes flare

                                                                      up from the Sun’s surface in
                                                                      huge arcs or loops. They reach

Solar flares are
called prominences.
                                                                      thousands of kilometres (miles)
                            It t

Most last just a                                                      into space.
few minutes.

                  Yes, it does. It spins on its axis, like the planets of the solar system.                       289
The universe

 A star is born
                                                                    Like many space pictures,
                                                                    this image of the
                                                                    Eagle nebula has been
                                                                    artificially coloured so
                                                                    it can be seen clearly.

 Clusters of stars are constantly being
 born from clouds of dust and gas
 thousands of times the size of our
 solar system, in a process that
 can take millions of years.

 Born in a cloud
 Between existing stars, there are patches
 of dust and gas. Gradually, these draw in
 more and more dust and gas to form huge
 clouds called nebulae. Clumps of matter
 gather together in these clouds.

                                                      Hot colours
                                    As this matter gets more and
                                   more dense, heat builds up to
                                 form a young star that fills the
                               surrounding nebulae with light
                                and colour. This spectacular
                                effect (right) was captured
                                     by the Spitzer space

                              The process of
                              star formation
Nebula                       captured by the
                            Hubble telescope.

 With enough matter, this process
 continues. The star gets denser and
 hotter. Eventually nuclear fusion
 begins, releasing huge amounts of
 heat and light: a star is born.

                        Which star cluster is also called the Seven Sisters?
                                                                              A star is born
                                                                  What’s in a name?
                                                                  Horsehead, Lagoon, Eagle and
                                                                  Cat’s Eye... some of the best-
                                                                  known nebulae have popular
                                                                  names inspired by their shape.

                                                                                                  Cat’s Eye

Is that one red?                        In the same way, lava
                                       reveals its temperature
Some stars shine red, others shine          through its colour.
yellow or bluish white. A star’s      Here, the yellow lava is
                                           hotter than the red.
colour depends on its temperature.
Red stars are the coolest, while                                  What type of star?
blue stars are the hottest.                                       Stars have different characteristics
                                                                   according to the amount of matter
                                                                    involved in their birth. They
                                      Our Sun is                     differ in colour, temperature,
                                       a yellow                      and brightness, and in the
                                      dwarf star.
                                                                     length of time they stay alive.

                                                                   The life of a star
                                                                   The Universe is home to lots
                                                                   of different types of star.
                                                                            Red dwarfs are smaller than
                                                                            our Sun. They burn fuel slowly,
                                                                            so they live a long time.

                                                                            Young solar systems Leftover
                                                                            material from a star’s formation
                                                                            can turn into planets.

                                                                            Blue giants are among the
                                                                            hottest stars, and live for less
                                                                            than 100 million years.

                                                                            Supergiants are the rarest
                                                                            stars. They have short lives
                                                                            – under 50 million years.

      The Pleiades, because you can see seven of its stars without a telescope.                         291
The universe
               A Universe is born
                 What was later
                   termed the Big
                                                    The Big Bang
                    Bang was first                  Most scientists now believe that
                     proposed by
                     Georges Lemaitre               the Universe was born from
                     in 1931. Scientists            a hot, dense spot more than
                    believe it was
                   the beginning of                 13 billion years ago. They call
                  everything, but                   this event the Big Bang.
                don’t know what
 Lemaitre   caused it to happen.                                     As the Universe expands and cools,
                                                                     at 300,000 years, matter as we
                                                                     know it starts to form. The Universe
                                                                     is a thousandth of its size today.

                 e   Big


                              : “a

 Space and time
                                 day without yest

 were brought to
 life from a minute
 speck, which was
 unbelievably hot and
 heavy. The energy
 contained in this
 speck immediately
 began to spread out,

 in the form of an
                             y   a

 ever expanding         ”.

                           Do you think the Big Bang was an explosion?
                                                                                     The Big Bang
A long time coming
Matter only began to form hundreds            At 9 billion years the
                                                                        What’s that?
                                              Universe looks much
of thousands of years after the Big           as it does today, if a
                                                                        Scientists have detected
Bang – long after the fireball had            little bit smaller. Our   a faint radio signal,
                                              Sun starts to form.
cooled. The resulting gases would
form the stars, planets, and galaxies
                                                                        present in any direction
that exist today.                                                       they look for it in
                                                                        space. They believe it
      Stars and galaxies start
                                                                        is a faint glow from
      to form after about                                               the Big Bang’s superhot
      300 million years.
                                                                        fireball. It is called The
                                                                        Cosmic Background

                                                                        The Cosmic Background Radiation was
                                                                        discovered by American physicists Arno
                                                                        Penzias and Robert Wilson in the 1960s.

                                                                   No beginning, no end
                                                                   An alternative to the Big
                                                                   Bang, the Steady State
                                                                   Theory claimed there was
                                                                           no beginning or end for
                                                           or wha             the Universe. It’s just
                                                     e ird            t?        always been there.

                                                      The astronomer             Few scientists
                                              who gave the Big Bang theory        now believe in
                                               its name didn’t support it. He     the Steady State
                                             termed it Big Bang as a criticism Theory.
                                                and was surprised that the
                                                name stuck. He believed in
                                                 the Steady State Theory.

                                 No – it was more of an event.                                                    293
Reference section
                                                                                Decomposition The breaking
 Glossary                                                                       down (decaying) of dead animals
                                                                                and plants into smaller pieces, and
                                                                                recycling them into nutrients.
 Acceleration Change of speed –          Cell A tiny unit that is the basic
 speeding up or slowing down.            building block of all living things.   Dermis The deepest layer of
                                                                                skin, which contains nerves and
 Alpine Areas on a mountain              Chlorophyll The chemical in            blood vessels.
 side that are above the trees but       plants that makes them green. It
 below the permanent snow.               is essential for photosynthesis.       Diaphragm The muscle under
                                                                                your lungs that moves up and
 Alveoli Tiny air sacs inside            Chromosome A rod-shaped                down as you breathe.
 your lungs.                             strand containing DNA, found
                                         in the nucleus of a cell.              Digestion The system that
 Amphibian An animal that                                                       breaks down and absorbs food so
 can live on land or in water.           Civilization The way of life           your body can use it for energy
                                         of a group of people living in a       and to make new cells.
 Ancestor Someone you are                particular area – ancient Greek
 related to who lived a long             civilization, for example.             DNA A chemical inside your
 time ago.                                                                      body that contains the instructions
                                         Condensation Changing from             for making living cells.
 Astronaut A person who                  a less dense state, such as a gas,
 is trained to travel into space.        into a more solid state, such as       Ecosystem A community of
                                         a liquid – for example, water          plants and animals living and
 Astronomy The study of                  vapour condenses into water.           interacting with each other and
 the universe.                                                                  their immediate environment.
                                         Continent A large area of land,
 Atmosphere The thin layer               usually divided into different         Epidermis The top layer of
 of gas that surrounds a planet.         countries. Europe is a continent.      skin, which you can see.

 Bacterium (plural:                      Decibel The unit of                    Equator The imaginary line
                                         measurement for sound.                 around the middle of the world.
 bacteria) A living thing with
 just one cell. Bacteria are found all
 over the world – in the oceans, on      Deciduous A plant that loses           Era A period of time in history.
 land, in plants, and in our bodies.     many or all its leaves in one season
                                         each year. Oak and maple trees         Estuary The place where a river
                                         are deciduous.                         meets the sea.
 Carnivore An animal that
 eats meat. Lions are carnivores.

Evaporation The changing of            Galaxy A large rotating system        Habitat The natural home of
a liquid to a gas.                     of stars, gas, dust, and empty        an animal or plant.
                                       space held together by gravity.
Evergreen A plant that has                                                   Herbivore An animal that
leaves on it throughout the year.      Gene Part of your DNA, genes          eats mainly plants. Giraffes
                                       contain chemical information          are herbivores.
Extinct An animal or plant that        that controls the way your body
has completely disappeared from        develops and works. Genes pass        Hibernation When animals
our world.                             from parents to their children.       rest through the winter. They
                                                                             normally find somewhere warm
Fault A place where the Earth’s        Germ Tiny living thing (micro-        and dry and sleep throughout the
crust has cracked and moved.           organisms) found everywhere           cold season.
                                       including inside our bodies.
Fertilization The joining of a         Bacteria are germs. Some germs        Hieroglyphics An ancient
male cell and a female cell to start   are good, but some are bad and        Egyptian method of writing that
growing a baby OR improving soil       make us ill.                          uses symbols.
by adding nutrients to it.
                                       Geyser A naturally occurring          Hydrosphere All the water
Fossil The remains of a plant          hot spring, where occasionally        on the Earth’s surface, including
or animal that has died and been       the water boils and shoots up         ice, and water vapour in the
preserved in rock.                     in a big spurt.                       atmosphere.

Fossil fuels A fuel such as            Glacier A huge river of ice.          Immune system The cells and
coal, oil, or natural gas that                                               tissues in your body that protect
was formed underground millions        Gladiator In Roman times, a           it from infection. If you do get an
of years ago from the remains of       man trained to fight other men or      illness, your immune system often
dead plants and animals.               wild animals in an arena while        creates special defences so you
                                       others watched.                       don’t get the same illness again.
Friction A force that makes
things slow down. When two solids      Gravity The attraction between        Inertia The tendency
rub against each other, or when a      everything in the universe. Gravity   everything has to avoid
solid moves through liquid or gas,     makes the moon rotate around the      movement or change.
it causes friction.                    Earth, and the Earth and other
                                       planets rotate around the Sun.        Infrared radiation Heat
                                                                             energy that is given off by all
                                                                             solids, liquids, and gases.

Reference section
 Insulator Something that does         Monsoon A heavy rain-                  Orbit The path that one
 not let heat or electricity travel    and-wind storm that occurs             object makes around another in
 through it very easily.               in southern Asia.                      space, while under the influence
                                                                              of gravity.
 Invertebrate An animal                Morse code A system for
 without a backbone.                   sending messages using dashes          Ore A mineral that contains
                                       and dots.                              a metal.
 Irrigation Bringing water to
 land so plants can grow.              Mucus A sticky substance inside        Ornithischian Bird-hipped
                                       your airways that traps germs.         dinosaur.
 Mammal A warm-blooded
 animal that has fur and feeds its     Mummy A dead body that                 Outback The remote, inland
 young with its own milk.              has been preserved by removing         areas of Australia.
                                       some of the organs, treating the
 Mantle A layer of hot, solid rock     body with special chemicals, then      Pasteurization A process
 that lies beneath the Earth’s crust   wrapping it in long strips of cloth.   that uses heat to destroy bacteria
 and surrounds the Earth’s core.                                              in food.
                                       Nucleus Structure inside a cell
 Marsupial A mammal group in           that contains chromosomes and          Percussion A type of musical
 which the female has a pouch for      is essential for making proteins.      instrument that is hit or shaken
 its young.                                                                   to produce a sound.
                                       Nutrient A substance taken
 Melanin A substance that our          in by a plant or animal that is        Pharaoh A powerful ruler of
 body produces to protect our skin     essential for its growth.              ancient Egypt.
 from the sun.
                                       Nymphs Insects that have not           Photosynthesis The process
 Microchip A tiny electronic           yet become adults.                     by which plants use sunlight to
 device used in computers and                                                 make food from water and carbon
 machines.                             Omnivore An animal that eats           dioxide in the air.
                                       both plants and meat.
 Mineral A solid with a
 crystal structure that is found
 in the ground

Planet A large, round object          Runes Viking symbols used           Transplant When an organ
that orbits a star.                   for writing.                        is removed from someone’s body
                                                                          because it is not working very well,
Population All the people             Samurai An ancient                  and a new one is put in its place.
or animals living in an area          Japanese warrior.
or country.                                                               Tropical The area of land and
                                      Saurischian Lizard-hipped           sea on either side of the Equator.
Predator An animal that kills         dinosaur.
other animals for food.                                                   Universe Everything! The Earth,
                                      Savanna Tropical grassland          moon, Sun, all the planets and
Reef A ridge of coral or rock just    with a few trees, found in east     all the galaxies – even those w