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Latin II Final Exam Review I. Declining Nouns a. 1st declension Singular Plural Nominative puella puellae Genitive puellae puellarum Dative puellae puellis Accusative puellam puellas Ablative puella puellis b. 2nd declension Singular Plural Nominative amicus amici Genitive amici amicorum Dative amico amicis Accusative amicum amicos Ablative amico amicis c. 3rd declension (m,f,n) Singular Plural Nominative (-----) mater, pater, nomen matres, es, a Genitive matris, patris, nominis matrum, um, um Dative matri, patri, nomini matribus, ibus, ibus Accusative matrem, patrem, nomen matres, es, a Ablative matre, patre, nomine matribus, ibus, ibus d. 4th declension (m/f, n) Singular Plural Nominative domus, genu domus, ua Genitive domus, genus domuum, uum Dative domui, genu domibus, ibus Accusative domum, genu domus, ua Ablative domu, genu domibus, ibus e. 5th declension (m,f,n) Singular Plural Nominative dies dies Genitive diei dierum Dative diei diebus Accusative diem dies Ablative die diebus II. Conjugating Verbs a. 1st conjugation amo, amare, amavi, amatus ACTIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect st 1 s amo amabam amabo amavi amaveram amavero 2nd s amas amabas amabis amavisti amaveras amaveris 3rd s amat amabat amabit amavit amaverat amaverit 1st p amamus amabamus amabimus amavimus amaveramus amaverimus 2nd p amatis amabatis amabitis amavistis amaveratis amaveritis 3rd p amant amabant amabunt amaverunt amaverant amaverint PASSIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect st 1 s amor amabar amabor amatus sum amatus eram amatus ero 2nd s amaris amabaris amaberis amatus es amatus eras amatus eris 3rd s amatur amabatur amabitur amatus est amatus erat amatus erit 1st p amamur amabamur amabimur amati sumus amati eramus amati erimus 2nd p amamini amabamini amabimini amati estis amati eratis amati eritis 3rd p amantur amabantur amabuntur amati sunt amati erant amati erunt b. 2nd conjugation habeo, habere, habui, habitus ACTIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect st 1 s habeo habebam habebo habui habueram habuero 2nd s habes habebas habebis habuisti habueras habueris 3rd s habet habebat habebit habuit habuerat habuerit 1st p habemus habebamus habebimus habuimus habueramus habuerimus 2nd p habetis habebatis habebitis habuistis habueratis habueritis 3rd p habent habebant habebunt habuerunt habuerant habuerint PASSIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect st 1 s habeor habebar habebor habitus sum habitus eram habitus ero 2nd s haberis habebaris habeberis habitus es habitus eras habitus eris 3rd s habetur habebatur habebitur habiuts est habitus erat habitus erit 1st p habemur habebamur habebimur habiti sumus habiti eramus habiti erimus 2nd p habemini habebamini habebimini habiti estis habiti eratis habiti eritis 3rd p habentur habebantur habebuntur habiti sunt habiti erant habiti erint c. 3rd conjugation mitto, mittere, misi, missus ACTIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect st 1 s mitto mittibam mittam misi miseram misero 2nd s mittis mittibas mittes misisti miseras miseris 3rd s mittit mittibat mittet misit miserat miserit 1st p mittimus mittibamus mittemus misimus miseramus miserimus 2nd p mittitis mittibatis mittetis misistis miseratis miseritis 3rd p mitunt mittibant mittent miserunt miserant miserint PASSIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect st 1 s mittor mittibar mittar missus sum missus eram missus ero 2nd s mittiris mittibaris mitteris missus es missus eras missus eris 3rd s mittitur mittibatur mittetur missus est missus erat missus erit 1st p mittimur mittibamur mittemur missi sumus missi eramus missi erimus 2nd p mittimini mittibamini mittemini missi estis missi eratis missi eritis 3rd p mittuntur mittibantur mittentur missi sunt missi erant missi erunt d. 4th conjugation audio, audire, audivi, auditus ACTIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect st 1 s audio audiebam audiam audivi audiveram audivero 2nd s audis audiebas audies audivisti audiveras audiveris 3rd s audit audiebat audiet audivit audiverat audiverit 1st p audimus audiebamus audiemus audivimus audiveramus audiverimus 2nd p auditis audiebatis audietis audivistis audiveratis audiveritis 3rd p audiunt audiebant audient audiverunt audiverant audiverint PASSIVE Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect 1st s audior audiebar audiar auditus sum auditus eram auditus ero nd 2 s audiris audiebaris audieris auditus es auditus eras auditus eris 3rd s auditur audiebatur audietur auditus est auditus erat auditis erit 1st p audimur audiebamur audiemur auditi sumus auditi eramus auditus erimus 2nd p audimini audiebamini audiemini auditi estis auditi eratis auditus eritis 3rd p audiuntur audiebantur audientur auditi sunt auditi erant auditus erunt III. Participles how you form the participles of active and passive verbs example: Marcus, walking to school, saw a bakery. “walking” would be a participle in Latin. Active Passive 1) use the second principle part of a verb 2)chop off the “re” 3) add -ns Present 1) the 4th principle part of a verb Imperfect 1) use the 4th principle part of a verb 2) chop off the “us” 3) add -urus Future IV. Infinitives how you form the infinitives of active and passive verbs Active Passive 1) the second principle part of 1) use the second principle part of a a verb verb 2) for 1st, 2nd, and 4th conjugations, chop off the last “e” and add an –i 3) for 3rd conjugation, chop off the Present -ere and add an –i 1) use the third principle part 1) Two words: of a verb 2) use the 4th principle part of a 2) add -isse verb Imperfect 3) use “esse” 1) use the 4th principle part of a verb 2) chop off the “us” 3) add –urus 4) add “esse” Future V. Relative Pronouns Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nominative qui quae quod Genitive cuius cuius cuius Dative cui cui cui Accusative quem quam quod Ablative quo qua quo Plural Nominative qui quae qua Genitive quorum quarum quorum Dative quibus quibus quibus Accusative quos quas qua Ablative quibus quibus quibus VI. Indefinite Adjective 1) use the previous chart 2) add –dam onto the end 3) NOTE: if the last letter of the relative pronoun is “m,” change it to an “n” before adding the ending. 4) example: qui becomes quidam; quarum becomes quarundam, and so on VII. Demonstrative a. this/these Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nominative hic haec hoc Genitive huius huius huius Dative huic huic huic Accusative hunc hanc hoc Ablative hoc hac hoc Plural Nominative hi hae haec Genitive horum harum horum Dative his his his Accusative hos has haec Ablative his his his b. that/those Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nominative ille illa illud Genitive illius illius illius Dative illi illi illi Accusative illum illam illud Ablative illo illa illo Plural Nominative illi illae illa Genitive illorum allarum illorum Dative illis illis illis Accusative illos illas illa Ablative illis illis illis c. himself/herself/itself Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nominative ipse ipsa ipsum Genitive ipsius ipsius ipsius Dative ipsi ipsi ipsi Accusative ipsum ipsam ipsum Ablative ipso ipsa ipso Plural Nominative ipsi ipsae ipsa Genitive ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum Dative ipsis ipsis ipsis Accusative ipsos ipsas ipsa Ablative ipsis ipsis ipsis d. him/her/it Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nominative is ea id Genitive eius eius eius Dative ei ei ei Accusative eum eam id Ablative eo ea eo Plural Nominative ei eae ea Genitive eorum earum eorum Dative eis eis eis Accusative eos eas ea Ablative eis eis eis e. the same 1) use the previous chart 2) add –dem onto the end 3) example: is becomes isdem; ea becomes eadem, and so on VIII. Adjectives/Adverbs Adjectives: a. regular Positive Comparative Superlative _er, rather __, more __ _est, very __, the most __ 1)the adjective 1) use the positive 1) use the positive 2)declining in 1st/2nd/3rd 2)chop off the ending (-e, 2) chop off the ending (-e, declension iter) -iter) 3)add –ior if it is 3) if it does not end in “er” note: case, number, and masculine or feminine, add –issimus (a, um) gender should match with and add –ius if it is neuter 4) if it ends in “er”, add – the noun it is with. This 4) declining should be of rimus (a, um) doesn’t mean it always has the 3rd declension 5) declining should be of to be identical with the the 1st/2nd declension noun, however. ex: magnus canis not identical, but still same case, number, gender b. irregular Positive Comparative Superlative _er, rather __, more __ _est, very __, the most __ 1. bonus, a, um 1. melior, melius 1. optimus, a, um 2. malus, a, um 2. peior, peius 2. pessimus, a, um 3. magnus, a, um 3. maior, maius 3. maximus, a, um 4. parvus, a, um 4. minor, minus 4. minimus, a, um 5. multus, a, um 5. plus 5. plurimus, a, um Adverbs: a. regular Positive Comparative Superlative (usually) _ly _er, rather __ly, more __ly _est, very __ly, the most __ly 1)use an adjective 1) use the positive 1) use the positive 2)if using a 1st or 2nd 2)chop off the ending (-e, 2) chop off the ending (-e, declension adjective, chop iter) -iter) off the ending 3)add –ior if it is 3) if it does not end in “er” and add –e masculine or feminine, add –issime 3) if using a 3rd declension and add –ius if it is neuter 4) if it ends in “er”, add – adjective, chop off the 4) NO DECLINING rime ending, and add –iter 5) again, NO DECLINING 4) NO DECLINING b. irregular Positive Comparative Superlative (usually) _ly _er, rather __ly, more __ly _est, very __ly, the most __ly 6. bene 6. melius 6. optime 7. male 7. peius 7. pessime 8. facile 8. facilius 8. facillime 9. magnopere 9. magis 9. maxime 10. paulus 10. minus 10. minime 11. multus 11. plus 11. plurimum Adverbs: ALMOST the same as adjectives. Positive = the adjective. Comparative = ior or ius (not declinable) and Superlative = issime IX. Locative and Ablative of Place to Which Rule: cities, towns, small islands, domus, rus, and humus using an accusative case without a preposition indicates place to which using an ablative case without a preposition indicates place from which using a locative case indicates place in/at which (all other prepositions such as prope, super, etc. are used regularly) Locative 1st or 2nd declension 3rd declension locative singular form = genitive singular form singular = ablative singular plural form = ablative plural form plural = ablative plural ex: Roma Romae ex: GadesGadibus AthenaeAthenis **remember, this is only for cities, towns, small islands, domus, rus, and humus!! IX. Dates The Months Reminders Ianuarius, a, um ~write lower case for Februarius, a, um Roman numerals Martius, a, um ~capitalize all special Aprilis, is, e days and Months Maius, a, um ~use ante diem or a.d. Iunius, a, um ~count backwards Iulius, a, um including the target date Augustus, a, um and the starting date September, Septembris, Septembre October, Octobris, Octobre November, Novembris, Novembre December, Decembris, Decembre Use the accusative case (on month and special day) when… using pridie using ante diem Use the ablative case (on month and special day) when… you are stating the current day On March, May, July, and October… The Kalends is the 1st of the month The Ides is on the 15th of the month The Nones is on the 7th of the month On all the other days… The Kalends is on the 1st of the month The Ides is on the 13th of the month The Nones is on the 5th of the month Calculation of Years From A.U.C to A.D/B.C if the date is <753, subtract it from 754, and you will get a B.C date if the date is >753, subtract 753 from it, and you will get a A.D date From A.D/B.C to A.U.C if the date is B.C, subtract it from 754 if the date is A.D add it to 753 Numbers in Words unus duo tres quattuor quinque sex septen octo novem decem undecim duodecim tredecim quattuordecim quindecim sedecim septendecim duodeviginti undeviginti viginti Writing Letters First: the name of the person sending the letter in the nominative case Second: the name of the person receiving the letter in the dative case Third: S.D. sends greetings Note: there was no signature at the end of letters, just “Vale” goodbye X. Q-words Relative Pronoun (chart given previously) The man, who runs through the street is not able to avoid the pig who = qui, quae, quod More on the Relative Pronoun Three parts: ~relative pronoun (qui, quae, quod) bold underlined in the example ~antecedent (what the pronoun relates to) italicized ~dependent clause (what the pronoun introduces) underlined example: Students like teachers who are interested in the students’ opinions. Interrogative Pronoun Who is standing in the street? Who = quis, quid Asks a question, does not modify a noun Interrogative Pronoun Chart ~NOTE that the plural is identical to the plural of the relative pronoun Conjunction of Quod The slave was tired because he was working in the field. Because = quod Exclamatory adverb How amazing is that dog! How = quam Interrogative Adjective What woman is that? What = qui, quae, quod Asks a question, modifies a noun XI. Grammar Predicate Nominative o Like an = sign: connects a noun to an adjective Example: Sextus stultus est. The noun and the adjective are in the same case, number, etc. REMINDER: if the two words are in two different declensions, they most likely will have different endings! Partitive Genitive o “of” Words using plus, satis, aliquid, or nihil as an adjective use the genitive Plus = more of Satis = enough of Masculine Feminine Neuter Aliquid = some of Singular Nihil = nothing of Nominative quis quis quid Dative with Genitive cuius cuius cuius certain words Dative cui cui cui o Remember Accusative quem quem quid the song! Ablative quo quo quo (Courtesy Plural of Mr. Nominative qui quae qua Hartsburg) Genitive quorum quarum quorum Threaten, harm, please, Dative quibus quibus quibus trust, resist, persuade, Accusative quos quas qua command, obey, serve, Ablative quibus quibus quibus Pardon, envy, favor, spare, believe all take the dative… Compound verbs with pre-verbs (ab-, con-, de-) also take the dative Example: occurro means “to meet.” The direct object takes the dative as if you are saying “to run to.” Accusative of… o Duration of Time Example: “for ten years” “over ten years” o Place to which Example: to Rome ad Romam Ablative of… o Time when Example: “in summer” “at dawn” o Place from which Example: from Rome a Roma Ablative of Means and Manner Example: “with a stick” (means) “in a loud voice” (manner) Ablative of Comparison o With quam doesn’t use the ablative o Without quam uses the ablative Example: Marcus altior est quam Sextus (without ablative) Marcus altior est Sexto (with ablative) XII. Deponents Reminders: Deponents look passive, but are translated as active They are conjugated as passive, from present to future perfect, all the way through They only have 3 principal parts: the present 1st person singular, the infinitive, and the perfect 1st person singular Here are the main deponent verbs: o Conor, conari, conatus sum, to try o Moror, morari, moratus sum, to delay, remain, stay o Vereor, vereri, veritus sum, to be afraid, fear o Collabor, collabi, collapses sum, to collapse o Consquor, consequi, conspectus sum, to catch up to, overtake o Loquor, loqui, locutus sum, to speak, talk o Proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum, to set out, leave o Sequor, sequi, secutus sum, to follow o Egredior, egredi, egressus sum, to go out, leave o Ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum, to go in, enter o Regredior, regredi, regressus sum, to go back, return o Experior, experiri, expretus sum, to test, try XIII: Semi-deponent verbs These verbs are deponent only in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses Example: audio, audere, ausus sum (+ infinitive) = to dare (NOT “be dared”) As in the example, these will have a form of “esse” in the fourth principle part, but will look active in the first and second. XIV: The Subjunctive Active Subjunctive Present 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4th Ed Eats A gIAnt bIAly 1) take off –re of infinitive 2) add designated vowel combo 3) add ending (m, s, t, mus, tis, nt) 4) ex: amare am ame (b/c 1st conjugation) amet (3rd p singular) **endings: 1st person singular is –m instead of –o. Imperfect 1) infinitive 2) add ending (m, s, t, mus, tis, nt) 3) ex: amare amarent (3rd p plural) Perfect 1) same as future perfect indicative 2) ex: amare amaveris (2nd p singular) Pluperfect: 1) perfect infinitive 2) add ending (m, s, t, mus, tis, nt) 3) ex: amare amavisse (perfect infinitive) amavissetis (2nd p plural) Irregular: Sum, esse, fui, futurus Present: sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint Imperfect: esse + ending essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent Perfect: fueri + ending (future perfect indicative) fuerim, fueris, fuerit, fuerimus, fueritis, fuerint Pluperfect: fuisse + ending (perfect infinitive) fuissem, fuisses, fuisset, fuissemus, fuissetis, fuissent Passive Subjunctive Present **same rule as active, but different endings: r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur 1) take off –re of infinitive 2) add designated vowel combo (ed eats a giant bialy) 3) add ending 4) ex: amare am ame (b/c 1st conjugation) ametur (3rd p singular) Imperfect **same rule as active, but different endings: r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur 1) infinitive 2) add ending 3) ex: amare amarentur (3rd p plural) Perfect: 1)4th principle part 2) add sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint 3) ex: amare amatus amatus sim (1st p singular) Pluperfect 1) 4th principle part 2) add essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent 3) ex: amare amatus amati essemus (1st p plural) XV: Uses of the Subjunctive Cum Clauses: Cum temperal : when Cum causal: since Cum concessive: although **The verb that follows is always a subjunctive Indirect Questions The pirates were asking *who *we were Head verb: indicative case *question word* (who, what, where, when, why, how…) We were: verb in the subjunctive = Piratae rogabant qui essemus subjunctive Sequence of Tenses Main Clause (Indicative) Subordinate Clause (Tense of Subjunctive) Time of Action Relative to Main Clause Primary Sequence Present Present = same time or Future after Future Perfect Perfect = time before Secondary Sequence Imperfect Imperfect =same time or Perfect after Pluperfect Perfect = time before Example: Non intellego cur servae me neglegant I do not understand why the slave-girls neglect me. Non intellego cur servae me neglexerint I do not understand why the slave-girls neglected me. In both of these statements, the main verb (“understand”) is in the present tense. In the first example, the subordinate clause (the second verb) is in the present also, so it is translated in the present. In the second example, however, the subordinate clause is in the perfect. This is translated as the time before (hence, neglected instead of neglect). This (according to the chart) is “Primary Sequence.” More examples: Non intellexi cur servae me neglegerent I did not understand why the slave-girls were neglecting me. Non intellexi cur servae me neglexissent I did not understand why the slave girls had neglected me. In both of these statements, the main verb (understand) is in the perfect tense. In the first example, the subordinate clause is in the imperfect, so it is translated in the present. In the second example, the subordinate clause is in the pluperfect. This is translated as the time before (hence, “had neglected” instead of “were neglecting.”) This , according to the chart, is “Secondary Sequence.” Result Clauses “ut” = “that,” or “resulting in” Main verb = indicative Clause = subjunctive Ex: Tua mater est tam obesa ut homines currant circum eam ut exerceant Your mom is so fat that people run around her in order to exercise. *Or: Your mom is so fat, resulting in people running around her in order that they exercise. **there are many translations for “ut,” so chose the best one to fit in the sentence. Indirect Commands There are 11 verbs used in indirect commands. Depending on which “group” they are in, they each take on different endings. meaning Latin word + case + verb construction command Impero dative ut cluase command Mando dative persuade Persuadeo dative permit, allow Permitto dative warn, advise Moneo accusative ask Rogo accusative urge Hortor accusative beg Oro accusative seek, beg, ask Peto ablative w/ prep demand Postulo ablative w/ prep inquire Quaero ablative w/prep Abbreviations: IMPP (or PIMP) = takes the dative case MR. HO = takes the accusative case PPQ = takes the ablative case with a preposition Example: Alios rogabat ut in domum procederent He was asking some to go forward into the house. Rogo is part of the MR. HO verbs, so “Alios” is accusative. Example: Coquo imperavit ut in atrium veniret He ordered the cook to come into the atrium. Impo is part of the IMPP verbs, so “Coquo” is dative. Purpose Clauses “ut” = to, so that… “ne” = lest, so that… not, in case, to avoid, to prevent… Example: Ancillae huc illuc concursabant ut omnia pararent. The slave-women were running about here and there to prepare everything. [Reminder] notice that this is in Secondary Sequence with the imperfect subjunctive (pararent) Head verb: indicative Clause: subjunctive Example: Super limen sublataest ne laberetur. She was carried over the threshold to avoid stumbling “ne” is translated as “to avoid” XVI: Indirect Statements **this does not use a subjunctive!** We see that Davus is working in the fields Head verb: normal indicative that: **implied** in between first and second parts. Davus is working: “Davus” = accusative, “is working” = infinitive =Videmus Davum in agris laborare **notice that there is no “that” between videmus and Davus The “infinitive” in the direct statement doesn’t always mean present infinitive… Ex: Puto Aureliam eo non ituram esse I think that Aurelia will not go there **This future infinitive is formed using the chart discussed early in the study guide. Any infinitive can be placed here depending on the tense. XVII: Other translations of “ut” “ut” can be used not only with a subjunctive but with an indicative verb, also Semper sum, ut vides, negotiosus As you see, I am always busy. Only with an indicative verb = “ut” is translated “as” or “when”… XVIII: Ablatives Absolute Ablative: indicates time, cause, or circumstance Absolute: independent from rest of sentence- “stands alone” Translation: With the ____(noun)_______ having been ______(participle)________ [with the participles having been discussed at the beginning of the study guide…] Coquo vocato: with the cook having been summoned… **the noun is agreeing with the participle. Here are some more examples: Auro invento: with the gold having been found Calamitate facta with the shout having been made Opera confecto with the work having been done Oratione civibus data with the speech having been given to the citizens **for more practice, go to the Ablatives Absolute sheet. Here is some practice, also: Pilo iacto: Scuto deposito: Scuto in terra deposito Fenestra fracta XVIII: Vocabulary This is most of the vocabulary from the beginning to the end of the book. This IS NOT everything, so I recommend you reference the textbook to look up other words. This is in alphabetical order, and does not include ANY culture words because they will be on Ms. Diamente’s culture sheet. 1. abripio, abripere, abripui, abreptus to snatch away 2. Ac and 3. accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus to receive, get 4. accumbo, accumbere, accubui, accubiturus to recline at a table 5. acritere fiercely 6. ad tempus on time 7. addo, addere, addidi, additus to add 8. adeo so much 9. adimo, adimere, ademi, ademptus to take away 10. admiratio amazement 11. admirer, admirari, admiratus sum to wonder 12. adorior, adoriri, adortus sum to attack 13. Adstantes, adstatnium bystanders 14. adulescens young man 15. aeger ill 16. aegroto, aegrotare, aegrotavi, aegratatuerus to be ill 17. aestas summer 18. affectus affected, overcome 19. affero, afferre, attuli, allatus to bring, bring to, bring in 20. alias another time 21. ambo both 22. amplector, amplecti, amplexus sum to embrace 23. anima soul, heart 24. animadverto, animadevertere, animadverti, adnimadverus to notice 25. antequam before 26. ara alter 27. arcesso, arcessere, arcessivi, arcessitus to summon, send for 28. ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsurus to burn, blaze 29. arena sand, arena 30. aspergo, aspergere, asperse, aspersus to sprinkle, splash, splatter 31. aspersus sprinkled 32. audio, audere, ausus sujm to dare 33. aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatus to carry away, take away 34. Aufugio, aufugere, aufugi to run away, escape 35. auspex officiating priest 36. autem however 37. Ave Greetings! 38. avis bird 39. benevolentia kindness 40. blande in a coaxing manner 41. boletus mushroom 42. Bono animo es! Cheer up! 43. cachinus laughter 44. calor heat 45. calvus bald 46. candelabrum lamp-stand 47. capillatus with long hair 48. careo, carere, carui, cariturus to need, lack 49. caro, carnis meat 50. casa hut, cottage 51. castigo, castigare, castigavi, castigatus to rebuke, reprimand 52. castus chaste 53. casu by chance, accidentally 54. catrva crowd 55. ceteri the rest, the others 56. circum around 57. clam secretly 58. claudus lame 59. clementer in a kindly manner 60. coax hipbone 61. cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus find out, learn 62. cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus to compel, force 63. collis hill 64. comiter courteously, graciously, in a friendly way 65. comitor, comitari, comitatus sum to accompany 66. commemoro, commemorare, commemoravi, commemoratus to mention, comment on 67. commoveo,commovere, commovi, commotus to move, upset 68. compare, comparare, comparavi, comparatus to buy, obtain, get ready 69. compleo, complere, complevi, completus to fill 70. complures several 71. concino, concinere, concinui to sing together 72. concrepo, concrepare, concrepui to snap 73. Concurso, concursare, concursavi, concursatus to run to and fro, run about 74. confugio, confugere, confugi to flee for refuge 75. conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus to throw, throw together, to figure out 76. consensus agreement 77. consilium plan 78. consisto, consistere, constiti to halt, stop 79. consultum decree 80. conticesco, conticescere, conticui to become silent 81. contineo, continere, continui, contentus to confine, hold 82. contra against 83. contra against, opposite 84. convalesce, convalescere, convalui to grow stronger, get well 85. converto, convertere, converti, converses to turn around 86. coorior, cooriri, coortus sum to rise up, arise 87. coquo, coquere, coxi, coctus to cook 88. coquus cook 89. corripio, corripere, corripui, correptus to seize, grab 90. cotidie daily, every day 91. credo, credere, credidi, creditus to trust, believe 92. creo, creare, creavi, creatus to appoint 93. crudelis cruel 94. cum primum as soon as 95. cum since 96. cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus to desire, to want 97. cura care 98. curae esse to be a cause of anxiety 99. curdelitas cruelty 100. decet, decree, decuit iti s becoming, fitting 101. deditus devoted, dedicated 102. defrico, defricare, defricui, defrictus to rub down 103. deicio, deicere, deieci, deiectus to throw down 104. Delecto, delectare, delectavi, delectatus to delight 105. deliciae delight 106. denarius silver coin 107. derideo, deridere, derisi, derisus to laugh at, get the last laugh 108. desilio, desilire, desilui to leap down 109. desino, desinere, desii, desitus to stop 110. despondeo, despondere, despondi, desponsus to promise in marriage 111. deus god 112. deus god 113. dextra right hand 114. Di immortals! Immortal gods! 115. dies natalis birthday 116. digitus finger 117. dimitto, dimittere, dimisi, dimissus to send away 118. disco, discere, didici to learn 119. dives rich 120. doelo, dolere, dolui, doliturus to be sorry, to be sad, to bein pain 121. donec until 122. donum gift 123. dormito, dormitare, dormitavi to be sleepy 124. dubium doubt 125. edo, esse, edi, esus to eat 126. effundo, effundere, effudi, effuses, to pour out 127. eicio, eicere, eieci, eiectus to throw out 128. enuntio, enuntiare, enuntiavi, enuntiatus to reveal 129. eo magis all the more 130. epigramma epigram 131. epulae banquet, feast 132. erat inscribendum had to be registered 133. erga toward 134. eruditus learned, scholarly 135. etiamsi even if 136. Euge! Hurray! 137. evado, evadere, evasi, evasus to escape 138. everto, evertere, everti, eversus to overturn, upset 139. exanimatus paralyzed 140. exerceo, exercere, excerui, exceritus to exercise, train 141. experitur he tests 142. exprimo, exprimere, expressi, expressus to press out, express 143. exsilio, exsilire, exsilui to leap out 144. exstruo, exstruere, exstruxi, exstructus to build 145. exta inner organs of sacrificial animals 146. exuo, exuere, exui, exutus to take off 147. familiars members of household 148. febris fever 149. ferculum dish, tray 150. fere almost, approximately 151. ferula cane 152. fides good faith, reliability, trust 153. fleo, flere, fletus to weep, cry 154. follis bag 155. foras outside 156. forte by chance 157. frango, frangere, fregi, fractus to break 158. frustum scrap 159. Fumus smoke 160. funebris funeral 161. fur thief 162. furor frenzy 163. fustis club, cudgel 164. gens family 165. Glis, gliris, dormouse 166. grammaticus secondary school teacher 167. gratias agere to thank 168. gratis free, for nothing 169. gravis heavy, serious 170. gustatio first course 171. haud not 172. haurio, haurire, hausi, haustus to drain 173. Heus! Hey there! 174. hiems winter 175. hilaris cheerful 176. holus vegetable 177. id quod that/ a thing which 178. ientaculum breakfast 179. ignis fire 180. ignoro, inorare, ignoravi, ignoratus to be ignorant, not to know 181. imago likeness, mask 182. immo rather, on the contrary 183. immo vero on the contrary, in fact 184. imperator emperor 185. In quibus, among whom 186. inde from there, then 187. indutus clothed 188. inferi underworld 189. infirma…valetudine in poor health 190. ingenium intelligence 191. ingravesco, ingravescere to grow worse 192. inscius not knowing 193. insula island, apartment 194. interdum from time to time 195. interest it is important 196. invoco, invocare, invocavi, invocatus to invoke, call upon 197. iracundia bad temper 198. irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, to burst in 199. iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus to join 200. iussa commands, orders 201. iuvenis young man 202. labor, labi, lapsus sum to slip, fall 203. laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus to harm 204. lambo, lambere, lambi to lick 205. lanius butcher 206. lapideus of stone, stony 207. laquuntur talk 208. lateo, latere, latui to lie in hiding 209. laurus bay, laurel 210. lepus hare 211. levis smooth 212. Libertus freedman 213. ligo, ligare, ligavi, ligatus to bind up 214. limen threshold 215. lingua tongue, language 216. liquamen sauce made from fish 217. litterae letters, literature 218. locus place 219. lucet, luere, luxit it is light, it is day, it shines 220. ludus game, school 221. ludus school 222. luna moon 223. maiores ancestors 224. malo, malle, malui to prefer 225. malum apple 226. mansuetus tmae 227. mature early 228. medicus doctor 229. Mendicus beggar 230. meridie at noon 231. merita conferre to render services 232. migro, migrare, migravi, migraturus to move one’s home 233. mimus actor of mine, buffoon 234. minuo, minuere, minui, minutus to lessen, reduce, decrease 235. misceo, miscere, miscue, mixtus to mix 236. mitis gently 237. modus way, method 238. moneo, monere, monui, monitus to advise, warn 239. morbus illness 240. morior, mori, mortuus sum to die 241. moritura intending to die, determined to die 242. mos custom 243. mulsum wine sweetened with honey 244. multus much 245. munera games 246. mutuus mutual 247. myrtus myrtle 248. nascor, nasci, natus sum to be born 249. nasus nose 250. nato, nature, natavi, nataturus to swim 251. ne quis that no one 252. nec and…not 253. neglegenter Carelessly 254. neglego, neglegere, neglexi, neglectus to neglect, ignore 255. negotiosus busy 256. neque…neque…quidquam neither…nor…anything 257. niger, nigra, nigrum black 258. nimis too much 259. nonnulli some 260. nova nupta bride 261. Num…? Surely…not…? 262. numero, numerare, numeravi, numeratus to count 263. nuper recently 264. nusquam nowhere 265. obsecro, obsecrare, obsecravi, obsecratus to beseech, beg 266. observo, observare, observavi, observatus to watch 267. occido, occidere, occidi, occisus to kill 268. oleum oil 269. opportet, oportere, ooportuit it is fitting, ought 270. opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressus, to overwhelm 271. optimus best, very good, excellent 272. ornamenta furnishings 273. orno, ornare, ornavi, ornatus to decorate 274. osculum kiss 275. ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentus to show, point out 276. ovum egg 277. paedagogus tutor 278. paene almost 279. pallium cloak 280. panis bread 281. parco, parcere, peperci to spare 282. pareo, parere, parui, pariturus to obey 283. paries wall of a house 284. parvus small 285. pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus to feed, pasture 286. passum raisin-wine 287. patres senators 288. pauper poor 289. pavimentum tiled floor 290. Pecto, pectere, pexi, pexus to comb 291. pecus livestock, sheep, and cattle 292. percutio, percutere, percussi, percussus to strike 293. perdo perdere, perdidi perditus to destroy 294. peristylium peristyle 295. perna ham 296. pestilentia plague 297. pinguis fat 298. pirum pear 299. pistrinum bakery 300. placide gently 301. ploro, plorare, poloravi, ploratus lament, mourn 302. poculum cup, goblet 303. poena punishment, penalty 304. popina bar 305. Porcus pig 306. posco, poscere, poposci to demand 307. postea afterward 308. posterus next, following 309. postremo finally 310. potius quam rather than 311. praebeo, praebere, praebui, praebitus to display, show 312. praecipio, praecipere, praecepi, praeceptus to instruct 313. praefero, praeferre, praetuli, praelatus to carry X in front of Y 314. prehendo, prehendere, prehendi, prehensus to seize 315. pretium price 316. primo first, at first 317. prior first, previous 318. prius earlier 319. procax pushy, insolent 320. procedo, procedure, processi, processurus to go forward 321. prodo, prodere, prodii, proditurus to come forth 322. profero, proferre, protuli, prolatus to carry forward, continue 323. progredior, progredi, progressus sum to go forward, advance 324. pronus face down 325. proximus nearby 326. pugio dagger 327. pullus chicken 328. pupa doll 329. purus spotless, clean, plain 330. puto, putare, putavi, putatus to think, consider 331. qua de causa foir this reason 332. quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus to seek, look for, ask for 333. quam primum as soon as possible 334. Quanti…? How much…? 335. Quantum…! How much…! 336. quasi as if 337. quidem indeed 338. Quo cum When…there 339. quo maior…eo plus… the greater…the more… 340. quoniam since 341. rapio, rapere, rapui, raptus to snatch, seize 342. recte rightly, properly 343. Recumbo, recumbere, recubui, to recline 344. regnum kingdom 345. repello, repellere, reppuli, repulses to drive off, to drive back 346. repeto, repetere, repetivi, repetitus to pick up, recover 347. res urbanae affairs of the city 348. resisto, resistere, resisti to resist 349. rima crack 350. rite properly 351. Rixa quarrel 352. rixor, rixari, rixatus sum to quarrel 353. rursus again 354. sacra religious rights, sacrifice 355. sane certainly, of course 356. sanguis blood 357. scapha small boat 358. scindo, scindere, scidi, scissus to cut, split, carve 359. scriblita a certain tart or pastry (yum ) 360. secundae mensa second course, dessert 361. securus carefree, unconcerned 362. sella sedan chair, seat 363. Sella, sedan chair 364. senex old man 365. sentio, sentire, sensi, sensus to fell, notice 366. serenus clear, bright 367. si quis if anyone 368. sic thus in this way 369. similis similar to 370. sino, sincere, sivi, situs to allow 371. sis if you wish, please 372. situs located, situated 373. sol sun 374. solea sandal 375. solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus loosen, untie 376. spelunca cave 377. spero, sperare, speravi, speratus to hope 378. stadium enthusiasm 379. stela tombstone 380. stirps thorn 381. stratum sheet, covering 382. studio, studere, studui to study 383. submissus quiet, subdued, soft 384. subsequor, subsequi, subsecutus sum to follow up 385. sumere to assume 386. supero, superare, superavi, superatus to overcome 387. surripio, surripere, surripui, surreptus to steal 388. tabulatum story, floor 389. taedet, taedere, taesum est it bores 390. talia such things 391. tam so 392. tamquam just as if 393. tela web, fabric 394. tergum back, rear 395. texo, texere, texui, textus to weave 396. tibicen piper 397. timor fear 398. tollo, tollere, sustui, sublatus to lift, raise 399. tot so many 400. trepidans in a panic 401. tristis sad 402. turgeo, tergere, tersi, tarsus to dry, wipe 403. ugeo, urgere, ursi to press, insist 404. umbra shadow, shade 405. umquam ever 406. una together 407. unda wave 408. unguo, unguere, unxi, unctus to anoint 409. uterque each 410. utilis useful 411. utrum…an….whethere…or 412. uva grape 413. valedico, valedicere, valedixi, valedicturus to say goodbye 414. valeo, valere, valui, valiturus to be strong, to be well 415. vel or 416. velamen, velaminis veil, shawl 417. Vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditus, to sell 418. ventus wind 419. verbum word, verb 420. vero, truly, really, indeed 421. vescor, vesci to feed on 422. vestibulum entrance passage 423. vestimentum clothes 424. virgo maiden 425. Vis force, amount 426. viscera vital organs 427. vitta ribbon 428. vivo, vivere, vixi, victurus to live 429. vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi, vulneratus to wound 430. vulnis wound 431. vultus face Good Luck!
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