Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

An Architecture for a Lean Transformation by andrew

VIEWS: 829 PAGES: 24

									An Architecture for a Lean Transformation

By Mario Agripino Tim Cathcart Dennis Mathaisel

Outline
• • • • • • • Purpose of the Architecture Need for the Architecture Definitions The Lean Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Transformation Engineering Benefits Conclusions

Purpose of the Architecture
Goal
 Achieve a quantum leap in sustainment throughput and efficiency by transforming depot workload and processes into those of a best-inclass commercial-type facility using Lean principles and cellular manufacturing processes and layout  To transform the ALC industrial enterprise

Need
 Military readiness dependent on ability to operate/maintain its systems, requires a flexible, responsive, and robust organic depot MRO capability  Posture is influenced by: – Downsizing of the operational force – Reduction of organic infrastructure – Introduction of new sustainment technologies – Recent depot legislative changes – Limited resources for recapitalization – Aging weapon systems, facilities, and equipment – Insufficient investment in the current plant and equipment – An aging workforce, one-third of which is eligible to retire in the next five years

Need (Cont)

 To effectively respond to the increased, yet unpredictable, demand for mission-ready resources, the depots must confront the challenges with an aggressive transformation plan for the complete industrial complex and processes at a price the nation can afford.

Definitions
 A Lean Enterprise is “an integrated entity that efficiently creates value for its multiple stakeholders by employing lean principles and practices” [Nightingale 1999]  Systems Engineering is “an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems” (IEEE 1998)  Systems Engineering Methods are the “logical systematic set of processes selectively used to accomplish systems engineering tasks” (IEEE 1998)  Systems Architecture is the “arrangement of elements, subsystems and allocation of functions to meet systems requirements” (IEEE 1998)

Definitions (Cont)
 Systems Architecting is the “art and science of creating and building complex systems” [Rechtin 2000]  Organizational Architecting and Engineering “is the application of systems architecting to organizations” [Rechtin 1999] • Enterprise Engineering is the “collection of tools and methods which one can use to design and continually maintained an integrated state of the enterprise” (ISO WD 15704) • Architecture Frameworks describe basic concepts, descriptions and the related models of (views) to provide a standard for enterprise engineering (IEEE P1471)

LEA – A Definition
“The Lean Enterprise Architecture is the application of Systems Architecting and Organizational Architecting and Engineering to design, develop, produce, construct, integrate, validate, and implement a Lean Enterprise using Systems Engineering Methods.”
 Transformation must take a systems engineering approach/methodology for Lean enterprise as opposed to standard incremental Lean methodology (the “Design-Build” and “Cell-by-Cell” paradigm.)  The LEA uses a multiphase approach structured on the transformation life cycle phases

Life Cycle Components
Transformation Lifecycle Phases Need Activity Description Wants or Desires for transformation of the enterprise, because of obvious deficiencies or problems Market analysis, feasibility study, requirements analysis, enterprise system design and development, simulation, engineering prototyping, benchmarking, acquisition plans, and trade-off analysis Modify, procure, integrate, install, test, train, and implement the transformation of facilities, production systems, business systems, and policies Operational use of the transformation, and continued review for improvement or modification

Conceptual and Detail Design

Production and/or Construction

Enterprise Use and Improvement

Life Cycle Components
Transformation Life Cycle Components Component Need Description Wants or Desires for transformation of the enterprise, because of obvious deficiencies or problems. Market analysis, feasibility study, requirements analysis, enterprise system design and development, simulation, engineering prototyping, benchmarking, acquisition plans, and trade-off analysis. Modify, procure, integrate, install, test, train, and implement the transformation of facilities, production systems, business systems, and policies. Operational use of the transformation, and continued review for improvement or modification.

Conceptual and Detailed Design

Implementation/Construction

Enterprise Use and Improvement

The Lean Enterprise Architecture
ACQUISITION Transformation Life Cycle
N E E D

UTILIZATION

ConceptualPreliminary Design

Detailed Design and Development

Implementation / Construction

Enterprise Use and Improvement

Phase 1: Transformation Strategic Planning

Phase 2: Transformation Acquisition and Integration

Phase 3: Transformation Implementation

Lean Enterprise Architecture Phases Source: Agripino, Cathcart & Mathaisel, December 2003

What is LEA?
 Structure to organize the activities for the transformation  Uses Lean enterprise and systems engineering methodologies  Developed from an enterprise perspective, paying particular attention to strategic issues, internal and external relations with all key stakeholders, and structural issues  Less resource intensive and disruptive to the organization over the traditional lean enterprise transformation methods and practices  Workforces are critical stakeholders and help define the system requirements and design selection  Fast clock speed, with ongoing action-monitoring corrective action activities

Phase 1 Transformation Strategic Plan
• Motivates and aligns the organization to achieve common goals and objectives • Aids tactical planning and execution • Assists in communications and workforce buy-in • Supports change planning and management • Supports development of processes and roadmaps

Phase 2 The Requirements Package
• Performance Based Acquisition strategy • Performance Work Statement that captures the “What’s” not the “How’s” • A compelling case for change in depot transformation • A clear future state objective for depot infrastructure and process • Meaningful metrics to monitor progress and to drive acquisition objectives • A clearly stated definition of success (exit criteria)

Phase 2 The Acquisition Plan
• Documents the Acquisition Strategy and high level program structure and schedules • Acquisition Strategy uses an Evolutionary Acquisition Approach that leverages proven commercial best practices of Lean/Cellular MRO transformation • System Engineering practices and methodologies are used to design, develop, evaluate, test, integrate, and implement transformation activities

Phase 2 Change Management & Communication
• Establish The Motivation For Change And A Sense Of Urgency • Build A Guiding Coalition • Develop A Vision And Strategy For Change • Communicate The Vision • Empower Broad-Based Action • Generate Short-Term Wins • Sustain The Momentum: Consolidate Gains And Produce More Change • Anchor New Approaches in the Culture

Phase 3 Transformation Implementation Plan
• • • • Monitor schedules and performance Manage risk Source selection planning Prioritize (and obtain funding for) the highest payback initiatives (measure and ensure ROI) • Provide program/budget guidance and defend resources • Implement and monitor the difficult task of embedding cultural change within the depot • Foster a sense of urgency for task completion coupled with a commitment of time and resources and establish metrics that drive the proper behavior

Role of Systems Engineering in the LEA
• LEA is an enterprise-wide structure based on the three phases of the life cycle of a transformation. • LEA is also rooted in the foundations of Lean principles and systems engineering methods. • To demonstrate how the management tools of Lean and the technical tools of systems engineering work together within the phases of the LEA to ensure an effective transformation, the concept of “Enterprise Transformation Engineering” will now defined.

Enterprise Transformation Engineering
• Enterprise Transformation Engineering uses system engineering tools and the management practices of Lean to organize all of the tasks needed to design, implement, and operate an enterprise transformation. • Integration architectures (CIMOSA, GERAM, GRAI/GIM & PERA) • LEA selected and adapted the Generalized Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM) for MRO enterprise transformation project management

GERAM
• GERAM framework/standard is ISO WD 15704 • GERAM is intended to facilitate the unification of several disciplines in the change process, such as methods of industrial engineering, management science, control engineering, communication and information technology, i.e. to allow their combined use in the design process • This framework provides a description of all elements required in enterprise engineering and integration • This framework is structured using the enterprise lifecycle perspective that is supportive of the LEA transformation lifecycle phases

Enterprise Transformation Engineering
Conceptual design Preliminary design Detailed design

Need

Implementation

Operation

• Defining MRO strategy • Product analysis • Production volume • Job-shop, flow-shop • Trade-off analysis • Make-buy • Benchmarking • Lean Principles

• Ideal functional layout • Rough scale simulation • Human resource planning • Production sequence • Facility planning • Cellular Design • Lean Principles

• Equipment design • Flow analysis • Simulation • Detailed floor layout • Work organization • Lean Principles

• Equipment selection • Quick Setup Time • Installing equipment • Training • Testing • Adjusting • Lean Practices

• Leadership • Innovation • Monitoring • Planning & control • Continuous improvement • Stabilization • Engineering Change Management • Best Lean/Cellular Practices

Continuous Feedback for Improvement

(Apapted from Blanchard & Fabrycky [1998], p.26)

Putting It All Together: Enterprise Transformation Engineering &

LEA

LEA and Enterprise Transformation Engineering
Need ConceptualPreliminary Design Detailed Design and Development Implementation / Construction Enterprise Use and Improvement

Need

Conceptual design

Preliminary design

Detailed design

Implementation

Operation

• Defining MRO strategy • Product analysis • Production volume • Job-shop, flow-shop • Trade-off analysis • Make-buy • Benchmarking • Lean Principles

• Ideal functional layout • Rough scale simulation • Human resource planning • Production sequence • Facility planning • Cellular Design • Lean Principles

• Equipment design • Flow analysis • Simulation • Detailed floor layout • Work organization • Benchmarking • Lean Principles

• Equipment selection • Quick Setup Time • Installing equipment • Training • Testing • Adjusting • Benchmarking • Lean Practices

• Leadership • Innovation • Monitoring • Planning & control • Continuous improvement • Stabilization • Engineering Change Management • Best Lean/Cellular Practices

Enterprise Transformation Engineering

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

Conclusions
 Changing the military sustainment organizational structure is necessary  LEA uses Lean enterprise and systems engineering methodologies to portray the overall flow of the action steps necessary to initiate, sustain, and continuously refine an enterprise  LEA developed from an enterprise perspective, particular attention paid to strategic issues, internal and external relations with all key stakeholders, and structural issues that must be addressed before and during a significant change initiative


								
To top