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Women _ The War - Vista del Lago High School

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  • pg 1
									Women & The War


   Changing Roles For
   Women During WWII
Rosie Riveter
   During wartime the
    govt. did everything
    they could to attract
    women to the
    workforce
   Rosie Riveter: A term
    used to symbolize the
    many women who
    worked in defense     Image portrayed did not reflect
    industries During     reality American women from
    War II                all ages, ethnic, & economic
                            backgrounds went to work during
                            the wartime economy.
Changes for Women
                              1936 poll showed that
   Before the war the
                               82% of Americans
    only women who             believed the husband
    worked were single &       should be the only
    young                      one working
   Social disproval and      By 1940 however,
    the fear of women          15.5% of all married
    taking men’s jobs          women worked
    kept married women        Except for Teaching
    from work                  & Nursing few
                               women had
                               professional careers
New Kinds of Jobs
   Women often had to take low paying jobs
   Factory Jobs were only in industries that
    produced clothing, textiles, and shoes
   Men dominated the higher paying factory
    work
   Everywhere women earned less than men
   Like with WWI, WWII brought women
    into different parts of the workforce
Patriotic Duty
   As men were drafted
    many factory jobs
    became vacant
   They moved into these
    better paying jobs
    mostly in the defense
    industry
   Leaving the traditional   Like Rosie they now worked
                              in airplane plants, shipyards as
    women’s jobs behind
                              riveters, steelworkers, & steel
                              industries.
Recruiting Women Workers
   There was still a labor      Posters and
    shortage                      advertisements told
   Office of War                 women it was their
    Information launched          patriotic duty to work
    a recruitment                 for their country
    campaign                     “An American
   Aimed at women who            homemaker with the
    traditionally stayed at       strength & ability to run
    home to work                  a house & raise a
                                  family…has the
       Older
                                  strength and ability to
       Married
                                  take her place in a vital
                                  War industry.”
Results of Campaign
   The # of working          Married women came
    women rose by 1/3          into the workforce
   14.6 million in 1941      For the 1st time in history
    to 19.4 in 1944            they outnumbered the
                               single working women
   Women made up 35%
    of the civilian           More than 2 million
    workforce during           women over the age of
                               35 years old found jobs
    wartime
                               by the end of the war ½
   Married women came         the women working were
    into the workforce         over age 35
Job Opportunities for African Americans
                                 Black women had
                                  already been
                                  members of the
                                  workforce
                                 Domestic work was
                                  all they could get
                                 Faced discrimination
                                  when applying for
  1940-1944  increased &
                                  defense jobs
  the # in domestic dropped
  • # rose from 8.6% to 18%      They fought back
Problems for Working Women
   Women still faced a # of problems
   Hostility, sexism, strict rules on socialization
   They had to leave their children at home
   The contradiction is still present
   They earned much less than men
   Seniority: status arrived from length of service,
    took longer for them to qualify for
   Salary Gap always present
         Example Men at one plant earned $3,368 per
       year while women doing the same job earned
                           $2,928
Benefits of Employment
   Employers were
    pleased to have female
    workers
   Money earned made a
    difference in their lives
   Some paid off debts
   They found their work
    more interesting &
    challenging
   Women were eager to
    prove themselves
                                     The govt. assumed
                                      women would go back
    After The War                     home after the war
                                     Pressure to return home
                                      after was intense
                                     Returning servicemen
                                      wanted their jobs back
                                      and their home-life
                                     Campaign to encourage
                                      women to go home
Women realized that they were
                                     Twice as many women
capable of doing something more       as men lost their jobs
than cooking a meal.                  after the wartime
                                      economy ended

								
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