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NOTA TRAFFIC ENG. 2_BI Powered By Docstoc

         The main problem people in major cities and transportation is an increasingly significant
        problem. Movement of people, vehicles and goods are often discussed in the context of
        travel delay, travel costs are expensive (the price of vehicles, parts, fuel, tolls, etc..), As well
        as the growing danger of travel and uncomfortable.


         Efficiency - To ensure that the trip could dibuatdengan to be the fastest and cheapest. This
        can be achieved by ensuring a low cost for the provision, operation, and maintenance of
        transportation facilities.

         Conservation of resources - Supply of resources used in the preparation, operation,
        maintenance, and use of transportation facilities is terhad.Sumber these sources is the time,
        energy, human resources, materials and land.

         Financial Conservation - To reduce peruntukankewangan be requested from the
        authorities untukpenyediaan, operations and maintenance kemudahanpengangkutan.

         Taking care of the environment - To reduce the impact of transport and utilization
        darikemudahan on Environmental.

         Improve safety - To reduce kehilangannyawa, injuries and property damage
        disebabkankemalangan to the driver, passengers and pedestrians.

         As part of the land use planning, development of the area can be implemented quickly
        denganlebih baik.Dengan transport infrastructure in this manner the admissibility
        dapatditingkatkan facilities.


A. To make a detailed study to ensure & verify the form of a travel-related problems.

B. Outlines the procedures to carry out a more systematic study as well as its ability to base &
format for coordination so that the aims & objectives are achieved.

C. Can produce an integrated transport system with the use of land & institutions to achieve good
policy towards improving the quality of city travel.

a) Planning the short term (<5 years)
o simple shape does not require a huge financial pembaikansediada form.

b) Planning for the medium term (5-10 years) (Level Government / State)
o simple shape does not require substantial financial improvement of existing form.
o change the form of current traffic system.

c) Long Term Planning (Level Federal Government)
o a comprehensive program, the costs are large and affect the socio-economic development and the


• The planning process
• Implementation of the selection plan
• Monitoring of review


- Conducted to determine the need / or suitability of the various transport systems such as the
construction of a new viaduct or highway, transport choice, etc. due to changes in land use in an

- In short, the transportation study is an attempt for the existing inventory of travel patterns, land
use activities and socio-economic factors that influence travel demand thought.

- A variety of methods conducted to obtain data pengangkutan.kaedah conducted has varied from
one study to another study and this method depends on the purpose of the study was conducted.

a) study the origin

• travel demand of the existing transportation facilities and transportation facilities in the future.
• The effectiveness and appropriateness of planned transportation projects such as building,
bridges, highway systems and public transportation system.
• There are various methods of origin of study undertaken.
Among them are:
i. Interviews on the street
- Sample of siege vehicles that crossed the line asked to stop and the driver will be interviewed by
the observer data to get some needed information.
- The advantages of this method is the necessary evidence is obtained directly and fairly accurately.
- The main disadvantage of this method is the only evidence obtained in vehicle only.

ii. Using postcards
- The method of using postcards may be a relatively cheap alternative compared to the interviews on
the street to get the data off the course.
- In general, there are two types of methods used postcards, which are:

I. The first method
- It is a way to do research on certain points, and the drivers of vehicles stopped and asked to be
given a prepaid postcard. Motorists are required to fill this postcard and post it back time after

II. The second method
- By way of sending a postcard by mail to vehicle owners.

iii. Vehicle registration number
- The registration number of vehicles crossing the selected stations recorded by observers. Usually,
three or four of the last registration number was recorded.
- The advantages are, do not interfere with traffic flow as vehicles are not required to stop.
- The drawback is that it is difficult to do analysis for all data that are observed at other stations must
be collected in advance before. Because all stations should be observed simultaneously by this
method requires a large number of observers.

iv. Interview at home
- The main method for obtaining travel data is to do the interview at home.
- The advantages of this method is that all evidence about the trip every householder be obtained
- The negative side is that takes time and the high cost and need of a butterfly interviewer
v. Questionnaires
- As an alternative to the method in the home interviews, questionnaires available can also be
distributed to a sample of households was selected.
- The advantages of this method is not costly.
(B) The volume

- Conducted to obtain accurate information on the number and movement of vehicles (also
pedestrian) on or through an area, or at selected points in a study area.
- Divided into two methods:

I. The method is manual / Manual
- It is recorded manually by vehicle type. Meanwhile, the period depends on the intended use of
data in the study and filled in a special form.
- The advantage that, simple and cheap and the data were analyzed and the data collected easily in
abnormal conditions can be obtained.
- The drawback is the, need more staff if the flow is congested or more junctions and the data were
not accurate due to the negligence of observers.

II. Method of Mechanical / Automatic
- The vehicle crossed the study area will be detected by special sensors which is used when the
traffic flow data needed for the long run.
- The type of detector are:
• Detection Equipment Mechanic
• Contact Electrical Equipment
• Magnetic Detectors
• Video Recorder and Photoelectric

(C) Review the local speed
• Made to measure vehicle speed of a sample of individuals who pass a given point on the road or
the road.
• Speed is the basic measure of traffic performance and has many uses.

(D) travel speed and delay studies

• Performed as an indicator of the level of services provided, and the effectiveness and efficiency of
the flow of a street.
• The service times are defined as total elapsed travel time (including stops and delays) who had
traveled by the vehicle while moving from one point to another point on a route specified in the
existing traffic conditions.
(E) Review of parking
• Done to get some needed evidence that an assessment of the parking problem can be carried out.
• The purpose of the parking study include:
- Identify parking needs.
- Determine the physical requirements to supply the place of the existing parking can be modified or


1) Social Implications

 Deed of society,
 connectivity facilities and services.
 Transfer of residents.

2) Economic Impact

 Employment, income and business activity.
 Activities population.
 Effect on property taxes.
 Plan and regional and community development.
 natural resources.

3) Physical Effects

 The value of environmental design, beauty dansejarah.
 ecosystems on earth.
 water ecosystems.
 air quality.
 Noise and vibration.


• suitable for the particular function
• Economics
• Maintenance is easy
• make a request

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