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					                              Latin II
                        Final Exam Review

I. Declining Nouns
 a. 1st declension

                Singular     Plural
Nominative      puella       puellae
Genitive        puellae      puellarum
Dative          puellae      puellis
Accusative      puellam      puellas
Ablative        puella       puellis

b. 2nd declension

                Singular     Plural
Nominative      amicus       amici
Genitive        amici        amicorum
Dative          amico        amicis
Accusative      amicum       amicos
Ablative        amico        amicis




c. 3rd declension (m,f,n)

                Singular                      Plural
Nominative      (-----) mater, pater, nomen   matres, es, a
Genitive        matris, patris, nominis       matrum, um, um
Dative          matri, patri, nomini          matribus, ibus, ibus
Accusative      matrem, patrem, nomen         matres, es, a
Ablative        matre, patre, nomine          matribus, ibus, ibus



d. 4th declension (m/f, n)

                Singular          Plural
Nominative      domus, genu       domus, ua
    Genitive        domus, genus      domuum, uum
    Dative          domui, genu       domibus, ibus
    Accusative      domum, genu       domus, ua
    Ablative        domu, genu        domibus, ibus



    e. 5th declension (m,f,n)

                    Singular    Plural
    Nominative      dies        dies
    Genitive        diei        dierum
    Dative          diei        diebus
    Accusative      diem        dies
    Ablative        die         diebus




    II. Conjugating Verbs


     a. 1st conjugation
    amo, amare, amavi, amatus


    ACTIVE
          Present     Imperfect    Future     Perfect     Pluperfect   Future Perfect
     st
    1 s   amo         amabam       amabo      amavi       amaveram     amavero
    2nd s amas        amabas       amabis     amavisti    amaveras     amaveris
    3rd s amat        amabat       amabit     amavit      amaverat     amaverit
    1st p amamus      amabamus     amabimus   amavimus    amaveramus   amaverimus
    2nd p amatis      amabatis     amabitis   amavistis   amaveratis   amaveritis
    3rd p amant       amabant      amabunt    amaverunt   amaverant    amaverint




     PASSIVE
       Present    Imperfect     Future     Perfect      Pluperfect     Future Perfect
 st
1 s    amor       amabar        amabor     amatus sum   amatus eram    amatus ero
2nd s amaris      amabaris      amaberis   amatus es    amatus eras    amatus eris
3rd s amatur      amabatur      amabitur   amatus est   amatus erat    amatus erit
1st p   amamur amabamur amabimur amati sumus amati eramus                       amati erimus
2nd p   amamini amabamini amabimini amati estis amati eratis                    amati eritis
3rd p   amantur amabantur amabuntur amati sunt  amati erant                     amati erunt




    b. 2nd conjugation

    habeo, habere, habui, habitus

     ACTIVE
       Present    Imperfect        Future       Perfect        Pluperfect       Future Perfect
 st
1 s habeo         habebam          habebo       habui          habueram         habuero
2nd s habes       habebas          habebis      habuisti       habueras         habueris
3rd s habet       habebat          habebit      habuit         habuerat         habuerit
1st p habemus     habebamus        habebimus    habuimus       habueramus       habuerimus
2nd p habetis     habebatis        habebitis    habuistis      habueratis       habueritis
3rd p habent      habebant         habebunt     habuerunt      habuerant        habuerint




     PASSIVE
       Present    Imperfect        Future       Perfect         Pluperfect        Future Perfect
 st
1 s habeor        habebar          habebor      habitus sum     habitus eram      habitus ero
2nd s haberis     habebaris        habeberis    habitus es      habitus eras      habitus eris
3rd s habetur     habebatur        habebitur    habiuts est     habitus erat      habitus erit
1st p habemur     habebamur        habebimur    habiti sumus    habiti eramus     habiti erimus
2nd p habemini    habebamini       habebimini   habiti estis    habiti eratis     habiti eritis
3rd p habentur    habebantur       habebuntur   habiti sunt     habiti erant      habiti erint




    c. 3rd conjugation
    mitto, mittere, misi, missus

    ACTIVE
      Present     Imperfect        Future       Perfect         Pluperfect        Future Perfect
 st
1 s mitto         mittibam         mittam       misi            miseram           misero
2nd s   mittis     mittibas      mittes      misisti        miseras         miseris
3rd s   mittit     mittibat      mittet      misit          miserat         miserit
1st p   mittimus   mittibamus    mittemus    misimus        miseramus       miserimus
2nd p   mittitis   mittibatis    mittetis    misistis       miseratis       miseritis
3rd p   mitunt     mittibant     mittent     miserunt       miserant        miserint



     PASSIVE
       Present     Imperfect     Future      Perfect        Pluperfect      Future Perfect
 st
1 s mittor         mittibar      mittar      missus sum     missus eram     missus ero
2nd s mittiris     mittibaris    mitteris    missus es      missus eras     missus eris
3rd s mittitur     mittibatur    mittetur    missus est     missus erat     missus erit
1st p mittimur     mittibamur    mittemur    missi sumus    missi eramus    missi erimus
2nd p mittimini    mittibamini   mittemini   missi estis    missi eratis    missi eritis
3rd p mittuntur    mittibantur   mittentur   missi sunt     missi erant     missi erunt



    d. 4th conjugation
    audio, audire, audivi, auditus



     ACTIVE
      Present      Imperfect     Future      Perfect        Pluperfect      Future Perfect
 st
1 s audio          audiebam      audiam      audivi         audiveram       audivero
2nd s audis        audiebas      audies      audivisti      audiveras       audiveris
3rd s audit        audiebat      audiet      audivit        audiverat       audiverit
1st p audimus      audiebamus    audiemus    audivimus      audiveramus     audiverimus
2nd p auditis      audiebatis    audietis    audivistis     audiveratis     audiveritis
3rd p audiunt      audiebant     audient     audiverunt     audiverant      audiverint




      PASSIVE
        Present    Imperfect     Future      Perfect        Pluperfect       Future Perfect
1st s   audior     audiebar      audiar      auditus sum    auditus eram     auditus ero
 nd
2 s audiris        audiebaris    audieris    auditus es     auditus eras     auditus eris
3rd s auditur      audiebatur    audietur    auditus est    auditus erat     auditis erit
1st p audimur      audiebamur    audiemur    auditi sumus   auditi eramus    auditus erimus
2nd p audimini     audiebamini   audiemini   auditi estis   auditi eratis    auditus eritis
3rd p audiuntur    audiebantur   audientur   auditi sunt    auditi erant     auditus erunt
III. Participles

how you form the participles of active and passive verbs
example: Marcus, walking to school, saw a bakery.
“walking” would be a participle in Latin.

            Active                               Passive
            1) use the second principle part
            of a verb
            2)chop off the “re”
            3) add -ns
Present




                                                 1) the 4th principle part of a verb
Imperfect




            1) use the 4th principle part of a
            verb
            2) chop off the “us”
            3) add -urus
Future
IV. Infinitives


how you form the infinitives of active and passive verbs


            Active                               Passive
            1) the second principle part of      1) use the second principle part of a
            a verb                               verb
                                                 2) for 1st, 2nd, and 4th conjugations,
                                                 chop off the last “e” and add an –i
                                                 3) for 3rd conjugation, chop off the
Present




                                                 -ere and add an –i


            1) use the third principle part      1) Two words:
            of a verb                            2) use the 4th principle part of a
            2) add -isse                         verb
Imperfect




                                                 3) use “esse”



            1) use the 4th principle part of a
            verb
            2) chop off the “us”
            3) add –urus
            4) add “esse”
Future




V. Relative Pronouns
               Masculine     Feminine      Neuter
Singular
Nominative     qui           quae          quod
Genitive       cuius         cuius         cuius
Dative         cui           cui           cui
Accusative     quem          quam          quod
Ablative       quo           qua           quo
Plural
Nominative     qui           quae          qua
Genitive       quorum        quarum        quorum
Dative         quibus        quibus        quibus
Accusative     quos          quas          qua
Ablative       quibus        quibus        quibus




VI. Indefinite Adjective
1) use the previous chart
2) add –dam onto the end
3) NOTE: if the last letter of the relative pronoun is “m,” change it to an “n”
before adding the ending.
4) example: qui becomes quidam; quarum becomes quarundam, and so on


VII. Demonstrative
      a. this/these

               Masculine     Feminine      Neuter
Singular
Nominative     hic           haec          hoc
Genitive       huius         huius         huius
Dative         huic          huic          huic
Accusative     hunc          hanc          hoc
Ablative       hoc           hac           hoc
Plural
Nominative     hi            hae           haec
Genitive       horum         harum         horum
Dative         his           his           his
Accusative     hos           has           haec
Ablative       his           his           his

      b. that/those
             Masculine      Feminine   Neuter
Singular
Nominative   ille           illa       illud
Genitive     illius         illius     illius
Dative       illi           illi       illi
Accusative   illum          illam      illud
Ablative     illo           illa       illo
Plural
Nominative   illi           illae      illa
Genitive     illorum        allarum    illorum
Dative       illis          illis      illis
Accusative   illos          illas      illa
Ablative     illis          illis      illis



     c. himself/herself/itself

             Masculine      Feminine   Neuter
Singular
Nominative   ipse           ipsa       ipsum
Genitive     ipsius         ipsius     ipsius
Dative       ipsi           ipsi       ipsi
Accusative   ipsum          ipsam      ipsum
Ablative     ipso           ipsa       ipso
Plural
Nominative   ipsi           ipsae      ipsa
Genitive     ipsorum        ipsarum    ipsorum
Dative       ipsis          ipsis      ipsis
Accusative   ipsos          ipsas      ipsa
Ablative     ipsis          ipsis      ipsis

     d. him/her/it

             Masculine      Feminine   Neuter
Singular
Nominative   is             ea         id
Genitive     eius           eius       eius
Dative       ei             ei         ei
Accusative   eum            eam        id
Ablative     eo             ea         eo
Plural
Nominative   ei             eae        ea
Genitive     eorum          earum      eorum
Dative            eis           eis             eis
Accusative        eos           eas             ea
Ablative          eis           eis             eis

        e. the same

1) use the previous chart
2) add –dem onto the end
3) example: is becomes isdem; ea becomes eadem, and so on

VIII. Adjectives/Adverbs
        Adjectives:
               a. regular
Positive                         Comparative                    Superlative
                                 _er, rather __, more __        _est, very __, the most __
1)the adjective                  1) use the positive            1) use the positive
2)declining in 1st/2nd/3rd       2)chop off the ending (-e,     2) chop off the ending (-e,
declension                       iter)                          -iter)
                                 3)add –ior if it is            3) if it does not end in “er”
note: case, number, and          masculine or feminine,         add –issimus (a, um)
gender should match with         and add –ius if it is neuter   4) if it ends in “er”, add –
the noun it is with. This        4) declining should be of      rimus (a, um)
doesn’t mean it always has       the 3rd declension             5) declining should be of
to be identical with the                                        the 1st/2nd declension
noun, however.
ex: magnus canis
not identical, but still
same case, number,
gender

                b. irregular
Positive                       Comparative                      Superlative
                               _er, rather __, more __          _est, very __, the most __
1.   bonus, a, um              1.   melior, melius              1.   optimus, a, um
2.   malus, a, um              2.   peior, peius                2.   pessimus, a, um
3.   magnus, a, um             3.   maior, maius                3.   maximus, a, um
4.   parvus, a, um             4.   minor, minus                4.   minimus, a, um
5.   multus, a, um             5.   plus                        5.   plurimus, a, um

        Adverbs:
              a. regular

Positive                         Comparative                    Superlative
(usually) _ly                    _er, rather __ly, more __ly    _est, very __ly, the most __ly
1)use an adjective               1) use the positive            1) use the positive
2)if using a 1st or 2nd          2)chop off the ending (-e,     2) chop off the ending (-e,
declension adjective, chop       iter)                          -iter)
off the ending                   3)add –ior if it is            3) if it does not end in “er”
         and add –e                        masculine or feminine,             add –issime
         3) if using a 3rd declension      and add –ius if it is neuter       4) if it ends in “er”, add –
         adjective, chop off the           4) NO DECLINING                    rime
         ending, and add –iter                                                5) again, NO DECLINING
         4) NO DECLINING

                         b. irregular
         Positive                          Comparative                        Superlative
         (usually) _ly                     _er, rather __ly, more __ly        _est, very __ly, the most __ly
         6. bene                           6. melius                          6. optime
         7. male                           7. peius                           7. pessime
         8. facile                         8. facilius                        8. facillime
         9. magnopere                      9. magis                           9. maxime
         10. paulus                        10. minus                          10. minime
         11. multus                        11. plus                           11. plurimum

Adverbs: ALMOST the same as adjectives. Positive = the adjective. Comparative = ior or ius (not
declinable) and Superlative = issime

         IX. Locative and Ablative of Place to Which

         Rule: cities, towns, small islands, domus, rus, and humus
         using an accusative case without a preposition indicates place to which
         using an ablative case without a preposition indicates place from which
         using a locative case indicates place in/at which

         (all other prepositions such as prope, super, etc. are used regularly)


         Locative
         1st or 2nd declension                                      3rd declension
         locative singular form = genitive singular form            singular = ablative singular
                   plural form = ablative plural form               plural = ablative plural

         ex: Roma Romae                                             ex: GadesGadibus
             AthenaeAthenis

         **remember, this is only for cities, towns, small islands, domus, rus, and humus!!

         IX. Dates

         The Months                                                      Reminders
         Ianuarius, a, um                                                 ~write lower case for
         Februarius, a, um                                                Roman numerals
         Martius, a, um                                                   ~capitalize all special
         Aprilis, is, e                                                   days and Months
         Maius, a, um                                                     ~use ante diem or a.d.
Iunius, a, um                                         ~count backwards
Iulius, a, um                                         including the target date
Augustus, a, um                                       and the starting date
September, Septembris, Septembre
October, Octobris, Octobre
November, Novembris, Novembre
December, Decembris, Decembre


Use the accusative case (on month and special day) when…
       using pridie
       using ante diem
Use the ablative case (on month and special day) when…
       you are stating the current day

On March, May, July, and October…
The Kalends is the 1st of the month
The Ides is on the 15th of the month
The Nones is on the 7th of the month

On all the other days…
The Kalends is on the 1st of the month
The Ides is on the 13th of the month
The Nones is on the 5th of the month

Calculation of Years

From A.U.C to A.D/B.C
if the date is <753, subtract it from 754, and you will get a B.C date
if the date is >753, subtract 753 from it, and you will get a A.D date

From A.D/B.C to A.U.C
if the date is B.C, subtract it from 754
if the date is A.D add it to 753




Numbers in Words
unus
duo
tres
quattuor
quinque
sex
septen
octo
novem
decem
undecim
duodecim
tredecim
quattuordecim
quindecim
sedecim
septendecim
duodeviginti
undeviginti
viginti


Writing Letters
First: the name of the person sending the letter in the nominative case
Second: the name of the person receiving the letter in the dative case
Third: S.D. sends greetings

Note: there was no signature at the end of letters, just “Vale” goodbye


X. Q-words

Relative Pronoun (chart given previously)
The man, who runs through the street is not able to avoid the pig
who = qui, quae, quod

More on the Relative Pronoun
Three parts:
~relative pronoun (qui, quae, quod) bold underlined in the example
~antecedent (what the pronoun relates to) italicized
~dependent clause (what the pronoun introduces) underlined

example:
Students like teachers who are interested in the students’ opinions.

Interrogative Pronoun
Who is standing in the street?
Who = quis, quid
Asks a question, does not modify a noun

Interrogative Pronoun Chart
~NOTE that the plural is identical to the plural of the relative pronoun


Conjunction of Quod
The slave was tired because he was working in the field.
Because = quod

Exclamatory adverb
How amazing is that dog!
How = quam

Interrogative Adjective
What woman is that?
What = qui, quae, quod
Asks a question, modifies a noun

XI. Grammar

        Predicate Nominative
           o Like an = sign: connects a noun to an adjective

Example: Sextus stultus est.
The noun and the adjective are in the same case, number, etc.
REMINDER: if the two words are in two different declensions, they most likely
will have different endings!

       Partitive Genitive
          o “of”
   Words using plus, satis, aliquid, or nihil as an adjective use the genitive
Plus = more of
                                                     Satis = enough of
                Masculine   Feminine     Neuter      Aliquid = some of
Singular                                             Nihil = nothing of
Nominative      quis        quis         quid                Dative with
Genitive        cuius       cuius        cuius              certain words
Dative          cui         cui          cui                    o Remember
Accusative      quem        quem         quid                        the song!
Ablative        quo         quo          quo                         (Courtesy
Plural                                                               of Mr.
Nominative      qui         quae         qua                         Hartsburg)
Genitive        quorum      quarum       quorum      Threaten, harm, please,
Dative          quibus      quibus       quibus      trust, resist, persuade,
Accusative      quos        quas         qua         command, obey, serve,
Ablative        quibus      quibus       quibus
Pardon, envy, favor, spare, believe all take the dative…

Compound verbs with pre-verbs (ab-, con-, de-) also take the dative
Example: occurro means “to meet.” The direct object takes the dative as if
you are saying “to run to.”

     Accusative of…
         o Duration of Time
Example: “for ten years”
         “over ten years”
         o Place to which
Example: to Rome  ad Romam

     Ablative of…
         o Time when
Example: “in summer”
         “at dawn”
         o Place from which
Example: from Rome  a Roma

     Ablative of Means and Manner
Example: “with a stick” (means)
         “in a loud voice” (manner)

     Ablative of Comparison
         o With quam doesn’t use the ablative
         o Without quam uses the ablative
Example: Marcus altior est quam Sextus (without ablative)
         Marcus altior est Sexto (with ablative)

XII. Deponents
Reminders:
    Deponents look passive, but are translated as active
    They are conjugated as passive, from present to future perfect, all the way
     through
    They only have 3 principal parts: the present 1st person singular, the infinitive,
     and the perfect 1st person singular
    Here are the main deponent verbs:
          o Conor, conari, conatus sum, to try
          o Moror, morari, moratus sum, to delay, remain, stay
          o Vereor, vereri, veritus sum, to be afraid, fear
          o Collabor, collabi, collapses sum, to collapse
          o Consquor, consequi, conspectus sum, to catch up to, overtake
             o Loquor, loqui, locutus sum, to speak, talk
             o Proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum, to set out, leave
             o Sequor, sequi, secutus sum, to follow
             o Egredior, egredi, egressus sum, to go out, leave
             o Ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum, to go in, enter
             o Regredior, regredi, regressus sum, to go back, return
             o Experior, experiri, expretus sum, to test, try


XIII: Semi-deponent verbs
      These verbs are deponent only in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect
       tenses
      Example: audio, audere, ausus sum (+ infinitive) = to dare (NOT “be dared”)
      As in the example, these will have a form of “esse” in the fourth principle part,
       but will look active in the first and second.


XIV: The Subjunctive
Active Subjunctive
Present
1st         2nd        3rd    3rd io    4th
Ed          Eats       A      gIAnt      bIAly
1) take off –re of infinitive
2) add designated vowel combo
3) add ending (m, s, t, mus, tis, nt)
4) ex: amare  am  ame (b/c 1st conjugation)  amet (3rd p singular)
**endings: 1st person singular is –m instead of –o.
Imperfect
1) infinitive
2) add ending (m, s, t, mus, tis, nt)
3) ex: amare  amarent (3rd p plural)

Perfect
1) same as future perfect indicative
2) ex: amare  amaveris (2nd p singular)

Pluperfect:
1) perfect infinitive
2) add ending (m, s, t, mus, tis, nt)
3) ex: amare  amavisse (perfect infinitive)  amavissetis (2nd p plural)

Irregular:
Sum, esse, fui, futurus
Present: sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint

Imperfect: esse + ending
essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent

Perfect: fueri + ending (future perfect indicative)
fuerim, fueris, fuerit, fuerimus, fueritis, fuerint

Pluperfect: fuisse + ending (perfect infinitive)
fuissem, fuisses, fuisset, fuissemus, fuissetis, fuissent

Passive Subjunctive

Present
**same rule as active, but different endings:
r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur
1) take off –re of infinitive
2) add designated vowel combo (ed eats a giant bialy)
3) add ending
4) ex: amare  am  ame (b/c 1st conjugation)  ametur (3rd p singular)

Imperfect
**same rule as active, but different endings:
r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur
1) infinitive
2) add ending
3) ex: amare  amarentur (3rd p plural)

Perfect:
1)4th principle part
2) add sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint
3) ex: amare  amatus  amatus sim (1st p singular)

Pluperfect
1) 4th principle part
2) add essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent
3) ex: amare  amatus  amati essemus (1st p plural)

XV: Uses of the Subjunctive

Cum Clauses:
Cum temperal : when
Cum causal: since
Cum concessive: although

**The verb that follows is always a subjunctive
Indirect Questions
The pirates were asking *who *we were

Head verb: indicative case
*question word* (who, what, where, when, why, how…)
We were: verb in the subjunctive

= Piratae rogabant qui essemus  subjunctive


Sequence of Tenses
                              Main Clause (Indicative)      Subordinate Clause
                                                            (Tense of Subjunctive)
                                                            Time of Action Relative to
                                                            Main Clause
Primary Sequence              Present                       Present = same time or
                              Future                        after
                              Future Perfect                Perfect = time before
Secondary Sequence            Imperfect                     Imperfect =same time or
                              Perfect                       after
                              Pluperfect                    Perfect = time before


Example: Non intellego cur servae me neglegant
I do not understand why the slave-girls neglect me.

Non intellego cur servae me neglexerint
I do not understand why the slave-girls neglected me.
In both of these statements, the main verb (“understand”) is in the present tense. In
the first example, the subordinate clause (the second verb) is in the present also, so it
is translated in the present. In the second example, however, the subordinate clause
is in the perfect. This is translated as the time before (hence, neglected instead of
neglect). This (according to the chart) is “Primary Sequence.”

More examples: Non intellexi cur servae me neglegerent
I did not understand why the slave-girls were neglecting me.

Non intellexi cur servae me neglexissent
I did not understand why the slave girls had neglected me.

In both of these statements, the main verb (understand) is in the perfect tense. In the
first example, the subordinate clause is in the imperfect, so it is translated in the
present. In the second example, the subordinate clause is in the pluperfect. This is
translated as the time before (hence, “had neglected” instead of “were neglecting.”)
This , according to the chart, is “Secondary Sequence.”

Result Clauses
“ut” = “that,” or “resulting in”
Main verb = indicative
Clause = subjunctive

Ex: Tua mater est tam obesa ut homines currant circum eam ut exerceant
Your mom is so fat that people run around her in order to exercise.

*Or: Your mom is so fat, resulting in people running around her in order that they
exercise.
**there are many translations for “ut,” so chose the best one to fit in the sentence.


Indirect Commands

There are 11 verbs used in indirect commands. Depending on which “group” they
are in, they each take on different endings.

meaning               Latin word            + case                 + verb
                                                                   construction
command               Impero                dative                 ut cluase
command               Mando                 dative
persuade              Persuadeo             dative
permit, allow         Permitto              dative

warn, advise          Moneo                 accusative
ask                   Rogo                  accusative
urge                  Hortor                accusative
beg                   Oro                   accusative

seek, beg, ask        Peto                  ablative w/ prep
demand                Postulo               ablative w/ prep
inquire               Quaero                ablative w/prep
Abbreviations:

IMPP (or PIMP) = takes the dative case
MR. HO = takes the accusative case
PPQ = takes the ablative case with a preposition

Example: Alios rogabat ut in domum procederent
He was asking some to go forward into the house.

Rogo is part of the MR. HO verbs, so “Alios” is accusative.

Example: Coquo imperavit ut in atrium veniret
He ordered the cook to come into the atrium.

Impo is part of the IMPP verbs, so “Coquo” is dative.

Purpose Clauses
“ut” = to, so that…

“ne” = lest, so that… not, in case, to avoid, to prevent…

Example: Ancillae huc illuc concursabant ut omnia pararent.
The slave-women were running about here and there to prepare everything.

[Reminder] notice that this is in Secondary Sequence with the imperfect subjunctive
(pararent)

Head verb: indicative
Clause: subjunctive

Example: Super limen sublataest ne laberetur.
She was carried over the threshold to avoid stumbling
“ne” is translated as “to avoid”


XVI: Indirect Statements
**this does not use a subjunctive!**

We see that Davus is working in the fields

Head verb: normal indicative
that: **implied** in between first and second parts.
Davus is working: “Davus” = accusative, “is working” = infinitive

=Videmus Davum in agris laborare
**notice that there is no “that” between videmus and Davus

The “infinitive” in the direct statement doesn’t always mean present infinitive…
Ex: Puto Aureliam eo non ituram esse
I think that Aurelia will not go there
**This future infinitive is formed using the chart discussed early in the study guide.
Any infinitive can be placed here depending on the tense.

XVII: Other translations of “ut”
“ut” can be used not only with a subjunctive but with an indicative verb, also

Semper sum, ut vides, negotiosus
As you see, I am always busy.

Only with an indicative verb = “ut” is translated “as” or “when”…

XVIII: Ablatives Absolute

Ablative: indicates time, cause, or circumstance
Absolute: independent from rest of sentence- “stands alone”
Translation:

With the ____(noun)_______ having been ______(participle)________

[with the participles having been discussed at the beginning of the study
guide…]

Coquo vocato: with the cook having been summoned…
**the noun is agreeing with the participle.

Here are some more examples:

Auro invento: with the gold having been found
Calamitate facta with the shout having been made
Opera confecto with the work having been done
Oratione civibus data with the speech having been given to the citizens

**for more practice, go to the Ablatives Absolute sheet. Here is some practice, also:

Pilo iacto:


Scuto deposito:


Scuto in terra deposito


Fenestra fracta

XVIII: Vocabulary
This is most of the vocabulary from the beginning to the end of the book. This IS NOT
everything, so I recommend you reference the textbook to look up other words. This is in
alphabetical order, and does not include ANY culture words because they will be on Ms.
Diamente’s culture sheet.

   1. abripio, abripere, abripui, abreptus to snatch away
   2. Ac and
   3. accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus to receive, get
   4. accumbo, accumbere, accubui, accubiturus to recline at a table
   5. acritere fiercely
   6. ad tempus on time
   7. addo, addere, addidi, additus to add
8. adeo so much
9. adimo, adimere, ademi, ademptus to take away
10. admiratio amazement
11. admirer, admirari, admiratus sum to wonder
12. adorior, adoriri, adortus sum to attack
13. Adstantes, adstatnium bystanders
14. adulescens young man
15. aeger ill
16. aegroto, aegrotare, aegrotavi, aegratatuerus to be ill
17. aestas summer
18. affectus affected, overcome
19. affero, afferre, attuli, allatus to bring, bring to, bring in
20. alias another time
21. ambo both
22. amplector, amplecti, amplexus sum to embrace
23. anima soul, heart
24. animadverto, animadevertere, animadverti, adnimadverus to notice
25. antequam before
26. ara alter
27. arcesso, arcessere, arcessivi, arcessitus to summon, send for
28. ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsurus to burn, blaze
29. arena sand, arena
30. aspergo, aspergere, asperse, aspersus to sprinkle, splash, splatter
31. aspersus sprinkled
32. audio, audere, ausus sujm to dare
33. aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatus to carry away, take away
34. Aufugio, aufugere, aufugi to run away, escape
35. auspex officiating priest
36. autem however
37. Ave Greetings!
38. avis bird
39. benevolentia kindness
40. blande in a coaxing manner
41. boletus mushroom
42. Bono animo es! Cheer up!
43. cachinus laughter
44. calor heat
45. calvus bald
46. candelabrum lamp-stand
47. capillatus with long hair
48. careo, carere, carui, cariturus to need, lack
49. caro, carnis meat
50. casa hut, cottage
51. castigo, castigare, castigavi, castigatus to rebuke, reprimand
52. castus chaste
53. casu by chance, accidentally
54. catrva crowd
55. ceteri the rest, the others
56. circum around
57. clam secretly
58. claudus lame
59. clementer in a kindly manner
60. coax hipbone
61. cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus find out, learn
62. cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus to compel, force
63. collis hill
64. comiter courteously, graciously, in a friendly way
65. comitor, comitari, comitatus sum to accompany
66. commemoro, commemorare, commemoravi, commemoratus to
    mention, comment on
67. commoveo,commovere, commovi, commotus to move, upset
68. compare, comparare, comparavi, comparatus to buy, obtain, get ready
69. compleo, complere, complevi, completus to fill
70. complures several
71. concino, concinere, concinui to sing together
72. concrepo, concrepare, concrepui to snap
73. Concurso, concursare, concursavi, concursatus to run to and fro, run
   about
74. confugio, confugere, confugi to flee for refuge
75. conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus to throw, throw together, to figure
   out
76. consensus agreement
77. consilium plan
78. consisto, consistere, constiti to halt, stop
79. consultum decree
80. conticesco, conticescere, conticui to become silent
81. contineo, continere, continui, contentus to confine, hold
82. contra against
83. contra against, opposite
84. convalesce, convalescere, convalui to grow stronger, get well
85. converto, convertere, converti, converses to turn around
86. coorior, cooriri, coortus sum to rise up, arise
87. coquo, coquere, coxi, coctus to cook
88. coquus cook
89. corripio, corripere, corripui, correptus to seize, grab
90. cotidie daily, every day
91. credo, credere, credidi, creditus to trust, believe
92. creo, creare, creavi, creatus to appoint
93. crudelis cruel
94. cum primum as soon as
95. cum since
96. cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus to desire, to want
97. cura care
98. curae esse to be a cause of anxiety
99. curdelitas cruelty
100.   decet, decree, decuit iti s becoming, fitting
101.   deditus devoted, dedicated
102.   defrico, defricare, defricui, defrictus to rub down
103.   deicio, deicere, deieci, deiectus to throw down
104.   Delecto, delectare, delectavi, delectatus to delight
105.   deliciae delight
106.   denarius silver coin
107.   derideo, deridere, derisi, derisus to laugh at, get the last laugh
108.   desilio, desilire, desilui to leap down
109.   desino, desinere, desii, desitus to stop
110.   despondeo, despondere, despondi, desponsus to promise in
   marriage
111.   deus god
112.   deus god
113.   dextra right hand
114.   Di immortals! Immortal gods!
115.   dies natalis birthday
116.   digitus finger
117.   dimitto, dimittere, dimisi, dimissus to send away
118.   disco, discere, didici to learn
119.   dives rich
120.   doelo, dolere, dolui, doliturus to be sorry, to be sad, to bein pain
121.   donec until
122.   donum gift
123.   dormito, dormitare, dormitavi to be sleepy
124.   dubium doubt
125.   edo, esse, edi, esus to eat
126.   effundo, effundere, effudi, effuses, to pour out
127.   eicio, eicere, eieci, eiectus to throw out
128.   enuntio, enuntiare, enuntiavi, enuntiatus to reveal
129.   eo magis all the more
130.   epigramma epigram
131.   epulae banquet, feast
132.   erat inscribendum had to be registered
133.   erga toward
134.   eruditus learned, scholarly
135.   etiamsi even if
136.   Euge! Hurray!
137.   evado, evadere, evasi, evasus to escape
138.   everto, evertere, everti, eversus to overturn, upset
139.   exanimatus paralyzed
140.   exerceo, exercere, excerui, exceritus to exercise, train
141.   experitur he tests
142.   exprimo, exprimere, expressi, expressus to press out, express
143.   exsilio, exsilire, exsilui to leap out
144.   exstruo, exstruere, exstruxi, exstructus to build
145.   exta inner organs of sacrificial animals
146.   exuo, exuere, exui, exutus to take off
147.   familiars members of household
148.   febris fever
149.   ferculum dish, tray
150.   fere almost, approximately
151.   ferula cane
152.   fides good faith, reliability, trust
153.   fleo, flere, fletus to weep, cry
154.   follis bag
155.   foras outside
156.   forte by chance
157.   frango, frangere, fregi, fractus to break
158.   frustum scrap
159.   Fumus smoke
160.   funebris funeral
161.   fur thief
162.   furor frenzy
163.   fustis club, cudgel
164.   gens family
165.   Glis, gliris, dormouse
166.   grammaticus secondary school teacher
167.   gratias agere to thank
168.   gratis free, for nothing
169.   gravis heavy, serious
170.   gustatio first course
171.   haud not
172.   haurio, haurire, hausi, haustus to drain
173.   Heus! Hey there!
174.   hiems winter
175.   hilaris cheerful
176.   holus vegetable
177.   id quod that/ a thing which
178.   ientaculum breakfast
179.   ignis fire
180.   ignoro, inorare, ignoravi, ignoratus to be ignorant, not to know
181.   imago likeness, mask
182.   immo rather, on the contrary
183.   immo vero on the contrary, in fact
184.   imperator emperor
185.   In quibus, among whom
186.   inde from there, then
187.   indutus clothed
188.   inferi underworld
189.   infirma…valetudine in poor health
190.   ingenium intelligence
191.   ingravesco, ingravescere to grow worse
192.   inscius not knowing
193.   insula island, apartment
194.   interdum from time to time
195.   interest it is important
196.   invoco, invocare, invocavi, invocatus to invoke, call upon
197.   iracundia bad temper
198.   irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, to burst in
199.   iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus to join
200.   iussa commands, orders
201.   iuvenis young man
202.   labor, labi, lapsus sum to slip, fall
203.   laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus to harm
204.   lambo, lambere, lambi to lick
205.   lanius butcher
206.   lapideus of stone, stony
207.   laquuntur talk
208.   lateo, latere, latui to lie in hiding
209.   laurus bay, laurel
210.   lepus hare
211.   levis smooth
212.   Libertus freedman
213.   ligo, ligare, ligavi, ligatus to bind up
214.   limen threshold
215.   lingua tongue, language
216.   liquamen sauce made from fish
217.   litterae letters, literature
218.   locus place
219.   lucet, luere, luxit it is light, it is day, it shines
220.   ludus game, school
221.   ludus school
222.   luna moon
223.   maiores ancestors
224.   malo, malle, malui to prefer
225.   malum apple
226.   mansuetus tmae
227.   mature early
228.   medicus doctor
229.   Mendicus beggar
230.   meridie at noon
231.   merita conferre to render services
232.   migro, migrare, migravi, migraturus to move one’s home
233.   mimus actor of mine, buffoon
234.   minuo, minuere, minui, minutus to lessen, reduce, decrease
235.   misceo, miscere, miscue, mixtus to mix
236.   mitis gently
237.   modus way, method
238.   moneo, monere, monui, monitus to advise, warn
239.   morbus illness
240.   morior, mori, mortuus sum to die
241.   moritura intending to die, determined to die
242.   mos custom
243.   mulsum wine sweetened with honey
244.   multus much
245.   munera games
246.   mutuus mutual
247.   myrtus myrtle
248.   nascor, nasci, natus sum to be born
249.   nasus nose
250.   nato, nature, natavi, nataturus to swim
251.   ne quis that no one
252.   nec and…not
253.   neglegenter Carelessly
254.   neglego, neglegere, neglexi, neglectus to neglect, ignore
255.   negotiosus busy
256.   neque…neque…quidquam neither…nor…anything
257.   niger, nigra, nigrum black
258.   nimis too much
259.   nonnulli some
260.   nova nupta bride
261.   Num…? Surely…not…?
262.   numero, numerare, numeravi, numeratus to count
263.   nuper recently
264.   nusquam nowhere
265.   obsecro, obsecrare, obsecravi, obsecratus to beseech, beg
266.   observo, observare, observavi, observatus to watch
267.   occido, occidere, occidi, occisus to kill
268.   oleum oil
269.   opportet, oportere, ooportuit it is fitting, ought
270.   opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressus, to overwhelm
271.   optimus best, very good, excellent
272.   ornamenta furnishings
273.   orno, ornare, ornavi, ornatus to decorate
274.   osculum kiss
275.   ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentus to show, point out
276.   ovum egg
277.   paedagogus tutor
278.   paene almost
279.   pallium cloak
280.   panis bread
281.   parco, parcere, peperci to spare
282.   pareo, parere, parui, pariturus to obey
283.   paries wall of a house
284.   parvus small
285.   pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus to feed, pasture
286.   passum raisin-wine
287.   patres senators
288.   pauper poor
289.   pavimentum tiled floor
290.   Pecto, pectere, pexi, pexus to comb
291.   pecus livestock, sheep, and cattle
292.   percutio, percutere, percussi, percussus to strike
293.   perdo perdere, perdidi perditus to destroy
294.   peristylium peristyle
295.   perna ham
296.   pestilentia plague
297.   pinguis fat
298.   pirum pear
299.   pistrinum bakery
300.   placide gently
301.   ploro, plorare, poloravi, ploratus lament, mourn
302.   poculum cup, goblet
303.   poena punishment, penalty
304.   popina bar
305.   Porcus pig
306.   posco, poscere, poposci to demand
307.   postea afterward
308.   posterus next, following
309.   postremo finally
310.   potius quam rather than
311.   praebeo, praebere, praebui, praebitus to display, show
312.   praecipio, praecipere, praecepi, praeceptus to instruct
313.   praefero, praeferre, praetuli, praelatus to carry X in front of Y
314.   prehendo, prehendere, prehendi, prehensus to seize
315.   pretium price
316.   primo first, at first
317.   prior first, previous
318.   prius earlier
319.   procax pushy, insolent
320.   procedo, procedure, processi, processurus to go forward
321.   prodo, prodere, prodii, proditurus to come forth
322.   profero, proferre, protuli, prolatus to carry forward, continue
323.   progredior, progredi, progressus sum to go forward, advance
324.   pronus face down
325.   proximus nearby
326.   pugio dagger
327.   pullus chicken
328.   pupa doll
329.   purus spotless, clean, plain
330.   puto, putare, putavi, putatus to think, consider
331.   qua de causa foir this reason
332.   quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus to seek, look for, ask for
333.   quam primum as soon as possible
334.   Quanti…? How much…?
335.   Quantum…! How much…!
336.   quasi as if
337.   quidem indeed
338.   Quo cum When…there
339.   quo maior…eo plus… the greater…the more…
340.   quoniam since
341.   rapio, rapere, rapui, raptus to snatch, seize
342.   recte rightly, properly
343.   Recumbo, recumbere, recubui, to recline
344.   regnum kingdom
345.   repello, repellere, reppuli, repulses to drive off, to drive back
346.   repeto, repetere, repetivi, repetitus to pick up, recover
347.   res urbanae affairs of the city
348.   resisto, resistere, resisti to resist
349.   rima crack
350.   rite properly
351.   Rixa quarrel
352.   rixor, rixari, rixatus sum to quarrel
353.   rursus again
354.   sacra religious rights, sacrifice
355.   sane certainly, of course
356.   sanguis blood
357.   scapha small boat
358.   scindo, scindere, scidi, scissus to cut, split, carve
359.   scriblita a certain tart or pastry (yum )
360.   secundae mensa second course, dessert
361.   securus carefree, unconcerned
362.   sella sedan chair, seat
363.   Sella, sedan chair
364.   senex old man
365.   sentio, sentire, sensi, sensus to fell, notice
366.   serenus clear, bright
367.   si quis if anyone
368.   sic thus in this way
369.   similis similar to
370.   sino, sincere, sivi, situs to allow
371.   sis if you wish, please
372.   situs located, situated
373.   sol sun
374.   solea sandal
375.   solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus loosen, untie
376.   spelunca cave
377.   spero, sperare, speravi, speratus to hope
378.   stadium enthusiasm
379.   stela tombstone
380.   stirps thorn
381.   stratum sheet, covering
382.   studio, studere, studui to study
383.   submissus quiet, subdued, soft
384.   subsequor, subsequi, subsecutus sum to follow up
385.   sumere to assume
386.   supero, superare, superavi, superatus to overcome
387.   surripio, surripere, surripui, surreptus to steal
388.   tabulatum story, floor
389.   taedet, taedere, taesum est it bores
390.   talia such things
391.   tam so
392.   tamquam just as if
393.   tela web, fabric
394.   tergum back, rear
395.   texo, texere, texui, textus to weave
396.   tibicen piper
397.   timor fear
398.   tollo, tollere, sustui, sublatus to lift, raise
399.   tot so many
400.   trepidans in a panic
401.   tristis sad
402.   turgeo, tergere, tersi, tarsus to dry, wipe
403.   ugeo, urgere, ursi to press, insist
404.   umbra shadow, shade
405.   umquam ever
406.   una together
407.   unda wave
408.   unguo, unguere, unxi, unctus to anoint
409.   uterque each
410.   utilis useful
411.   utrum…an….whethere…or
412.   uva grape
413.   valedico, valedicere, valedixi, valedicturus to say goodbye
414.   valeo, valere, valui, valiturus to be strong, to be well
415.   vel or
416.   velamen, velaminis veil, shawl
417.   Vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditus, to sell
418.   ventus wind
419.   verbum word, verb
420.   vero, truly, really, indeed
421.   vescor, vesci to feed on
422.   vestibulum entrance passage
423.   vestimentum clothes
424.   virgo maiden
425.   Vis force, amount
426.   viscera vital organs
427.   vitta ribbon
428.   vivo, vivere, vixi, victurus to live
429.   vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi, vulneratus to wound
430.   vulnis wound
431.   vultus face

                                Good Luck!

				
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