Managing Human Waste

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					Managing Human Wastes:
The Different Options of
Human Wastes Recycling


.        Elias Aklaku
         KNUST/BEL
                  INTRODUCTION-1

TYPES OF HUMAN WASTE

LIQUID WASTE: WCs with water flushing (off-site)


SOLID WASTE: Drop holes for toilets without flushing (on-site)
                INTRODUCTION-2

METHODS OF
WASTE MANAGEMENT

• WASTE DISPOSAL: Out of sight, out of mind;
     (Rubbish dumps)

• WASTE CONVERSION/WASTE RECYCLING:
     Converting waste into a useful product
     (Waste to energy, organic waste to organic fertilizer)
            INTRODUCTION-3

SYSTEMS OF
WASTE MANAGEMENT

• CENTRALISED – (OFF-SITE)
• DECENTRALISED – (ON-SITE)
      OFF-SITE TREATMENT OPTIONS IN
          DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

• LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT
   – Septic Tanks
   – Centralised: Wastewater treatment
      Anaerobic (Biogas Technology), Aerobic

• SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
   – Land Fill (Composting)
Liquid waste vs. Solid waste Disposal
            OVERVIEW OF CASE
           STUDIES IN GHANA - 1

LIQUID WASTE (OFF-SITE)

• HOSPITAL WASTE TREATMENT WITH
  ENERGY GENERATION
• EFFLUENT UTILISATION AS
  BIO-FERTILISER

  -   ST. DOMINIC’S HOSPITAL, AKWATIA, E/R.
  -   ROMAN CATHOLIC HOSPITAL, BATTOR, V/R
LAYOUT PLAN OF AKWATIA HOSPITAL
MONTHLY FIREWOOD DEMAND FOR
HOSPITAL LAUNDRY BEFORE PROJECT
BIOGAS BOILER (10 YRS IN USE)
BIOGAS SACKS
 BIOGAS SACK WITH AFFORESTATION WITH
EFFLUENT (BIO-FERTILIZER) AT BACKGROUND
            MINIMIZING DESERTIFICATION EFFECT
                  BY THE TWO PROJECTS

• 1m3 biogas = 5.56 kg wood (Sasse L., 1988)
• 8.5 m3 biogas = 47.26 kg wood/d
• Fuel wood savings/a = 17.25 metric tons
• Estimated annual vegetation productivity for the
  savanna in Ghana = 6 – 12 metric tons of wood/ha
  (Duke J. A., 1987).
• Vegetation saved annually by: Boiling laundry and
  singeing hairs of slaughtered animals with biogas
    = 1.5 – 2.9 ha respectively
 CASE STUDY – 2
 KNUST SEWAGE
TREATMENT PLANT




                  SEWAGE PUMPED UP AND TRICKLED BY
                  GRAVITY
               TRICKLE FILTER AND
             SLUDGE MANAGEMENT




GRAVEL TRICKLE FILTER BED   SLUDGE DEWATERING AND DRYING
On-site Treatment (KVIP)
The KVIP Concept
                                Ventilation
                                pipe




                                              Separation
                                              toilet seat

                                  Container for ash, sawdust
                                  or soil to be added on the
                                  solid excreta
                                              Excreta
                                              collector

Watering                                      Concrete
can                                           slab
                                                               Urine storage
                                                               tank



           Fertilizer Production Toilet in areas where digging of pit latrines is not possible or difficult.
On-site Treatment: Bio-Latrine Option
THANK YOU!

				
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Description: various presentations on use of human excreta for biogas production and co-composting