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					Industrial Composting



 November 2012 – Accra, Ghana

         Andre Eitner
New Windrow
Finished Windrow
                  Industrial Composting
• Industrial Compost is a High Quality Product:
• That means you need to manage
  – The inputs carefully
  – The process needs to be as homogenous & as
    standardized as possible
  – The Quality of the Product needs to be ensured
• You’re competing with Chemical Fertilizers
                          Equipment
• In order to produce Compost on a large scale
  according to CMC methodology you need:
  – Enough Land to set up windrows of up to 400 m
    length
  – Remember that you will want to have several
    windrows simultaneously
  – Frontloader to set up the windrows and to
    transport finished compost to cleaning &
    transport vehicles
  – Turner & Pulling Machine
Frontloader
Turner
             Turner in Action
• 2 movies
Chipper
                       Additional Equipment
• Weighing Bridge
• Administrative Capacities to manage:
  – Quality of Input
  – Traceability of Product
  – Quality & Process Management:
     • Standardized Process with steady mix of inputs
     • Ensure Cleanliness of Final Product
     • Manage Customer Complaints
• Compost is a business – you need bookkeeping
                       Soil & More SOP
• Location of Site
  – The location of the composting site should be
    approved by the responsible environmental
    authority as to be suitable for composting.
  – Should be prepared with concrete foundation if
    possible and required
  – The location of the composting site should have a
    slope of at least 5% but not more than 10% and
    must be within clearly identifiable boundaries.
                     Soil & More SOP
– The location of the composting site should be
  chosen in a way that collection of the input
  materials is within 20km from the compost site
  and the distribution of the final compost product
  is within 100km from the compost site. Soil &
  More International must approve exceptions.
                       Soil & More SOP
• Composting Process:
  – The composting process laid out in this document
    is an open-air and turned windrow process and
    the windrows should be covered by TopTex © or a
    comparable material, approved by Soil & More
    International.
  – The composting process is operated under the Soil
    & More International Compost Management
    License.
                          Soil & More SOP
• The following input materials are allowed to
  produce Soil & More International certified
  compost:
  – Brown input material group:
     •   Woodchips
     •   Shredded cardboard
     •   Shredded paper
     •   Straw
                          Soil & More SOP
– Green input material group:
   •   Leaves
   •   Grasses
   •   Harvest residuals
   •   Waste fruit
   •   Peels
   •   Pulps
   •   No municipal waste or slurry
                       Soil & More SOP
– Manure input material group:
   • Cow manure
   • Chicken manure
   • Other available manures except pig and hog manure

– Conditioning input material group:
   • Old compost
   • Clay
   • Soil & More International approved enzymatic compost
     activator
                             Soil & More SOP
• Sources of Input Materials
   – All input materials must be sourced from Soil & More
     International approved suppliers only. When selecting
     suppliers for input materials, Soil & More International will
     give preference to organic certified sources, where
     possible. Suppliers might be farms, agricultural and animal
     husbandry industries, processing industries and
     municipalities, private and public organisations.
                            Soil & More SOP
• Acceptance, Rejection and Storage of Input Materials
   – All input materials from both internal and external supply
     must be approved by input material intake operator
     regarding material type and form (raw, shredded), quantity
     (tonnes), source and carrier and must comply with the Soil
     & More International input material specification stated
     under § 2.
   – All data collected during input procedure must be
     recorded in the site process monitoring system and must
     be internally audited every month. Monitoring must be
     carried out according to Soil & More International
     monitoring procedures.
                         Soil & More SOP
• In case of approval, the delivered input materials get a
  unique batch identification code and are released in the
  site monitoring system for further processing.
• A batch record sheet (see input material Batch Record
  Sheet) stating the unique batch identification code is
  issued in the monitoring system and as a printout, where
  all movements and changes of that specific batch must be
  kept to provide full traceability throughout the entire
  composting process until dispatch from site.
• In case of rejection, the analysed input materials are
  returned to supplier and a rejection record at supplier’s
  account is kept.
                         Soil & More SOP
• After approval, the intake operator must direct the driver
  to the input materials storage area. The delivered input
  materials must be offloaded to a dedicated area to not mix
  it with any input materials already being stored
• The offloaded materials are then booked into storage in
  monitoring system and will be available for further
  processing.
                             Soil & More SOP
• The maximum storage duration for input materials prior to
  composting must not exceed:
   – Brown inputs:
      • If wet 2 week
      • If dry 4 months

• Green inputs: 2 weeks

• Manure inputs:
   – If dry 3 months: manures must be covered or bagged and
     mustn’t be piled up to more than 1 meter in height.
   – If fresh no storage allowed
                            Soil & More SOP
• Stored materials must be continuously monitored regarding
  temperature and humidity and monitoring data must be
  recorded.
• The volume of each input material on stock must be visually
  quantified end of each month and must be converted into
  tons applying the analysed density of each material.
                                   Soil & More SOP
• Traceability
   – All tasks and movement carried out to materials must be recorded in the
     monitoring system as well as on batch record sheets throughout the entire
     composting process until dispatch from composting site to maintain full batch
     traceability. The entire process including movement or mix of materials must
     be 100% documented in the windrow record sheets.
   – Each windrow must carry a physical unique identification code, clearly visual
     identifiable. This stays with the batch throughout the entire composting
     process.
   – In case that windrows are combined during the composting process, one of
     the windrow record sheets of one of the merged windrows is kept as the
     windrow record sheet for the new merged windrow. The windrow record
     sheet of the new merged windrow must be clearly linked to the windrow
     record sheets of original windrows.
   – Windrow identification must be maintained throughout the entire composting
     process until dispatch from composting site.
                                    Soil & More SOP
• Monitoring
   – Monitoring records for each windrow must be checked every working day.

   – Monitoring records stating monitored parameter, date and result must be kept
     on Monitoring Record Sheets and in site monitoring system.

   – Temperature monitoring equipment: Name and model of equipment must be
     approved by Soil & More International.

   – CO monitoring equipment: Name and model of equipment must be approved
           2


     by Soil & More International

   – O monitoring equipment: Name and model of equipment must be approved
       2


     by Soil & More International. Soil & More International also accepts to
     calculate O levels as difference between atmospheric O level and CO level in
                2                                           2            2


     the compost windrow.
                                 Soil & More SOP
– Moisture monitoring equipment: Methodology of moisture monitoring must
  be approved by Soil & More International

– Monitoring must be carried out according to the instructions by the
  manufacturer of the monitoring equipment and must be approved by Soil &
  More International.

– All monitoring equipment must be calibrated at the frequency recommended
  by the manufacturer but not less than once every 12 months.

– Records upon calibration dates and results must be kept in the Equipment
  Calibration Record Sheet.

– All corrective actions carried out must be recorded in windrow record sheet
  and in site monitoring system.
Monitoring
                         Soil & More SOP
• Composting Process
  • The dimensions of each windrow must be 1,5 – 1,75
    metres high, 2,5 – 3 metres wide and minimum 50 metres
    long. Corridors of suitable width to allow turning and
    monitoring must be left in between windrows. Windrows
    must be directed on slope.
  • Windrows should be covered by TopTex © or a comparable
    material, approved by Soil & More International.
                        Soil & More SOP
– Unless not other approved by Soil & More
  International, the mix of input materials per
  windrow must be as follows:
   •   40% brown components
   •   30% green components
   •   20% manure components
   •   10% conditioning components
                       Soil & More SOP
– The composition of input materials within the groups
  (brown, green, manure, conditioning) must be defined
  by composting site. Composition must be approved by
  Soil & More International.
– Daily temperature and CO monitoring of the windrow
                           2



  defines precise timing for turning.
– As soon temperature in the windrow has been
  maintained at 65 C for at least 3 consecutive days in
  order to destroy weed seeds and diseases, the
  windrow needs to be turned. This should happen
  within the first week after windrow formation.
                         Soil & More SOP
– The organic material breakdown phase should occur
  during the first two weeks after windrow formation.
– During the humus build up phase temperature and CO has 2


  to be monitored daily as stated under § 7 and in Soil &
  More International Monitoring Guidelines. As soon the CO       2


  level in the windrow exceeds 12%, the windrow must be
  turned within 24 hours in order to maintain aerobic
  conditions. To verify aerobic conditions in the windrow,
  daily O monitoring must be maintained. The minimum O
         2                                                   2


  level must be at least 9% throughout the composting
  process. Soil & More International also accepts to calculate
  O levels as the difference between atmospheric O level
   2                                                 2


  and CO level in the compost windrow.
         2
                      Soil & More SOP
– The composting process ends as soon the windrow
  core temperature reaches ambient temperature +/-
  10 C. In addition a germination-test must be carried
  out.
– If windrow core temperature reaches ambient
  temperature +/- 10 C and the germination-test shows
  positive results (germination is detected) the
  composting process is completed and a final product
  quality analysis of the parameters stated at below
  table must be carried out for every windrow prior to
  delivery.
                        Soil & More SOP
– For each representative sample taken, an analysis
  certificate, stating the windrow batch code must be
  issued and referred to windrow record sheet and
  monitoring system.
– For each sample analysed internal or external, a retain
  sample of at least 20 kg must be kept at facility for not
  less then six months.
– Compost cannot be released for delivery until samples
  taken have proven compliance with Soil & More
  International quality parameter as stated in below
  table.
                          Soil & More SOP
• Product Labelling, Distribution and Recall
   – Any compost batch or part-batch must only be
     distributed with claim of compliance with Soil & More
     International Standards.
   – Prior to dispatch, each load must be checked to
     ensure information recorded is correct.
   – Vehicles used for transportation of input materials to
     composting site or for distribution of final compost
     product off site must be recorded stating type or
     batch of transported materials they are transporting
     as well as technical details of vehicle and distance of
     transportation in Vehicle Record Sheet.
                              Soil & More SOP
– Before final compost product is loaded to transportation vehicle,
  transportation vehicle must be inspected for cleanliness, especially the
  surfaces that will be in contact with the product.
– If unsuitable for contact with loose or packaged product, the
  transportation vehicle must be cleaned or not used. If a vehicle is
  judged to be unclean, a record must be kept of vehicle identification
  details in Vehicle Record Sheet.
– The dispatch of all Soil & More International certified final compost
  product must be monitored and recorded and internally audited every
  month regarding quantity and customer.
– If final compost product has been already delivered and has been
  subsequently discovered to have failed on any aspect of quality,
  actions must be taken either to recall or advise customers about the
  nature of the failure. Similarly, if a new hazard is identified and the
  quality policy and control system has not yet been reviewed, similar
  recall or advice to customers must be carried out. A record must be
  kept of any such occurrences and actions taken.
                 Thank You

             Andre.Eitner@soilandmore.com
             www.soilandmore.com
29/11/2012          www.soilandmore.com     35

				
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