Unpacking the Structures and
Functions of the skin
Explain simply the
structure of the
Explain the List the common
functions of the cell structures
skin found in the skin
State the system
which skin is
List the layers of
the epidermis and
sections of the
sections of the
You are likely to shed some 20
kilos of skin in a lifetime.
As an adult, you may have more than 7
square meters of skin -- about the size of
Right now there are over a million dust
mites, microscopic critters invisible to the
naked eye, on your mattress and pillow,
chomping on the dead skin cells that fell off
you last night!
Our body structures
Basis of all life starts from a cell
Cells are tiny units of life
Cell wall – the outer
Cytoplasm – jelly
like substance Nucleus – the
filling. control centre
(The fluid part of (DNA is found
the cell containing here)
Tissues Not the
Four groups of human tissues
Tissue means – a group of similar cells that perform a specialised function
Epithelial – cellular tissue covering a free surface, classified into types based on the
number of layers and the shape of the cells
Connective – serves to support and bind tissues together. A basic type of tissue that
includes bone, cartilage and fibrous tissue
collagen and elastin
Muscular – a contractile organ in response to stimulus
arrector pili muscle
Nervous – responsible for receiving and transmitting messages. Initiates controls and co-
ordinates the body’s ability to adapt to its environment
8 receptors; pain heat, cold, touch. pressure
Skin is called the
Largest organ Organ and a capable of great
Very complex still being
in the body system in one strength and
THE SKIN SECTIONS
Structurally the skin comprises of two key parts. The
thinner portion, composed of epithelial tissue;
called the EPIDERMIS.
The epidermis is attached to the deeper, thicker layer of
called the DERMIS.
Withinthe dermis is the lower
subcutaneous layer consisting of adipose tissue.
Fibresfrom the dermis stretch into the subcutaneous layer
and anchor onto it.
The subcutaneous layer attaches to underlying tissues and
This bottom ,lower layer can be known as the:
Adipose Layer or
Epidermis- our defense against
•The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin.
•Only 0.1 mm thick
• It has five layers, but contains no blood vessels.
• Your body reproduces a new epidermis layer
approximately every 30 days.
•When damaged, the epidermis is capable of healing
itself, usually without scarring.
Epidermal Blood supply
basal / germinativum
Clients Leave Gratified, Satisfied & Beautiful
The 5 epidermal layers
Stratum Corneum (Clients)
25-30 layers of dead flat skin made up of keratin, continuously
shed and replaced
Stratum Lucidum (Leave)
3-5 layers of clear, flat dead cells found mainly on the soles of feet
and palms of hands.
Stratum Granulosum (Gratified)
3-5 layers of flattened cells that develop dark staining granules
Stratum Spinosum (Satisfied)
8-10 layers of polyhedral cells that fit closely together
Stratum Basal / Germinativum (Beautiful)
Single layer of cuboidal cells . Contains stem cells and melanocyte.
Main purpose is the germination of new cells
The dermis is the strong, inner layer of
skin below the epidermis called the true
It supports the epidermis with a blood
The dermis provides your skin with
strength and elasticity.
When injured or damaged, the dermis
does not regenerate fully and may create
Has 2 levels / layers
The upper papillary layer – connects to the
epidermis, contains nerve endings and
The lower reticular layer – contains fibres that
allow the skin to expand and contract and
maintains skin tone.
Structures found in the dermis
The Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer
• Located at the base of the dermis and contains fat
cells to cushion and insulate the body
• Fibres from the dermis stretch into the
subcutaneous layer and anchor the skin to it.
• The subcutaneous layer attaches to underlying
tissues and organs.
Skin facts 6.52 cm
95-100 oil /sebaceous glands
650 sweat glands
78 heat sensors
1300 nerve endings for pain
13 cold receptors
17meters of blood vessels
70 meters of nerves
19,500 sensory cells of nerve fibers
160 pressure apparatuses for tactile stimuli
That was the structure (what skin has in it)
What about the Function
of the skin!
What does it do?
Where would we be Without our skin ?
THE MAIN PURPOSE IS PROTECTION
Quick wound healing
Mechanical Skins acid mantle Chemical
Sweating /rubbing in
overweight individuals household cleaners
ensation Nerve endings allow us to feel: heat, cold,
touch, pressure and pain.
eat regulation Keeps the bodies internal temperature
at 37 degrees
bsorption Skin absorbs; small amounts of chemicals,
drugs and cosmetics.
rotection Protects us against the invasion of
bacteria and injury
xcretion Sweat glands excrete salt, water and other
chemicals through pores of the skin.
ecretion Oil glands secrete sebum to maintain
the skins moisture levels
layer of fat
Keeps you cool
capillaries at the
surface of your
skin open up to
flow and release
heat from your
glands in the skin
which cools you
by the process of
Protects you from bumps, bacteria and friction
Strong fibers of
Sweat glands to cool
you down, and
combined with oil
glands providing a film
– acid mantle –
it is your first line of
Removes excess salts
and wastes like carbon
dioxide and urea
Creams and Drugs
UV light which
Skin is a miracle
It’s soft, pliable,