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Introduction to Assignment 2 Current

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Introduction to Assignment 2 Current Powered By Docstoc
					Accelerated (Brain-Based)
         Learning
               What is Accelerated
             (Brain–based) Learning?

   Brain-based learning is a comprehensive
  approach to instruction based on how
  current research in neuroscience
  suggests the brain learns naturally. The
  theory is based on what we currently
  know about the actual structure and
  function of the human brain at varying
  developmental stages.
(Wilson & Spears, TeachandLearn.net)
What have you heard of / used?
 Learning styles
 Multiple intelligences
 Emotional Intelligence
 Water in the classroom
 Left brain / right brain
 Brain gym
 Mind mapping
     Facts about your brain:
A   human brain is about the size of a
  grapefruit and weighs about 3 lbs.
 It is 78% water, 10% fat and 8%
  protein.
 It weighs about 2% of your body
  weight but uses about 20% of your
  energy and your oxygen.
 Brain Theory: the 3-part brain
Research in the 1970s proposed we
  had three brains, not one.
 The first and smallest is the reptilian
  or primitive brain (brain-stem).
 The mammalian brain (limbic
  system): fits around reptilian brain,
  is shared with all mammals.
 The learning brain or neo-cortex.
    The reptilian brain (brain stem)
   Oldest part of our brain.
   Shared with birds and reptiles.
   Controls the basics: hunger, temperature control,
    fight-or-flight fear responses, defending territory,
    keeping safe.
   Always on the alert for life-threatening events
   We "downshift" when responding to life-
    threatening conditions
   "Flight or Fight" action takes place without
    thinking
   Anything that is a threat - real or perceived -
    causes our brain to "downshift"
   When "downshifting" occurs, learning
    cannot take place
           The Limbic System
   Home of the emotions
   Has visual memory, but language is limited to
    yells, screams, expletives
   If we are not in an emotionally stable state we
    will not be able to learn efficiently as our brain
    "downshifts" from higher level activities.
   Any threat to our wellbeing can cause
    downshifting, but not to the "blanking out" stage
    of the brain stem (reptilian brain)

   A part of the limbic system, the hippocampus, is
    associated with long-term memory.
    The Cerebral Cortex
 Used for higher level thinking.
 Processes thousands of bits of information
  per minute
 Slowest of the three levels of the brain
 Students must be operating in this level if
  learning is to take place
 Therefore the learning environment must
  be absent of threats, so that the brain
  doesn't "downshift" into its more primitive
  parts.
 This is the home of academic
  learning.
(from Evans, 2003)
Neo-cortex     Mammalian brain




             Reptilian brain
          Left & Right Brain;
 The brain has 2 halves or hemispheres.
 The left brain is more concerned with
  logic.
 The right brain is more concerned with
  creativity.
 But it’s far more complex than that. The
  two halves work together, balancing the
  abstract, holistic picture with the concrete,
  logical messages.
        Left Brain Dominance
             “LOGICAL”
 Prefers things in sequence
 Starts from the parts first
 Phonetic reading system
 Likes words, symbols, letter
 Rather read about it first
 Unrelated factual information
 Detailed orderly instructions
 Prefers internal focus
 Wants structure, predictability
 Controls feelings
       Right Brain Dominance
            “CREATIVE”
 Comfortable with randomness
 Sees whole picture first
 Language comprehension
 Wants pictures, graphs, charts
 Rather see it or experience it
 Sees relationships in learning
 Spontaneous, intuitive, flow
 Likely to prefer external focus
 Likes open-endedness, surprises
 Free with feelings
(Cheshire County Council, 2006)
    The principles of brain-based
            learning are:
   Create the right environment for learning

   Address children's physiological needs

   Build self-esteem in the child so that he or
    she wants to learn

   Work to help children develop what Daniel
    Goleman calls 'Emotional Intelligence'

   Add movement to learning and plan for
    regular brain breaks and Brain Gym®
   Use and teach mapping techniques.

   Use VAK to present learning in visual,
    auditory and kinaesthetic form

   Be aware of the different forms of intelligence
    as you plan for children's learning

   Use rhythm, rhyme and music to enrich
    learning

   Use motivation systems such as RAP
    (Recognition, Affirmation and Praise) or The
    Three A's (Acknowledgement, Approval and
    Affirmation)
   Minimise stress and teach relaxation
    techniques

   Teach children to be metacognitive –
    to understand how they learn

   Develop the New 3Rs -
     Resourcefulness, Resilience and
    Responsibility

   Set clear and ambitious targets for
    groups and individuals
                  Brain Breaks
   Regular brain breaks are a major feature of
    accelerated learning.

   As a crude rule, add one minute to the average
    age of the children in your class. This is about the
    length of time that those children can maintain
    sustained concentration on a task.
   So if you teach five-year-olds, expect about six
    minutes before sustained concentration starts to
    decline. That is not to say that you need to take
    a break every six minutes, but it does mean that
    you need to make frequent opportunities for
    movement and refocusing activities.
A   B   C   D   E   F   G
l   t   r   r   t   t   l

H   I   J   K   L   M   N
l   r   t   t   r   l   l

O   P   Q   R   S   T   U
t   t   l   r   t   r   r

V   W   X   Y   Z
t   l   l   l   r
        What is a brain break?
   BRAIN GYM: these cross-lateral
    movements can improve motor control,
    hand-eye co-ordination and excite the
    neural pathways that connect the left and
    right hemispheres of the brain. If you
    sometimes also combine these
    movements with academic content, for
    example drawing letters or numbers in the
    air, you are giving maximum input at all
    levels.
 Pole-bridging,  saying what you are
  doing as you do it, can make your
  brain breaks even more productive.
 Physical movement also increases
  oxygen supply to the brain.
 Regular brain breaks give a moment
  for diffusion before returning to focus
  on the original task.
             Brain Gym
 See:  Smith, A., Call, N. (2001)The
  ALPS Approach Resource Book:
  Stafford, MPG books, for lots of
  ideas, or look online.
Examples:
 Lazy 8s

 Cross-crawl

 Writing key words in the air etc.
           Bibliography / Essential
                   Reading:
For a clear, user-friendly introduction, read:
 Smith, A., Call, N. (2003)The ALPS* Approach:
  Stafford, MPG books
 Smith, A., Call, N. (2001)The ALPS Approach
  Resource Book: Stafford, MPG books
 Smith, A., (1999) Accelerated Learning in the
  Classroom: Stafford, MPG books * Accelerated
  Learning in Primary Schools

   http://website.lineone.net/~bryn_evans /index.htm
   www.acceleratedlearning.co.uk
   www.salt.cheshire.gov.uk
   www.teachandlearn.net
   HIAS INSET materials – thanks to Diane Lawry.
   For a critique of brain-based
              learning:
 Guardian  newspaper
 www.guardian.co.uk/life/badscience

 National Educational Research Forum

 www.nerf-uk.org/bulletin/current

 Teacher Training Resource Bank,
  www.ttrb.ac.uk

				
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Jun Wang Jun Wang Dr
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