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Biological Psychology - PowerPoint

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					Preparedness and directed
        learning
       Food, fears, & phobias
• Humans (and other animals) are very quick
  to learn certain associations

• Taste aversion learning – the Garcia effect
  (Garcia, 1989)
• Specific to taste in rats – difficult to pair
  visual or auditory stimulus
• Can often be learned in a single trial
• Difficult to unlearn
            Food, fears, & phobias
• Garcia & Koelling (1966)
• CS = saccharine taste + light + sound
    US:                  Shock                x-ray illness

    Test:     Taste        light+sound    taste      light+sound



   Result    no effect       aversion    aversion     no effect
     :



• Rats associate flavour with illness and light
  and sound with pain
         Food, fears, & phobias
• Humans also appear to
  be preprogrammed to
  learn certain fears
  quickly (Marks &
  Nesse, 94)

• We are often afraid of
  heights, snakes or
  small scuttly things as
  these were dangerous
  in ancestral times
       Food, fears, & phobias
• We are not afraid of
  plug points, skate
  boards or cars which
  now account for far
  more deaths and
  injuries
           Freud & Imprinting
• The Oedipus complex - young children’s
  attraction to their opposite sex parent

• Early exposure to parental characteristics
  affects later mate preferences in both birds
  and mammals

• In animals such effects are referred to as
  imprinting
             Imprinting
• Common in birds
• Goslings imprinted to Konrad
  Lorenz’s boots

• Unusual features:
  – May be tied to specific period
  – Possibly irreversible
Konrad Lorenz and a Goose
     Imprinting in Other Mammals


• Kendrick et al. (Nature, 98) have shown that
  young sheep and goats imprint on foster parents

• Learning is directed at parental models
                      Mother



Novel Goat




              Goat brought up
Novel Sheep   with sheep mum
                      Mother



Novel Goat




              Sheep brought up
Novel Sheep    with goat mum
           Imprinting in Humans

• Parental age at birth effects age preferences
• (Perrett et al., 2002)

• Partners more likely to have similar hair- and eye
  colour as parents than self
• (Little et al., 2003)
Younger parents like




                       Older parents like

				
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posted:11/29/2012
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