قواعد وقصاقيص نحوية في اللغة الأنجليزية by hamada1331

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									Cairo University.
Faculty of Arts.
English Department.




Prepared by:




            E-mails: redaelsaid2010@hotmail.com
                & redaelsaid93@yahoo.com
                  ‫األسـتـاذ / رضـا الـسـعـيـد‬
                          ‫مـدرس لـغـة انـجـلـيـزيـة‬
       ‫مـتـخـصـص فـي شرح كـورسـات الـجـامـعـة األمـريـكـيـة.‬
       ‫والـمـعـهـد الـبـريـطـانـي ومـعـهـد الـقـوات الـمـسـلـحـة .‬
   ‫مـتـخـصـص فـي شرح مواد األدب األنـجـلـيـزي وعـلـم الـلـغـة.‬
‫مـحـاضـر فـي تـدريـب الـدارسـيـن الجـتـيـازاخـتـبـارات الـتـويـفـل .‬
    ‫دراسـات عـلـيـا فـي األدب األنـجـلـيـزي وطـرق الـتـدريـس .‬


                    ‫‪Mr. Reda El-Said‬‬
               ‫‪English Language Teacher‬‬
               ‫‪Lecturer in TOEFL Tests‬‬
         ‫‪A specialist in AUC & British Council‬‬
            ‫.‪and Armed Forces Institute Courses‬‬
     ‫.‪A specialist in English Literature & Linguistics‬‬
      ‫.‪P. G. S. in English Literature and Methodology‬‬
  ‫في حالة وجود أي مقترحات أو تعليقات أو أراء شخصية تتعلق بمادة الكتاب أو اسلوبه أو طريقة عرضه‬
          ‫يرجي األتصال مباشرة بصاحب الكتاب : أ.رضا السعيد عبد الباسط‬
                                             ‫علي‬

                                   ‫0121652122‬
                                    ‫أو ارسال رسالة علي :‬
                         ‫‪redaelsaid93@yahoo.com‬‬
                                              ‫أو‬
              ‫‪redaelsaid2010@hotmail.com‬‬
                      ‫وأسأل هللا التوفيق‬
‫,‪With my best wishes‬‬

                   ‫.‪Mr. Reda El-Said‬‬
                             ‫الجزء األول : القواعد والقصاقيص النحوية‬
Time clauses / time conjunctions
                                          ‫الروابط والعبارات الزمنية‬
•When the time clause precedes the main Clause, a comma is used.
                                                   . ‫نستخدم فاصلة اذا جاءت أداة الربط الزمنية قبل العبارة األساسية‬
Examples
. ‫-عندما يكون في المدينة , يزورنا‬Whenever he is in town, he visits us.
 time clause main clause
-He visits us whenever he is in town.
  main clause time clause
                                         Sequence of Tenses
                                                  ‫ترتيب األزمنة‬
•Time clauses follow the rule of the sequence of tenses. That is, when the verb of the
main clause is in a present or (future form, the verb of the time clause is in a present
form. When the verb of the main clause is in a past form, the verb of the time clause is
in a past form, too)
   ‫عندما يأتي فعل الجملة األساسية في صيغة المضارع أو المستقبل , فان فعل العبارة الزمنية يأتي في صيغة المضارع‬
                                            . ً ‫وعندما يأتي في صيغة الماضي فيكون الفعل في صيغة الماضي أيضا‬
*Main clause          :       Time clause
Present - future .           present simple or
imperative                   present perfect
Examples
-She takes off her shoes the moment that she gets home
                                                                       ‫البيت ..تخلع الحذاء في اللحظة التي تدخل فيها‬
-I'll call you as soon as I get to my hotel. .‫سأتصل بك بمجرم أن أصل الي فندقي‬
-Turn off the lights before you leave. . ‫أطفي األنوار قبل أن تغادر‬
*Past simple :           past simple or
Past perfect        :     past perfect
Examples
‫-أخذ حمام بعد أن أنهي دهان الحجرة‬He took a shower after he had finished painting the room.
-They had reserved a table before they went to the restaurant.
* ago – before ‫منذ / قبل‬
ago = before now.
e.g.
-My parents got married twenty years ago. (== twenty years before now)
*before = before a past time.
e.g.
-Helen and Mike got married last month.
They had met six months before. (= six months before last month}
*until/till - by the time‫حتي‬
until/till = up to the time when
e.g.
-You must stay in the office until / till you finish / have finished the report.
{= up to the lime when you finish the report)
-They'll be at their summer house until/till Sunday.
(= up to Sunday)
*by the time + clause = not later than the moment something happens
e.g.
- I will have set the table by the time you come home. (= before, not later than the
moment you come home)
 by = not later than‫قبل الموعد المحدد‬
e g.
-I'll let you know my decision by Friday. (= not later than Friday)
Notes:
 -not... until/till
e.g.
-I won't have finished my work until/till/before Thursday.
-Both until/till and before can be used to say how far away a future event is.
e.g.
-There's only one week until/till/before my summer holidays.
during - while/as‫أثناء / بينما‬
during + noun = in the time period .
e.g.
- We learnt several interesting facts during the lecture.
while/as + clause = in the time period.
e.g.
-We learnt several interesting facts while/as we were listening to the lecture.
* when - (time conjunction) + present tense ‫عندما‬
e.g.
-We'll order some pizzas when our friends get here.
*when = (question word) + will/would
e.g.
I'm not sure when his next book will be published.
*as a result / therefore/consequently ‫لذلك / كنتيجة علي ذلك‬
Examples
-The president was taken ill and, as a result/therefore/consequently the summit
meeting was cancelled.
-The president was taken ill. As a result/therefore/ consequently, the summit meeting
was
cancelled.
* e.g.
It was hot. So, I turned on the air-conditioning.
•such a / an + adjective + singular countable noun ‫لدرجة أن‬
e.g.
-It was such an interesting boot (that) I couldn't put it down.
• such+ adjective + plural/uncountable noun‫لدرجة أن‬
e.g.
-They are such good friends (that) they've never had an argument.
-It was such expensive jewellery (that) it was kept in a safe.
• such a lot of + plural/uncountable noun‫لدرجة أن‬
e.g.
-She invited such a lot of guests to her party that there wasn't enough room for all of
them.
-He has such a lot of money (that) he doesn't know what to do with it.
• so + adjective/adverb ‫لدرجة أن‬
e.g.
-He is so devoted that he deserves praise.
-He speaks so quickly that I can't understand him.
  • so much/little + uncountable noun = so many few + plural noun‫لدرجة أن‬
e.g.
-There is so much traffic that we won't be on time.
-He pays so little attention to what I say that it makes me angry,
-He made so many mistakes that he tailed.
-There are so few wolves left that we have to protect them.
                                          Other examples.
Fill in so, such or such a/an.
1.The party next door last night was ...so.. loud that I couldn't sleep.
2.They sell ........such.................... lovely things in that shop.
3.I bought .........such a ............. lot of shopping that I couldn't carry all the bags.
4.It was......so....... late when I got home that I didn't have dinner.
5.I had ...such a............. bad headache yesterday that I had to leave work and go
home.
6.I'm ........so.................. hungry that I could eat anything for lunch.
7.He had put .......so........ little salt in the soup that it was tasteless.
8.It was ...such an......... amusing film that I laughed all the way through.
.9.She is…such an ..... interesting person that I could spend hours talking to her
                                              Relative Pronouns
                                                  ‫ضمائر الوصل‬
           ‫هي الضمائر التي تربط بين الجملة الوصفيه واالسم الموصوف ( بمعنى تعود على االسم الذي تم وصفه في‬
                                                                                                ) ‫الجملة الثانيه‬
          ‫وضمائر الوصل تستخدم لربط جملتين بسيطتين لتحويلهما الى جمله معقده وسنتناول هنا كل واحده بالتفصيل‬
                                                                                        . ‫وكيفية ربط جمليتين‬
                                               : ‫وضمائر الوصل هي‬
Who – whom – which – that – whose – where - when
Examples
*This is the boy who writes the lesson
‫.يكتب الخطاب هذا هو الولد الذي‬
* This is the boy whom I saw him yesterday.
. ‫هذا هو الولد الذي رأيته باألمس‬
* This is the pen which I bought yesterday.
. ‫ذلك القلم الذي اشتريته باألمس‬
* This is the place where I live.
. ‫ذلك المكان الذي أعيش فيه‬
* This is the place in which I live.
. ‫ذلك المكان الذي أعيش فيه‬
* This is the man whose son is a doctor.
. ‫هذا هو الرجل الذي ابنه دكتور‬
* This is the writer whose book is good.
. ‫هذا هو الكاتب الذي كتابه جيد‬
*The children played with kites Ali had made them. (join)
 The children played with kites which Ali had made.
*Ali and Hassan are my brothers. I'm proud of them.
Ali and Hassan are my brothers whom I'm proud of.
*There are the beans . I poured a lemon juice over them.
These are the beans which I poured a lemon juice over.
*This is the house of Mr. Ayman. Omar lives in this house.
This is the house of Mr. Ayman where Omar lives.
                                                          ‫الشرح‬
                                                              : ‫* في حالة الربط نحدد الجزء المتكرر في الجملة الثانية‬
                                                                                        who . ‫: إذا كان فاعال عاقال‬
                                                                                      whom .‫: إذا كان مفعوال عاقال‬
                                                                                   :which.‫إذا كان مفعوال غير عاقل‬
                                                                                                       Who = that
                            . ‫تستخـدم لربـط الجمـل ببعضهـا وتحـل محـل اإلسـم أو الضمير المكـرر فى الجملـه الثانيـة‬
                        . ‫ بدال منهـا‬that ‫تحـل محـل فاعـل عاقـل وتوضـع بعـد الفاعـل الذى تصفـه ويمكن استخـدام‬
-Ahmed is my friend. He won the prize. ( who )
Ahmed who ( that ) won the prize is my friend.
                                                        ‫الحــظ :ـ‬
-That is the man. He helped me
That is the man who ( that ) helped me.
Who = whom = that
-Ahmed is my brother. You met him yesterday. ( whom )
Ahmed whom ( who - that ) you met yesterday is my brother.
                                                   . ‫الحــظ :ـ يمكـن حـذف ضمـير الوصـل إذا كان يحـل محـل مفعـول‬
Ahmed, you met yesterday is my brother.
That's the man.                             You are talking about.
That's the man whom / who / that you are talking about.
That's the man you are talking about.
             ‫ فقـط وليـس‬whom ‫الحــظ :ـ يبقـى حـرف الجـر كما هـو بعـد الفعـل أو يوضـع قبـل ضميـر الوصـل‬
. who – that
That's the man about whom you are talking.
Which =that
  . ‫ بدال منها‬that ‫تحـل محـل الفاعـل أو المفعـول غير العاقـل وتوضـع قبل أو بعد االسم الذى تصفه ويمكن استخدام‬
-The books are all mine. They are on the shelf.
The books which ( that ) are on the shelf are all mine.
-I opened the window. It overlooks the garden. ( which )
I opened the window which ( that ) overlooks the garden.
-The dog is mad. You killed it.
The dog which ( that ) you killed is mad.
The dog, you killed is mad.
                                               . ‫ محـل المفعـول لذلـك يمكـن حذفـها‬which ‫الحــظ :ـ حلـت‬
-He bought a new car. He made an accident with it.
He bought a new car which ( that ) he made an accident with.
-He bought a new car with which he made an accident.
                             . that ‫ ) وليس‬which ( ‫يبقـى حـرف الجـر كمـا هـو بعـد الفعـل أو يستخـدم قبـل‬
Whose
                   .( my , his , her ( ‫' ) أو صفـة الملكيـة‬s ( ‫تستخـدم للملكيـة عاقـل وغيـر عاقـل وتحـل محـل‬
 , its , your , their , our
-That's the man. His son succeeded.                                ( whose )
That's the man whose son succeeded.
-My uncle travelled abroad. We live in his house.                ( whose )
My uncle in whose house we live travelled abroad.
                                    . ‫ بـدال منهـا‬that ‫الحــظ :ـ يمكـن إستخـدام حـرف الجـر قبلهـا وال تستخـدم‬

Where
                                                                                           . ‫تستخـدم مـع المكـان‬
-This is the house. We live in it now. (Where )
This is the house where we live.
When
                                                                                 . ) ‫تستخـدم مـع الزمـن ( الوقـت‬
-It is the month July. We go on holiday. ( when )
It's the month July when we go on holiday.
     ‫ أو مبنى للمجهول‬v. to be ‫ عندما تحل محل الفاعل إذا جاء بعدهما‬who , which ‫ملحوظة :ـ يمكن حذف‬
                                                                               . v.to be ‫ويحذف‬
-They boy who was punished yesterday got the worst marks.
The boy, punished yesterday got the worst marks.
-The food which was left in the dirty container has turned bad.
The food left in the dirty container, has turned bad.
                                                   ‫تلخيص‬
•where to refer to place, usually after nouns such as place, house, street, town,
country, etc. it can be replaced by which/that +preposition and, in this case.
which/that can be omitted.
Where
            . ) ‫تستخدم في التعبير عن المكان وغالبا ً تأتي بعد أسماء معينة مثل ( مكان / منزل / شارع / مدينة / بلد‬
                            which/that‫ويمكن أن تستبدل بالتعبير المكتوب عاليه وفي هذه الحالة يمكن أن نحذف‬
e.g.
-The house where he was born has been demolished.
-The house (which/that) he was born in has been demolished.

• when to refer to time usually after nouns such as time period, moment, day, year,
summer, etc, it can either be replaced by that or can be omitted.
      ‫تستخدم للتعبير عن الوقت أو الزمن وتأتي بعد كلمات تدل علي وقت مثل (لحظة / يوم / سنه / صيف ) ويمكن أن‬
                                                                                 ‫ تستبدل ب‬that. ‫أو تحذف‬
e.g.
-That was the year when she graduated.
-That was the year (that) she graduated.
• why to give reason, usually after the word reason. It can either be replaced by that
or can be omitted.
e.g.
-The reason why she left her job was that she didn't gel oft with her boss.
-The reason (that) she left her job was that she didn't get on with her boss.
Exercises
Complete the sentences with who, which or where.
1)The Coca-Cola Company ....which…. was founded in 1692 is famous all over the
world.
2) The company ....which........produces many soft drinks is based in Atlanta.
3)John S. Pemberton…who……invented Coca-Cola, intended the drink to be used as
acure for common illnesses.
4)Frank Robinson,...who…….worked for John Pemberton,chose the name Coca-Cola.
5)Fanta… which…was originally produced in Germany, was bought by the Coca-
Cola
Company.
6)Sprite…… which……was introduced in 1961 is also made by the Coca-Cola
Company,
7)The US Patent Office…… where…. the trademark Coca-Cola was registered, has
also registered me trademark 'Coke' and the glass Coca-Cola bottle.
Fill in the correct relative pronoun/adverb.
1.When did you buy the jacket, …which…. you are wearing
2.Is that the girl.......who... . .. sent you a Valentine's card?
3.The reason …why…….. John is successful is that he works very hard.
4.What did you do with the money ......which.............. I gave you?
5.Sam is mending the chair..... that.. ... broke yesterday.
6.Is this the place .....where........... you lost your jacket ?
7.Have you met the people .. . .who. ... ... live next door to you?
8.Claire is reading the book ...... which......... she bought yesterday.
9.I've been running .That's ....why....... I'm out of breath
10.This is the town .. .where ……my favorite singer lives
11.What is the name of the woman ........who........... works in the chemist's?
12.Is this the boy ...whose....... parents own the factory?
13.I'II never forget the time .... when ...... she fell into the swimming pool.
14.Where are the children ......whose..... ball broke our window'7
Pronouns – Possessives – Demonstratives – Quantifiers
This is Mr. Branson's class. He is writing an example on the bard. The students are
reading it. He will ask them some questions later.
                                 ‫الضمائر الشخصية‬Personal Pronouns
                       ) ‫ضمائر الفاعل ( تأتي في أول الجملة‬subject pronouns:
I , you, tin. she. It, we, you, they
                        ‫(تأتي بعد الفعل ) ضمائر المفعول‬object pronouns:
 me, you, him. her, it. us, you, them
Subject pronouns go before verbs as subjects and object pronouns go alter verbs or
prepositions as objects,
e.g.
-I like him a lot.
•We do not use a noun and a personal pronoun together.
e.g.
- Jim is at work. (Not : (Jim) he is …)
•We use there + be to mention something for the first time or to say that something or
someone exists.
We use it + be to give more details about something or someone that has already been
mentioned.
We also use it to refer to a person when we are identifying him or her.
Examples
 -there is a message for you. It is from your boss.
-Who's on the phone? It's Mr. Fox.
•We can use it as the subject to talk about weather, distance, temperature and time and also
with: it seems/appears that/it is said that, It doesn't matter, it looks like. etc.
Examples
 -It's a ten-minute drive to the station. It's 23 'C outside.
-it seems that there are some problems with the new management.
OR There seem to BE some problems with the new management.
•We use it to talk about something that has already been made clear.
We use one when it is not clear which thing in particular we are talking about.
e.g.
-I can't find my wallet. Have you seen it? (The speaker is talking about a specific
wallet.)
-I haven't got any nice jumpers; I need to buy one (The speaker is not talking about a
specific jumper)
•In short answers and after as and than we use an object pronoun (informal) of a subject
pronoun + auxiliary verb (formal).
e.g.
-I hate jazz. OR 'me too. I'll do too.'
-She spends more money than me/than I do.
Fill in the blanks with the correct subject or object pronoun.
2. Nick is lucky. ...he. .... has a good job and…..he..... earns much more than. …I... do.
3. Marie works hard , because ...she... wants the boss to give …her…a pay rise.
4. Where is Sara? Isn't that ...she...... over there?
5. She's older than .....I..... am, but I'm taller than....her....
6. I'm sick and tired of this job. '....me..., too.'
7. John gave …me… a great idea. '..it..... is so inventive, isn't...it.......?
Fill in the gaps with there, it or one.
1. A: Did you enjoy the party?
  B: No,.…there.. . weren't many people there. ....it......was boring.
2.A: ....There...... is someone on the phone for you. I think ...it... . is David
  B: Hold on I'll be there in a minute.
3.A:When did you last see a film?
  B: I haven't seen …one….. for months.
4A:Have you got your umbrella with you?
  B: No,.....it...... wasn't raining this morning, so I left.....it....at home.
5.A:Did you sleep tale yesterday?
  B: Yes , by the time I woke up. ..it .... was lunch time.
7.A: Look at this mess!....there....are toys everywhere.
  B: Sorry. I'II tidy up.
8.A: Could I have the bill, please?
    B: Certainly .I'll bring ..one. .... at once.
9.A: .It..... seems to be a mistake in this report.
   B: Oh. Sorry I'II type ....one...... again.
Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs
The underlined word in each sentence is a noun, verb , adjective, or adverb. Write the
correct part of speech after the sentence.
1-There are many snails living in your basement. Noun
2-His favourite character is a friendly dinosaur. Verb
3-Will a fast train beat a bus to New York? Adjective
4-The director thinks I talk too fast. Adverb
6-Seeing you was a great surprise. Adjective
7- Seeing you was a great surprise .Noun
8-Ayman always learns from his mistakes. Adverb
9-I quickly discovered the secret. Adverb
Pronouns
Pronouns are words that take the place of a noun. They often refer to nouns that have
already been mentioned.
Each sentence below contains one pronoun. Underline that pronoun.
1- She picked up the wrong keys on the way out.
2- The eggs are rotten, please put them in the trash.
3-The dog took the bone and buried it in the cellar.
4-The sun always shines when we walk together.
5-Jane will be happy if the boss gives her a raise.
                    ‫صفات وضمائر الملكية‬Possessive adjectives / pronouns
This is Melanie. She is sitting at her desk. She is giving a file to her colleague,
Samantha . The files behind her are hers .Melanie's BOSS asks her to update them
every meek.
              ) ‫صفات الملكية (تأتي قبل األسم المملوك‬ Possessive Adjectives :
my / our / your / your / his / her / their

           ) ‫ضمائر الملكية ( تأتي في نهاية الجملة وال يأتي بعدها شيئ‬Possessive Pronouns :
mine / ours / yours / yours/ his / hers / theirs
Examples
-I like Hussein. Do you like him, too, Hamdi?
- My sister never drinks milk. She doesn't like it.
- Where's Enas? Mona wants to talk to her.
- Karim, Hassan and I are going shopping. Do you want to come with us?
- Emad washed the plates, but he didn't dry them.
- Galal! Ali! Did you get that book for me?
•Both possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns can be used to talk about ownership
or the relationship between people. Possessive adjectives are followed by noun whereas
possessive pronouns are not.
        ‫كالً من صفات وضمائر الملكية تستخدم للملكية ولكن صفات الملكيه يتبعها اسم أما ضمائر الملكية ال يتبعها اسم‬
e.g.
-this is her bag. It's hers.
•We normally use possessive adjectives with parts of the body and clothes.
e.g.
-Lucy twisted her ankle.
-He put on his jacket and his hat and left.
We use the and not possessive adjectives with prepositional phrases mostly when we are
talking about things that happen to parts of people's bodies. For example, blows, pains, etc.
Verbs usually used in this pattern are: hit, punch, slap, bite. touch. pat, sting, etc,
Examples
-She patted him on the shoulder.
-He's got a pain in the chest
We use the word own in the following structures to emphasize the fact that something
belongs to someone.
Noun + of + my /your + own
My/ your + own + noun
Examples
-I wish I had a room of my own.
OR I wish I had my own room.
Note: its = possessive adjective.
e.g.
The cat is licking its paw.
It's =it is or it has
Examples
-It's (it is) raining. (V+ing)
-It's (it has) got one room. ( P.p)
‫حالة الملكية‬Possessive case
The possessive case can be used to talk about ownership or the relationship between
people. It is formed in two ways:
                                                     1- with 's for people or animals
• singular nouns + s
-Bob's dog.
• plural nouns ending in –s       : s'
-My parents' car.
• plural nouns not ending IN -S + 's
- The men's department.
• compound nouns + s
-My sister-in-law's family.
• We use 's after the last of two or more names to show common possession.
-Jackie and George's camera. (The camera belongs to both of them).
• We use 's after each name to show individual possession.
-Peter's and Mike's cameras (Each boy has his own camera.)
2. with of for inanimate things
• of + inanimate thing or abstract noun
-The wheels of the car.
-The price of fame.
• a /the /this /that + noun + of + possessive
-She's a colleague of mine. That friend of Pamela's is a doctor.
Note:
When we refer to a certain place or time, the possessive case is formed as follows:
* phrase of place ( shop /home /business ) + 's
- at the chemist's (we mean the shop)
-at Susan's .(house)
*phrase showing length of time specific moment or event + 's
- a year's savings/two hours' drive/today's news.
• We can use either 's or OF when we talk about places or organizations.
-Rome's population OR the population of Rome .
Connect the nouns using 's or of .
1-husband/Sara.............(Sara's husband) or the husband of Sara
2-teacher/the children …….(Teacher of the children )
3-coats/Sally and Jane. …..... (The coats of Sally and Jane)
4-the Prime Minister / England………..(The Prime minister of England)
5-CDs/my sisters . . ………(My sister's CDs) or The CDs of my sister
Fill in the correct possessive adjective or pronoun.
1- A: Why did you lend ...your... jacket?
   B: Because he forgot......his.... and it was cold.
2 -A: Chloe looks upset. ...her....... eyes are very red.
   B: Yes , she had an argument with ......her.... best friend.
3- A: Tom looks nice……his….. new clothes suit him.
   B :Yes, I like ....his...... new shirt.
4- A: Mr. and Mrs. Ford must be rich. …their…… car is very expensive.
   B: Yes, and it's much faster than ....ours..........
5- A I like ..your....... dress.
   B: Oh! it's not ……mine……… . My sister lent it to me.
6- A: Celia enjoys ....her..... job.
   B: Yes, and she gets on very well with …...her....... colleagues.
5-Fill in a possessive adjective or the.
1-We always wash …..our…. hands before eating anything.
2-Wipe ..your..... feet before you come in.
3-She looked him in .....his.... eye and told him the truth.
4-I trapped …my…. finger in the door.
5-He lost …his... . jacket at the party.
6-Julia says that Mike pulled …his….. hair
7-She felt something tap her on …her…. . shoulder.
8-l like …her……. shoes. I wonder where she bought them.
6-Fill in the gaps with of / where necessary/ and my, your, etc, own.
1-Don't treat me like a child' I've got a mind …of my own……..
2-I don't need a lift to work. I've got .......my............... car
3-They hope to set up ... ......their............ business one day.
4-Haven't you got …your……. book? You're always taking mine.
7- Fill in its or it's.
1-My new bike is great…it's….… got lots of gears on it
2-The house next door has got a fence around . …its…. garden.
3-Let's go home........it's...... getting late.
4-I love this shop. …it's………. got lots of lovely things in it.
5-.......It's........... the most beautiful house I've ever seen.
6-That dog has got a white patch over ......its........... eye.
                                          ‫‪Their, There, ,They’re‬‬
                                    ‫ضمير ملكية لإلنسان أو الحيوان والبد أن يأتي بعدها شئ يمتلك ‪1- Their ‬‬
                                                                  ‫. ‪Ex:  The boys rode their new bikes‬‬
                                                 ‫.‪ The president wouldn’t answer their questions‬‬
                           ‫تعني (هناك) ومن الممكن أن تدل على االتجاه ‪2- There ‬‬
                                                      ‫هنا تدل على االتجاه. ‪ex: She is standing over there‬‬
                                                        ‫ملحوظة: يتم اختيار (‪ )there‬إذا جاء بعدها ‪is (or) are‬‬
‫.‪Ex: There is no reason to worry‬‬
‫.‪There are no students here‬‬
                                     ‫‪3-They’re  means they are‬‬
                                                               ‫.‪Ex:  They’re going to attend the party‬‬
 ‫‪A / An‬‬
                                                                      ‫تأتي قبل اسم مفرد مبدوء بحرف ساكن ‪-a: ‬‬
                              ‫…‪Ex:  a ball - a car- a boy – a girl-a class‬‬
                                                               ‫تأتي قبل اسم مفرد مبدوء بحرف متحرك ‪-an: ‬‬
                                                                                                 ‫الحروف المتحركة‬
                                                                                                  ‫)‪(a, e , i , o, u‬‬
                               ‫.…‪Ex:  an ear- an orange-an ant-an egg‬‬
                                                                                                            ‫ملحوظة:‬
                            ‫يشذ عن هذه القاعدة الكلمات التي تبدأ بحروف ساكنة ال تنطق ويليها حروف متحركة وهي:‬
‫‪Ex:  An hour – an honor – an honest‬‬
                   ‫وكذلك هناك كلمات تأخذ ‪ a‬وهي تبدأ بحرف متحرك مثل ‪a university- a unit- a uniform‬‬
                                                 ‫‪I & Me‬‬
 ‫ضمير فاعل‬                    ‫-‪I‬‬
 ‫ضمير مفعول‬                  ‫- ‪Me‬‬
 ‫ولكي نفرق بينهم نتبع اآلتي:‬
 ‫.‪-The money is for Nora and I‬‬
 ‫.‪-The money is for Nora and me‬‬
                      ‫الجملة الصحيحة نجد أنها الثانية ألننا إذا قمنا بحذف اسم نورا ستكون الجملة.‬
 ‫.‪1-The money is for I‬‬
                                ‫.‪2-The money is for me‬‬
                    ‫ملحوظة: - من الممكن أن يكتب ‪ I had‬هكذا ‪ - I’d‬من الممكن أن يكتب ‪ I would‬هكذا ‪I’d‬‬
                                     ‫للتفرقة ‪ I would ‬يأتي بعدها المصدر‬
‫‪Ex: I would like to see you‬‬
 ‫للتفرقة ‪ I had ‬تصريف ثالث‬
‫.‪Ex: I had seen her before‬‬
                                              ‫‪WH. Questions‬‬
 ‫‪Interrogative Pronouns‬‬
            ‫وهي ضمائر تأتي في بداية السؤال , وتستخدم لالستفهام عن شخص , مكان , زمان ... الخ وهي كالتالي ..‬

               ‫(‪ )who‬ضمير استفهام , يستخدم للسؤال عن الشخص العاقل , بمعنى من كما في االمثلة التالية ..‬
 ‫?‪Who is that lady‬‬
 ‫?‪Who can answer this question‬‬
 Who saw you?
           )who( ‫) ضمير استفهام , يستخدم للسؤال عن الشخص العاقل , بمعنى من وحاليا ً يستخدم‬whom(
                                                               ... ‫بكثره بدالً عنه , كما في االمثلة التالية‬
 To whom am I speaking?
About whom are you talking?
Whom did you see?

 , ‫) ضمير استفهام , يستخدم للسؤال عن االشياء مثل االسماء ,االنواع , االصناف ,الحجم , االلوان واالشكال‬what(
                                                                      .. ‫بمعنى ماذا أو ما , كما في االمثلة التالية‬
What shape is the earth?
What sort of a man is he?
What is your name?
What happened?
What date is it today?
What size ( colour , shape..etc) do you want?

                                         ... ‫) في تكوين صيغة التعجب , كما في االمثلة التالية‬what( ‫وكذلك تستخدم‬
What a beautiful morning!
What a lovely day!
What wonderful eyes Mary has!
What bad luck!
What an unusually clever girl!
     .. ‫) ضمير استفهام , يستخدم لالختيار من بين مجموعة احتماالت معروفه ومحدده , بمعنى (اي) مثل‬which(
 Which colour do you prefer – the red one or the blue one?
Which is the taller, Tom or Dick?
Which dog is yours?
           .. ‫) ضمير استفهام , يستخدم للسؤال عن المكان , بمعنى اين كما في االمثلة التالية‬where(
Where are you from?
Where do you buy bread?
Where did you meet Ali?
                                      (When) ‫ونسال بها عن الوقت او الزمن‬

 I get up at 6 o’clock.
 When do you get up?
 I go to the club on Sunday?
 When do you go to the club?
 I bought this shirt last week.
 When did you buy this shirt?
                            ‫ )لماذا ( ونسأل بها عن السبب او الغرض‬Why
Why did you come late ? ‫لماذا تأخرت ؟‬
Why did America invade Iraq? ‫لماذا غزت أمريكا العراق ؟‬
                                             .)‫( ضمير استفهام , يستعمل للسؤال عن المالك , (لمن‬Whose)
Whose car is it?
Whose little boy are you?
Whose car did you borrow?
Whose are these gloves?
Whose is this umbrella?
         ... ‫) كما في االمثلة التالية‬who is( ‫) التي تعني‬who’s( ‫) و‬whose( ‫يجب عدم الخلط بين لفظ‬
Who’s he?
 Whose son is he?
                                    ‫ (كيف‬How(‫ونسأل بها عن الحال أو الوسيلة‬
 I am fine thanks.
 How are you?
 I go to my work on foot.
 How do you go to your work?
                                    )‫ (كم عدد‬How many‫ونسأل بها عن العدد‬
 There are seventy students in this faculty.
 How many students are there in this faculty?
                        ‫(كم سعر أو كم كمية‬How much ( ‫ونسأل بها عن السعر أو الكمية‬
 This blouse costs five dollars.
 How much does this blouse (it) cost?
 There is much milk in the bottle.
 How much milk is there in the bottle?
                                     How far-------? ( ‫) كم المسافة‬
How far is it from Dubai to Abu Dhabi? ‫كم المسافة من دبي إلى أبو ظبي ؟‬
How far is your house from your school?‫المسافة من بيتكم إلى مدرستك ؟ كم‬
                                      How often-------? ( ‫) كم مرة‬
How often do you cut your hair?               ‫كم مرة تحلق رأسك ؟‬
                                              ‫قواعد هامة‬
 After + S – v *
 *Having + P.P.
 ( having). After I had written I went out.
 Having written , I went out .
 *Immediately on + V + ing
 1- When I had got up .I saw my friend .( On ).
 On getting up , I saw my friend .
 2- On receiving the telegram I traveled. (use as soon as) .
 As soon as I had received the telegram I traveled .
* because : S – V/-As
*Because of
*Owing to        V+ ing
 *Due to
1-He is sad because he is poor.(use because of).
-He is sad because of being poor .
-He is sad because of his poverty .
2- He didn't go to school owing to his illness. (use because)
-He didn't go to school because he was ill .
Verb +preposition (of /for/from/on)
Verb +of
-Accuse/ suspect some body of
Sue accuses me of being selfish
-Approve of
His parents don't approve of what he does , but they can't stop him.
-Die of (an illness)
What did he die of ? ''A heart attack''
-Consist of
We had an enormous meal .It consisted of seven courses.
Verb +for
-pay (somebody) for
I didn't have enough money to pay(the waiter)for the meal.(not 'pay the meal')but
'pay a bill/a fine/a tax/ rent/a sum of money.(no preposition):
I didn't have enough money to pay my telephone bill.
-Thank / forgive somebody for
I will never forgive them for what they did .
-Apologize (to somebody)for
When I realized I was wrong, I apologized (to them)for my mistakes.
Blame somebody/something for
Everybody blamed me for the accident.
Also :''somebody is to blame for''
Everybody said that I was to blame for the accident.
Also :blame something on :
Everybody blamed the accident on me .
Verb + from
Suffer from(an illness …etc.)
The number of people suffering from heart disease has increased .
Protect somebody/ something from (or against)
Sun oil can protect the skin from the sun.(or …..against the sun.)
Verb + on
-Depend on …./rely on ……:
What time will you arrive? ''I don't know. It depends on the traffic."
You can rely on Jill. She always keeps her promises.
 You can use depend + when /where/how(question words)with or without on :
 Are you going to buy that car? ''It depends how much it is ''.(or depends on how
 much)
 Live on (money/food)
 George's salary is very low. It isn't enough to live on.
 Congratulate (someone)on…/compliment (somebody)on…:
 I congratulated Noha on her success in the exam.

                                        : ‫الجزء الثاني‬
                                       Sample Tests
Sample Test 1
 I- Grammar
 A-Fill in the gaps with a suitable relative pronoun from the following: why, when, who,
 which, whose, and where.
 1- The reason——why———John is successful is that he works very hard.
 2- People—who——work long hours might suffer from stress.
 3- I'll never forget the day—-when——I first met my best friend.
 4- Titanic is a film —which—tells the story of a horrible accident.
 B- Write wh-questions to which the underlined words are the answers:
 1- They moved here two weeks ago. : When did they move here?
 2- The shirt costs twenty pounds. : How much does the shirt cost?
  3- Mr. John wants to start a business. : Who wants to start a business?
 4- I go to the library twice a week. : How often do you go to the library?

 ll-Reading Comprehension

                           'Best party ever' costs parents $20,000
       The parents of an Australian teenager may have a $20,000 bill to pay
 for damages caused at a party held by their son. Corey Delaney, 16, decided to throw
 a party in his house on Saturday night while his parents were on vacation. He posted
 an open invitation on the My Space website, which resulted in 500 teenagers showing
 up at his Melbourne home. The youths got drunk and started damaging neighboring
 properties. After complaints from neighbors, 30 police officers, police dogs and a
 backup helicopter went to break up the party. The young partygoers threw rocks and
 stones at the police and their cars. The state police commissioner Christine Nixon told
 a news conference that Corey "needs to learn a lesson, and one way or another we'll
 be making sure that happens."

     Corey seemed proud of his party when reporters interviewed him.
 Australia's Nine Network TV news asked him what advice he had for other teenagers
 planning a party. His reply was: "Get me to do it for you!" He added that he had
 organized the "best party ever." Corey explained how the party grew to be so big:
"It was just an open house party and a lot of people came and it overflowed onto the
street... .The cops came and told all the people to quiet down... .There were people
bottling cars and the whole streets were flooded with people," he said. His parents
were furious at their son's actions: "We're absolutely disgusted that he could do this,
not only to us but to our neighborhood," his mother said. Corey was apologetic
towards his neighbors, saying: "It was really unfair what happened to them."

A- Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1-Corey's parents were away on vacation when their son gave a party. (True)
2-The boy invited strangers using the MySpace website. (True)
3-The boy's parents were glad their son enjoyed his party. (False)
4-The boy felt sorry for his neighbors after the party. (False)

B- Match the following synonyms from the article:
1-Youths                a-angry (1: b)
2-Apologetic           b- teenagers (2: d)
3-Furious              c- homes     (3: a)
4-Properties           d- sorry (4: c)

                                   Sample test 2
I-Grammar
A- Fill in the gaps with a suitable relative pronoun (why, when, who, which, whose, and
where).
1- Giza is the city—where———the pyramids can be found.
2- That's the man—whose——house was burgled yesterday.
3- I'll never forget the day—-when———I first met my best friend.
4- Titanic is a film —which——tells the story of a horrible accident.

B- Write wh-questions to which the underlined words are the answers:
1-The film starts at 9:30 p.m. : When does the film start?
2-They live near the cinema. : Where do they live?
3-Mr. John wants to start a business. : Who wants to start a business?
4-I go to the library twice a week. : How often do you go to the library?

ll-Reading Comprehension:

                       Men Funnier than women, says scientist
Men are naturally funnier than women. This is the claim of a UK male
professor, Sam Shuster. He conducted research on 400 different people as he
unicycled around his town. He observed the reaction of onlookers and discovered that
men made more jokes about him than women, and that men's jokes were more
aggressive. He said three-quarters of male "jokers" mocked him and made nasty
comments, while most women tended to tease him with a smile. He said: "The
difference between the men and women was absolutely remarkable and consistent."
Professor Shuster believes the male hormone testosterone is the cause of men being
funnier. He found that teenage boys were aggressive in their humor and this
aggression changed with older men into a funnier form of joking.
Earlier research suggests women and men use humor differently. One
study said women tend to tell fewer jokes than men and male comedians outnumber
female ones. Another showed men look more for a punch line. Men also use people
they know as the subject of their jokes, often in a negative way. Married men seem to
like hearing and making jokes about mothers-in-law. British comedian John Moloney
disagreed with Profess< Shuster's findings. He said that in his 21-year career in
comedy, he had never noticed that men were funnier than women. He stated: "The
difference is that if a group of women were together and the conversation lulls, they
don't automatically start telling jokes, which men do. It then becomes a bit of a
competition, but that doesn't mean to say men are funnier."

A- Say whether the following statements are true (T) or False (F)
1- A scientist has discovered men have funnier faces than women. True
2- The scientist conducted his research while riding a unicycle. True
3- Men dislike hearing jokes about their wife's mother. False
4- He said men become funnier as they get older. True

B- Match the following synonyms from the article:
1-Reaction           a-topic (1: c)
2-Mocked              b-bad    (2: d)
3-subject            c-response (3: a)
4-Negative            d-made fun of (4: b)

                                 Other exercises
I- Grammar
Correct the tenses between brackets:
1. Look! The boys.......... (play) football.(are playing)
2- Two years ago, I (have) a nice dress. (had)
3. She never.......... (study) her lessons. (studies)
4. Next week, we.......... (travel) to America. (will travel)
5. They.......... (not/see) their friends yet. (haven’t seen)
6. Yesterday, she.......... (be) very sick. (was)
7. The bus.......... Just.......... (stop) . (has just stopped)
8. The children.......... (do) their homework, while we were watching TV. (did)
-Fill in the gaps with a suitable relative pronoun (why, when, who, which, whose, and
where).
1- Giza is the city—where———the pyramids can be found.
2- That's the man—whose——house was burgled yesterday.
3- I'll never forget the day—-when———I first met my best friend.
4- Titanic is a film —which——tells the story of a horrible accident.

B- Write wh-questions to which the underlined words are the answers:
1-The film starts at 9:30 p.m. : When does the film start?
2-They live near the cinema. : Where do they live?
3-Mr. John wants to start a business. : Who wants to start a business?
4-I go to the library twice a week. : How often do you go to the library?
                         ‫إعــــــداد‬

‫جـامـعــة الـقـاهــرة - كـلـيـة اآلداب – قـسـم الـلـغـة اإلنـجـلـيـزيـة.‬

                      ‫4202567210‬

								
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