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					Wireless Sensor Network
Research and Application
          Ning “Martin” Xu
• Introduction
• Comparison of WSN Projects
  – Hardware
  – Software
  – Highlights
• Reference
• Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
  – Spatially distributed autonomous devices using
    sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or
    environmental conditions at different locations
• Applications
  – monitoring space
  – monitoring things
  – monitoring the interactions of things with each
    other and the encompassing space
Introduction (cont’d)
– Monitoring space
   • Environmental/habitat monitoring,precision agriculture, indoor
     climate control,surveillance,treaty verification,intelligent alarm
– Monitoring things
   • structural monitoring,ecophysiology,condition-based equipment
     maintenance,medical diagnostics,urban terrain mapping
– Monitoring the interactions of things with each other and
  the encompassing space
   • wildlife habitats, disaster management, emergency response,
     ubiquitous computing environments, asset tracking, healthcare, and
     manufacturing process flow
Comparison of WSN Projects
• CodeBlue (Harvard)

• ExScal (OSU)

• Alarm-Net (UVA)

• Opportunistic Pollution Monitor a.k.a Urban
  Microclimate Monitoring System (BU)
• Medical care, emergency/disaster scenario
• High date rate, reliable communication, and
  multiple receivers
• indoor testbed of 30 MicaZ motes, distributed
  over 3 floors CS BLDG, 1-10 senders, 3 receivers
• Detect, track, and classify multiple intruders of
  different types
• Protection of pipelines, borders, critical areas
• 1000+ XSMs and 200+ XSSs
  deployed over a 1km by
  300m opening in a forest
  in Florida
• Assisted-Living and Residential Monitoring
• Home Health Care, (Large Scale) Assisted Living Facilities
• seven-room assisted-living residential unit, with a motion
  sensor on each wall, a PC running the back-end, and a
  stargate with the AlarmGate application
• Increasing interest in
  the environment
• enable localized data
  monitoring using low-
  cost sensing
• individuals to acquire
  data about local smog
  (air pollution)
• Sensor Nodes / Boards
    BlueCode             ExScal          Alarm-Net        OPM/UMMS
  Pulse oximeter (   ** eXtreme Scale   MicaZ;            --
  Mica2 / MicaZ);    Mote (XSM);        Telos Sky;
  EKG (Mica2 /       ** eXtreme Scale   ** SeeMote;
  MicaZ, Telos);     Stargate (XSS);    Satire body
  Motion analysis    Mica2              network (MicaZ,
  sensor board                          MTS310 sensor
  (Telos);                              board);
  ** Pluto (based
  on Tmote Sky);
Hardware (cont’d)
• Sensed Parameters/Sensors
    BlueCode              ExScal           Alarm-Net   OPM/UMMS
  heart rate (HR)     Magnetic            Pulse        temperature;
  oxygen saturation   detector            SpO2         humidity;
  (SpO2)              Acoustic detector   EKG          pressure;
  EKG data            PIR detector        BP           carbon
  limb movements                          Weight       monoxide(CO);
  muscle activity                         Motions      ozone(O3);

• Battery
    BlueCode               ExScal          Alarm-Net    OPM/UMMS
  Rechargable         2x AA alkaline       --          Solar panel
  120mAh lithium      batteries                        Ni-Cad rechargeable
  polymer battery     Lead-acid battery                battery
Hardware (cont’d)
• Microprocessor
    BlueCode           ExScal            Alarm-Net   OPM/UMMS
  TI MSP430        Atmel            --               ColdFire

• Radio
    BlueCode           ExScal            Alarm-Net   OPM/UMMS
  ChipCon CC2420   ChipCon CC1000   ChipCon CC2420   --
                                                     802.11 or GSM
• O.S. and Routing
    BlueCode             ExScal      Alarm-Net   OPM/UMMS
  TinyOS            Linux           Arm-Linux    WildFireMod

  Publish/subscribe Grid routing;   Refer to     --
  routing layer;    Low power       BlueCode
  Adaptive          listening;
  Multicast Routing
• Pluto: a wearable sensor design (BlueCode)
   –   based on the Tmote Sky design
   –   TI MSP430 microprocessor
   –   ChipCon CC2420 radio
   –   gigaAnt surface-mount antenna (inverted-F used on the Telos)
   –   tiny rechargeable 120 mAh lithium polymer battery
   –   Mini-B USB connector
   –   100% compatible with Telos
Highlights (cont’d)
• Topology (ExScal)
   – its networks are the
     largest ones of either
     type fielded to date
     (Dec 2004)
   – barrier coverage is
   – deploy sensors more
     densely at the boundary
     of the region than in its
   – detection criteria
   – XSM & XSS
Highlights (cont’d)

• Atmel ATmega128L                 • Intel 400 MHz XScale
  microcontroller                    processor(PXA255)
• Chipcon CC1000 radio             • 2532W-B IEEE 802.11b card
• 4Mbit serial flash memory        • 64 MB SDRAM, 32 MB FLASH
• quad infrared, dual-axis         • type II PCMCIA slot
  magnetic, and acoustic sensors   • USB port, and 51-pin mote
• weatherproof packaging             connector;
                                   • watertight packaging
Highlights (cont’d)
• SeeMote (Alarm-Net)
  – Color display
  – Removable data storage
  – Power consumption
  – Compatible with MICAz
    and MICA2 motes
  – Small size, lightweight
    and low power
Highlights (cont’d)
 – measure a variety of environmental factors from
   multiple units, data can also be downloaded for users
   to make their own calculations (i.e. MATLAB
 – requires little maintenance: self-powering, hibernate
   and wakeup mechanism, calibrated sensors can
   function without replacement for at least two years
 – allows for many administrative features; combination
   of the Apache webserver, MySQL database, php code,
   and python code, high performance data driven
[1] Römer, Kay; Friedemann Mattern (December 2004). "The Design Space of
    Wireless Sensor Networks". IEEE Wireless Communications 11 (6): 54-61. 
[2]Thomas Haenselmann (2006-04-05). "Sensornetworks". GFDL Wireless
    Sensor Network textbook. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
[3] Culler, D.; Estrin, D.; Srivastava, M., "Guest Editors' Introduction: Overview
    of Sensor Networks," Computer , vol.37, no.8, pp. 41-49, Aug. 2004
[4] Victor Shnayder, Bor-rong Chen, Konrad Lorincz, Thaddeus R. F. Fulford-
    Jones, and Matt Welsh. Sensor Networks for Medical Care. Harvard
    University Technical Report TR-08-05, April 2005.
[5] Specification of the ExScal Clean Point. http://cast.cse.ohio-
Reference (cont’d)
[6] Arora, A.; Ramnath, R.; Ertin, E.; Sinha, P.; Bapat, S.; Naik, V.; Kulathumani,
    V.; Hongwei Zhang; Hui Cao; Sridharan, M.; Kumar, S.; Seddon, N.;
    Anderson, C.; Herman, T.; Trivedi, N.; Nesterenko, M.; Shah, R.; Kulkami, S.;
    Aramugam, M.; Limin Wang; Gouda, M.; Young-ri Choi; Culler, D.; Dutta, P.;
    Sharp, C.; Tolle, G.; Grimmer, M.; Ferriera, B.; Parker, K., "ExScal: elements
    of an extreme scale wireless sensor network," Embedded and Real-Time
    Computing Systems and Applications, 2005. Proceedings. 11th IEEE
    International Conference on , vol., no., pp. 102-108, 17-19 Aug. 2005
[7] Selavo, L., Wood, A., Cao, Q., Sookoor, T., Liu, H., Srinivasan, A., Wu, Y.,
    Kang, W., Stankovic, J., Young, D., and Porter, J. 2007. LUSTER: wireless
    sensor network for environmental research. In Proceedings of the 5th
    international Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems
    (Sydney, Australia, November 06 - 09, 2007). SenSys '07. ACM, New York,
    NY, 103-116.
Reference (cont’d)
[8] John A. Stankovic, “Dust to Doctors: WSN for Medical Applications,”
    plenary speech, Tokyo, Japan, 2007.
[9] George Bishop, Peter Dib, Brandi Pitta, and Noam Yemini, Opportunistic
    Pollution Monitor (AKA: Urban Microclimate Monitoring System) MCL
    Technical Report: TR-05-01-2007.
The End


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