SHUNT COMPENSATOR FOR INTEGRATION OF WIND FARM TO POLLUTED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM by iaemedu

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									 International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN
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ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)
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   SHUNT COMPENSATOR FOR INTEGRATION OF WIND FARM TO
             POLLUTED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

           T. NAGESWARA PRASAD1, V. CHANDRA JAGAN MOHAN2,
                        DR. V.C. VEERA REDDY3
     1
       Research Scholar, Department of EEE, S.V.U. College of Engineering, Tirupati, India
    2
      Asst. Professor, Department of EEE, Vaishnavi Institute of Technology, Tirupati, India
     3
       Professor & Head, Department of EEE, S.V.U. College of Engineering, Tirupati, India
                E-mail:1np_thunga@yahoo.com, 2 veerareddyj1@rediffmail.com, 3
                                  veerareddy_vc@yahoo.com

  ABSTRACT

  Greater concerns about rising fossil fuel prices, technical and environmental reasons,
  reliability of power and energy security increase are making the energy sector to incline
  towards installation of distributed resources or distributed generation (DG). DG is gearing-up
  now-a-days to serve local and distributed loads. Integration of DG to the distribution system
  is a hectic task as the present day Distribution systems are highly polluted due to non-linear
  loads. Integration of wind farm, employing squirrel cage induction generators, to distribution
  system is considered in this paper. In this paper challenges and opportunities arising from
  integration of wind power to polluted distribution system and viable measures to enable
  efficient, unity power factor operation at point of connection using shunt compensator are
  presented. The system is analyzed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  Keywords: Distributed Generation (DG), Polluted Distributed System, Wind Generation,
  Power Quality improvement, Shunt Compensator

  1. INTRODUCTION

  The use of Distributed Energy Resource is gaining importance and is being pursued as a
  supplement and as alternative to large conventional power stations using fossil fuels. Out of
  the renewable energy resources like Wind, Biomass, Solar PV, Geothermal etc., wind is one
  of the most renewable resources found in nature available free of cost with zero hazardous
  effects. Harnessing power from wind through wind farms is given greater attention around
  the globe as it is one of the most mature technologies among all the renewable resources [1].
  By the end of 2011, of the total renewable power capacity, 390 GW, across the world 61.1%
  of the renewable power is through Wind energy [2], [3]. Wind energy is a major source of

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                        ies           world. Fig. 1 shows the increasing trend of the installed
power in over 70 countries across the wo
                            Renewable,
capacity of Global Total Renewable, Wind, Biomass, Solar PV and Geothermal Powers
cumulative installed capacity from 2005 to 2011.




               Fig. 1 A Global Renewable Power Cumulative installed capacity

     e
Large percentage of wind energy conversion systems around the world is employing Squirrel
Cage Induction Generators (SCIG). The operation of SCIG demands reactive power, usually
provided from the grid and/or by shunt operated capacitor banks. Wind generation b  based DG
                                       micro-grid                                 o
units can operate individually or in a micro grid which is formed by a cluster of DG units
                                                                   load .
connected to a Distribution Network to serve local and distributed loads. This strengthens the
Distribution system and improves the service reliability.

1.1 Polluted Distributed Systems
  1

The advancements and ease of control of Power Electronic Devices made extensive usage of
semiconductor technology in power industry [4]. This has led to deterioration of Power
                                                  systems.                    non
Quality in both Transmission and Distribution systems. The presence of non-linear loads
injects harmonics into the power system and is becoming a serious concern not only to the
consumers but also to the utility causing problems such as overheating and destruction of
                               quality                                               [
electrical equipment, voltage quali degradation, malfunctioning of meters etc., [5]. The
                                                        non-linear            non
distribution system feeds different kinds of linear and non linear loads. The non-linear loads
           sinusoidal
draw non-sinusoidal currents from ac mains and cause reactive power burden and excessive
                                                                                  neigh
neutral currents and are also responsible for lower efficiency and interfere with neighboring
communication networks [6] - [9 9].

The power factor and efficiency can be improved by using capacitors and synchronous
                                                         Filters
condensers but they cannot eliminate harmonics. Passive Filters proved to be the solution for
harmonic suppression, greater efficiency and power factor improvement in distribution
systems. However, they have their own potentialities (more economical, maintenance free,
                                         synchronous condensers) [10] and limitations (not
zero short circuit currents compared to synch                         ]
suitable for changing system conditions, mistuning, fixed compensation, large size instability
                                           [5],
and they may create new system resonance) [5 [10].

                                                                     alternatives,
To overcome these problems, many authors have proposed many alternatives, but Active
                                                                                   harmonics
Power Filters (APFs) proved to be a very effective alternative for suppression of harmonics.

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Shunt Active Power Filter (ShAPF) proves to be an attractive solution for reactive power
compensation and suppression of current harmonics [5] and Series Active Power Filter
(SeAPF) for suppression of voltage harmonics [6].

This paper emphasizes on suppression of current harmonics using shunt compensator. Shunt
Compensator supplies harmonic current of same magnitude but opposite in phase of the
current harmonics due to non-linear load. The main task in this compensator is the
computation of reference current signal and generation of gate signals for Voltage Source
Inverter (VSI). So many methods have been proposed by various authors for harmonic
elimination [11] - [14]. But, the mathematical model and the control scheme given in [15] are
simple and easy to implement. The control schemes used for the generation of gate signals for
PWM inverter are compared and reported in [15], [16] and the Fuzzy Logic controller is
found superior compared to the conventional PI controller.

The Fuzzy Logic (FL) is closer in spirit to human thinking and natural language than
conventional logical systems. This provides a means of converting a linguistic control
strategy based on expert knowledge into an automatic control strategy. The ability of fuzzy
logic to handle imprecise and inconsistent real-world data made it suitable for a wide variety
of applications [17]. In particular, the methodology of the fuzzy logic controller (FLC)
appears very useful when processes are too complex for analysis or when the available
sources of information are interpreted qualitatively, inexactly or with certain uncertainty.
Thus FLC may be viewed as a step towards a rapprochement between conventional precise
mathematical control and human-like decision making.

One of the major drawbacks of FLC that does not make wide spread use is the difficulty of
choice and design of membership functions to suit to the given problem. Thorough
understanding of the process to be controlled is very much essential for framing the rules for
the fuzzy logic controller [18]. Thus, tuning of the fuzzy logic controller by trial and error is
often necessary to get a satisfactory performance. However, the Neural Networks (NN) have
the capability of identification of a system by which the characteristic features of a system
can be extracted from the input and output data [19], [20]. The learning capabilities of NN
can be combined with FL system resulting in a NFIS. ANFIS has proved to have very good
prediction capabilities.

An effort is made to overcome the integration barriers and help sustainable and clean DG
technologies and make their contribution to the Power System in a way that enhances the
overall grid performance. It is proved in this paper that the shunt compensator can effectively
be utilized to perform the following functions in the event of integration of wind power
generators to polluted distribution system.
    1) Dynamic reactive power support to the wind farm and the load
    2) Current harmonic compensation at the Point of connection
    3) Unity power factor operation at Point of connection
    4) Efficient operation of wind farms

In addition to the above objectives, the power quality is strictly maintained within the
standards prescribed by IEEE-519 [22] and IEC-61000 standards.




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2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND MODELING

2.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The single line diagram of the power system under consideration is shown in Fig. 2. The
network consists of a 33KV, 50 Hz, grid supply point, feeding a 33KV distribution system.
There are four load centers in the system L1, L2, L3 and L4. The four load centers comprise of
Linear and Non-Linear loads. The Wind farm comprises of 4 wind turbines using squirrel
cage induction generators each rated 1.5MW, 690V, 50Hz. Each generator is provided 170
KVAr fixed reactive power compensation through a bank of capacitors to give necessary
reactive power support at the time of starting. The total wind farm capacity 6MW is
connected to the 33KV distribution system at MV7, Point of Common Coupling (PCC),
through a 690V/33KV transformer. In this study a mean wind speed of 12 m/s is considered.
The Squirrel Cage Induction Generator model available in Matlab / Simulink
SimPowerSystem libraries is used.




       Fig. 2 one-line diagram of distribution system with wind farm integrated at PCC

2.2 COMPENSATION SCHEME

In many cases, the power system design criterion is based on the current and its waveform.
Hence, it is necessary that the rms value of the total current (current harmonics) be reduced as
much as possible. This not only reduces the losses but also reduces the distortion in voltage at
the point of connection. Fig. 3 shows the basic compensation scheme of compensator to make
the source current free from harmonics and in phase with source voltage by drawing or
supplying a filter current ic from or to the utility at point of connection.




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                             Fig. 3 Shunt Compensator basic compensation scheme

2.2.1. CALCULATION OF REFERENCE CURRENT

The peak value of reference source current is calculated by regulating voltage across
capacitor of the VSI. Source supplies two current components i. active and ii. loss (to meet
losses in the VSI). The controller used in the VSI is supposed to generate the gating signals to
maintain the required value of active current component by maintaining the DC voltage
constant.

The source voltage and source current are given by
v s (t ) = Vsm sin ωt                        (1)
i s (t ) = I sm sin ωt                      (2)
As per Fig. 3, the load, source and compensator currents are related as
i s (t ) = i L (t ) − iC (t )               (3)
           ∞
i L (t ) = ∑ I n sin(nωt + φ n )
          n =1
                                        ∞
       = I 1 sin(ωt + φ f ) + ∑ I n sin(nωt + φ n )
                                        n=2

       = i Lf (t ) + i Lh (t )                           (4)

Where i Lf and i Lh are the fundamental and harmonic components of load current. I 1 and I n are
the peak values of fundamental and nth harmonic component of load currents respectively.
Assuming the voltage at load as v s (t ) , the instantaneous load power can be expressed as
p Load (t ) = v s (t ) * i L (t )
            = Vsm I 1 sin 2 ωt * cos φ f + Vsm I 1 sin ωt * cos ωt * sin φ f
                                    ∞
            + Vsm sin ωt * ∑ I n sin(nωt + φ n )
                                 n=2



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      = p L (t ) + q L (t ) + p Lh (t )               (5)
where p L (t ) , q L (t ) and p Lh (t ) are active, reactive and harmonic power of load. Out of these
powers p L (t ) will be supplied by the source i.e.,
 p L (t ) = Vsm I 1 sin 2 ωt * cos φ f
         = (Vsm sin ωt ).( I 1 cos φ f ) sin ωt
      = Vs (t ) * i s (t )                   (6)
From (2) and (6), the peak value of source current is given by I sm = I 1 cos φ f

There are also some switching losses in the PWM converter and, hence, the utility must
supply a small overhead for the capacitor leakage and converter switching losses in addition
to the real power to the load. The total peak current to be supplied by the source is therefore
   *
 I sm = I sm + I sl                            (7)

The peak value of the reference current I sm can be estimated by controlling the dc-side
capacitor voltage. The ideal compensation requires the source current to be sinusoidal and in-
phase with the source voltage irrespective of the nature of load current. The desired source
currents after compensation can be given as
  ∗      ∗
i sa = I sm sin ωt ,
  ∗      ∗
i sb = I sm sin(ωt − 120),
  ∗      ∗
i sc = I sm sin(ωt − 240)

Hence, the magnitude of the source currents needs to be determined by controlling the dc side
capacitor voltage.

2.2.2. DESIGN OF DC SIDE CAPACITOR

Whenever the load changes not only a real power imbalance gets established between source
and load but also a reactive power and harmonic real power imbalance between active filter
and the load. The real power imbalance has to be compensated by the DC capacitor. This
drives the DC capacitor voltage away from the reference value. For satisfactory operation of
the compensator, the peak value of the reference current must be regulated to change in
proportion to the real power drawn from the source. This real power charged or discharged by
the capacitor compensates for the real power consumed by the load. Whenever the capacitor
recovers from its transient state to its reference voltage, the real power imbalance gets
vanished. Also the reactive power required at the point of connection will be compensated by
the compensator.

Thus the role of the DC side capacitor is (i) to absorb / supply real power demand of the load
during transient period and (ii) maintain DC voltage in the steady state. The design of the DC
side capacitor is based on the maximum possible variation in load and the required reduction
in voltage ripple [11]. Thus the DC side capacitor can be found from

            π ∗ I Ci ,rated
C DC =
            3ωVdr , P − P (max)


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Where I Ci, rated is the rated filter current and Vdr , P − P (max) is the peak-to-peak voltage ripple.

Therefore, for the system considered in Fig. 3, the parameters selected for simulation are
LC = 1mH, V DC ,ref = 5000V and C DC = 300µF.

2.2.3. DESIGN OF COMPENSATOR CIRCUIT PARAMETERS
SELECTION OF COMPENSATOR INDUCTOR LC AND REFERENCE VALUE OF
DC LINK VOLTAGE V DCref :

For of unity power factor operation, that is, the source fundamental current I s1 in-phase with
the source voltage Vs , the compensator should compensate all the fundamental reactive
power of the load. Thus the compensator current I C1 should be 900 out-of-phase to Vs as
shown in Fig. 4
                                  i s1          Vs        VC1

                                         iC 1    jωLC I C1
                                i L1

                 Fig. 4 Phasor representation of Shunt Compensator
From Fig. 4, the compensator current I C1 is obtained as
VC1 = Vs + jωLC I C1
      VC 1 − V s  V       V 
I C1 =           = C 1 1 − s 
                        V 
        ωLC       ωLC      C1 

and the 3-phase reactive power delivered by the compensator can be calculated as
QC1 = 3Vs I C1
            V       V 
     = 3Vs  C1 1 − s 
            ωL  V                                (8)
            C        C1 

That is, the compensator works either as source of reactive power when VC1 > Vs (QC1 = + ve)
or sink of reactive power when VC1 < Vs (QC = −ve) .

The compensator inductor LC is used to filter out the ripples in the inverter current that occur
due to switching of the inverter. Hence, the design of LC is based on the principle of
harmonic current reduction. For the PWM inverter that operates in linear modulation mode
0 ≤ m a ≤ 1 ( ma = Vm 0.5V DC , the amplitude modulation factor), the maximum harmonic
voltage occurs at the frequency m f ω , where m f is the frequency modulation of the inverter.
The ripple current of the PWM inverter is given as
                VCh (m f ω )
I Ch (m f ω ) =                                       (9)
                 m f ωLC
V DCref and LC can be obtained by solving equations (8) & (9) simultaneously.



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3. PROPOSED SCHEME OF CONTROL

System modeling based on conventional mathematical tools is not well suited for dealing
with ill-defined and uncertain systems. By contrast, a fuzzy inference system employing
fuzzy ‘if-then’ rules can model the qualitative aspects of human knowledge and reasoning
processes without employing precise quantitative analysis. However, even today, no standard
methods exist for transforming human knowledge or experience into the rule base and
database of a fuzzy inference system. There is a need for effective methods for tuning the
membership functions so as to minimize the output error measure. Recently, ANFIS
architecture has proved to be an effective tool for tuning the membership functions. ANFIS
can serve as basis for constructing a set of fuzzy ‘if-then’ rules with appropriate membership
functions to generate the stipulated input-output data. An initial fuzzy inference system is
taken from PI controller and is tuned with back propagation algorithm based on the collection
of input-output data. The proposed control scheme is shown in Fig. 5. The system considered
is a balanced three-phase system with a wind farm integrated to the system at MV6 and
compensator is connected at MV1 as shown in Fig. 2. The scheme of generation of reference
currents for the generation of gating signals of PWM inverter is also illustrated in Fig. 5. The
shunt compensator employs a diode clamped PWM inverter.




                          Fig. 5 Shunt Compensator control scheme

The parameters for the ANFIS network used for the system under study are as detailed in
Table 1.

                       Table 1 Parameters used for ANFIS controller
                                  Parameter                   Value
                    Number of training data pairs          500
                    Type of Membership function            Triangular
                    Number of input Membership functions 14
                    Number of epochs for training          50




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The rule base used for the TS-Fuzzy and ANFIS controller is shown in Table 2.

                      Table 2 Rule base for Fuzzy & ANFIS controllers
                                                  Input 2
                                               (∫error (∫e))
                                NB     NM NS           ZE    PS    PM              PB
                        NB      NB     NB      NB      NB    NM NS                 ZE
              Input 1   NM NB          NB      NB      NM NS       ZE              PS
            (error (e)) NS      NB     NB      NM NS         ZE    PS              PM
                        ZE      NB     NM NS           ZE    PS    PM              PB
                        PS      NM NS          ZE      PS    PM    PB              PB
                        PM NS          ZE      PS      PM    PB    PB              PB
                        PB      ZE     PS      PM      PB    PB    PB              PB

4. RESULTS & DISCUSSION

The power system with wind farm integrated to it at MV6 along with the shunt compensator
is illustrated in Fig. 2. Simulations are carried out using Matlab/Simulink to study the impact
of the compensator on the operation of the system. The total simulation time considered is 0.5
Sec. Simulations are carried out to show that the filter eliminates the harmonics and also
improves the power factor at the point of connection. The simulation was conducted with the
following chronology:
     • at t = 0.0 sec, the simulation starts with shunt compensator not connected to the
         system
     • at t = 0.1 sec, the filter is turned ON
     • at t = 0.2 sec, the load is increased from 155 amps to 185 amps
     • at t = 0.3 sec, the load is decreased from 185 amps to 170 amps
     • at t = 0.4 sec, the load is increased from 170 amps to 185 amps




                                  Fig. 6 Load current in phase-a

Fig. 6 depicts the non-sinusoidal nature of current due to non-linear loads. These non-linear
currents have serious impact as detailed in section 1.1, on the operation of electrical

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equipment being operated. As a result of this harmonic current the performance and life span
of the induction generators being operated in wind farm integrated to distribution system
beyond MV1 at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), MV7, gets deteriorated.

To protect the wind farm from the adverse effects due to harmonics, the shunt compensator is
turned ON at t = 0.1 sec. The instant the filter is switched ON, the current becomes
sinusoidal. Fig. 7 illustrates the significance of compensator in making the current sinusoidal.




                           Fig. 7 Current in phase-a at source (MV1)

Comparison of Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 indicates that the current at MV1 continues to be sinusoidal
after t = 0.1 sec for any load condition. The harmonic content in current and power factor at
different load conditions is listed in Table 3. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in current
without the compensator is found as 31% and the power factor 0.7. Both are objectionable
from the industry standards point of view.

The Distortion Power Factor (DPF) is calculated at five different instants and tabulated in
Table 3. The Distortion Power Factor describes how the harmonic distortion of load current
decreases the average power transferred to the load. DPF is given by

                                                      1
                                       DPF =
                                                 1 + THD 2

                  Table 3 THD and power factor for different load conditions

                                       Status of
              Instant      Load                           THD     Power
                                        Shunt                                  DPF
               (sec)      (amps)                          (%)     factor
                                     Compensator
                0.05        155          OFF              31.0      0.7        0.955
                0.15        155           ON              1.80       1         0.999
                0.25        185           ON              1.81       1         0.999
                0.35        170           ON              1.80       1         0.999
                0.45        185           ON              1.81       1         0.999


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Fig. 8 shows that the power factor at MV1 oscillates due to the starting of induction
generators in wind farm and stabilizes finally to 0.7 at 0.015 sec. The power factor is low due
to the reactive power drawn by the induction generators in the wind farm. The power factor
0.7 is a low value as per the IEEE-519 [22] and IEC-61000 standards.




                                   Fig. 8 Power factor at MV1

The compensator when turned ON not only generates harmonic power in such a way that it
cancels the harmonic content in the current but also generates the reactive power needed at
MV1. The reactive power needed for wind farm operation is met from the compensator. Thus
the power factor is maintained unity by the compensator. For any load condition, the current
is found to be sinusoidal and the power factor is unity. The steady state and dynamic
performance of the shunt compensator is found satisfactory. The compensator current
increases with the increase in load and is illustrated in Fig. 9. The current will be in
opposition to the harmonic current to make the source current sinusoidal and unity power
factor operation at the point of connection.




                                   Fig. 9 Compensator current

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The instant compensator is switched ON the current becomes sinusoidal i.e., free from
harmonics and the power factor becomes unity. The improvement in the power factor from
0.7 to unity means that the filter supplies the required reactive power for the operation of
induction generators in the wind farm. The performance of the proposed shunt compensator is
much better in terms of THD and DPF.

5. CONCLUSION

The role of shunt compensator for harmonic minimization and reactive power support for the
wind farm is presented in this paper. The proposed compensator is found satisfactory for
harmonics mitigation meeting the IEEE-519 standards. The average power transferred to load
is increased. The mitigation of harmonics reduces the unnecessary heating and increase the
life span of induction generators used in wind farm. Compensator is able to provide reactive
power for the operation of induction generators in the wind farm, thus reducing the burden on
the grid. The simulation results show that the Shunt Compensator can be used for satisfactory
integration of wind farm to the distribution system.

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AUTHORS PROFILE



                   T. Nageswara Prasad is a Research Scholar at Sri Venkateswara University College of
                   Engineering, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra
                   Pradesh, India. He obtained B.Tech. from Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore and
                   M.Tech. from JNTUCE, Anantapur. His area of interest is Power Quality, Power System
                   Operation & Control, Microprocessors, Machines etc.,. He has more than a decade of
                   teaching experience in engineering college. He is a Life member of ISTE.




                   V. Chandra Jagan Mohan obtained B.Tech. degree from RMK Engineering College,
                   Chennai and M.Tech. degree from Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Tirupati. He
                   is presently working as Assistant Professor, Department of EEE, Vaishnavi Institute of
                   Technology, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. His areas of interest include Power Quality,
                   Power System Operation & Control.




                   Dr. V. C. Veera Reddy obtained his ME & Ph.D. degrees from Sri Venkateswara
                   University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India in 1981 & 1999. He is presently working as
                   Professor and Head, Department of EEE, S.V.U College of Engineering. He pursued
                   research in the area of Power Systems. He has 31 years of teaching experience. He is a life
                   member of CSE, IETE, and former member of IEEE. He has published 47 papers in the
                   area of Power Systems in various journals.




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